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January 18, 2022 | 讟状讝 讘砖讘讟 转砖驻状讘 | TODAY'S DAF: Moed Katan 6

Today's Daf Yomi

February 18, 2020 | 讻状讙 讘砖讘讟 转砖状驻

Berakhot 46

Who is the preferred person to make hamotzi on the bread on behalf of everyone – the host/ess or the most respected person? What about for leading the zimun? What is the text that one adds for the host in birkhat hamazon? Where does the blessing on the zimun end – at the end of the actual zimun or at the end of the first blessing? What are the ramifications of the debate regarding this issue? A mourner has a special text that one says in the fourth blessing of birkhat hamazon. A discusssion ensues between the Exilarch and Rav Sheshet where the Exilarch praises the Persian customs regarding eating and rav Sheshet tries to prove that the rabbis also had smart customs regarding eating practices.

转讜讻谉 讝讛 转讜专讙诐 讙诐 诇: 注讘专讬转

专讘讬 讝讬专讗 讞诇砖 注诇 诇讙讘讬讛 专讘讬 讗讘讛讜 拽讘讬诇 注诇讬讛 讗讬 诪转驻讞 拽讟讬谞讗 讞专讬讱 砖拽讬 注讘讬讚谞讗 讬讜诪讗 讟讘讗 诇专讘谞谉 讗转驻讞 注讘讚 住注讜讚转讗 诇讻讜诇讛讜 专讘谞谉 讻讬 诪讟讗 诇诪砖专讬 讗诪专 诇讬讛 诇专讘讬 讝讬专讗 诇讬砖专讬 诇谉 诪专 讗诪专 诇讬讛 诇讗 住讘专 诇讛 诪专 诇讛讗 讚专讘讬 讬讜讞谞谉 讚讗诪专 讘注诇 讛讘讬转 讘讜爪注 砖专讗 诇讛讜

The Gemara recounts: Rabbi Zeira took ill. Rabbi Abbahu went to visit him and resolved: If the little man with the scorched legs, a nickname for Rabbi Zeira, is cured, I will make a festival, a feast, for the Sages. Rabbi Zeira was cured and Rabbi Abbahu made a feast for all the Sages. When it came time to break bread, Rabbi Abbahu said to Rabbi Zeira: Master, please break bread for us. Rabbi Zeira said to him: Doesn鈥檛 the Master hold in accordance with that halakha of Rabbi Yo岣nan, who said: The host breaks bread? Rabbi Abbahu broke bread for them.

讻讬 诪讟讗 诇讘专讜讻讬 讗诪专 诇讬讛 谞讘专讬讱 诇谉 诪专 讗诪专 诇讬讛 诇讗 住讘专 诇讛 诪专 诇讛讗 讚专讘 讛讜谞讗 讚诪谉 讘讘诇 讚讗诪专 讘讜爪注 诪讘专讱

When the time came to recite the blessing, Rabbi Abbahu said to Rabbi Zeira: Master, recite Grace after Meals on our behalf. Rabbi Zeira said to him: Doesn鈥檛 the Master hold in accordance with that halakha of Rabbi Huna of Babylonia, who said: He who breaks bread recites Grace after Meals?

讜讗讬讛讜 讻诪讗谉 住讘讬专讗 诇讬讛

The Gemara asks: And in accordance with whose opinion does Rabbi Abbahu hold that he asked Rabbi Zeira to recite Grace after Meals?

讻讬 讛讗 讚讗诪专 专讘讬 讬讜讞谞谉 诪砖讜诐 专讘讬 砖诪注讜谉 讘谉 讬讜讞讬 讘注诇 讛讘讬转 讘讜爪注 讜讗讜专讞 诪讘专讱 讘注诇 讛讘讬转 讘讜爪注 讻讚讬 砖讬讘爪注 讘注讬谉 讬驻讛 讜讗讜专讞 诪讘专讱 讻讚讬 砖讬讘专讱 讘注诇 讛讘讬转

The Gemara answers: Rabbi Abbahu holds in accordance with that halakha that Rabbi Yo岣nan said in the name of Rabbi Shimon ben Yo岣i: The host breaks bread and a guest recites Grace after Meals. The host breaks bread so that he will break bread generously, whereas a guest might be embarrassed to break a large piece for himself and other guests; and the guest recites Grace after Meals so that he may bless the host in the course of reciting Grace after Meals, as the Gemara proceeds to explain.

