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Today's Daf Yomi

February 18, 2020 | ื›ืดื’ ื‘ืฉื‘ื˜ ืชืฉืดืค

  • This month's learning is sponsored by the Kessler, Wolkenfeld and Grossman families in loving memory of Mia Rose bat Matan Yehoshua vโ€™ Elana Malka. "ื” ื ืชืŸ ื•ื” ืœืงื—. ื™ื”ื™ ืฉื ื” ืžื‘ื•ืจืš"

  • This month's shiurim are sponsored by Shoshana Shur for the refuah shleima of Meira Bat Zelda Zahava.

Berakhot 46

Who is the preferred person to make hamotzi on the bread on behalf of everyone – the host/ess or the most respected person? What about for leading the zimun? What is the text that one adds for the host in birkhat hamazon? Where does the blessing on the zimun end – at the end of the actual zimun or at the end of the first blessing? What are the ramifications of the debate regarding this issue? A mourner has a special text that one says in the fourth blessing of birkhat hamazon. A discusssion ensues between the Exilarch and Rav Sheshet where the Exilarch praises the Persian customs regarding eating and rav Sheshet tries to prove that the rabbis also had smart customs regarding eating practices.

ืชื•ื›ืŸ ื–ื” ืชื•ืจื’ื ื’ื ืœ: ืขื‘ืจื™ืช

ืจื‘ื™ ื–ื™ืจื ื—ืœืฉ ืขืœ ืœื’ื‘ื™ื” ืจื‘ื™ ืื‘ื”ื• ืงื‘ื™ืœ ืขืœื™ื” ืื™ ืžืชืคื— ืงื˜ื™ื ื ื—ืจื™ืš ืฉืงื™ ืขื‘ื™ื“ื ื ื™ื•ืžื ื˜ื‘ื ืœืจื‘ื ืŸ ืืชืคื— ืขื‘ื“ ืกืขื•ื“ืชื ืœื›ื•ืœื”ื• ืจื‘ื ืŸ ื›ื™ ืžื˜ื ืœืžืฉืจื™ ืืžืจ ืœื™ื” ืœืจื‘ื™ ื–ื™ืจื ืœื™ืฉืจื™ ืœืŸ ืžืจ ืืžืจ ืœื™ื” ืœื ืกื‘ืจ ืœื” ืžืจ ืœื”ื ื“ืจื‘ื™ ื™ื•ื—ื ืŸ ื“ืืžืจ ื‘ืขืœ ื”ื‘ื™ืช ื‘ื•ืฆืข ืฉืจื ืœื”ื•

The Gemara recounts: Rabbi Zeira took ill. Rabbi Abbahu went to visit him and resolved: If the little man with the scorched legs, a nickname for Rabbi Zeira, is cured, I will make a festival, a feast, for the Sages. Rabbi Zeira was cured and Rabbi Abbahu made a feast for all the Sages. When it came time to break bread, Rabbi Abbahu said to Rabbi Zeira: Master, please break bread for us. Rabbi Zeira said to him: Doesnโ€™t the Master hold in accordance with that halakha of Rabbi Yoแธฅanan, who said: The host breaks bread? Rabbi Abbahu broke bread for them.

ื›ื™ ืžื˜ื ืœื‘ืจื•ื›ื™ ืืžืจ ืœื™ื” ื ื‘ืจื™ืš ืœืŸ ืžืจ ืืžืจ ืœื™ื” ืœื ืกื‘ืจ ืœื” ืžืจ ืœื”ื ื“ืจื‘ ื”ื•ื ื ื“ืžืŸ ื‘ื‘ืœ ื“ืืžืจ ื‘ื•ืฆืข ืžื‘ืจืš

When the time came to recite the blessing, Rabbi Abbahu said to Rabbi Zeira: Master, recite Grace after Meals on our behalf. Rabbi Zeira said to him: Doesnโ€™t the Master hold in accordance with that halakha of Rabbi Huna of Babylonia, who said: He who breaks bread recites Grace after Meals?

ื•ืื™ื”ื• ื›ืžืืŸ ืกื‘ื™ืจื ืœื™ื”

The Gemara asks: And in accordance with whose opinion does Rabbi Abbahu hold that he asked Rabbi Zeira to recite Grace after Meals?

ื›ื™ ื”ื ื“ืืžืจ ืจื‘ื™ ื™ื•ื—ื ืŸ ืžืฉื•ื ืจื‘ื™ ืฉืžืขื•ืŸ ื‘ืŸ ื™ื•ื—ื™ ื‘ืขืœ ื”ื‘ื™ืช ื‘ื•ืฆืข ื•ืื•ืจื— ืžื‘ืจืš ื‘ืขืœ ื”ื‘ื™ืช ื‘ื•ืฆืข ื›ื“ื™ ืฉื™ื‘ืฆืข ื‘ืขื™ืŸ ื™ืคื” ื•ืื•ืจื— ืžื‘ืจืš ื›ื“ื™ ืฉื™ื‘ืจืš ื‘ืขืœ ื”ื‘ื™ืช

The Gemara answers: Rabbi Abbahu holds in accordance with that halakha that Rabbi Yoแธฅanan said in the name of Rabbi Shimon ben Yoแธฅai: The host breaks bread and a guest recites Grace after Meals. The host breaks bread so that he will break bread generously, whereas a guest might be embarrassed to break a large piece for himself and other guests; and the guest recites Grace after Meals so that he may bless the host in the course of reciting Grace after Meals, as the Gemara proceeds to explain.

ืžืื™ ืžื‘ืจืš ื™ื”ื™ ืจืฆื•ืŸ ืฉืœื ื™ื‘ื•ืฉ ื‘ืขืœ ื”ื‘ื™ืช ื‘ืขื•ืœื ื”ื–ื” ื•ืœื ื™ื›ืœื ืœืขื•ืœื ื”ื‘ื

What is the formula of the blessing with which the guest blesses his host?
May it be Your will that the master of the house shall not suffer shame in this world, nor humiliation in the World-to-Come.

ื•ืจื‘ื™ ืžื•ืกื™ืฃ ื‘ื” ื“ื‘ืจื™ื ื•ื™ืฆืœื— ืžืื“ ื‘ื›ืœ ื ื›ืกื™ื• ื•ื™ื”ื™ื• ื ื›ืกื™ื• ื•ื ื›ืกื™ื ื• ืžื•ืฆืœื—ื™ื ื•ืงืจื•ื‘ื™ื ืœืขื™ืจ ื•ืืœ ื™ืฉืœื•ื˜ ืฉื˜ืŸ ืœื ื‘ืžืขืฉื™ ื™ื“ื™ื• ื•ืœื ื‘ืžืขืฉื™ ื™ื“ื™ื ื• ื•ืืœ ื™ื–ื“ืงืจ ืœื ืœืคื ื™ื• ื•ืœื ืœืคื ื™ื ื• ืฉื•ื ื“ื‘ืจ ื”ืจื”ื•ืจ ื—ื˜ื ื•ืขื‘ื™ืจื” ื•ืขื•ืŸ ืžืขืชื” ื•ืขื“ ืขื•ืœื:

Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi added to it elements pertaining to material success:
And may he be very successful with all his possessions,
and may his possessions and our possessions be successful and near the city,
and may Satan control neither his deeds nor our deeds,
and may no thought of sin, iniquity, or transgression stand before him or before us
from now and for evermore.

ืขื“ ื”ื™ื›ืŸ ื‘ืจื›ืช ื”ื–ืžื•ืŸ

The Gemara asks: Until where does the zimmun blessing extend?

