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Today's Daf Yomi

January 29, 2020 | 讙壮 讘砖讘讟 转砖状驻

  • This month's learning is sponsored by Joanna Rom and Steven Goldberg in loving memory of Steve's mother Shirley "Nana" Goldberg (Sura Tema bat Chaim v'Hanka)

Berakhot 26

What do you do if a sefer Torah is in a room where one is planning to have sex? How far does one need to distance oneself from feces or urine in order to say shema? On what does it depend? Can one say shema in a place where there is a bathroom that had never been used? A zav that had a seminal emission or a woman who was a nidda and then semen discharged from her body or a woman who has sex with her husband and then becomes a nidda – all these need several days before they can become pure – but can they and should they go to the mikveh before learning Torah? Or since they can’t become pure yet, they can’t go to the mikveh and therefore maybe Ezra’s ordinance did not include these cases? Is the order in which the events happened important (first baal keri and then zav or the reverse)? Until what time can one pray the morning, afternoon, evening and additional (on holidays) prayer? Is there a contradiction between what it says in the minsha regarding the times and other sources?聽 How does this connect with laws of additional prayers that one can say if one forgot to pray – as one can make up the morning prayer in the afteronon? Were the prayers instituted by the fathers or were they set up as a replacement (or to correspond) to sacrifices?

转讜讻谉 讝讛 转讜专讙诐 讙诐 诇: 注讘专讬转

讗拽诪讟专讗 讻讻诇讬 讘转讜讱 讻诇讬 讚诪讬 讗诪专 专讘讬 讬讛讜砖注 讘谉 诇讜讬 住驻专 转讜专讛 爪专讬讱 诇注砖讜转 诇讜 诪讞讬爪讛 注砖专讛 诪专 讝讜讟专讗 讗讬拽诇注 诇讘讬 专讘 讗砖讬 讞讝讬讬讛 诇讚讜讻转讬讛 讚诪专 讘专 专讘 讗砖讬 讚诪谞讞 讘讬讛 住驻专 转讜专讛 讜注讘讬讚 诇讬讛 诪讞讬爪讛 注砖专讛 讗诪专 诇讬讛 讻诪讗谉 讻专讘讬 讬讛讜砖注 讘谉 诇讜讬 讗讬诪专 讚讗诪专 专讘讬 讬讛讜砖注 讘谉 诇讜讬 讚诇讬转 诇讬讛 讘讬转讗 讗讞专讬谞讗 诪专 讛讗 讗讬转 诇讬讛 讘讬转讗 讗讞专讬谞讗 讗诪专 诇讬讛 诇讗讜 讗讚注转讗讬:

atop a chest is like a vessel within a vessel. On a similar note, Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi said: One who wishes to engage in marital relations in a room in which there is a Torah scroll, must erect a partition ten handbreadths high. The Gemara relates: Mar Zutra happened to come to the house of Rav Ashi and he saw that in the bed chamber of his son Mar bar Rav Ashi, there was a Torah scroll, and a partition of ten handbreadths had been erected for it. He said to him: In accordance with whose opinion did you do this? Is it in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi? Say that Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi said this only as a makeshift solution in exigent situations, when he has no other room in which to place it, but don鈥檛 you, Master, have another room where you could place the Torah scroll? He said to him: Indeed, that did not enter my mind.

讻诪讛 讬专讞讬拽 诪讛谉 讜诪谉 讛爪讜讗讛 讗专讘注 讗诪讜转: 讗诪专 专讘讗 讗诪专 专讘 住讞讜专讛 讗诪专 专讘 讛讜谞讗 诇讗 砖谞讜 讗诇讗 诇讗讞讜专讬讜 讗讘诇 诇驻谞讬讜 诪专讞讬拽 诪诇讗 注讬谞讬讜 讜讻谉 诇转驻诇讛

We learned in the mishna: And, how far must one distance himself from urine and from feces in order to recite Shema? Four cubits. Rava said that Rav Se岣ra said that Rav Huna said: They only taught that it is sufficient to distance oneself four cubits when the feces are behind him, but if they are before him he must distance himself to the point that it is no longer within his range of vision; and the halakha is the same for prayer.

讗讬谞讬 讜讛讗 讗诪专 专驻专诐 讘专 驻驻讗 讗诪专 专讘 讞住讚讗 注讜诪讚 讗讚诐 讻谞讙讚 讘讬转 讛讻住讗 讜诪转驻诇诇 讛讻讗 讘诪讗讬 注住拽讬谞谉 讘讘讬转 讛讻住讗 砖讗讬谉 讘讜 爪讜讗讛

The Gemara challenges this: Is that so? Didn鈥檛 Rafram bar Pappa say that Rav 岣sda said: One may stand opposite a bathroom and pray. The Gemara resolves this contradiction: With what are we dealing here? With a bathroom that has no feces, and therefore there is no need to distance himself to that extent.

讗讬谞讬 讜讛讗诪专 专讘 讬讜住祝 讘专 讞谞讬谞讗 讘讬转 讛讻住讗 砖讗诪专讜 讗祝 注诇 驻讬 砖讗讬谉 讘讜 爪讜讗讛 讜讘讬转 讛诪专讞抓 砖讗诪专讜 讗祝 注诇 驻讬 砖讗讬谉 讘讜 讗讚诐 讗诇讗 讛讻讗 讘诪讗讬 注住拽讬谞谉 讘讞讚转讬

The Gemara asks again: Is that so? Didn鈥檛 Rav Yosef bar 岣nina say: The bathroom to which the Sages referred in all of the halakhot of distancing oneself was even one in which there were no feces, and the bathhouse to which the Sages referred in all of the halakhot of uttering sacred matters, was even one in which there was no naked person. Rather, with what are we dealing here? We are dealing with a new structure, built as a bathroom but not yet used for that purpose.

讜讛讗 诪讬讘注讬 诇讬讛 诇专讘讬谞讗 讛讝诪讬谞讜 诇讘讬转 讛讻住讗 诪讛讜 讬砖 讝讬诪讜谉 讗讜 讗讬谉 讝讬诪讜谉 讻讬 拽讗 诪讬讘注讬 诇讬讛 诇专讘讬谞讗 诇诪讬拽诐 注诇讬讛 诇爪诇讜讬讬 讘讙讜讬讛 讗讘诇 讻谞讙讚讜 诇讗

The Gemara asks: Wasn鈥檛 this already raised as a dilemma by Ravina: One who designated the structure for use as a bathroom, what is its legal status? Is designation effective or is designation not effective? The Gemara replies: When Ravina raised the dilemma, it was whether or not one may stand and pray inside it, but he had no dilemma whether or not one may pray opposite it.

讗诪专 专讘讗 讛谞讬 讘转讬 讻住讗讬 讚驻专住讗讬 讗祝 注诇 讙讘 讚讗讬转 讘讛讜 爪讜讗讛 讻住转讜诪讬谉 讚诪讜:

Rava said: These Persian bathrooms, even though they contain feces, they are considered as sealed, as they are constructed on an incline so the feces will roll out of the bathroom underground.

诪转谞讬壮 讝讘 砖专讗讛 拽专讬 讜谞讚讛 砖驻诇讟讛 砖讻讘转 讝专注 讜讛诪砖诪砖转 砖专讗转讛 谞讚讛 爪专讬讻讬谉 讟讘讬诇讛 讜专讘讬 讬讛讜讚讛 驻讜讟专:

MISHNA: Continuing the earlier discussion of the halakhot of immersion for Torah study and prayer for one who experienced a seminal emission, the mishna discusses a case where individuals who were already impure with a severe form of ritual impurity are exposed to the impurity of a seminal emission as well. They are required to immerse themselves and purify themselves of the impurity of the seminal emission even though they remain impure due to the more severe impurity. Consequently, even a zav, whose impurity lasts at least seven days, who experienced a seminal emission, for which, were he not a zav, he would be impure for only one day; a menstruating woman who discharged semen, despite the fact that she is already impure with a severe impurity unaffected by her immersion; and a woman who engaged in conjugal relations with her husband and later saw menstrual blood, all require immersion. And Rabbi Yehuda exempts them from immersion.

讙诪壮 讗讬讘注讬讗 诇讛讜 讘注诇 拽专讬 砖专讗讛 讝讬讘讛 诇专讘讬 讬讛讜讚讛 诪讛讜 讻讬 驻讟专 专讘讬 讬讛讜讚讛 讛转诐 讘讝讘 砖专讗讛 拽专讬 讚诪注讬拽专讗 诇讗讜 讘专 讟讘讬诇讛 讛讜讗 讗讘诇 讘注诇 拽专讬 砖专讗讛 讝讬讘讛 讚诪注讬拽专讗 讘专 讟讘讬诇讛 讛讜讗 诪讞讬讬讘 讗讜 讚讬诇诪讗 诇讗 砖谞讗

GEMARA: A dilemma was raised before the students of the yeshiva: One who experienced a seminal emission and was therefore required to immerse himself, who later saw a discharge that rendered him a zav; according to Rabbi Yehuda, what is his legal status? The Gemara explains the sides of the dilemma: When, in our mishna, Rabbi Yehuda exempted a zav who saw a seminal emission from immersion, that was because from the outset he was not fit for immersion, as the immersion would not be effective in purifying him from the impurity of a zav; however, one who experienced a seminal emission, who later saw a discharge that rendered him a zav, who was fit for immersion and only later became impure with the severe impurity of a zav, would Rabbi Yehuda require immersion? Or perhaps there is no difference and he is exempt from immersion in both cases?