诪讗讬 诪讘专讱 讬讛讬 专爪讜谉 砖诇讗 讬讘讜砖 讘注诇 讛讘讬转 讘注讜诇诐 讛讝讛 讜诇讗 讬讻诇诐 诇注讜诇诐 讛讘讗

What is the formula of the blessing with which the guest blesses his host?
May it be Your will that the master of the house shall not suffer shame in this world, nor humiliation in the World-to-Come.

讜专讘讬 诪讜住讬祝 讘讛 讚讘专讬诐 讜讬爪诇讞 诪讗讚 讘讻诇 谞讻住讬讜 讜讬讛讬讜 谞讻住讬讜 讜谞讻住讬谞讜 诪讜爪诇讞讬诐 讜拽专讜讘讬诐 诇注讬专 讜讗诇 讬砖诇讜讟 砖讟谉 诇讗 讘诪注砖讬 讬讚讬讜 讜诇讗 讘诪注砖讬 讬讚讬谞讜 讜讗诇 讬讝讚拽专 诇讗 诇驻谞讬讜 讜诇讗 诇驻谞讬谞讜 砖讜诐 讚讘专 讛专讛讜专 讞讟讗 讜注讘讬专讛 讜注讜谉 诪注转讛 讜注讚 注讜诇诐:

Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi added to it elements pertaining to material success:
And may he be very successful with all his possessions,
and may his possessions and our possessions be successful and near the city,
and may Satan control neither his deeds nor our deeds,
and may no thought of sin, iniquity, or transgression stand before him or before us
from now and for evermore.

注讚 讛讬讻谉 讘专讻转 讛讝诪讜谉

The Gemara asks: Until where does the zimmun blessing extend?

专讘 谞讞诪谉 讗诪专 注讚 谞讘专讱 讜专讘 砖砖转 讗诪专 注讚 讛讝谉

Rav Na岣an says: The blessing extends only until: Let us bless. Rav Sheshet says that the zimmun blessing extends until the end of the first blessing of Grace after Meals: Who feeds all.

谞讬诪讗 讻转谞讗讬 讚转谞讬 讞讚讗 讘专讻转 讛诪讝讜谉 砖谞讬诐 讜砖诇砖讛 讜转谞讬讗 讗讬讚讱 砖诇砖讛 讜讗专讘注讛 住讘专讜讛 讚讻讜诇讬 注诇诪讗 讛讟讜讘 讜讛诪讟讬讘 诇讗讜 讚讗讜专讬讬转讗 讛讬讗 诪讗讬 诇讗讜 讘讛讗 拽诪讬驻诇讙讬 诪讗谉 讚讗诪专 砖转讬诐 讜砖诇砖 拽住讘专 注讚 讛讝谉 讜诪讗谉 讚讗诪专 砖诇砖 讜讗专讘注 拽住讘专 注讚 谞讘专讱

The Gemara proposes: Let us say that this amoraic dispute is parallel to a dispute between the tanna鈥檌m. As one baraita taught: Grace after Meals is two and three blessings, and another baraita taught: Grace after Meals is three and four blessings. In attempting to understand these conflicting baraitot, the Sages assumed that everyone agrees that the blessing: Who is good and does good, the fourth blessing of Grace after Meals, is not required by Torah law. What then? Is it not that they disagree about this: The one who said that Grace after Meals is two and three blessings holds that the zimmun blessing extends until the end of the blessing: Who feeds all? If there is a zimmun, three blessings are recited; if there is no zimmun, only two blessings are recited, since the blessing: Who feeds all, is not recited. And the one who said that Grace after Meals is three and four blessings holds that the zimmun blessing extends only until: Let us bless, and includes no part of Grace after Meals itself. If there is a zimmun, four blessings are recited, the three blessing of Grace after Meals plus the blessing of the zimmun, while if there is not, only three blessings are recited.

诇讗 专讘 谞讞诪谉 诪转专抓 诇讟注诪讬讛 讜专讘 砖砖转 诪转专抓 诇讟注诪讬讛

This explanation distinguishing between the baraitot is rejected: No; Rav Na岣an explains in accordance with his reasoning and Rav Sheshet explains in accordance with his reasoning.