ืจื‘ ื ื—ืžืŸ ืืžืจ ืขื“ ื ื‘ืจืš ื•ืจื‘ ืฉืฉืช ืืžืจ ืขื“ ื”ื–ืŸ

Rav Naแธฅman says: The blessing extends only until: Let us bless. Rav Sheshet says that the zimmun blessing extends until the end of the first blessing of Grace after Meals: Who feeds all.

ื ื™ืžื ื›ืชื ืื™ ื“ืชื ื™ ื—ื“ื ื‘ืจื›ืช ื”ืžื–ื•ืŸ ืฉื ื™ื ื•ืฉืœืฉื” ื•ืชื ื™ื ืื™ื“ืš ืฉืœืฉื” ื•ืืจื‘ืขื” ืกื‘ืจื•ื” ื“ื›ื•ืœื™ ืขืœืžื ื”ื˜ื•ื‘ ื•ื”ืžื˜ื™ื‘ ืœืื• ื“ืื•ืจื™ื™ืชื ื”ื™ื ืžืื™ ืœืื• ื‘ื”ื ืงืžื™ืคืœื’ื™ ืžืืŸ ื“ืืžืจ ืฉืชื™ื ื•ืฉืœืฉ ืงืกื‘ืจ ืขื“ ื”ื–ืŸ ื•ืžืืŸ ื“ืืžืจ ืฉืœืฉ ื•ืืจื‘ืข ืงืกื‘ืจ ืขื“ ื ื‘ืจืš

The Gemara proposes: Let us say that this amoraic dispute is parallel to a dispute between the tannaโ€™im. As one baraita taught: Grace after Meals is two and three blessings, and another baraita taught: Grace after Meals is three and four blessings. In attempting to understand these conflicting baraitot, the Sages assumed that everyone agrees that the blessing: Who is good and does good, the fourth blessing of Grace after Meals, is not required by Torah law. What then? Is it not that they disagree about this: The one who said that Grace after Meals is two and three blessings holds that the zimmun blessing extends until the end of the blessing: Who feeds all? If there is a zimmun, three blessings are recited; if there is no zimmun, only two blessings are recited, since the blessing: Who feeds all, is not recited. And the one who said that Grace after Meals is three and four blessings holds that the zimmun blessing extends only until: Let us bless, and includes no part of Grace after Meals itself. If there is a zimmun, four blessings are recited, the three blessing of Grace after Meals plus the blessing of the zimmun, while if there is not, only three blessings are recited.

ืœื ืจื‘ ื ื—ืžืŸ ืžืชืจืฅ ืœื˜ืขืžื™ื” ื•ืจื‘ ืฉืฉืช ืžืชืจืฅ ืœื˜ืขืžื™ื”

This explanation distinguishing between the baraitot is rejected: No; Rav Naแธฅman explains in accordance with his reasoning and Rav Sheshet explains in accordance with his reasoning.

ืจื‘ ื ื—ืžืŸ ืžืชืจืฅ ืœื˜ืขืžื™ื” ื“ื›ื•ืœื™ ืขืœืžื ืขื“ ื ื‘ืจืš ืžืืŸ ื“ืืžืจ ืฉืœืฉ ื•ืืจื‘ืข ืฉืคื™ืจ ื•ืžืืŸ ื“ืืžืจ ืฉืชื™ื ื•ืฉืœืฉ ืืžืจ ืœืš ื”ื›ื ื‘ื‘ืจื›ืช ืคื•ืขืœื™ื ืขืกืงื™ื ืŸ ื“ืืžืจ ืžืจ ืคื•ืชื— ื‘ื”ื–ืŸ ื•ื›ื•ืœืœ ื‘ื•ื ื” ื™ืจื•ืฉืœื™ื ื‘ื‘ืจื›ืช ื”ืืจืฅ

Rav Naแธฅman explains in accordance with his reasoning; everyone agrees that the zimmun blessing extends only until Let us bless. According to the one who said that Grace after Meals is three and four blessings, this works out well. And the one who said that Grace after Meals is two and three blessings could have said to you: Here we are dealing with the blessing recited by laborers, as the Master said that when a laborer is working, he is permitted to abridge Grace after Meals, and he begins with the blessing: Who feeds all, and includes the third blessing: Who builds Jerusalem, in the context of the second blessing, the blessing of the land.

ืจื‘ ืฉืฉืช ืžืชืจืฅ ืœื˜ืขืžื™ื” ื“ื›ื•ืœื™ ืขืœืžื ืขื“ ื”ื–ืŸ ืžืืŸ ื“ืืžืจ ืฉืชื™ื ื•ืฉืœืฉ ืฉืคื™ืจ ื•ืžืืŸ ื“ืืžืจ ืฉืœืฉ ื•ืืจื‘ืข ืงืกื‘ืจ ื”ื˜ื•ื‘ ื•ื”ืžื˜ื™ื‘ ื“ืื•ืจื™ื™ืชื ื”ื™ื

Rav Sheshet explains in accordance with his reasoning; everyone agrees that the zimmun blessing extends until the end of the blessing: Who feeds all. According to the one who said that Grace after Meals is two and three blessings, this works out well; and the one who said that Grace after Meals is three and four blessings holds that the blessing: Who is good and does good, is required by Torah law.

ืืžืจ ืจื‘ ื™ื•ืกืฃ ืชื“ืข ื“ื”ื˜ื•ื‘ ื•ื”ืžื˜ื™ื‘ ืœืื• ื“ืื•ืจื™ื™ืชื ืฉื”ืจื™ ืคื•ืขืœื™ื ืขื•ืงืจื™ื ืื•ืชื”

With regard to the matter of the blessing: Who is good and does good, Rav Yosef said: Know that the blessing: Who is good and does good, is not required by Torah law, as laborers who recite Grace after Meals at work eliminate it. If it can be eliminated, it could not be a Torah obligation.

ืืžืจ ืจื‘ ื™ืฆื—ืง ื‘ืจ ืฉืžื•ืืœ ื‘ืจ ืžืจืชื ืžืฉืžื™ื” ื“ืจื‘ ืชื“ืข ื“ื”ื˜ื•ื‘ ื•ื”ืžื˜ื™ื‘ ืœืื• ื“ืื•ืจื™ื™ืชื ืฉื”ืจื™ ืคื•ืชื— ื‘ื” ื‘ื‘ืจื•ืš ื•ืื™ืŸ ื—ื•ืชื ื‘ื” ื‘ื‘ืจื•ืš ื›ื“ืชื ื™ื ื›ืœ ื”ื‘ืจื›ื•ืช ื›ื•ืœืŸ ืคื•ืชื— ื‘ื”ืŸ ื‘ื‘ืจื•ืš ื•ื—ื•ืชื ื‘ื”ืŸ ื‘ื‘ืจื•ืš ื—ื•ืฅ ืžื‘ืจื›ืช ื”ืคื™ืจื•ืช ื•ื‘ืจื›ืช ื”ืžืฆื•ื•ืช ื•ื‘ืจื›ื” ื”ืกืžื•ื›ื” ืœื—ื‘ืจืชื” ื•ื‘ืจื›ื” ืื—ืจื•ื ื” ืฉื‘ืงืจื™ืืช ืฉืžืข ื™ืฉ ืžื”ืŸ ืฉืคื•ืชื— ื‘ื”ืŸ ื‘ื‘ืจื•ืš ื•ืื™ืŸ ื—ื•ืชื ื‘ื‘ืจื•ืš

Rav Yitzแธฅak bar Shmuel bar Marta said another proof in the name of Rav: Know that the blessing: Who is good and does good, is not required by Torah law, as one who recites it begins to recite it with: Blessed, but does not conclude reciting it with: Blessed. This is the formula in all comparable blessings, as it was taught in a baraita: All blessings, one begins to recite them with: Blessed, and concludes reciting them with: Blessed, except for blessings over fruit, blessings over mitzvot, a blessing that is juxtaposed to another blessing, and the final blessing after Shema. There are among these blessings those that one who recites it begins to recite it with: Blessed, but does not conclude reciting it with: Blessed;