转讗 砖诪注 讛诪砖诪砖转 讜专讗转讛 谞讚讛 爪专讬讻讛 讟讘讬诇讛 讜专讘讬 讬讛讜讚讛 驻讜讟专 讜讛讗 诪砖诪砖转 讜专讗转讛 谞讚讛 讻讘注诇 拽专讬 砖专讗讛 讝讬讘讛 讚诪讬讗 讜拽讗 驻讟专 专讘讬 讬讛讜讚讛 砖诪注 诪讬谞讛 转谞讬 专讘讬 讞讬讬讗 讘讛讚讬讗 讘注诇 拽专讬 砖专讗讛 讝讬讘讛 爪专讬讱 讟讘讬诇讛 讜专讘讬 讬讛讜讚讛 驻讜讟专:

In order to resolve this dilemma, come and hear the last case of the mishna: A woman who engaged in conjugal relations with her husband and later saw menstrual blood requires immersion. And Rabbi Yehuda exempts them from immersion. Isn鈥檛 the woman who engaged in conjugal relations with her husband and later saw menstrual blood like one who experienced a seminal emission, who later saw a discharge that rendered him a zav, as in both cases there is a less severe ritual impurity followed by a more severe impurity; and nevertheless, Rabbi Yehuda exempts. Conclude from this that Rabbi Yehuda does not distinguish between the cases. And indeed, Rabbi 岣yya explicitly taught: One who experienced a seminal emission who later saw a discharge that rendered him a zav requires immersion, and Rabbi Yehuda exempts.

讛讚专谉 注诇讱 诪讬 砖诪转讜

 

诪转谞讬壮 转驻诇转 讛砖讞专 注讚 讞爪讜转 专讘讬 讬讛讜讚讛 讗讜诪专 注讚 讗专讘注 砖注讜转 转驻诇转 讛诪谞讞讛 注讚 讛注专讘 专讘讬 讬讛讜讚讛 讗讜诪专 注讚 驻诇讙 讛诪谞讞讛

MISHNA: This mishna determines the times beyond which the different prayers may not be recited. According to the Rabbis, the morning prayer may be recited until noon. Rabbi Yehuda says: It may be recited only until four hours after sunrise. According to the Rabbis, the afternoon prayer may be recited until the evening. Rabbi Yehuda says: It may be recited only until the midpoint of the afternoon [pelag hamin岣], i.e., the midpoint of the period that begins with the sacrifice of the daily afternoon offering and ends at nightfall, which is the end of the afternoon.

转驻诇转 讛注专讘 讗讬谉 诇讛 拽讘注 讜砖诇 诪讜住驻讬诐 讻诇 讛讬讜诐 专讘讬 讬讛讜讚讛 讗讜诪专 注讚 砖讘注 砖注讜转:

The evening prayer may be recited throughout the night and is not fixed to a specific hour. According to the Rabbis, the additional prayer may be recited all day. Rabbi Yehuda says: It may be recited only until seven hours after sunrise.

讙诪壮 讜专诪讬谞讛讜 诪爪讜转讛 注诐 讛谞抓 讛讞诪讛 讻讚讬 砖讬住诪讜讱 讙讗讜诇讛 诇转驻诇讛 讜谞诪爪讗 诪转驻诇诇 讘讬讜诐

GEMARA: We learned in the mishna that the morning prayer may be recited only until a few hours into the day. The Gemara raises a contradiction based on what was taught in a baraita: The mitzva is to recite the morning Shema with sunrise so that he will juxtapose redemption, which is mentioned in the blessings following Shema, to the Amida prayer, which is recited immediately after sunrise, and find himself praying in the daytime. Clearly, the time to recite the morning prayer is immediately after sunrise.

讻讬 转谞讬讗 讛讛讬讗 诇讜转讬拽讬谉 讚讗诪专 专讘讬 讬讜讞谞谉 讜转讬拽讬谉 讛讬讜 讙讜诪专讬诐 讗讜转讛 注诐 讛谞抓 讛讞诪讛

The Gemara responds: This baraita does not establish a binding halakha. Rather, it taught that rule specifically with regard to those who are scrupulous in fulfillment of mitzvot [vatikin]. As Rabbi Yo岣nan said: Vatikin would finish reciting the morning Shema with sunrise, but those who are not vatikin may recite their prayers later.

讜讻讜诇讬 注诇诪讗 注讚 讞爪讜转 讜转讜 诇讗 讜讛讗诪专 专讘 诪专讬 讘专讬讛 讚专讘 讛讜谞讗 讘专讬讛 讚专讘讬 讬专诪讬讛 讘专 讗讘讗 讗诪专 专讘讬 讬讜讞谞谉 讟注讛 讜诇讗 讛转驻诇诇 注专讘讬转 诪转驻诇诇 讘砖讞专讬转 砖转讬诐 砖讞专讬转 诪转驻诇诇 讘诪谞讞讛 砖转讬诐

The Gemara asks: Does everyone hold that one may recite the morning prayer only until noon and no later? Didn鈥檛 Rav Mari, son of Rav Huna, son of Rabbi Yirmeya bar Abba, say that Rabbi Yo岣nan said: One who erred and did not recite the evening prayer, prays in the morning prayer two Amida prayers; one who erred and did not recite the morning prayer, prays in the afternoon prayer two Amida prayers? Apparently, the morning prayer may be recited until the evening, at least in the event that he forgot to recite it in the morning.

讻讜诇讬 讬讜诪讗 诪爪诇讬 讜讗讝讬诇 注讚 讞爪讜转 讬讛讘讬 诇讬讛 砖讻专 转驻诇讛 讘讝诪谞讛 诪讻讗谉 讜讗讬诇讱 砖讻专 转驻诇讛 讬讛讘讬 诇讬讛 砖讻专 转驻诇讛 讘讝诪谞讛 诇讗 讬讛讘讬 诇讬讛

The Gemara answers: Indeed, one may continue praying for the entire day. However, if he prayed until noon, they give him a reward for reciting the prayer at its appointed time. If he prayed from there on, they give him a reward for reciting the prayer. They do not give him a reward for reciting the prayer at its appointed time.

讗讬讘注讬讗 诇讛讜 讟注讛 讜诇讗 讛转驻诇诇 诪谞讞讛 诪讛讜 砖讬转驻诇诇 注专讘讬转 砖转讬诐 讗诐 转诪爪讗 诇讜诪专 讟注讛 讜诇讗 讛转驻诇诇 注专讘讬转 诪转驻诇诇 砖讞专讬转 砖转讬诐 诪砖讜诐 讚讞讚 讬讜诪讗 讛讜讗 讚讻转讬讘 讜讬讛讬 注专讘 讜讬讛讬 讘拽专 讬讜诐 讗讞讚 讗讘诇 讛讻讗 转驻诇讛 讘诪拽讜诐 拽专讘谉 讛讬讗 讜讻讬讜谉 讚注讘专 讬讜诪讜 讘讟诇 拽专讘谞讜 讗讜 讚讬诇诪讗 讻讬讜谉 讚爪诇讜转讗 专讞诪讬 讛讬讗 讻诇 讗讬诪转 讚讘注讬 诪爪诇讬 讜讗讝讬诇

On the topic of one who forgot to pray and seeks to compensate for the prayer that he missed, a dilemma was raised before them in the study hall: One who erred and did not recite the afternoon prayer, what is the ruling? May he recite in the evening prayer two Amida prayers? The Gemara articulates the sides of the dilemma: If you say that one who erred and did not pray the evening prayer prays in the morning prayer two Amida prayers, perhaps that is because the evening and the morning are both part of one day, as it is written: 鈥淎nd there was evening and there was morning, one day鈥 (Genesis 1:5); the evening and the following morning constitute a single unit. But here, in the case under discussion, perhaps prayer is in place of sacrifice. Since in the case of sacrifice we say, since its day passed, its sacrifice is invalid and there is no way to compensate for the missed opportunity, the same should be true for prayer. Or, perhaps, since prayer is supplication, any time that one wishes, he may continue to pray?

转讗 砖诪注 讚讗诪专 专讘 讛讜谞讗 讘专 讬讛讜讚讛 讗诪专 专讘讬 讬爪讞拽 讗诪专 专讘讬 讬讜讞谞谉 讟注讛 讜诇讗 讛转驻诇诇 诪谞讞讛 诪转驻诇诇 注专讘讬转 砖转讬诐 讜讗讬谉 讘讝讛 诪砖讜诐 讚注讘专 讬讜诪讜 讘讟诇 拽专讘谞讜

Come and hear a resolution to this dilemma from that which Rav Huna bar Yehuda said that Rabbi Yitz岣k said that Rabbi Yo岣nan said: One who erred and did not recite the afternoon prayer, prays in the evening prayer two Amida prayers and there is no element of: Its day passed, its sacrifice is invalid.