专讘 谞讞诪谉 诪转专抓 诇讟注诪讬讛 讚讻讜诇讬 注诇诪讗 注讚 谞讘专讱 诪讗谉 讚讗诪专 砖诇砖 讜讗专讘注 砖驻讬专 讜诪讗谉 讚讗诪专 砖转讬诐 讜砖诇砖 讗诪专 诇讱 讛讻讗 讘讘专讻转 驻讜注诇讬诐 注住拽讬谞谉 讚讗诪专 诪专 驻讜转讞 讘讛讝谉 讜讻讜诇诇 讘讜谞讛 讬专讜砖诇讬诐 讘讘专讻转 讛讗专抓

Rav Na岣an explains in accordance with his reasoning; everyone agrees that the zimmun blessing extends only until Let us bless. According to the one who said that Grace after Meals is three and four blessings, this works out well. And the one who said that Grace after Meals is two and three blessings could have said to you: Here we are dealing with the blessing recited by laborers, as the Master said that when a laborer is working, he is permitted to abridge Grace after Meals, and he begins with the blessing: Who feeds all, and includes the third blessing: Who builds Jerusalem, in the context of the second blessing, the blessing of the land.

专讘 砖砖转 诪转专抓 诇讟注诪讬讛 讚讻讜诇讬 注诇诪讗 注讚 讛讝谉 诪讗谉 讚讗诪专 砖转讬诐 讜砖诇砖 砖驻讬专 讜诪讗谉 讚讗诪专 砖诇砖 讜讗专讘注 拽住讘专 讛讟讜讘 讜讛诪讟讬讘 讚讗讜专讬讬转讗 讛讬讗

Rav Sheshet explains in accordance with his reasoning; everyone agrees that the zimmun blessing extends until the end of the blessing: Who feeds all. According to the one who said that Grace after Meals is two and three blessings, this works out well; and the one who said that Grace after Meals is three and four blessings holds that the blessing: Who is good and does good, is required by Torah law.

讗诪专 专讘 讬讜住祝 转讚注 讚讛讟讜讘 讜讛诪讟讬讘 诇讗讜 讚讗讜专讬讬转讗 砖讛专讬 驻讜注诇讬诐 注讜拽专讬诐 讗讜转讛

With regard to the matter of the blessing: Who is good and does good, Rav Yosef said: Know that the blessing: Who is good and does good, is not required by Torah law, as laborers who recite Grace after Meals at work eliminate it. If it can be eliminated, it could not be a Torah obligation.

讗诪专 专讘 讬爪讞拽 讘专 砖诪讜讗诇 讘专 诪专转讗 诪砖诪讬讛 讚专讘 转讚注 讚讛讟讜讘 讜讛诪讟讬讘 诇讗讜 讚讗讜专讬讬转讗 砖讛专讬 驻讜转讞 讘讛 讘讘专讜讱 讜讗讬谉 讞讜转诐 讘讛 讘讘专讜讱 讻讚转谞讬讗 讻诇 讛讘专讻讜转 讻讜诇谉 驻讜转讞 讘讛谉 讘讘专讜讱 讜讞讜转诐 讘讛谉 讘讘专讜讱 讞讜抓 诪讘专讻转 讛驻讬专讜转 讜讘专讻转 讛诪爪讜讜转 讜讘专讻讛 讛住诪讜讻讛 诇讞讘专转讛 讜讘专讻讛 讗讞专讜谞讛 砖讘拽专讬讗转 砖诪注 讬砖 诪讛谉 砖驻讜转讞 讘讛谉 讘讘专讜讱 讜讗讬谉 讞讜转诐 讘讘专讜讱

Rav Yitz岣k bar Shmuel bar Marta said another proof in the name of Rav: Know that the blessing: Who is good and does good, is not required by Torah law, as one who recites it begins to recite it with: Blessed, but does not conclude reciting it with: Blessed. This is the formula in all comparable blessings, as it was taught in a baraita: All blessings, one begins to recite them with: Blessed, and concludes reciting them with: Blessed, except for blessings over fruit, blessings over mitzvot, a blessing that is juxtaposed to another blessing, and the final blessing after Shema. There are among these blessings those that one who recites it begins to recite it with: Blessed, but does not conclude reciting it with: Blessed;

讜讬砖 诪讛谉 砖讞讜转诐 讘讛谉 讘讘专讜讱 讜讗讬谉 驻讜转讞 讘讘专讜讱 讜讛讟讜讘 讜讛诪讟讬讘 驻讜转讞 讘讘专讜讱 讜讗讬谉 讞讜转诐 讘讘专讜讱 诪讻诇诇 讚讘专讻讛 讘驻谞讬 注爪诪讛 讛讬讗

and there are among these blessings that one who recites it concludes reciting it with: Blessed, but does not begin reciting it with: Blessed. The blessing: Who is good and does good, one who recites it begins to recite it with: Blessed, but does not conclude reciting it with: Blessed. This proves by inference that it is an independent blessing.