ื•ื™ืฉ ืžื”ืŸ ืฉื—ื•ืชื ื‘ื”ืŸ ื‘ื‘ืจื•ืš ื•ืื™ืŸ ืคื•ืชื— ื‘ื‘ืจื•ืš ื•ื”ื˜ื•ื‘ ื•ื”ืžื˜ื™ื‘ ืคื•ืชื— ื‘ื‘ืจื•ืš ื•ืื™ืŸ ื—ื•ืชื ื‘ื‘ืจื•ืš ืžื›ืœืœ ื“ื‘ืจื›ื” ื‘ืคื ื™ ืขืฆืžื” ื”ื™ื

and there are among these blessings that one who recites it concludes reciting it with: Blessed, but does not begin reciting it with: Blessed. The blessing: Who is good and does good, one who recites it begins to recite it with: Blessed, but does not conclude reciting it with: Blessed. This proves by inference that it is an independent blessing.

ื•ืืžืจ ืจื‘ ื ื—ืžืŸ ื‘ืจ ื™ืฆื—ืง ืชื“ืข ื“ื”ื˜ื•ื‘ ื•ื”ืžื˜ื™ื‘ ืœืื• ื“ืื•ืจื™ื™ืชื ืฉื”ืจื™ ืขื•ืงืจื™ืŸ ืื•ืชื” ื‘ื‘ื™ืช ื”ืื‘ืœ ื›ื“ืชื ื™ื ืžื” ื”ื ืื•ืžืจื™ื ื‘ื‘ื™ืช ื”ืื‘ืœ ื‘ืจื•ืš ื”ื˜ื•ื‘ ื•ื”ืžื˜ื™ื‘ ืจื‘ื™ ืขืงื™ื‘ื ืื•ืžืจ ื‘ืจื•ืš ื“ื™ื™ืŸ ื”ืืžืช

And Rav Naแธฅman bar Yitzแธฅak said: Know that the blessing: Who is good and does good, is not required by Torah law, as it is eliminated in the house of the mourner, as it was taught in a baraita according to the opinion of Rabbi Akiva: What do they say in the house of the mourner? Blessedโ€ฆWho is good and does good. Rabbi Akiva says: Blessedโ€ฆthe true Judge.

ื”ื˜ื•ื‘ ื•ื”ืžื˜ื™ื‘ ืื™ืŸ ื“ื™ื™ืŸ ืืžืช ืœื ืืœื ืื™ืžื ืืฃ ื”ื˜ื•ื‘ ื•ื”ืžื˜ื™ื‘

The first opinion in the baraita is challenged: Who is good and does good, yes, it is recited in the house of the mourner, the true Judge, no, it is not recited? Rather, say: Who is good and does good, is recited as well.

ืžืจ ื–ื•ื˜ืจื ืื™ืงืœืข ืœื‘ื™ ืจื‘ ืืฉื™ ืื™ืชืจืข ื‘ื™ื” ืžืœืชื ืคืชื— ื•ื‘ืจื™ืš ื”ื˜ื•ื‘ ื•ื”ืžื˜ื™ื‘ ืืœ ืืžืช ื“ื™ื™ืŸ ืืžืช ืฉื•ืคื˜ ื‘ืฆื“ืง ืœื•ืงื— ื‘ืžืฉืคื˜ ื•ืฉืœื™ื˜ ื‘ืขื•ืœืžื• ืœืขืฉื•ืช ื‘ื• ื›ืจืฆื•ื ื• ื›ื™ ื›ืœ ื“ืจื›ื™ื• ืžืฉืคื˜ ืฉื”ื›ืœ ืฉืœื• ื•ืื ื—ื ื• ืขืžื• ื•ืขื‘ื“ื™ื• ื•ื‘ื›ืœ ืื ื—ื ื• ื—ื™ื™ื‘ื™ื ืœื”ื•ื“ื•ืช ืœื• ื•ืœื‘ืจื›ื• ื’ื•ื“ืจ ืคืจืฆื•ืช ื‘ื™ืฉืจืืœ ื”ื•ื ื™ื’ื“ื•ืจ ืืช ื”ืคืจืฆื” ื”ื–ืืช ื‘ื™ืฉืจืืœ ืœื—ื™ื™ื

The Gemara recounts: Mar Zutra happened to come to Rav Ashiโ€™s home when an incident of mourning befell Rav Ashi. Mar Zutra began a combined blessing and recited:
Who is good and does good,
God of truth, the true Judge,
Who judges with righteousness, takes away with justice,
and is the ruler of His world to do in it as He wills,
as all His ways are just,
that all is His and we are His people and His servants,
and in everything we are obligated to thank Him and bless Him,
Who repairs the breaches in Israel,
He will repair this breach in Israel for life.
Mar Zutra included both: Who is good and does good, as well as mourning and acceptance of divine justice.

ืœื”ื™ื›ืŸ ื”ื•ื ื—ื•ื–ืจ ืจื‘ ื–ื‘ื™ื“ ืžืฉืžื™ื” ื“ืื‘ื™ื™ ืืžืจ ื—ื•ื–ืจ ืœืจืืฉ ื•ืจื‘ื ืŸ ืืžืจื™ ืœืžืงื•ื ืฉืคืกืง ื•ื”ืœื›ืชื ืœืžืงื•ื ืฉืคืกืง:

Returning to the original topic, it was mentioned above that one interrupts his meal to form a zimmun with two others who finished eating. The question is raised: To where does he return when he finishes his own meal and must begin to recite his own Grace after Meals? Rav Zevid in the name of Abaye said: He returns to the beginning and recites the entire Grace after Meals. And the Rabbis say: He returns to the place that he stopped. And the halakha is: He returns to the place that he stopped, i.e., to the beginning of the second blessing.

ืืžืจ ืœื™ื” ืจื™ืฉ ื’ืœื•ืชื ืœืจื‘ ืฉืฉืช ืืฃ ืขืœ ื’ื‘ ื“ืจื‘ื ืŸ ืงืฉื™ืฉื™ ืืชื•ืŸ ืคืจืกืื™ ื‘ืฆืจื›ื™ ืกืขื•ื“ื” ื‘ืงื™ืื™ ืžื™ื ื™ื™ื›ื• ื‘ื–ืžืŸ ืฉื”ืŸ ืฉืชื™ ืžื˜ื•ืช ื’ื“ื•ืœ ืžืกื‘ ื‘ืจืืฉ ื•ืฉื ื™ ืœื• ืœืžืขืœื” ื”ื™ืžื ื• ื•ื‘ื–ืžืŸ ืฉื”ื ืฉืœืฉ ื’ื“ื•ืœ ืžืกื‘ ื‘ืืžืฆืข ืฉื ื™ ืœื• ืœืžืขืœื” ื”ื™ืžื ื• ืฉืœื™ืฉื™ ืœื• ืœืžื˜ื” ื”ื™ืžื ื•

On the topic of meals, the Gemara relates the following: The Exilarch said to Rav Sheshet: Although you are elderly Sages, the Persians are more expert than you with regard to the required etiquette at meals. The Persian custom is that when there are two divans on which they would recline, the greater of the two people reclines first and the person second to him in importance reclines on the divan above him, alongside his head. When there are three divans, the greatest of the three reclines on the middle divan, the one second to him in importance reclines on the divan above him, and the one third to him in importance reclines on the divan below the greatest of the three.