诪讬转讬讘讬 诪注讜转 诇讗 讬讜讻诇 诇转拽谉 讜讞住专讜谉 诇讗 讬讜讻诇 诇讛诪谞讜转 诪注讜转 诇讗 讬讜讻诇 诇转拽谉 讝讛 砖讘讟诇 拽专讬讗转 砖诪注 砖诇 注专讘讬转 讜拽专讬讗转 砖诪注 砖诇 砖讞专讬转 讗讜 转驻诇讛 砖诇 注专讘讬转 讗讜 转驻诇讛 砖诇 砖讞专讬转 讜讞住专讜谉 诇讗 讬讜讻诇 诇讛诪谞讜转 讝讛 砖谞诪谞讜 讞讘讬专讬讜 诇讚讘专 诪爪讜讛 讜诇讗 谞诪谞讛 注诪讛诐

With regard to the possibility to compensate for a prayer that he failed to recite at its appointed time, the Gemara raises an objection based on what was taught in a baraita. The meaning of the verse: 鈥淭hat which is crooked cannot be made straight; and that which is wanting cannot be numbered鈥 (Ecclesiastes 1:15), is as follows: That which is crooked cannot be made straight refers to one who omitted the evening Shema and the morning Shema, or the evening prayer, or the morning prayer. And that which is wanting cannot be numbered [lehimanot] refers to one whose friends reached a consensus [nimnu] to perform a mitzva and he was not part of their consensus [nimnu] and, consequently, he missed his opportunity to join them in performance of the mitzva. This baraita clearly states that there is no way to compensate for a missed prayer.

讗诪专 专讘讬 讬爪讞拽 讗诪专 专讘讬 讬讜讞谞谉 讛讻讗 讘诪讗讬 注住拽讬谞谉 砖讘讟诇 讘诪讝讬讚

To resolve this difficulty, Rabbi Yitz岣k said that Rabbi Yo岣nan said: With what are we dealing here in this baraita? We are dealing with a case where one intentionally failed to recite the prayer. Only then he has no remedy. However, one who failed to pray due to error can compensate for the missed prayer by reciting the next prayer twice.

讗诪专 专讘 讗砖讬 讚讬拽讗 谞诪讬 讚拽转谞讬 讘讟诇 讜诇讗 拽转谞讬 讟注讛 砖诪注 诪讬谞讛:

Rav Ashi said: The language of the baraita is also precise as it teaches omitted and did not teach erred. This indicates that the halakha is different in the case of error. The Gemara concludes: Indeed, learn from this.

转谞讜 专讘谞谉 讟注讛 讜诇讗 讛转驻诇诇 诪谞讞讛 讘注专讘 砖讘转 诪转驻诇诇 讘诇讬诇 砖讘转 砖转讬诐 讟注讛 讜诇讗 讛转驻诇诇 诪谞讞讛 讘砖讘转 诪转驻诇诇 讘诪讜爪讗讬 砖讘转 砖转讬诐 砖诇 讞讜诇 诪讘讚讬诇 讘专讗砖讜谞讛 讜讗讬谞讜 诪讘讚讬诇 讘砖谞讬讛 讜讗诐 讛讘讚讬诇 讘砖谞讬讛 讜诇讗 讛讘讚讬诇 讘专讗砖讜谞讛 砖谞讬讛 注诇转讛 诇讜 专讗砖讜谞讛 诇讗 注诇转讛 诇讜

On a similar note, the Sages taught in a baraita: One who erred and did not recite the afternoon prayer on the eve of Shabbat, prays in the evening prayer two Amida prayers on Shabbat evening. One who erred and did not recite the afternoon prayer on Shabbat, recites two weekday Amida prayers in the evening prayer at the conclusion of Shabbat. He recites havdala [the prayer of distinction] between the sanctity of Shabbat and the profanity of the week by reciting: You have graced us, etc., in the fourth blessing of the Amida, which is: Who graciously grants knowledge, in the first prayer, as it is the actual evening prayer, but he does not recite havdala in the second prayer, which is in place of the afternoon prayer. Moreover, if he recited havdala in the second prayer and did not recite havdala in the first, the second prayer fulfilled his obligation, the first one did not fulfill his obligation.

诇诪讬诪专讗 讚讻讬讜谉 讚诇讗 讗讘讚讬诇 讘拽诪讬讬转讗 讻诪讗谉 讚诇讗 爪诇讬 讚诪讬 讜诪讛讚专讬谞谉 诇讬讛

The Gemara comments: Is that to say that since he did not recite havdala in the first prayer, he is as one who did not pray and we require him to return to the beginning of the prayer and repeat it? If so, the conclusion is that one who fails to recite havdala in the prayer must repeat that prayer.

讜专诪讬谞讛讜 讟注讛 讜诇讗 讛讝讻讬专 讙讘讜专讜转 讙砖诪讬诐 讘转讞讬讬转 讛诪转讬诐 讜砖讗诇讛 讘讘专讻转 讛砖谞讬诐 诪讞讝讬专讬谉 讗讜转讜 讛讘讚诇讛 讘讞讜谞谉 讛讚注转 讗讬谉 诪讞讝讬专讬谉 讗讜转讜 诪驻谞讬 砖讬讻讜诇 诇讗讜诪专讛 注诇 讛讻讜住 拽砖讬讗

The Gemara raises a contradiction to the above conclusion from the Tosefta: One who erred and did not mention the might of the rains: He makes the wind blow and rain fall in the second blessing of the Amida, the blessing on the revival of the dead, and one who erred and failed to recite the request for rain in the ninth blessing of the Amida, the blessing of the years, we require him to return to the beginning of the prayer and repeat it. However, one who erred and failed to recite havdala in the blessing: Who graciously grants knowledge, we do not require him to return to the beginning of the prayer and repeat it, as he can recite havdala over the cup of wine, independent of his prayer. This contradiction was not resolved and remains difficult.

讗讬转诪专 专讘讬 讬讜住讬 讘专讘讬 讞谞讬谞讗 讗诪专 转驻诇讜转 讗讘讜转 转拽谞讜诐 专讘讬 讬讛讜砖注 讘谉 诇讜讬 讗诪专 转驻诇讜转 讻谞讙讚 转诪讬讚讬谉 转拽谞讜诐

The dispute between the Rabbis and Rabbi Yehuda with regard to the times beyond which the different prayers may not be recited is rooted in a profound disagreement, also manifest in a later amoraic dispute. It was stated: Rabbi Yosei, son of Rabbi 岣nina, said: The practice of praying three times daily is ancient, albeit not in its present form; prayers were instituted by the Patriarchs. However, Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi said that the prayers were instituted based on the daily offerings sacrificed in the Holy Temple, and the prayers parallel the offerings, in terms of both time and characteristics.

转谞讬讗 讻讜讜转讬讛 讚专讘讬 讬讜住讬 讘专讘讬 讞谞讬谞讗 讜转谞讬讗 讻讜讜转讬讛 讚专讘讬 讬讛讜砖注 讘谉 诇讜讬 转谞讬讗 讻讜讜转讬讛 讚专讘讬 讬讜住讬 讘专讘讬 讞谞讬谞讗 讗讘专讛诐 转拽谉 转驻诇转 砖讞专讬转 砖谞讗诪专 讜讬砖讻诐 讗讘专讛诐 讘讘拽专 讗诇 讛诪拽讜诐 讗砖专 注诪讚 砖诐 讜讗讬谉 注诪讬讚讛 讗诇讗 转驻诇讛 砖谞讗诪专 讜讬注诪讚 驻讬谞讞住 讜讬驻诇诇

The Gemara comments: It was taught in a baraita in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Yosei, son of Rabbi 岣nina, and it was taught in a baraita in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi. The Gemara elaborates: It was taught in a baraita in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Yosei, son of Rabbi 岣nina: Abraham instituted the morning prayer, as it is stated when Abraham came to look out over Sodom the day after he had prayed on its behalf: 鈥淎nd Abraham rose early in the morning to the place where he had stood before the Lord鈥 (Genesis 19:27), and from the context as well as the language utilized in the verse, the verb standing means nothing other than prayer, as this language is used to describe Pinehas鈥 prayer after the plague, as it is stated: 鈥淎nd Pinehas stood up and prayed and the plague ended鈥 (Psalms 106:30). Clearly, Abraham was accustomed to stand in prayer in the morning.

讬爪讞拽 转拽谉 转驻诇转 诪谞讞讛 砖谞讗诪专 讜讬爪讗 讬爪讞拽 诇砖讜讞 讘砖讚讛 诇驻谞讜转 注专讘 讜讗讬谉 砖讬讞讛 讗诇讗 转驻诇讛 砖谞讗诪专 转驻诇讛 诇注谞讬 讻讬 讬注讟祝 讜诇驻谞讬 讛壮 讬砖驻讱 砖讬讞讜

Isaac instituted the afternoon prayer, as it is stated: 鈥淎nd Isaac went out to converse [lasua岣] in the field toward evening鈥 (Genesis 24:63), and conversation means nothing other than prayer, as it is stated: 鈥淎 prayer of the afflicted when he is faint and pours out his complaint [si岣] before the Lord鈥 (Psalms 102:1). Obviously, Isaac was the first to pray as evening approached, at the time of the afternoon prayer.