讜讗诪专 专讘 谞讞诪谉 讘专 讬爪讞拽 转讚注 讚讛讟讜讘 讜讛诪讟讬讘 诇讗讜 讚讗讜专讬讬转讗 砖讛专讬 注讜拽专讬谉 讗讜转讛 讘讘讬转 讛讗讘诇 讻讚转谞讬讗 诪讛 讛诐 讗讜诪专讬诐 讘讘讬转 讛讗讘诇 讘专讜讱 讛讟讜讘 讜讛诪讟讬讘 专讘讬 注拽讬讘讗 讗讜诪专 讘专讜讱 讚讬讬谉 讛讗诪转

And Rav Na岣an bar Yitz岣k said: Know that the blessing: Who is good and does good, is not required by Torah law, as it is eliminated in the house of the mourner, as it was taught in a baraita according to the opinion of Rabbi Akiva: What do they say in the house of the mourner? Blessed鈥ho is good and does good. Rabbi Akiva says: Blessed鈥he true Judge.

讛讟讜讘 讜讛诪讟讬讘 讗讬谉 讚讬讬谉 讗诪转 诇讗 讗诇讗 讗讬诪讗 讗祝 讛讟讜讘 讜讛诪讟讬讘

The first opinion in the baraita is challenged: Who is good and does good, yes, it is recited in the house of the mourner, the true Judge, no, it is not recited? Rather, say: Who is good and does good, is recited as well.

诪专 讝讜讟专讗 讗讬拽诇注 诇讘讬 专讘 讗砖讬 讗讬转专注 讘讬讛 诪诇转讗 驻转讞 讜讘专讬讱 讛讟讜讘 讜讛诪讟讬讘 讗诇 讗诪转 讚讬讬谉 讗诪转 砖讜驻讟 讘爪讚拽 诇讜拽讞 讘诪砖驻讟 讜砖诇讬讟 讘注讜诇诪讜 诇注砖讜转 讘讜 讻专爪讜谞讜 讻讬 讻诇 讚专讻讬讜 诪砖驻讟 砖讛讻诇 砖诇讜 讜讗谞讞谞讜 注诪讜 讜注讘讚讬讜 讜讘讻诇 讗谞讞谞讜 讞讬讬讘讬诐 诇讛讜讚讜转 诇讜 讜诇讘专讻讜 讙讜讚专 驻专爪讜转 讘讬砖专讗诇 讛讜讗 讬讙讚讜专 讗转 讛驻专爪讛 讛讝讗转 讘讬砖专讗诇 诇讞讬讬诐

The Gemara recounts: Mar Zutra happened to come to Rav Ashi鈥檚 home when an incident of mourning befell Rav Ashi. Mar Zutra began a combined blessing and recited:
Who is good and does good,
God of truth, the true Judge,
Who judges with righteousness, takes away with justice,
and is the ruler of His world to do in it as He wills,
as all His ways are just,
that all is His and we are His people and His servants,
and in everything we are obligated to thank Him and bless Him,
Who repairs the breaches in Israel,
He will repair this breach in Israel for life.
Mar Zutra included both: Who is good and does good, as well as mourning and acceptance of divine justice.

诇讛讬讻谉 讛讜讗 讞讜讝专 专讘 讝讘讬讚 诪砖诪讬讛 讚讗讘讬讬 讗诪专 讞讜讝专 诇专讗砖 讜专讘谞谉 讗诪专讬 诇诪拽讜诐 砖驻住拽 讜讛诇讻转讗 诇诪拽讜诐 砖驻住拽:

Returning to the original topic, it was mentioned above that one interrupts his meal to form a zimmun with two others who finished eating. The question is raised: To where does he return when he finishes his own meal and must begin to recite his own Grace after Meals? Rav Zevid in the name of Abaye said: He returns to the beginning and recites the entire Grace after Meals. And the Rabbis say: He returns to the place that he stopped. And the halakha is: He returns to the place that he stopped, i.e., to the beginning of the second blessing.