ืืžืจ ืœื™ื” ื•ื›ื™ ื‘ืขื™ ืื™ืฉืชืขื•ื™ื™ ื‘ื”ื“ื™ื” ืžืชืจื™ืฅ ืชืจื•ืฆื™ ื•ื™ืชื™ื‘ ื•ืžืฉืชืขื™ ื‘ื”ื“ื™ื” ืืžืจ ืœื™ื” ืฉืื ื™ ืคืจืกืื™ ื“ืžื—ื•ื™ ืœื™ื” ื‘ืžื—ื•ื’

Rav Sheshet said to the Exilarch that the custom is flawed. If the greater wishes to speak with the one second to him in importance who is reclining above his head, he must straighten up and sit and only then will he be able to speak to him. The Exilarch answered: The Persians are different, as they signal and communicate with hand gestures, especially during mealtimes, so there is no need to sit up.

ืžื™ื ืจืืฉื•ื ื™ื ืžื”ื™ื›ืŸ ืžืชื—ื™ืœื™ืŸ ืืžืจ ืœื™ื” ืžืŸ ื”ื’ื“ื•ืœ

Rav Sheshet asked the Exilarch about the Persian practice with regard to the first waters. When washing hands before the meal, from where do they begin? The Exilarch said to him: They begin from the greatest.

ื™ืฉื‘ ื’ื“ื•ืœ ื•ื™ืฉืžื•ืจ ื™ื“ื™ื• ืขื“ ืฉื ื•ื˜ืœื™ืŸ ื›ื•ืœืŸ ืืžืจ ืœื™ื” ืœืืœืชืจ ืžื™ื™ืชื• ืชื›ื ืงืžื™ื”

Rav Sheshet asked: If that is so, should the greatest person present sit and keep his hands clean and wait until everyone has washed so that they may all be served? The Exilarch said to him: They bring him his table [takka] immediately, as the custom was that each person ate at his own private table, and they brought the table before the greatest person present immediately after he washed so that he need not wait for the others.

ืžื™ื ืื—ืจื•ื ื™ื ืžื”ื™ื›ืŸ ืžืชื—ื™ืœื™ืŸ ืืžืจ ืœื™ื” ืžืŸ ื”ืงื˜ืŸ

Rav Sheshet asked the Exilarch about the Persian practice with regard to the final waters. When washing hands after the meal, from where do they begin? The Exilarch said to him: They begin with the least significant of the attendees.

ื•ื’ื“ื•ืœ ื™ืชื™ื‘ ื•ื™ื“ื™ื• ืžื–ื•ื”ืžื•ืช ืขื“ ืฉื ื•ื˜ืœื™ืŸ ื›ื•ืœืŸ ืืžืจ ืœื™ื” ืœื ืžืกืœืงื™ ืชื›ื ืžืงืžื™ื” ืขื“ ื“ื ื™ืžื˜ื™ ืžื™ื ืœื’ื‘ื™ื”

Rav Sheshet said: If so, should the greatest person present sit with dirty hands until everyone washes his hands? The Exilarch said to him: They do not remove the table from before him until the water reaches him; he can continue eating while the others are washing.

ืืžืจ ืจื‘ ืฉืฉืช ืื ื ืžืชื ื™ืชื ื™ื“ืขื ื ื“ืชื ื™ื ื›ื™ืฆื“ ืกื“ืจ ื”ืกื‘ื” ื‘ื–ืžืŸ ืฉื”ืŸ ืฉืชื™ ืžื˜ื•ืช ื’ื“ื•ืœ ืžืกื‘ ื‘ืจืืฉ ื•ืฉื ื™ ืœื• ืœืžื˜ื” ื”ื™ืžื ื• ื‘ื–ืžืŸ ืฉื”ืŸ ืฉืœืฉ ืžื˜ื•ืช ื’ื“ื•ืœ ืžืกื‘ ื‘ืจืืฉ ืฉื ื™ ืœื• ืœืžืขืœื” ื”ื™ืžื ื• ืฉืœื™ืฉื™ ืœื• ืœืžื˜ื” ื”ื™ืžื ื• ืžื™ื ื”ืจืืฉื•ื ื™ื ืžืชื—ื™ืœื™ืŸ ืžืŸ ื”ื’ื“ื•ืœ ืžื™ื ืื—ืจื•ื ื™ื ื‘ื–ืžืŸ ืฉื”ื ื—ืžืฉื” ืžืชื—ื™ืœื™ืŸ ืžืŸ ื”ื’ื“ื•ืœ ื•ื‘ื–ืžืŸ ืฉื”ื ืžืื” ืžืชื—ื™ืœื™ืŸ ืžืŸ ื”ืงื˜ืŸ ืขื“ ืฉืžื’ื™ืขื™ื ืืฆืœ ื—ืžืฉื™ ื•ื—ื•ื–ืจื™ืŸ ื•ืžืชื—ื™ืœื™ืŸ ืžืŸ ื”ื’ื“ื•ืœ ื•ืœืžืงื•ื ืฉืžื™ื ืื—ืจื•ื ื™ื ื—ื•ื–ืจื™ืŸ ืœืฉื ื‘ืจื›ื” ื—ื•ื–ืจืช

Rav Sheshet said: In terms of conduct at a meal, I know a baraita, as it was taught: What is the order of reclining? When there are two divans on which they would recline, the greater of the two people reclines first, and the person second to him in importance reclines on the divan below him. When there are three divans, the greatest of the three reclines first, on the middle divan, the one second to him in importance reclines on the divan above him, and the one third to him in importance reclines on the divan below the greatest of the three. The first waters before the meal, they begin with the greatest person present. The final waters; when they are five people, they begin with the greatest person present. When they are more than that, even one hundred, they begin the final waters with the least significant of the attendees until they reach the five greatest present, at which point they return and begin with the greatest present. And to the place that the final waters return the blessing also reverts, and the greatest present, the first among the final five to wash his hands, recites Grace after Meals.

ืžืกื™ื™ืข ืœื™ื” ืœืจื‘ ื“ืืžืจ ืจื‘ื™ ื—ื™ื™ื ื‘ืจ ืืฉื™ ืืžืจ ืจื‘ ื›ืœ ื”ื ื•ื˜ืœ ื™ื“ื™ื• ื‘ืื—ืจื•ื ื” ืชื—ืœื” ื”ื•ื ืžื–ื•ืžืŸ ืœื‘ืจื›ื”

This baraita supports the opinion of Rav, as Rabbi แธคiyya bar Ashi said that Rav said: Whoever washes his hands first at the end of the meal is designated to recite the blessing of Grace after Meals.

ืจื‘ ื•ืจื‘ื™ ื—ื™ื™ื ื”ื•ื• ื™ืชื‘ื™ ื‘ืกืขื•ื“ืชื ืงืžื™ื” ื“ืจื‘ื™ ืืžืจ ืœื™ื” ืจื‘ื™ ืœืจื‘ ืงื•ื ืžืฉื™ ื™ื“ืš ื—ื–ื™ื™ื” ื“ืงื ืžืจืชืช ืืžืจ ืœื™ื” ื‘ืจ ืคื—ืชื™ ืขื™ื™ืŸ ื‘ื‘ืจื›ืช ืžื–ื•ื ื ืงืืžืจ ืœืš

Similarly, the Gemara relates: Rav and Rabbi แธคiyya were seated at a meal before Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi. Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi said to Rav: Stand, wash your hands. Rabbi แธคiyya saw that Rav was trembling in fear that perhaps he had conducted himself improperly during the meal and therefore had to wash his hands. Rabbi แธคiyya said to him: Son of noblemen, he is saying to you to review Grace after Meals, as the first to wash his hands after the meal is honored with leading the blessing.