讬注拽讘 转拽谉 转驻诇转 注专讘讬转 砖谞讗诪专 讜讬驻讙注 讘诪拽讜诐 讜讬诇谉 砖诐 讜讗讬谉 驻讙讬注讛 讗诇讗 转驻诇讛 砖谞讗诪专 讜讗转讛 讗诇 转转驻诇诇 讘注讚 讛注诐 讛讝讛 讜讗诇 转砖讗 讘注讚诐 专谞讛 讜转驻诇讛 讜讗诇 转驻讙注 讘讬

Jacob instituted the evening prayer, as it is stated: 鈥淎nd he encountered [vayifga] the place and he slept there for the sun had set鈥 (Genesis 28:11). The word encounter means nothing other than prayer, as it is stated when God spoke to Jeremiah: 鈥淎nd you, do not pray on behalf of this nation and do not raise on their behalf song and prayer, and do not encounter [tifga] Me for I do not hear you鈥 (Jeremiah 7:16). Jacob prayed during the evening, after the sun had set.

讜转谞讬讗 讻讜讜转讬讛 讚专讘讬 讬讛讜砖注 讘谉 诇讜讬 诪驻谞讬 诪讛 讗诪专讜 转驻诇转 讛砖讞专 注讚 讞爪讜转 砖讛专讬 转诪讬讚 砖诇 砖讞专 拽专讘 讜讛讜诇讱 注讚 讞爪讜转 讜专讘讬 讬讛讜讚讛 讗讜诪专 注讚 讗专讘注 砖注讜转 砖讛专讬 转诪讬讚 砖诇 砖讞专 拽专讘 讜讛讜诇讱 注讚 讗专讘注 砖注讜转

And it was taught in a baraita in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi that the laws of prayer are based on the laws of the daily offerings: Why did the Rabbis say that the morning prayer may be recited until noon? Because, although the daily morning offering is typically brought early in the morning, it may be sacrificed until noon. And Rabbi Yehuda says: My opinion, that the morning prayer may be recited until four hours into the day, is because the daily morning offering is sacrificed until four hours.

讜诪驻谞讬 诪讛 讗诪专讜 转驻诇转 讛诪谞讞讛 注讚 讛注专讘 砖讛专讬 转诪讬讚 砖诇 讘讬谉 讛注专讘讬诐 拽专讘 讜讛讜诇讱 注讚 讛注专讘 专讘讬 讬讛讜讚讛 讗讜诪专 注讚 驻诇讙 讛诪谞讞讛 砖讛专讬 转诪讬讚 砖诇 讘讬谉 讛注专讘讬诐 拽专讘 讜讛讜诇讱 注讚 驻诇讙 讛诪谞讞讛

And why did the Rabbis say that the afternoon prayer may be recited until the evening? Because the daily afternoon offering is sacrificed until the evening. Rabbi Yehuda says that the afternoon prayer may be recited only until the midpoint of the afternoon because, according to his opinion, the daily afternoon offering is sacrificed until the midpoint of the afternoon.

讜诪驻谞讬 诪讛 讗诪专讜 转驻诇转 讛注专讘 讗讬谉 诇讛 拽讘注 砖讛专讬 讗讘专讬诐 讜驻讚专讬诐 砖诇讗 谞转注讻诇讜 诪讘注专讘 拽专讘讬诐 讜讛讜诇讻讬诐 讻诇 讛诇讬诇讛

And why did they say that the evening prayer is not fixed? Because the burning of the limbs and fats of the offerings that were not consumed by the fire on the altar until the evening. They remained on the altar and were offered continuously throughout the entire night.

讜诪驻谞讬 诪讛 讗诪专讜 砖诇 诪讜住驻讬谉 讻诇 讛讬讜诐 砖讛专讬 拽专讘谉 砖诇 诪讜住驻讬谉 拽专讘 讻诇 讛讬讜诐 专讘讬 讬讛讜讚讛 讗讜诪专 注讚 砖讘注 砖注讜转 砖讛专讬 拽专讘谉 诪讜住祝 拽专讘 讜讛讜诇讱 注讚 砖讘注 砖注讜转

And why did the Rabbis say that the additional prayer may be recited all day? Because the additional offering is brought throughout the entire day. However, Rabbi Yehuda says that the additional prayer may be recited until the seventh hour of the day, because the additional offering is sacrificed until the seventh hour.

讜讗讬讝讜 讛讬讗 诪谞讞讛 讙讚讜诇讛 诪砖砖 砖注讜转 讜诪讞爪讛 讜诇诪注诇讛 讜讗讬讝讜 讛讬讗 诪谞讞讛 拽讟谞讛 诪转砖注 砖注讜转 讜诪讞爪讛 讜诇诪注诇讛

The baraita continues and states that there are two times for the afternoon prayer. Greater, earlier min岣 [min岣 gedola] and lesser, later min岣 [min岣 ketana]. The Gemara clarifies the difference between them: Which is min岣 gedola? From six-and-a-half hours after sunrise and on, which is a half an hour after noon and on. It is the earliest time that the daily afternoon offering may be sacrificed, as in the case on the eve of Passover that occurs on Shabbat. Which is min岣 ketana? From nine-and-a-half hours and on, which is the standard time that the daily afternoon offering is sacrificed.

讗讬讘注讬讗 诇讛讜 专讘讬 讬讛讜讚讛 驻诇讙 诪谞讞讛 拽诪讗 拽讗诪专 讗讜 驻诇讙 诪谞讞讛 讗讞专讜谞讛 拽讗诪专 转讗 砖诪注 讚转谞讬讗 专讘讬 讬讛讜讚讛 讗讜诪专 驻诇讙 讛诪谞讞讛 讗讞专讜谞讛 讗诪专讜 讜讛讬讗 讗讞转 注砖专讛 砖注讜转 讞住专 专讘讬注

On that note, a dilemma was raised before them: Rabbi Yehuda, who holds that the afternoon prayer may be recited only until the midpoint of the afternoon, does he say the midpoint of the first min岣, min岣 gedola? Or, does he say the midpoint of the last min岣? Come and hear an explicit resolution to this dilemma: As it was taught in a baraita, Rabbi Yehuda says: They said the midpoint of the last min岣, and that is eleven hours minus a quarter of an hour after sunrise, i.e., an hour-and-a-quarter hours before sunset.

谞讬诪讗 转讬讛讜讬 转讬讜讘转讬讛 讚专讘讬 讬讜住讬 讘专讘讬 讞谞讬谞讗 讗诪专 诇讱 专讘讬 讬讜住讬 讘专讘讬 讞谞讬谞讗 诇注讜诇诐 讗讬诪讗 诇讱 转驻诇讜转 讗讘讜转 转拽谞讜诐 讜讗住诪讻讬谞讛讜 专讘谞谉 讗拽专讘谞讜转 讚讗讬 诇讗 转讬诪讗 讛讻讬 转驻诇转 诪讜住祝 诇专讘讬 讬讜住讬 讘专讘讬 讞谞讬谞讗 诪讗谉 转拽谞讛 讗诇讗 转驻诇讜转 讗讘讜转 转拽谞讜诐 讜讗住诪讻讬谞讛讜 专讘谞谉 讗拽专讘谞讜转:

In any case, it is clear that according to this baraita the halakhot of prayer are based on the Temple offerings. The Gemara suggests: Let us say that this is a conclusive refutation of the opinion of Rabbi Yosei, son of Rabbi 岣nina, who held that the forefathers instituted the prayers. Rabbi Yosei, son of Rabbi 岣nina, could have said to you: Actually, I will say to you that the Patriarchs instituted the prayers and the Sages based the times and characteristics of prayer on the Temple offerings, even though they do not stem from the same source. As, if you do not say so, that even Rabbi Yosei, son of Rabbi 岣nina, would agree that the laws of offerings and those of prayers are related, then, according to Rabbi Yosei, son of Rabbi 岣nina, who instituted the additional prayer? It is not one of the prayers instituted by the forefathers. Rather, even according to Rabbi Yosei, son of Rabbi 岣nina, the prayers were instituted by the Patriarchs and the Sages based them on the laws of the offerings.

专讘讬 讬讛讜讚讛 讗讜诪专 注讚 讗专讘注 砖注讜转: 讗讬讘注讬讗 诇讛讜 注讚 讜注讚 讘讻诇诇 讗讜 讚讬诇诪讗 注讚 讜诇讗 注讚 讘讻诇诇 转讗 砖诪注 专讘讬 讬讛讜讚讛 讗讜诪专 注讚 驻诇讙 讛诪谞讞讛 讗讬 讗诪专转 讘砖诇诪讗 注讚 讜诇讗 注讚 讘讻诇诇 讛讬讬谞讜 讚讗讬讻讗 讘讬谉 专讘讬 讬讛讜讚讛 诇专讘谞谉 讗诇讗 讗讬 讗诪专转 注讚 讜注讚 讘讻诇诇 专讘讬 讬讛讜讚讛

We learned in the mishna that Rabbi Yehuda says: The morning prayer may be recited until four hours of the day. A dilemma was raised before the yeshiva students: When Rabbi Yehuda says until, does he mean until and including the fourth hour, or, perhaps when he says 鈥渦ntil鈥 he means until and not including, in which case one may not pray during the fourth hour? Come and hear a resolution to this dilemma based on the mishna. Rabbi Yehuda says: The afternoon prayer may be recited only until the midpoint of the afternoon. Now, granted, if you say that until means until and not including, then there is a difference between the opinion of Rabbi Yehuda and the opinion of the Rabbis. However, if you say that until means until and including, then the opinion of Rabbi Yehuda

  • This month's learning is sponsored by Joanna Rom and Steven Goldberg in loving memory of Steve's mother Shirley "Nana" Goldberg (Sura Tema bat Chaim v'Hanka)

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Extempore Effusions on the Completion of Masechet Berakhot (chapters 1-3)

PEREK ALEPH: (2a) When may we say Shma at night? From the time the priests take their first bite 鈥楾il...