讗诪专 诇讬讛 专讬砖 讙诇讜转讗 诇专讘 砖砖转 讗祝 注诇 讙讘 讚专讘谞谉 拽砖讬砖讬 讗转讜谉 驻专住讗讬 讘爪专讻讬 住注讜讚讛 讘拽讬讗讬 诪讬谞讬讬讻讜 讘讝诪谉 砖讛谉 砖转讬 诪讟讜转 讙讚讜诇 诪住讘 讘专讗砖 讜砖谞讬 诇讜 诇诪注诇讛 讛讬诪谞讜 讜讘讝诪谉 砖讛诐 砖诇砖 讙讚讜诇 诪住讘 讘讗诪爪注 砖谞讬 诇讜 诇诪注诇讛 讛讬诪谞讜 砖诇讬砖讬 诇讜 诇诪讟讛 讛讬诪谞讜

On the topic of meals, the Gemara relates the following: The Exilarch said to Rav Sheshet: Although you are elderly Sages, the Persians are more expert than you with regard to the required etiquette at meals. The Persian custom is that when there are two divans on which they would recline, the greater of the two people reclines first and the person second to him in importance reclines on the divan above him, alongside his head. When there are three divans, the greatest of the three reclines on the middle divan, the one second to him in importance reclines on the divan above him, and the one third to him in importance reclines on the divan below the greatest of the three.

讗诪专 诇讬讛 讜讻讬 讘注讬 讗讬砖转注讜讬讬 讘讛讚讬讛 诪转专讬抓 转专讜爪讬 讜讬转讬讘 讜诪砖转注讬 讘讛讚讬讛 讗诪专 诇讬讛 砖讗谞讬 驻专住讗讬 讚诪讞讜讬 诇讬讛 讘诪讞讜讙

Rav Sheshet said to the Exilarch that the custom is flawed. If the greater wishes to speak with the one second to him in importance who is reclining above his head, he must straighten up and sit and only then will he be able to speak to him. The Exilarch answered: The Persians are different, as they signal and communicate with hand gestures, especially during mealtimes, so there is no need to sit up.

诪讬诐 专讗砖讜谞讬诐 诪讛讬讻谉 诪转讞讬诇讬谉 讗诪专 诇讬讛 诪谉 讛讙讚讜诇

Rav Sheshet asked the Exilarch about the Persian practice with regard to the first waters. When washing hands before the meal, from where do they begin? The Exilarch said to him: They begin from the greatest.

讬砖讘 讙讚讜诇 讜讬砖诪讜专 讬讚讬讜 注讚 砖谞讜讟诇讬谉 讻讜诇谉 讗诪专 诇讬讛 诇讗诇转专 诪讬讬转讜 转讻讗 拽诪讬讛

Rav Sheshet asked: If that is so, should the greatest person present sit and keep his hands clean and wait until everyone has washed so that they may all be served? The Exilarch said to him: They bring him his table [takka] immediately, as the custom was that each person ate at his own private table, and they brought the table before the greatest person present immediately after he washed so that he need not wait for the others.

诪讬诐 讗讞专讜谞讬诐 诪讛讬讻谉 诪转讞讬诇讬谉 讗诪专 诇讬讛 诪谉 讛拽讟谉

Rav Sheshet asked the Exilarch about the Persian practice with regard to the final waters. When washing hands after the meal, from where do they begin? The Exilarch said to him: They begin with the least significant of the attendees.

讜讙讚讜诇 讬转讬讘 讜讬讚讬讜 诪讝讜讛诪讜转 注讚 砖谞讜讟诇讬谉 讻讜诇谉 讗诪专 诇讬讛 诇讗 诪住诇拽讬 转讻讗 诪拽诪讬讛 注讚 讚谞讬诪讟讬 诪讬讗 诇讙讘讬讛

Rav Sheshet said: If so, should the greatest person present sit with dirty hands until everyone washes his hands? The Exilarch said to him: They do not remove the table from before him until the water reaches him; he can continue eating while the others are washing.