ืชื ื• ืจื‘ื ืŸ ืื™ืŸ ืžื›ื‘ื“ื™ืŸ ืœื ื‘ื“ืจื›ื™ื ื•ืœื ื‘ื’ืฉืจื™ื

The Gemara continues to discuss the topic of washing after a meal. The Sages taught: Although it is customary to defer to greater people, nevertheless, one shows deference neither on roads nor on bridges,

  • This month's learning is sponsored by the Kessler, Wolkenfeld and Grossman families in loving memory of Mia Rose bat Matan Yehoshua vโ€™ Elana Malka. "ื” ื ืชืŸ ื•ื” ืœืงื—. ื™ื”ื™ ืฉื ื” ืžื‘ื•ืจืš"

  • This month's shiurim are sponsored by Shoshana Shur for the refuah shleima of Meira Bat Zelda Zahava.

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Berakhot 46

The William Davidson Talmud | Powered by Sefaria

Berakhot 46

ืจื‘ื™ ื–ื™ืจื ื—ืœืฉ ืขืœ ืœื’ื‘ื™ื” ืจื‘ื™ ืื‘ื”ื• ืงื‘ื™ืœ ืขืœื™ื” ืื™ ืžืชืคื— ืงื˜ื™ื ื ื—ืจื™ืš ืฉืงื™ ืขื‘ื™ื“ื ื ื™ื•ืžื ื˜ื‘ื ืœืจื‘ื ืŸ ืืชืคื— ืขื‘ื“ ืกืขื•ื“ืชื ืœื›ื•ืœื”ื• ืจื‘ื ืŸ ื›ื™ ืžื˜ื ืœืžืฉืจื™ ืืžืจ ืœื™ื” ืœืจื‘ื™ ื–ื™ืจื ืœื™ืฉืจื™ ืœืŸ ืžืจ ืืžืจ ืœื™ื” ืœื ืกื‘ืจ ืœื” ืžืจ ืœื”ื ื“ืจื‘ื™ ื™ื•ื—ื ืŸ ื“ืืžืจ ื‘ืขืœ ื”ื‘ื™ืช ื‘ื•ืฆืข ืฉืจื ืœื”ื•

The Gemara recounts: Rabbi Zeira took ill. Rabbi Abbahu went to visit him and resolved: If the little man with the scorched legs, a nickname for Rabbi Zeira, is cured, I will make a festival, a feast, for the Sages. Rabbi Zeira was cured and Rabbi Abbahu made a feast for all the Sages. When it came time to break bread, Rabbi Abbahu said to Rabbi Zeira: Master, please break bread for us. Rabbi Zeira said to him: Doesnโ€™t the Master hold in accordance with that halakha of Rabbi Yoแธฅanan, who said: The host breaks bread? Rabbi Abbahu broke bread for them.

ื›ื™ ืžื˜ื ืœื‘ืจื•ื›ื™ ืืžืจ ืœื™ื” ื ื‘ืจื™ืš ืœืŸ ืžืจ ืืžืจ ืœื™ื” ืœื ืกื‘ืจ ืœื” ืžืจ ืœื”ื ื“ืจื‘ ื”ื•ื ื ื“ืžืŸ ื‘ื‘ืœ ื“ืืžืจ ื‘ื•ืฆืข ืžื‘ืจืš

When the time came to recite the blessing, Rabbi Abbahu said to Rabbi Zeira: Master, recite Grace after Meals on our behalf. Rabbi Zeira said to him: Doesnโ€™t the Master hold in accordance with that halakha of Rabbi Huna of Babylonia, who said: He who breaks bread recites Grace after Meals?

ื•ืื™ื”ื• ื›ืžืืŸ ืกื‘ื™ืจื ืœื™ื”

The Gemara asks: And in accordance with whose opinion does Rabbi Abbahu hold that he asked Rabbi Zeira to recite Grace after Meals?

ื›ื™ ื”ื ื“ืืžืจ ืจื‘ื™ ื™ื•ื—ื ืŸ ืžืฉื•ื ืจื‘ื™ ืฉืžืขื•ืŸ ื‘ืŸ ื™ื•ื—ื™ ื‘ืขืœ ื”ื‘ื™ืช ื‘ื•ืฆืข ื•ืื•ืจื— ืžื‘ืจืš ื‘ืขืœ ื”ื‘ื™ืช ื‘ื•ืฆืข ื›ื“ื™ ืฉื™ื‘ืฆืข ื‘ืขื™ืŸ ื™ืคื” ื•ืื•ืจื— ืžื‘ืจืš ื›ื“ื™ ืฉื™ื‘ืจืš ื‘ืขืœ ื”ื‘ื™ืช

The Gemara answers: Rabbi Abbahu holds in accordance with that halakha that Rabbi Yoแธฅanan said in the name of Rabbi Shimon ben Yoแธฅai: The host breaks bread and a guest recites Grace after Meals. The host breaks bread so that he will break bread generously, whereas a guest might be embarrassed to break a large piece for himself and other guests; and the guest recites Grace after Meals so that he may bless the host in the course of reciting Grace after Meals, as the Gemara proceeds to explain.

ืžืื™ ืžื‘ืจืš ื™ื”ื™ ืจืฆื•ืŸ ืฉืœื ื™ื‘ื•ืฉ ื‘ืขืœ ื”ื‘ื™ืช ื‘ืขื•ืœื ื”ื–ื” ื•ืœื ื™ื›ืœื ืœืขื•ืœื ื”ื‘ื

What is the formula of the blessing with which the guest blesses his host?
May it be Your will that the master of the house shall not suffer shame in this world, nor humiliation in the World-to-Come.

ื•ืจื‘ื™ ืžื•ืกื™ืฃ ื‘ื” ื“ื‘ืจื™ื ื•ื™ืฆืœื— ืžืื“ ื‘ื›ืœ ื ื›ืกื™ื• ื•ื™ื”ื™ื• ื ื›ืกื™ื• ื•ื ื›ืกื™ื ื• ืžื•ืฆืœื—ื™ื ื•ืงืจื•ื‘ื™ื ืœืขื™ืจ ื•ืืœ ื™ืฉืœื•ื˜ ืฉื˜ืŸ ืœื ื‘ืžืขืฉื™ ื™ื“ื™ื• ื•ืœื ื‘ืžืขืฉื™ ื™ื“ื™ื ื• ื•ืืœ ื™ื–ื“ืงืจ ืœื ืœืคื ื™ื• ื•ืœื ืœืคื ื™ื ื• ืฉื•ื ื“ื‘ืจ ื”ืจื”ื•ืจ ื—ื˜ื ื•ืขื‘ื™ืจื” ื•ืขื•ืŸ ืžืขืชื” ื•ืขื“ ืขื•ืœื:

Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi added to it elements pertaining to material success:
And may he be very successful with all his possessions,
and may his possessions and our possessions be successful and near the city,
and may Satan control neither his deeds nor our deeds,
and may no thought of sin, iniquity, or transgression stand before him or before us
from now and for evermore.

ืขื“ ื”ื™ื›ืŸ ื‘ืจื›ืช ื”ื–ืžื•ืŸ

The Gemara asks: Until where does the zimmun blessing extend?

ืจื‘ ื ื—ืžืŸ ืืžืจ ืขื“ ื ื‘ืจืš ื•ืจื‘ ืฉืฉืช ืืžืจ ืขื“ ื”ื–ืŸ

Rav Naแธฅman says: The blessing extends only until: Let us bless. Rav Sheshet says that the zimmun blessing extends until the end of the first blessing of Grace after Meals: Who feeds all.