Berakhot 26

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Berakhot 26

讗拽诪讟专讗 讻讻诇讬 讘转讜讱 讻诇讬 讚诪讬 讗诪专 专讘讬 讬讛讜砖注 讘谉 诇讜讬 住驻专 转讜专讛 爪专讬讱 诇注砖讜转 诇讜 诪讞讬爪讛 注砖专讛 诪专 讝讜讟专讗 讗讬拽诇注 诇讘讬 专讘 讗砖讬 讞讝讬讬讛 诇讚讜讻转讬讛 讚诪专 讘专 专讘 讗砖讬 讚诪谞讞 讘讬讛 住驻专 转讜专讛 讜注讘讬讚 诇讬讛 诪讞讬爪讛 注砖专讛 讗诪专 诇讬讛 讻诪讗谉 讻专讘讬 讬讛讜砖注 讘谉 诇讜讬 讗讬诪专 讚讗诪专 专讘讬 讬讛讜砖注 讘谉 诇讜讬 讚诇讬转 诇讬讛 讘讬转讗 讗讞专讬谞讗 诪专 讛讗 讗讬转 诇讬讛 讘讬转讗 讗讞专讬谞讗 讗诪专 诇讬讛 诇讗讜 讗讚注转讗讬:

atop a chest is like a vessel within a vessel. On a similar note, Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi said: One who wishes to engage in marital relations in a room in which there is a Torah scroll, must erect a partition ten handbreadths high. The Gemara relates: Mar Zutra happened to come to the house of Rav Ashi and he saw that in the bed chamber of his son Mar bar Rav Ashi, there was a Torah scroll, and a partition of ten handbreadths had been erected for it. He said to him: In accordance with whose opinion did you do this? Is it in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi? Say that Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi said this only as a makeshift solution in exigent situations, when he has no other room in which to place it, but don鈥檛 you, Master, have another room where you could place the Torah scroll? He said to him: Indeed, that did not enter my mind.

讻诪讛 讬专讞讬拽 诪讛谉 讜诪谉 讛爪讜讗讛 讗专讘注 讗诪讜转: 讗诪专 专讘讗 讗诪专 专讘 住讞讜专讛 讗诪专 专讘 讛讜谞讗 诇讗 砖谞讜 讗诇讗 诇讗讞讜专讬讜 讗讘诇 诇驻谞讬讜 诪专讞讬拽 诪诇讗 注讬谞讬讜 讜讻谉 诇转驻诇讛

We learned in the mishna: And, how far must one distance himself from urine and from feces in order to recite Shema? Four cubits. Rava said that Rav Se岣ra said that Rav Huna said: They only taught that it is sufficient to distance oneself four cubits when the feces are behind him, but if they are before him he must distance himself to the point that it is no longer within his range of vision; and the halakha is the same for prayer.

讗讬谞讬 讜讛讗 讗诪专 专驻专诐 讘专 驻驻讗 讗诪专 专讘 讞住讚讗 注讜诪讚 讗讚诐 讻谞讙讚 讘讬转 讛讻住讗 讜诪转驻诇诇 讛讻讗 讘诪讗讬 注住拽讬谞谉 讘讘讬转 讛讻住讗 砖讗讬谉 讘讜 爪讜讗讛

The Gemara challenges this: Is that so? Didn鈥檛 Rafram bar Pappa say that Rav 岣sda said: One may stand opposite a bathroom and pray. The Gemara resolves this contradiction: With what are we dealing here? With a bathroom that has no feces, and therefore there is no need to distance himself to that extent.

讗讬谞讬 讜讛讗诪专 专讘 讬讜住祝 讘专 讞谞讬谞讗 讘讬转 讛讻住讗 砖讗诪专讜 讗祝 注诇 驻讬 砖讗讬谉 讘讜 爪讜讗讛 讜讘讬转 讛诪专讞抓 砖讗诪专讜 讗祝 注诇 驻讬 砖讗讬谉 讘讜 讗讚诐 讗诇讗 讛讻讗 讘诪讗讬 注住拽讬谞谉 讘讞讚转讬

The Gemara asks again: Is that so? Didn鈥檛 Rav Yosef bar 岣nina say: The bathroom to which the Sages referred in all of the halakhot of distancing oneself was even one in which there were no feces, and the bathhouse to which the Sages referred in all of the halakhot of uttering sacred matters, was even one in which there was no naked person. Rather, with what are we dealing here? We are dealing with a new structure, built as a bathroom but not yet used for that purpose.

讜讛讗 诪讬讘注讬 诇讬讛 诇专讘讬谞讗 讛讝诪讬谞讜 诇讘讬转 讛讻住讗 诪讛讜 讬砖 讝讬诪讜谉 讗讜 讗讬谉 讝讬诪讜谉 讻讬 拽讗 诪讬讘注讬 诇讬讛 诇专讘讬谞讗 诇诪讬拽诐 注诇讬讛 诇爪诇讜讬讬 讘讙讜讬讛 讗讘诇 讻谞讙讚讜 诇讗

The Gemara asks: Wasn鈥檛 this already raised as a dilemma by Ravina: One who designated the structure for use as a bathroom, what is its legal status? Is designation effective or is designation not effective? The Gemara replies: When Ravina raised the dilemma, it was whether or not one may stand and pray inside it, but he had no dilemma whether or not one may pray opposite it.

讗诪专 专讘讗 讛谞讬 讘转讬 讻住讗讬 讚驻专住讗讬 讗祝 注诇 讙讘 讚讗讬转 讘讛讜 爪讜讗讛 讻住转讜诪讬谉 讚诪讜:

Rava said: These Persian bathrooms, even though they contain feces, they are considered as sealed, as they are constructed on an incline so the feces will roll out of the bathroom underground.

诪转谞讬壮 讝讘 砖专讗讛 拽专讬 讜谞讚讛 砖驻诇讟讛 砖讻讘转 讝专注 讜讛诪砖诪砖转 砖专讗转讛 谞讚讛 爪专讬讻讬谉 讟讘讬诇讛 讜专讘讬 讬讛讜讚讛 驻讜讟专:

MISHNA: Continuing the earlier discussion of the halakhot of immersion for Torah study and prayer for one who experienced a seminal emission, the mishna discusses a case where individuals who were already impure with a severe form of ritual impurity are exposed to the impurity of a seminal emission as well. They are required to immerse themselves and purify themselves of the impurity of the seminal emission even though they remain impure due to the more severe impurity. Consequently, even a zav, whose impurity lasts at least seven days, who experienced a seminal emission, for which, were he not a zav, he would be impure for only one day; a menstruating woman who discharged semen, despite the fact that she is already impure with a severe impurity unaffected by her immersion; and a woman who engaged in conjugal relations with her husband and later saw menstrual blood, all require immersion. And Rabbi Yehuda exempts them from immersion.

讙诪壮 讗讬讘注讬讗 诇讛讜 讘注诇 拽专讬 砖专讗讛 讝讬讘讛 诇专讘讬 讬讛讜讚讛 诪讛讜 讻讬 驻讟专 专讘讬 讬讛讜讚讛 讛转诐 讘讝讘 砖专讗讛 拽专讬 讚诪注讬拽专讗 诇讗讜 讘专 讟讘讬诇讛 讛讜讗 讗讘诇 讘注诇 拽专讬 砖专讗讛 讝讬讘讛 讚诪注讬拽专讗 讘专 讟讘讬诇讛 讛讜讗 诪讞讬讬讘 讗讜 讚讬诇诪讗 诇讗 砖谞讗

GEMARA: A dilemma was raised before the students of the yeshiva: One who experienced a seminal emission and was therefore required to immerse himself, who later saw a discharge that rendered him a zav; according to Rabbi Yehuda, what is his legal status? The Gemara explains the sides of the dilemma: When, in our mishna, Rabbi Yehuda exempted a zav who saw a seminal emission from immersion, that was because from the outset he was not fit for immersion, as the immersion would not be effective in purifying him from the impurity of a zav; however, one who experienced a seminal emission, who later saw a discharge that rendered him a zav, who was fit for immersion and only later became impure with the severe impurity of a zav, would Rabbi Yehuda require immersion? Or perhaps there is no difference and he is exempt from immersion in both cases?