讗诪专 专讘 砖砖转 讗谞讗 诪转谞讬转讗 讬讚注谞讗 讚转谞讬讗 讻讬爪讚 住讚专 讛住讘讛 讘讝诪谉 砖讛谉 砖转讬 诪讟讜转 讙讚讜诇 诪住讘 讘专讗砖 讜砖谞讬 诇讜 诇诪讟讛 讛讬诪谞讜 讘讝诪谉 砖讛谉 砖诇砖 诪讟讜转 讙讚讜诇 诪住讘 讘专讗砖 砖谞讬 诇讜 诇诪注诇讛 讛讬诪谞讜 砖诇讬砖讬 诇讜 诇诪讟讛 讛讬诪谞讜 诪讬诐 讛专讗砖讜谞讬诐 诪转讞讬诇讬谉 诪谉 讛讙讚讜诇 诪讬诐 讗讞专讜谞讬诐 讘讝诪谉 砖讛诐 讞诪砖讛 诪转讞讬诇讬谉 诪谉 讛讙讚讜诇 讜讘讝诪谉 砖讛诐 诪讗讛 诪转讞讬诇讬谉 诪谉 讛拽讟谉 注讚 砖诪讙讬注讬诐 讗爪诇 讞诪砖讬 讜讞讜讝专讬谉 讜诪转讞讬诇讬谉 诪谉 讛讙讚讜诇 讜诇诪拽讜诐 砖诪讬诐 讗讞专讜谞讬诐 讞讜讝专讬谉 诇砖诐 讘专讻讛 讞讜讝专转

Rav Sheshet said: In terms of conduct at a meal, I know a baraita, as it was taught: What is the order of reclining? When there are two divans on which they would recline, the greater of the two people reclines first, and the person second to him in importance reclines on the divan below him. When there are three divans, the greatest of the three reclines first, on the middle divan, the one second to him in importance reclines on the divan above him, and the one third to him in importance reclines on the divan below the greatest of the three. The first waters before the meal, they begin with the greatest person present. The final waters; when they are five people, they begin with the greatest person present. When they are more than that, even one hundred, they begin the final waters with the least significant of the attendees until they reach the five greatest present, at which point they return and begin with the greatest present. And to the place that the final waters return the blessing also reverts, and the greatest present, the first among the final five to wash his hands, recites Grace after Meals.

诪住讬讬注 诇讬讛 诇专讘 讚讗诪专 专讘讬 讞讬讬讗 讘专 讗砖讬 讗诪专 专讘 讻诇 讛谞讜讟诇 讬讚讬讜 讘讗讞专讜谞讛 转讞诇讛 讛讜讗 诪讝讜诪谉 诇讘专讻讛

This baraita supports the opinion of Rav, as Rabbi 岣yya bar Ashi said that Rav said: Whoever washes his hands first at the end of the meal is designated to recite the blessing of Grace after Meals.

专讘 讜专讘讬 讞讬讬讗 讛讜讜 讬转讘讬 讘住注讜讚转讗 拽诪讬讛 讚专讘讬 讗诪专 诇讬讛 专讘讬 诇专讘 拽讜诐 诪砖讬 讬讚讱 讞讝讬讬讛 讚拽讗 诪专转转 讗诪专 诇讬讛 讘专 驻讞转讬 注讬讬谉 讘讘专讻转 诪讝讜谞讗 拽讗诪专 诇讱

Similarly, the Gemara relates: Rav and Rabbi 岣yya were seated at a meal before Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi. Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi said to Rav: Stand, wash your hands. Rabbi 岣yya saw that Rav was trembling in fear that perhaps he had conducted himself improperly during the meal and therefore had to wash his hands. Rabbi 岣yya said to him: Son of noblemen, he is saying to you to review Grace after Meals, as the first to wash his hands after the meal is honored with leading the blessing.

转谞讜 专讘谞谉 讗讬谉 诪讻讘讚讬谉 诇讗 讘讚专讻讬诐 讜诇讗 讘讙砖专讬诐

The Gemara continues to discuss the topic of washing after a meal. The Sages taught: Although it is customary to defer to greater people, nevertheless, one shows deference neither on roads nor on bridges,

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Berakhot 46

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Berakhot 46

专讘讬 讝讬专讗 讞诇砖 注诇 诇讙讘讬讛 专讘讬 讗讘讛讜 拽讘讬诇 注诇讬讛 讗讬 诪转驻讞 拽讟讬谞讗 讞专讬讱 砖拽讬 注讘讬讚谞讗 讬讜诪讗 讟讘讗 诇专讘谞谉 讗转驻讞 注讘讚 住注讜讚转讗 诇讻讜诇讛讜 专讘谞谉 讻讬 诪讟讗 诇诪砖专讬 讗诪专 诇讬讛 诇专讘讬 讝讬专讗 诇讬砖专讬 诇谉 诪专 讗诪专 诇讬讛 诇讗 住讘专 诇讛 诪专 诇讛讗 讚专讘讬 讬讜讞谞谉 讚讗诪专 讘注诇 讛讘讬转 讘讜爪注 砖专讗 诇讛讜

The Gemara recounts: Rabbi Zeira took ill. Rabbi Abbahu went to visit him and resolved: If the little man with the scorched legs, a nickname for Rabbi Zeira, is cured, I will make a festival, a feast, for the Sages. Rabbi Zeira was cured and Rabbi Abbahu made a feast for all the Sages. When it came time to break bread, Rabbi Abbahu said to Rabbi Zeira: Master, please break bread for us. Rabbi Zeira said to him: Doesn鈥檛 the Master hold in accordance with that halakha of Rabbi Yo岣nan, who said: The host breaks bread? Rabbi Abbahu broke bread for them.