ื ื™ืžื ื›ืชื ืื™ ื“ืชื ื™ ื—ื“ื ื‘ืจื›ืช ื”ืžื–ื•ืŸ ืฉื ื™ื ื•ืฉืœืฉื” ื•ืชื ื™ื ืื™ื“ืš ืฉืœืฉื” ื•ืืจื‘ืขื” ืกื‘ืจื•ื” ื“ื›ื•ืœื™ ืขืœืžื ื”ื˜ื•ื‘ ื•ื”ืžื˜ื™ื‘ ืœืื• ื“ืื•ืจื™ื™ืชื ื”ื™ื ืžืื™ ืœืื• ื‘ื”ื ืงืžื™ืคืœื’ื™ ืžืืŸ ื“ืืžืจ ืฉืชื™ื ื•ืฉืœืฉ ืงืกื‘ืจ ืขื“ ื”ื–ืŸ ื•ืžืืŸ ื“ืืžืจ ืฉืœืฉ ื•ืืจื‘ืข ืงืกื‘ืจ ืขื“ ื ื‘ืจืš

The Gemara proposes: Let us say that this amoraic dispute is parallel to a dispute between the tannaโ€™im. As one baraita taught: Grace after Meals is two and three blessings, and another baraita taught: Grace after Meals is three and four blessings. In attempting to understand these conflicting baraitot, the Sages assumed that everyone agrees that the blessing: Who is good and does good, the fourth blessing of Grace after Meals, is not required by Torah law. What then? Is it not that they disagree about this: The one who said that Grace after Meals is two and three blessings holds that the zimmun blessing extends until the end of the blessing: Who feeds all? If there is a zimmun, three blessings are recited; if there is no zimmun, only two blessings are recited, since the blessing: Who feeds all, is not recited. And the one who said that Grace after Meals is three and four blessings holds that the zimmun blessing extends only until: Let us bless, and includes no part of Grace after Meals itself. If there is a zimmun, four blessings are recited, the three blessing of Grace after Meals plus the blessing of the zimmun, while if there is not, only three blessings are recited.

ืœื ืจื‘ ื ื—ืžืŸ ืžืชืจืฅ ืœื˜ืขืžื™ื” ื•ืจื‘ ืฉืฉืช ืžืชืจืฅ ืœื˜ืขืžื™ื”

This explanation distinguishing between the baraitot is rejected: No; Rav Naแธฅman explains in accordance with his reasoning and Rav Sheshet explains in accordance with his reasoning.

ืจื‘ ื ื—ืžืŸ ืžืชืจืฅ ืœื˜ืขืžื™ื” ื“ื›ื•ืœื™ ืขืœืžื ืขื“ ื ื‘ืจืš ืžืืŸ ื“ืืžืจ ืฉืœืฉ ื•ืืจื‘ืข ืฉืคื™ืจ ื•ืžืืŸ ื“ืืžืจ ืฉืชื™ื ื•ืฉืœืฉ ืืžืจ ืœืš ื”ื›ื ื‘ื‘ืจื›ืช ืคื•ืขืœื™ื ืขืกืงื™ื ืŸ ื“ืืžืจ ืžืจ ืคื•ืชื— ื‘ื”ื–ืŸ ื•ื›ื•ืœืœ ื‘ื•ื ื” ื™ืจื•ืฉืœื™ื ื‘ื‘ืจื›ืช ื”ืืจืฅ

Rav Naแธฅman explains in accordance with his reasoning; everyone agrees that the zimmun blessing extends only until Let us bless. According to the one who said that Grace after Meals is three and four blessings, this works out well. And the one who said that Grace after Meals is two and three blessings could have said to you: Here we are dealing with the blessing recited by laborers, as the Master said that when a laborer is working, he is permitted to abridge Grace after Meals, and he begins with the blessing: Who feeds all, and includes the third blessing: Who builds Jerusalem, in the context of the second blessing, the blessing of the land.

ืจื‘ ืฉืฉืช ืžืชืจืฅ ืœื˜ืขืžื™ื” ื“ื›ื•ืœื™ ืขืœืžื ืขื“ ื”ื–ืŸ ืžืืŸ ื“ืืžืจ ืฉืชื™ื ื•ืฉืœืฉ ืฉืคื™ืจ ื•ืžืืŸ ื“ืืžืจ ืฉืœืฉ ื•ืืจื‘ืข ืงืกื‘ืจ ื”ื˜ื•ื‘ ื•ื”ืžื˜ื™ื‘ ื“ืื•ืจื™ื™ืชื ื”ื™ื

Rav Sheshet explains in accordance with his reasoning; everyone agrees that the zimmun blessing extends until the end of the blessing: Who feeds all. According to the one who said that Grace after Meals is two and three blessings, this works out well; and the one who said that Grace after Meals is three and four blessings holds that the blessing: Who is good and does good, is required by Torah law.

ืืžืจ ืจื‘ ื™ื•ืกืฃ ืชื“ืข ื“ื”ื˜ื•ื‘ ื•ื”ืžื˜ื™ื‘ ืœืื• ื“ืื•ืจื™ื™ืชื ืฉื”ืจื™ ืคื•ืขืœื™ื ืขื•ืงืจื™ื ืื•ืชื”

With regard to the matter of the blessing: Who is good and does good, Rav Yosef said: Know that the blessing: Who is good and does good, is not required by Torah law, as laborers who recite Grace after Meals at work eliminate it. If it can be eliminated, it could not be a Torah obligation.

ืืžืจ ืจื‘ ื™ืฆื—ืง ื‘ืจ ืฉืžื•ืืœ ื‘ืจ ืžืจืชื ืžืฉืžื™ื” ื“ืจื‘ ืชื“ืข ื“ื”ื˜ื•ื‘ ื•ื”ืžื˜ื™ื‘ ืœืื• ื“ืื•ืจื™ื™ืชื ืฉื”ืจื™ ืคื•ืชื— ื‘ื” ื‘ื‘ืจื•ืš ื•ืื™ืŸ ื—ื•ืชื ื‘ื” ื‘ื‘ืจื•ืš ื›ื“ืชื ื™ื ื›ืœ ื”ื‘ืจื›ื•ืช ื›ื•ืœืŸ ืคื•ืชื— ื‘ื”ืŸ ื‘ื‘ืจื•ืš ื•ื—ื•ืชื ื‘ื”ืŸ ื‘ื‘ืจื•ืš ื—ื•ืฅ ืžื‘ืจื›ืช ื”ืคื™ืจื•ืช ื•ื‘ืจื›ืช ื”ืžืฆื•ื•ืช ื•ื‘ืจื›ื” ื”ืกืžื•ื›ื” ืœื—ื‘ืจืชื” ื•ื‘ืจื›ื” ืื—ืจื•ื ื” ืฉื‘ืงืจื™ืืช ืฉืžืข ื™ืฉ ืžื”ืŸ ืฉืคื•ืชื— ื‘ื”ืŸ ื‘ื‘ืจื•ืš ื•ืื™ืŸ ื—ื•ืชื ื‘ื‘ืจื•ืš

Rav Yitzแธฅak bar Shmuel bar Marta said another proof in the name of Rav: Know that the blessing: Who is good and does good, is not required by Torah law, as one who recites it begins to recite it with: Blessed, but does not conclude reciting it with: Blessed. This is the formula in all comparable blessings, as it was taught in a baraita: All blessings, one begins to recite them with: Blessed, and concludes reciting them with: Blessed, except for blessings over fruit, blessings over mitzvot, a blessing that is juxtaposed to another blessing, and the final blessing after Shema. There are among these blessings those that one who recites it begins to recite it with: Blessed, but does not conclude reciting it with: Blessed;

ื•ื™ืฉ ืžื”ืŸ ืฉื—ื•ืชื ื‘ื”ืŸ ื‘ื‘ืจื•ืš ื•ืื™ืŸ ืคื•ืชื— ื‘ื‘ืจื•ืš ื•ื”ื˜ื•ื‘ ื•ื”ืžื˜ื™ื‘ ืคื•ืชื— ื‘ื‘ืจื•ืš ื•ืื™ืŸ ื—ื•ืชื ื‘ื‘ืจื•ืš ืžื›ืœืœ ื“ื‘ืจื›ื” ื‘ืคื ื™ ืขืฆืžื” ื”ื™ื

and there are among these blessings that one who recites it concludes reciting it with: Blessed, but does not begin reciting it with: Blessed. The blessing: Who is good and does good, one who recites it begins to recite it with: Blessed, but does not conclude reciting it with: Blessed. This proves by inference that it is an independent blessing.