转讗 砖诪注 讛诪砖诪砖转 讜专讗转讛 谞讚讛 爪专讬讻讛 讟讘讬诇讛 讜专讘讬 讬讛讜讚讛 驻讜讟专 讜讛讗 诪砖诪砖转 讜专讗转讛 谞讚讛 讻讘注诇 拽专讬 砖专讗讛 讝讬讘讛 讚诪讬讗 讜拽讗 驻讟专 专讘讬 讬讛讜讚讛 砖诪注 诪讬谞讛 转谞讬 专讘讬 讞讬讬讗 讘讛讚讬讗 讘注诇 拽专讬 砖专讗讛 讝讬讘讛 爪专讬讱 讟讘讬诇讛 讜专讘讬 讬讛讜讚讛 驻讜讟专:

In order to resolve this dilemma, come and hear the last case of the mishna: A woman who engaged in conjugal relations with her husband and later saw menstrual blood requires immersion. And Rabbi Yehuda exempts them from immersion. Isn鈥檛 the woman who engaged in conjugal relations with her husband and later saw menstrual blood like one who experienced a seminal emission, who later saw a discharge that rendered him a zav, as in both cases there is a less severe ritual impurity followed by a more severe impurity; and nevertheless, Rabbi Yehuda exempts. Conclude from this that Rabbi Yehuda does not distinguish between the cases. And indeed, Rabbi 岣yya explicitly taught: One who experienced a seminal emission who later saw a discharge that rendered him a zav requires immersion, and Rabbi Yehuda exempts.

讛讚专谉 注诇讱 诪讬 砖诪转讜

 

诪转谞讬壮 转驻诇转 讛砖讞专 注讚 讞爪讜转 专讘讬 讬讛讜讚讛 讗讜诪专 注讚 讗专讘注 砖注讜转 转驻诇转 讛诪谞讞讛 注讚 讛注专讘 专讘讬 讬讛讜讚讛 讗讜诪专 注讚 驻诇讙 讛诪谞讞讛

MISHNA: This mishna determines the times beyond which the different prayers may not be recited. According to the Rabbis, the morning prayer may be recited until noon. Rabbi Yehuda says: It may be recited only until four hours after sunrise. According to the Rabbis, the afternoon prayer may be recited until the evening. Rabbi Yehuda says: It may be recited only until the midpoint of the afternoon [pelag hamin岣], i.e., the midpoint of the period that begins with the sacrifice of the daily afternoon offering and ends at nightfall, which is the end of the afternoon.

转驻诇转 讛注专讘 讗讬谉 诇讛 拽讘注 讜砖诇 诪讜住驻讬诐 讻诇 讛讬讜诐 专讘讬 讬讛讜讚讛 讗讜诪专 注讚 砖讘注 砖注讜转:

The evening prayer may be recited throughout the night and is not fixed to a specific hour. According to the Rabbis, the additional prayer may be recited all day. Rabbi Yehuda says: It may be recited only until seven hours after sunrise.

讙诪壮 讜专诪讬谞讛讜 诪爪讜转讛 注诐 讛谞抓 讛讞诪讛 讻讚讬 砖讬住诪讜讱 讙讗讜诇讛 诇转驻诇讛 讜谞诪爪讗 诪转驻诇诇 讘讬讜诐

GEMARA: We learned in the mishna that the morning prayer may be recited only until a few hours into the day. The Gemara raises a contradiction based on what was taught in a baraita: The mitzva is to recite the morning Shema with sunrise so that he will juxtapose redemption, which is mentioned in the blessings following Shema, to the Amida prayer, which is recited immediately after sunrise, and find himself praying in the daytime. Clearly, the time to recite the morning prayer is immediately after sunrise.

讻讬 转谞讬讗 讛讛讬讗 诇讜转讬拽讬谉 讚讗诪专 专讘讬 讬讜讞谞谉 讜转讬拽讬谉 讛讬讜 讙讜诪专讬诐 讗讜转讛 注诐 讛谞抓 讛讞诪讛

The Gemara responds: This baraita does not establish a binding halakha. Rather, it taught that rule specifically with regard to those who are scrupulous in fulfillment of mitzvot [vatikin]. As Rabbi Yo岣nan said: Vatikin would finish reciting the morning Shema with sunrise, but those who are not vatikin may recite their prayers later.

讜讻讜诇讬 注诇诪讗 注讚 讞爪讜转 讜转讜 诇讗 讜讛讗诪专 专讘 诪专讬 讘专讬讛 讚专讘 讛讜谞讗 讘专讬讛 讚专讘讬 讬专诪讬讛 讘专 讗讘讗 讗诪专 专讘讬 讬讜讞谞谉 讟注讛 讜诇讗 讛转驻诇诇 注专讘讬转 诪转驻诇诇 讘砖讞专讬转 砖转讬诐 砖讞专讬转 诪转驻诇诇 讘诪谞讞讛 砖转讬诐

The Gemara asks: Does everyone hold that one may recite the morning prayer only until noon and no later? Didn鈥檛 Rav Mari, son of Rav Huna, son of Rabbi Yirmeya bar Abba, say that Rabbi Yo岣nan said: One who erred and did not recite the evening prayer, prays in the morning prayer two Amida prayers; one who erred and did not recite the morning prayer, prays in the afternoon prayer two Amida prayers? Apparently, the morning prayer may be recited until the evening, at least in the event that he forgot to recite it in the morning.

讻讜诇讬 讬讜诪讗 诪爪诇讬 讜讗讝讬诇 注讚 讞爪讜转 讬讛讘讬 诇讬讛 砖讻专 转驻诇讛 讘讝诪谞讛 诪讻讗谉 讜讗讬诇讱 砖讻专 转驻诇讛 讬讛讘讬 诇讬讛 砖讻专 转驻诇讛 讘讝诪谞讛 诇讗 讬讛讘讬 诇讬讛

The Gemara answers: Indeed, one may continue praying for the entire day. However, if he prayed until noon, they give him a reward for reciting the prayer at its appointed time. If he prayed from there on, they give him a reward for reciting the prayer. They do not give him a reward for reciting the prayer at its appointed time.

讗讬讘注讬讗 诇讛讜 讟注讛 讜诇讗 讛转驻诇诇 诪谞讞讛 诪讛讜 砖讬转驻诇诇 注专讘讬转 砖转讬诐 讗诐 转诪爪讗 诇讜诪专 讟注讛 讜诇讗 讛转驻诇诇 注专讘讬转 诪转驻诇诇 砖讞专讬转 砖转讬诐 诪砖讜诐 讚讞讚 讬讜诪讗 讛讜讗 讚讻转讬讘 讜讬讛讬 注专讘 讜讬讛讬 讘拽专 讬讜诐 讗讞讚 讗讘诇 讛讻讗 转驻诇讛 讘诪拽讜诐 拽专讘谉 讛讬讗 讜讻讬讜谉 讚注讘专 讬讜诪讜 讘讟诇 拽专讘谞讜 讗讜 讚讬诇诪讗 讻讬讜谉 讚爪诇讜转讗 专讞诪讬 讛讬讗 讻诇 讗讬诪转 讚讘注讬 诪爪诇讬 讜讗讝讬诇

On the topic of one who forgot to pray and seeks to compensate for the prayer that he missed, a dilemma was raised before them in the study hall: One who erred and did not recite the afternoon prayer, what is the ruling? May he recite in the evening prayer two Amida prayers? The Gemara articulates the sides of the dilemma: If you say that one who erred and did not pray the evening prayer prays in the morning prayer two Amida prayers, perhaps that is because the evening and the morning are both part of one day, as it is written: 鈥淎nd there was evening and there was morning, one day鈥 (Genesis 1:5); the evening and the following morning constitute a single unit. But here, in the case under discussion, perhaps prayer is in place of sacrifice. Since in the case of sacrifice we say, since its day passed, its sacrifice is invalid and there is no way to compensate for the missed opportunity, the same should be true for prayer. Or, perhaps, since prayer is supplication, any time that one wishes, he may continue to pray?

转讗 砖诪注 讚讗诪专 专讘 讛讜谞讗 讘专 讬讛讜讚讛 讗诪专 专讘讬 讬爪讞拽 讗诪专 专讘讬 讬讜讞谞谉 讟注讛 讜诇讗 讛转驻诇诇 诪谞讞讛 诪转驻诇诇 注专讘讬转 砖转讬诐 讜讗讬谉 讘讝讛 诪砖讜诐 讚注讘专 讬讜诪讜 讘讟诇 拽专讘谞讜

Come and hear a resolution to this dilemma from that which Rav Huna bar Yehuda said that Rabbi Yitz岣k said that Rabbi Yo岣nan said: One who erred and did not recite the afternoon prayer, prays in the evening prayer two Amida prayers and there is no element of: Its day passed, its sacrifice is invalid.