讻讬 诪讟讗 诇讘专讜讻讬 讗诪专 诇讬讛 谞讘专讬讱 诇谉 诪专 讗诪专 诇讬讛 诇讗 住讘专 诇讛 诪专 诇讛讗 讚专讘 讛讜谞讗 讚诪谉 讘讘诇 讚讗诪专 讘讜爪注 诪讘专讱

When the time came to recite the blessing, Rabbi Abbahu said to Rabbi Zeira: Master, recite Grace after Meals on our behalf. Rabbi Zeira said to him: Doesn鈥檛 the Master hold in accordance with that halakha of Rabbi Huna of Babylonia, who said: He who breaks bread recites Grace after Meals?

讜讗讬讛讜 讻诪讗谉 住讘讬专讗 诇讬讛

The Gemara asks: And in accordance with whose opinion does Rabbi Abbahu hold that he asked Rabbi Zeira to recite Grace after Meals?

讻讬 讛讗 讚讗诪专 专讘讬 讬讜讞谞谉 诪砖讜诐 专讘讬 砖诪注讜谉 讘谉 讬讜讞讬 讘注诇 讛讘讬转 讘讜爪注 讜讗讜专讞 诪讘专讱 讘注诇 讛讘讬转 讘讜爪注 讻讚讬 砖讬讘爪注 讘注讬谉 讬驻讛 讜讗讜专讞 诪讘专讱 讻讚讬 砖讬讘专讱 讘注诇 讛讘讬转

The Gemara answers: Rabbi Abbahu holds in accordance with that halakha that Rabbi Yo岣nan said in the name of Rabbi Shimon ben Yo岣i: The host breaks bread and a guest recites Grace after Meals. The host breaks bread so that he will break bread generously, whereas a guest might be embarrassed to break a large piece for himself and other guests; and the guest recites Grace after Meals so that he may bless the host in the course of reciting Grace after Meals, as the Gemara proceeds to explain.

诪讗讬 诪讘专讱 讬讛讬 专爪讜谉 砖诇讗 讬讘讜砖 讘注诇 讛讘讬转 讘注讜诇诐 讛讝讛 讜诇讗 讬讻诇诐 诇注讜诇诐 讛讘讗

What is the formula of the blessing with which the guest blesses his host?
May it be Your will that the master of the house shall not suffer shame in this world, nor humiliation in the World-to-Come.

讜专讘讬 诪讜住讬祝 讘讛 讚讘专讬诐 讜讬爪诇讞 诪讗讚 讘讻诇 谞讻住讬讜 讜讬讛讬讜 谞讻住讬讜 讜谞讻住讬谞讜 诪讜爪诇讞讬诐 讜拽专讜讘讬诐 诇注讬专 讜讗诇 讬砖诇讜讟 砖讟谉 诇讗 讘诪注砖讬 讬讚讬讜 讜诇讗 讘诪注砖讬 讬讚讬谞讜 讜讗诇 讬讝讚拽专 诇讗 诇驻谞讬讜 讜诇讗 诇驻谞讬谞讜 砖讜诐 讚讘专 讛专讛讜专 讞讟讗 讜注讘讬专讛 讜注讜谉 诪注转讛 讜注讚 注讜诇诐:

Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi added to it elements pertaining to material success:
And may he be very successful with all his possessions,
and may his possessions and our possessions be successful and near the city,
and may Satan control neither his deeds nor our deeds,
and may no thought of sin, iniquity, or transgression stand before him or before us
from now and for evermore.

注讚 讛讬讻谉 讘专讻转 讛讝诪讜谉

The Gemara asks: Until where does the zimmun blessing extend?

专讘 谞讞诪谉 讗诪专 注讚 谞讘专讱 讜专讘 砖砖转 讗诪专 注讚 讛讝谉

Rav Na岣an says: The blessing extends only until: Let us bless. Rav Sheshet says that the zimmun blessing extends until the end of the first blessing of Grace after Meals: Who feeds all.