ื•ืืžืจ ืจื‘ ื ื—ืžืŸ ื‘ืจ ื™ืฆื—ืง ืชื“ืข ื“ื”ื˜ื•ื‘ ื•ื”ืžื˜ื™ื‘ ืœืื• ื“ืื•ืจื™ื™ืชื ืฉื”ืจื™ ืขื•ืงืจื™ืŸ ืื•ืชื” ื‘ื‘ื™ืช ื”ืื‘ืœ ื›ื“ืชื ื™ื ืžื” ื”ื ืื•ืžืจื™ื ื‘ื‘ื™ืช ื”ืื‘ืœ ื‘ืจื•ืš ื”ื˜ื•ื‘ ื•ื”ืžื˜ื™ื‘ ืจื‘ื™ ืขืงื™ื‘ื ืื•ืžืจ ื‘ืจื•ืš ื“ื™ื™ืŸ ื”ืืžืช

And Rav Naแธฅman bar Yitzแธฅak said: Know that the blessing: Who is good and does good, is not required by Torah law, as it is eliminated in the house of the mourner, as it was taught in a baraita according to the opinion of Rabbi Akiva: What do they say in the house of the mourner? Blessedโ€ฆWho is good and does good. Rabbi Akiva says: Blessedโ€ฆthe true Judge.

ื”ื˜ื•ื‘ ื•ื”ืžื˜ื™ื‘ ืื™ืŸ ื“ื™ื™ืŸ ืืžืช ืœื ืืœื ืื™ืžื ืืฃ ื”ื˜ื•ื‘ ื•ื”ืžื˜ื™ื‘

The first opinion in the baraita is challenged: Who is good and does good, yes, it is recited in the house of the mourner, the true Judge, no, it is not recited? Rather, say: Who is good and does good, is recited as well.

ืžืจ ื–ื•ื˜ืจื ืื™ืงืœืข ืœื‘ื™ ืจื‘ ืืฉื™ ืื™ืชืจืข ื‘ื™ื” ืžืœืชื ืคืชื— ื•ื‘ืจื™ืš ื”ื˜ื•ื‘ ื•ื”ืžื˜ื™ื‘ ืืœ ืืžืช ื“ื™ื™ืŸ ืืžืช ืฉื•ืคื˜ ื‘ืฆื“ืง ืœื•ืงื— ื‘ืžืฉืคื˜ ื•ืฉืœื™ื˜ ื‘ืขื•ืœืžื• ืœืขืฉื•ืช ื‘ื• ื›ืจืฆื•ื ื• ื›ื™ ื›ืœ ื“ืจื›ื™ื• ืžืฉืคื˜ ืฉื”ื›ืœ ืฉืœื• ื•ืื ื—ื ื• ืขืžื• ื•ืขื‘ื“ื™ื• ื•ื‘ื›ืœ ืื ื—ื ื• ื—ื™ื™ื‘ื™ื ืœื”ื•ื“ื•ืช ืœื• ื•ืœื‘ืจื›ื• ื’ื•ื“ืจ ืคืจืฆื•ืช ื‘ื™ืฉืจืืœ ื”ื•ื ื™ื’ื“ื•ืจ ืืช ื”ืคืจืฆื” ื”ื–ืืช ื‘ื™ืฉืจืืœ ืœื—ื™ื™ื

The Gemara recounts: Mar Zutra happened to come to Rav Ashiโ€™s home when an incident of mourning befell Rav Ashi. Mar Zutra began a combined blessing and recited:
Who is good and does good,
God of truth, the true Judge,
Who judges with righteousness, takes away with justice,
and is the ruler of His world to do in it as He wills,
as all His ways are just,
that all is His and we are His people and His servants,
and in everything we are obligated to thank Him and bless Him,
Who repairs the breaches in Israel,
He will repair this breach in Israel for life.
Mar Zutra included both: Who is good and does good, as well as mourning and acceptance of divine justice.

ืœื”ื™ื›ืŸ ื”ื•ื ื—ื•ื–ืจ ืจื‘ ื–ื‘ื™ื“ ืžืฉืžื™ื” ื“ืื‘ื™ื™ ืืžืจ ื—ื•ื–ืจ ืœืจืืฉ ื•ืจื‘ื ืŸ ืืžืจื™ ืœืžืงื•ื ืฉืคืกืง ื•ื”ืœื›ืชื ืœืžืงื•ื ืฉืคืกืง:

Returning to the original topic, it was mentioned above that one interrupts his meal to form a zimmun with two others who finished eating. The question is raised: To where does he return when he finishes his own meal and must begin to recite his own Grace after Meals? Rav Zevid in the name of Abaye said: He returns to the beginning and recites the entire Grace after Meals. And the Rabbis say: He returns to the place that he stopped. And the halakha is: He returns to the place that he stopped, i.e., to the beginning of the second blessing.

ืืžืจ ืœื™ื” ืจื™ืฉ ื’ืœื•ืชื ืœืจื‘ ืฉืฉืช ืืฃ ืขืœ ื’ื‘ ื“ืจื‘ื ืŸ ืงืฉื™ืฉื™ ืืชื•ืŸ ืคืจืกืื™ ื‘ืฆืจื›ื™ ืกืขื•ื“ื” ื‘ืงื™ืื™ ืžื™ื ื™ื™ื›ื• ื‘ื–ืžืŸ ืฉื”ืŸ ืฉืชื™ ืžื˜ื•ืช ื’ื“ื•ืœ ืžืกื‘ ื‘ืจืืฉ ื•ืฉื ื™ ืœื• ืœืžืขืœื” ื”ื™ืžื ื• ื•ื‘ื–ืžืŸ ืฉื”ื ืฉืœืฉ ื’ื“ื•ืœ ืžืกื‘ ื‘ืืžืฆืข ืฉื ื™ ืœื• ืœืžืขืœื” ื”ื™ืžื ื• ืฉืœื™ืฉื™ ืœื• ืœืžื˜ื” ื”ื™ืžื ื•

On the topic of meals, the Gemara relates the following: The Exilarch said to Rav Sheshet: Although you are elderly Sages, the Persians are more expert than you with regard to the required etiquette at meals. The Persian custom is that when there are two divans on which they would recline, the greater of the two people reclines first and the person second to him in importance reclines on the divan above him, alongside his head. When there are three divans, the greatest of the three reclines on the middle divan, the one second to him in importance reclines on the divan above him, and the one third to him in importance reclines on the divan below the greatest of the three.