诪讬转讬讘讬 诪注讜转 诇讗 讬讜讻诇 诇转拽谉 讜讞住专讜谉 诇讗 讬讜讻诇 诇讛诪谞讜转 诪注讜转 诇讗 讬讜讻诇 诇转拽谉 讝讛 砖讘讟诇 拽专讬讗转 砖诪注 砖诇 注专讘讬转 讜拽专讬讗转 砖诪注 砖诇 砖讞专讬转 讗讜 转驻诇讛 砖诇 注专讘讬转 讗讜 转驻诇讛 砖诇 砖讞专讬转 讜讞住专讜谉 诇讗 讬讜讻诇 诇讛诪谞讜转 讝讛 砖谞诪谞讜 讞讘讬专讬讜 诇讚讘专 诪爪讜讛 讜诇讗 谞诪谞讛 注诪讛诐

With regard to the possibility to compensate for a prayer that he failed to recite at its appointed time, the Gemara raises an objection based on what was taught in a baraita. The meaning of the verse: 鈥淭hat which is crooked cannot be made straight; and that which is wanting cannot be numbered鈥 (Ecclesiastes 1:15), is as follows: That which is crooked cannot be made straight refers to one who omitted the evening Shema and the morning Shema, or the evening prayer, or the morning prayer. And that which is wanting cannot be numbered [lehimanot] refers to one whose friends reached a consensus [nimnu] to perform a mitzva and he was not part of their consensus [nimnu] and, consequently, he missed his opportunity to join them in performance of the mitzva. This baraita clearly states that there is no way to compensate for a missed prayer.

讗诪专 专讘讬 讬爪讞拽 讗诪专 专讘讬 讬讜讞谞谉 讛讻讗 讘诪讗讬 注住拽讬谞谉 砖讘讟诇 讘诪讝讬讚

To resolve this difficulty, Rabbi Yitz岣k said that Rabbi Yo岣nan said: With what are we dealing here in this baraita? We are dealing with a case where one intentionally failed to recite the prayer. Only then he has no remedy. However, one who failed to pray due to error can compensate for the missed prayer by reciting the next prayer twice.

讗诪专 专讘 讗砖讬 讚讬拽讗 谞诪讬 讚拽转谞讬 讘讟诇 讜诇讗 拽转谞讬 讟注讛 砖诪注 诪讬谞讛:

Rav Ashi said: The language of the baraita is also precise as it teaches omitted and did not teach erred. This indicates that the halakha is different in the case of error. The Gemara concludes: Indeed, learn from this.

转谞讜 专讘谞谉 讟注讛 讜诇讗 讛转驻诇诇 诪谞讞讛 讘注专讘 砖讘转 诪转驻诇诇 讘诇讬诇 砖讘转 砖转讬诐 讟注讛 讜诇讗 讛转驻诇诇 诪谞讞讛 讘砖讘转 诪转驻诇诇 讘诪讜爪讗讬 砖讘转 砖转讬诐 砖诇 讞讜诇 诪讘讚讬诇 讘专讗砖讜谞讛 讜讗讬谞讜 诪讘讚讬诇 讘砖谞讬讛 讜讗诐 讛讘讚讬诇 讘砖谞讬讛 讜诇讗 讛讘讚讬诇 讘专讗砖讜谞讛 砖谞讬讛 注诇转讛 诇讜 专讗砖讜谞讛 诇讗 注诇转讛 诇讜

On a similar note, the Sages taught in a baraita: One who erred and did not recite the afternoon prayer on the eve of Shabbat, prays in the evening prayer two Amida prayers on Shabbat evening. One who erred and did not recite the afternoon prayer on Shabbat, recites two weekday Amida prayers in the evening prayer at the conclusion of Shabbat. He recites havdala [the prayer of distinction] between the sanctity of Shabbat and the profanity of the week by reciting: You have graced us, etc., in the fourth blessing of the Amida, which is: Who graciously grants knowledge, in the first prayer, as it is the actual evening prayer, but he does not recite havdala in the second prayer, which is in place of the afternoon prayer. Moreover, if he recited havdala in the second prayer and did not recite havdala in the first, the second prayer fulfilled his obligation, the first one did not fulfill his obligation.

诇诪讬诪专讗 讚讻讬讜谉 讚诇讗 讗讘讚讬诇 讘拽诪讬讬转讗 讻诪讗谉 讚诇讗 爪诇讬 讚诪讬 讜诪讛讚专讬谞谉 诇讬讛

The Gemara comments: Is that to say that since he did not recite havdala in the first prayer, he is as one who did not pray and we require him to return to the beginning of the prayer and repeat it? If so, the conclusion is that one who fails to recite havdala in the prayer must repeat that prayer.

讜专诪讬谞讛讜 讟注讛 讜诇讗 讛讝讻讬专 讙讘讜专讜转 讙砖诪讬诐 讘转讞讬讬转 讛诪转讬诐 讜砖讗诇讛 讘讘专讻转 讛砖谞讬诐 诪讞讝讬专讬谉 讗讜转讜 讛讘讚诇讛 讘讞讜谞谉 讛讚注转 讗讬谉 诪讞讝讬专讬谉 讗讜转讜 诪驻谞讬 砖讬讻讜诇 诇讗讜诪专讛 注诇 讛讻讜住 拽砖讬讗

The Gemara raises a contradiction to the above conclusion from the Tosefta: One who erred and did not mention the might of the rains: He makes the wind blow and rain fall in the second blessing of the Amida, the blessing on the revival of the dead, and one who erred and failed to recite the request for rain in the ninth blessing of the Amida, the blessing of the years, we require him to return to the beginning of the prayer and repeat it. However, one who erred and failed to recite havdala in the blessing: Who graciously grants knowledge, we do not require him to return to the beginning of the prayer and repeat it, as he can recite havdala over the cup of wine, independent of his prayer. This contradiction was not resolved and remains difficult.

讗讬转诪专 专讘讬 讬讜住讬 讘专讘讬 讞谞讬谞讗 讗诪专 转驻诇讜转 讗讘讜转 转拽谞讜诐 专讘讬 讬讛讜砖注 讘谉 诇讜讬 讗诪专 转驻诇讜转 讻谞讙讚 转诪讬讚讬谉 转拽谞讜诐

The dispute between the Rabbis and Rabbi Yehuda with regard to the times beyond which the different prayers may not be recited is rooted in a profound disagreement, also manifest in a later amoraic dispute. It was stated: Rabbi Yosei, son of Rabbi 岣nina, said: The practice of praying three times daily is ancient, albeit not in its present form; prayers were instituted by the Patriarchs. However, Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi said that the prayers were instituted based on the daily offerings sacrificed in the Holy Temple, and the prayers parallel the offerings, in terms of both time and characteristics.

转谞讬讗 讻讜讜转讬讛 讚专讘讬 讬讜住讬 讘专讘讬 讞谞讬谞讗 讜转谞讬讗 讻讜讜转讬讛 讚专讘讬 讬讛讜砖注 讘谉 诇讜讬 转谞讬讗 讻讜讜转讬讛 讚专讘讬 讬讜住讬 讘专讘讬 讞谞讬谞讗 讗讘专讛诐 转拽谉 转驻诇转 砖讞专讬转 砖谞讗诪专 讜讬砖讻诐 讗讘专讛诐 讘讘拽专 讗诇 讛诪拽讜诐 讗砖专 注诪讚 砖诐 讜讗讬谉 注诪讬讚讛 讗诇讗 转驻诇讛 砖谞讗诪专 讜讬注诪讚 驻讬谞讞住 讜讬驻诇诇

The Gemara comments: It was taught in a baraita in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Yosei, son of Rabbi 岣nina, and it was taught in a baraita in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi. The Gemara elaborates: It was taught in a baraita in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Yosei, son of Rabbi 岣nina: Abraham instituted the morning prayer, as it is stated when Abraham came to look out over Sodom the day after he had prayed on its behalf: 鈥淎nd Abraham rose early in the morning to the place where he had stood before the Lord鈥 (Genesis 19:27), and from the context as well as the language utilized in the verse, the verb standing means nothing other than prayer, as this language is used to describe Pinehas鈥 prayer after the plague, as it is stated: 鈥淎nd Pinehas stood up and prayed and the plague ended鈥 (Psalms 106:30). Clearly, Abraham was accustomed to stand in prayer in the morning.

讬爪讞拽 转拽谉 转驻诇转 诪谞讞讛 砖谞讗诪专 讜讬爪讗 讬爪讞拽 诇砖讜讞 讘砖讚讛 诇驻谞讜转 注专讘 讜讗讬谉 砖讬讞讛 讗诇讗 转驻诇讛 砖谞讗诪专 转驻诇讛 诇注谞讬 讻讬 讬注讟祝 讜诇驻谞讬 讛壮 讬砖驻讱 砖讬讞讜

Isaac instituted the afternoon prayer, as it is stated: 鈥淎nd Isaac went out to converse [lasua岣] in the field toward evening鈥 (Genesis 24:63), and conversation means nothing other than prayer, as it is stated: 鈥淎 prayer of the afflicted when he is faint and pours out his complaint [si岣] before the Lord鈥 (Psalms 102:1). Obviously, Isaac was the first to pray as evening approached, at the time of the afternoon prayer.

讬注拽讘 转拽谉 转驻诇转 注专讘讬转 砖谞讗诪专 讜讬驻讙注 讘诪拽讜诐 讜讬诇谉 砖诐 讜讗讬谉 驻讙讬注讛 讗诇讗 转驻诇讛 砖谞讗诪专 讜讗转讛 讗诇 转转驻诇诇 讘注讚 讛注诐 讛讝讛 讜讗诇 转砖讗 讘注讚诐 专谞讛 讜转驻诇讛 讜讗诇 转驻讙注 讘讬

Jacob instituted the evening prayer, as it is stated: 鈥淎nd he encountered [vayifga] the place and he slept there for the sun had set鈥 (Genesis 28:11). The word encounter means nothing other than prayer, as it is stated when God spoke to Jeremiah: 鈥淎nd you, do not pray on behalf of this nation and do not raise on their behalf song and prayer, and do not encounter [tifga] Me for I do not hear you鈥 (Jeremiah 7:16). Jacob prayed during the evening, after the sun had set.

讜转谞讬讗 讻讜讜转讬讛 讚专讘讬 讬讛讜砖注 讘谉 诇讜讬 诪驻谞讬 诪讛 讗诪专讜 转驻诇转 讛砖讞专 注讚 讞爪讜转 砖讛专讬 转诪讬讚 砖诇 砖讞专 拽专讘 讜讛讜诇讱 注讚 讞爪讜转 讜专讘讬 讬讛讜讚讛 讗讜诪专 注讚 讗专讘注 砖注讜转 砖讛专讬 转诪讬讚 砖诇 砖讞专 拽专讘 讜讛讜诇讱 注讚 讗专讘注 砖注讜转

And it was taught in a baraita in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi that the laws of prayer are based on the laws of the daily offerings: Why did the Rabbis say that the morning prayer may be recited until noon? Because, although the daily morning offering is typically brought early in the morning, it may be sacrificed until noon. And Rabbi Yehuda says: My opinion, that the morning prayer may be recited until four hours into the day, is because the daily morning offering is sacrificed until four hours.

讜诪驻谞讬 诪讛 讗诪专讜 转驻诇转 讛诪谞讞讛 注讚 讛注专讘 砖讛专讬 转诪讬讚 砖诇 讘讬谉 讛注专讘讬诐 拽专讘 讜讛讜诇讱 注讚 讛注专讘 专讘讬 讬讛讜讚讛 讗讜诪专 注讚 驻诇讙 讛诪谞讞讛 砖讛专讬 转诪讬讚 砖诇 讘讬谉 讛注专讘讬诐 拽专讘 讜讛讜诇讱 注讚 驻诇讙 讛诪谞讞讛

And why did the Rabbis say that the afternoon prayer may be recited until the evening? Because the daily afternoon offering is sacrificed until the evening. Rabbi Yehuda says that the afternoon prayer may be recited only until the midpoint of the afternoon because, according to his opinion, the daily afternoon offering is sacrificed until the midpoint of the afternoon.

讜诪驻谞讬 诪讛 讗诪专讜 转驻诇转 讛注专讘 讗讬谉 诇讛 拽讘注 砖讛专讬 讗讘专讬诐 讜驻讚专讬诐 砖诇讗 谞转注讻诇讜 诪讘注专讘 拽专讘讬诐 讜讛讜诇讻讬诐 讻诇 讛诇讬诇讛

And why did they say that the evening prayer is not fixed? Because the burning of the limbs and fats of the offerings that were not consumed by the fire on the altar until the evening. They remained on the altar and were offered continuously throughout the entire night.

讜诪驻谞讬 诪讛 讗诪专讜 砖诇 诪讜住驻讬谉 讻诇 讛讬讜诐 砖讛专讬 拽专讘谉 砖诇 诪讜住驻讬谉 拽专讘 讻诇 讛讬讜诐 专讘讬 讬讛讜讚讛 讗讜诪专 注讚 砖讘注 砖注讜转 砖讛专讬 拽专讘谉 诪讜住祝 拽专讘 讜讛讜诇讱 注讚 砖讘注 砖注讜转

And why did the Rabbis say that the additional prayer may be recited all day? Because the additional offering is brought throughout the entire day. However, Rabbi Yehuda says that the additional prayer may be recited until the seventh hour of the day, because the additional offering is sacrificed until the seventh hour.

讜讗讬讝讜 讛讬讗 诪谞讞讛 讙讚讜诇讛 诪砖砖 砖注讜转 讜诪讞爪讛 讜诇诪注诇讛 讜讗讬讝讜 讛讬讗 诪谞讞讛 拽讟谞讛 诪转砖注 砖注讜转 讜诪讞爪讛 讜诇诪注诇讛

The baraita continues and states that there are two times for the afternoon prayer. Greater, earlier min岣 [min岣 gedola] and lesser, later min岣 [min岣 ketana]. The Gemara clarifies the difference between them: Which is min岣 gedola? From six-and-a-half hours after sunrise and on, which is a half an hour after noon and on. It is the earliest time that the daily afternoon offering may be sacrificed, as in the case on the eve of Passover that occurs on Shabbat. Which is min岣 ketana? From nine-and-a-half hours and on, which is the standard time that the daily afternoon offering is sacrificed.

讗讬讘注讬讗 诇讛讜 专讘讬 讬讛讜讚讛 驻诇讙 诪谞讞讛 拽诪讗 拽讗诪专 讗讜 驻诇讙 诪谞讞讛 讗讞专讜谞讛 拽讗诪专 转讗 砖诪注 讚转谞讬讗 专讘讬 讬讛讜讚讛 讗讜诪专 驻诇讙 讛诪谞讞讛 讗讞专讜谞讛 讗诪专讜 讜讛讬讗 讗讞转 注砖专讛 砖注讜转 讞住专 专讘讬注

On that note, a dilemma was raised before them: Rabbi Yehuda, who holds that the afternoon prayer may be recited only until the midpoint of the afternoon, does he say the midpoint of the first min岣, min岣 gedola? Or, does he say the midpoint of the last min岣? Come and hear an explicit resolution to this dilemma: As it was taught in a baraita, Rabbi Yehuda says: They said the midpoint of the last min岣, and that is eleven hours minus a quarter of an hour after sunrise, i.e., an hour-and-a-quarter hours before sunset.

谞讬诪讗 转讬讛讜讬 转讬讜讘转讬讛 讚专讘讬 讬讜住讬 讘专讘讬 讞谞讬谞讗 讗诪专 诇讱 专讘讬 讬讜住讬 讘专讘讬 讞谞讬谞讗 诇注讜诇诐 讗讬诪讗 诇讱 转驻诇讜转 讗讘讜转 转拽谞讜诐 讜讗住诪讻讬谞讛讜 专讘谞谉 讗拽专讘谞讜转 讚讗讬 诇讗 转讬诪讗 讛讻讬 转驻诇转 诪讜住祝 诇专讘讬 讬讜住讬 讘专讘讬 讞谞讬谞讗 诪讗谉 转拽谞讛 讗诇讗 转驻诇讜转 讗讘讜转 转拽谞讜诐 讜讗住诪讻讬谞讛讜 专讘谞谉 讗拽专讘谞讜转:

In any case, it is clear that according to this baraita the halakhot of prayer are based on the Temple offerings. The Gemara suggests: Let us say that this is a conclusive refutation of the opinion of Rabbi Yosei, son of Rabbi 岣nina, who held that the forefathers instituted the prayers. Rabbi Yosei, son of Rabbi 岣nina, could have said to you: Actually, I will say to you that the Patriarchs instituted the prayers and the Sages based the times and characteristics of prayer on the Temple offerings, even though they do not stem from the same source. As, if you do not say so, that even Rabbi Yosei, son of Rabbi 岣nina, would agree that the laws of offerings and those of prayers are related, then, according to Rabbi Yosei, son of Rabbi 岣nina, who instituted the additional prayer? It is not one of the prayers instituted by the forefathers. Rather, even according to Rabbi Yosei, son of Rabbi 岣nina, the prayers were instituted by the Patriarchs and the Sages based them on the laws of the offerings.

专讘讬 讬讛讜讚讛 讗讜诪专 注讚 讗专讘注 砖注讜转: 讗讬讘注讬讗 诇讛讜 注讚 讜注讚 讘讻诇诇 讗讜 讚讬诇诪讗 注讚 讜诇讗 注讚 讘讻诇诇 转讗 砖诪注 专讘讬 讬讛讜讚讛 讗讜诪专 注讚 驻诇讙 讛诪谞讞讛 讗讬 讗诪专转 讘砖诇诪讗 注讚 讜诇讗 注讚 讘讻诇诇 讛讬讬谞讜 讚讗讬讻讗 讘讬谉 专讘讬 讬讛讜讚讛 诇专讘谞谉 讗诇讗 讗讬 讗诪专转 注讚 讜注讚 讘讻诇诇 专讘讬 讬讛讜讚讛

We learned in the mishna that Rabbi Yehuda says: The morning prayer may be recited until four hours of the day. A dilemma was raised before the yeshiva students: When Rabbi Yehuda says until, does he mean until and including the fourth hour, or, perhaps when he says 鈥渦ntil鈥 he means until and not including, in which case one may not pray during the fourth hour? Come and hear a resolution to this dilemma based on the mishna. Rabbi Yehuda says: The afternoon prayer may be recited only until the midpoint of the afternoon. Now, granted, if you say that until means until and not including, then there is a difference between the opinion of Rabbi Yehuda and the opinion of the Rabbis. However, if you say that until means until and including, then the opinion of Rabbi Yehuda

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