ืืžืจ ืœื™ื” ื•ื›ื™ ื‘ืขื™ ืื™ืฉืชืขื•ื™ื™ ื‘ื”ื“ื™ื” ืžืชืจื™ืฅ ืชืจื•ืฆื™ ื•ื™ืชื™ื‘ ื•ืžืฉืชืขื™ ื‘ื”ื“ื™ื” ืืžืจ ืœื™ื” ืฉืื ื™ ืคืจืกืื™ ื“ืžื—ื•ื™ ืœื™ื” ื‘ืžื—ื•ื’

Rav Sheshet said to the Exilarch that the custom is flawed. If the greater wishes to speak with the one second to him in importance who is reclining above his head, he must straighten up and sit and only then will he be able to speak to him. The Exilarch answered: The Persians are different, as they signal and communicate with hand gestures, especially during mealtimes, so there is no need to sit up.

ืžื™ื ืจืืฉื•ื ื™ื ืžื”ื™ื›ืŸ ืžืชื—ื™ืœื™ืŸ ืืžืจ ืœื™ื” ืžืŸ ื”ื’ื“ื•ืœ

Rav Sheshet asked the Exilarch about the Persian practice with regard to the first waters. When washing hands before the meal, from where do they begin? The Exilarch said to him: They begin from the greatest.

ื™ืฉื‘ ื’ื“ื•ืœ ื•ื™ืฉืžื•ืจ ื™ื“ื™ื• ืขื“ ืฉื ื•ื˜ืœื™ืŸ ื›ื•ืœืŸ ืืžืจ ืœื™ื” ืœืืœืชืจ ืžื™ื™ืชื• ืชื›ื ืงืžื™ื”

Rav Sheshet asked: If that is so, should the greatest person present sit and keep his hands clean and wait until everyone has washed so that they may all be served? The Exilarch said to him: They bring him his table [takka] immediately, as the custom was that each person ate at his own private table, and they brought the table before the greatest person present immediately after he washed so that he need not wait for the others.

ืžื™ื ืื—ืจื•ื ื™ื ืžื”ื™ื›ืŸ ืžืชื—ื™ืœื™ืŸ ืืžืจ ืœื™ื” ืžืŸ ื”ืงื˜ืŸ

Rav Sheshet asked the Exilarch about the Persian practice with regard to the final waters. When washing hands after the meal, from where do they begin? The Exilarch said to him: They begin with the least significant of the attendees.

ื•ื’ื“ื•ืœ ื™ืชื™ื‘ ื•ื™ื“ื™ื• ืžื–ื•ื”ืžื•ืช ืขื“ ืฉื ื•ื˜ืœื™ืŸ ื›ื•ืœืŸ ืืžืจ ืœื™ื” ืœื ืžืกืœืงื™ ืชื›ื ืžืงืžื™ื” ืขื“ ื“ื ื™ืžื˜ื™ ืžื™ื ืœื’ื‘ื™ื”

Rav Sheshet said: If so, should the greatest person present sit with dirty hands until everyone washes his hands? The Exilarch said to him: They do not remove the table from before him until the water reaches him; he can continue eating while the others are washing.

ืืžืจ ืจื‘ ืฉืฉืช ืื ื ืžืชื ื™ืชื ื™ื“ืขื ื ื“ืชื ื™ื ื›ื™ืฆื“ ืกื“ืจ ื”ืกื‘ื” ื‘ื–ืžืŸ ืฉื”ืŸ ืฉืชื™ ืžื˜ื•ืช ื’ื“ื•ืœ ืžืกื‘ ื‘ืจืืฉ ื•ืฉื ื™ ืœื• ืœืžื˜ื” ื”ื™ืžื ื• ื‘ื–ืžืŸ ืฉื”ืŸ ืฉืœืฉ ืžื˜ื•ืช ื’ื“ื•ืœ ืžืกื‘ ื‘ืจืืฉ ืฉื ื™ ืœื• ืœืžืขืœื” ื”ื™ืžื ื• ืฉืœื™ืฉื™ ืœื• ืœืžื˜ื” ื”ื™ืžื ื• ืžื™ื ื”ืจืืฉื•ื ื™ื ืžืชื—ื™ืœื™ืŸ ืžืŸ ื”ื’ื“ื•ืœ ืžื™ื ืื—ืจื•ื ื™ื ื‘ื–ืžืŸ ืฉื”ื ื—ืžืฉื” ืžืชื—ื™ืœื™ืŸ ืžืŸ ื”ื’ื“ื•ืœ ื•ื‘ื–ืžืŸ ืฉื”ื ืžืื” ืžืชื—ื™ืœื™ืŸ ืžืŸ ื”ืงื˜ืŸ ืขื“ ืฉืžื’ื™ืขื™ื ืืฆืœ ื—ืžืฉื™ ื•ื—ื•ื–ืจื™ืŸ ื•ืžืชื—ื™ืœื™ืŸ ืžืŸ ื”ื’ื“ื•ืœ ื•ืœืžืงื•ื ืฉืžื™ื ืื—ืจื•ื ื™ื ื—ื•ื–ืจื™ืŸ ืœืฉื ื‘ืจื›ื” ื—ื•ื–ืจืช

Rav Sheshet said: In terms of conduct at a meal, I know a baraita, as it was taught: What is the order of reclining? When there are two divans on which they would recline, the greater of the two people reclines first, and the person second to him in importance reclines on the divan below him. When there are three divans, the greatest of the three reclines first, on the middle divan, the one second to him in importance reclines on the divan above him, and the one third to him in importance reclines on the divan below the greatest of the three. The first waters before the meal, they begin with the greatest person present. The final waters; when they are five people, they begin with the greatest person present. When they are more than that, even one hundred, they begin the final waters with the least significant of the attendees until they reach the five greatest present, at which point they return and begin with the greatest present. And to the place that the final waters return the blessing also reverts, and the greatest present, the first among the final five to wash his hands, recites Grace after Meals.

ืžืกื™ื™ืข ืœื™ื” ืœืจื‘ ื“ืืžืจ ืจื‘ื™ ื—ื™ื™ื ื‘ืจ ืืฉื™ ืืžืจ ืจื‘ ื›ืœ ื”ื ื•ื˜ืœ ื™ื“ื™ื• ื‘ืื—ืจื•ื ื” ืชื—ืœื” ื”ื•ื ืžื–ื•ืžืŸ ืœื‘ืจื›ื”

This baraita supports the opinion of Rav, as Rabbi แธคiyya bar Ashi said that Rav said: Whoever washes his hands first at the end of the meal is designated to recite the blessing of Grace after Meals.

ืจื‘ ื•ืจื‘ื™ ื—ื™ื™ื ื”ื•ื• ื™ืชื‘ื™ ื‘ืกืขื•ื“ืชื ืงืžื™ื” ื“ืจื‘ื™ ืืžืจ ืœื™ื” ืจื‘ื™ ืœืจื‘ ืงื•ื ืžืฉื™ ื™ื“ืš ื—ื–ื™ื™ื” ื“ืงื ืžืจืชืช ืืžืจ ืœื™ื” ื‘ืจ ืคื—ืชื™ ืขื™ื™ืŸ ื‘ื‘ืจื›ืช ืžื–ื•ื ื ืงืืžืจ ืœืš

Similarly, the Gemara relates: Rav and Rabbi แธคiyya were seated at a meal before Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi. Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi said to Rav: Stand, wash your hands. Rabbi แธคiyya saw that Rav was trembling in fear that perhaps he had conducted himself improperly during the meal and therefore had to wash his hands. Rabbi แธคiyya said to him: Son of noblemen, he is saying to you to review Grace after Meals, as the first to wash his hands after the meal is honored with leading the blessing.

ืชื ื• ืจื‘ื ืŸ ืื™ืŸ ืžื›ื‘ื“ื™ืŸ ืœื ื‘ื“ืจื›ื™ื ื•ืœื ื‘ื’ืฉืจื™ื

The Gemara continues to discuss the topic of washing after a meal. The Sages taught: Although it is customary to defer to greater people, nevertheless, one shows deference neither on roads nor on bridges,

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