谞讬诪讗 讻转谞讗讬 讚转谞讬 讞讚讗 讘专讻转 讛诪讝讜谉 砖谞讬诐 讜砖诇砖讛 讜转谞讬讗 讗讬讚讱 砖诇砖讛 讜讗专讘注讛 住讘专讜讛 讚讻讜诇讬 注诇诪讗 讛讟讜讘 讜讛诪讟讬讘 诇讗讜 讚讗讜专讬讬转讗 讛讬讗 诪讗讬 诇讗讜 讘讛讗 拽诪讬驻诇讙讬 诪讗谉 讚讗诪专 砖转讬诐 讜砖诇砖 拽住讘专 注讚 讛讝谉 讜诪讗谉 讚讗诪专 砖诇砖 讜讗专讘注 拽住讘专 注讚 谞讘专讱

The Gemara proposes: Let us say that this amoraic dispute is parallel to a dispute between the tanna鈥檌m. As one baraita taught: Grace after Meals is two and three blessings, and another baraita taught: Grace after Meals is three and four blessings. In attempting to understand these conflicting baraitot, the Sages assumed that everyone agrees that the blessing: Who is good and does good, the fourth blessing of Grace after Meals, is not required by Torah law. What then? Is it not that they disagree about this: The one who said that Grace after Meals is two and three blessings holds that the zimmun blessing extends until the end of the blessing: Who feeds all? If there is a zimmun, three blessings are recited; if there is no zimmun, only two blessings are recited, since the blessing: Who feeds all, is not recited. And the one who said that Grace after Meals is three and four blessings holds that the zimmun blessing extends only until: Let us bless, and includes no part of Grace after Meals itself. If there is a zimmun, four blessings are recited, the three blessing of Grace after Meals plus the blessing of the zimmun, while if there is not, only three blessings are recited.

诇讗 专讘 谞讞诪谉 诪转专抓 诇讟注诪讬讛 讜专讘 砖砖转 诪转专抓 诇讟注诪讬讛

This explanation distinguishing between the baraitot is rejected: No; Rav Na岣an explains in accordance with his reasoning and Rav Sheshet explains in accordance with his reasoning.

专讘 谞讞诪谉 诪转专抓 诇讟注诪讬讛 讚讻讜诇讬 注诇诪讗 注讚 谞讘专讱 诪讗谉 讚讗诪专 砖诇砖 讜讗专讘注 砖驻讬专 讜诪讗谉 讚讗诪专 砖转讬诐 讜砖诇砖 讗诪专 诇讱 讛讻讗 讘讘专讻转 驻讜注诇讬诐 注住拽讬谞谉 讚讗诪专 诪专 驻讜转讞 讘讛讝谉 讜讻讜诇诇 讘讜谞讛 讬专讜砖诇讬诐 讘讘专讻转 讛讗专抓

Rav Na岣an explains in accordance with his reasoning; everyone agrees that the zimmun blessing extends only until Let us bless. According to the one who said that Grace after Meals is three and four blessings, this works out well. And the one who said that Grace after Meals is two and three blessings could have said to you: Here we are dealing with the blessing recited by laborers, as the Master said that when a laborer is working, he is permitted to abridge Grace after Meals, and he begins with the blessing: Who feeds all, and includes the third blessing: Who builds Jerusalem, in the context of the second blessing, the blessing of the land.

专讘 砖砖转 诪转专抓 诇讟注诪讬讛 讚讻讜诇讬 注诇诪讗 注讚 讛讝谉 诪讗谉 讚讗诪专 砖转讬诐 讜砖诇砖 砖驻讬专 讜诪讗谉 讚讗诪专 砖诇砖 讜讗专讘注 拽住讘专 讛讟讜讘 讜讛诪讟讬讘 讚讗讜专讬讬转讗 讛讬讗

Rav Sheshet explains in accordance with his reasoning; everyone agrees that the zimmun blessing extends until the end of the blessing: Who feeds all. According to the one who said that Grace after Meals is two and three blessings, this works out well; and the one who said that Grace after Meals is three and four blessings holds that the blessing: Who is good and does good, is required by Torah law.

讗诪专 专讘 讬讜住祝 转讚注 讚讛讟讜讘 讜讛诪讟讬讘 诇讗讜 讚讗讜专讬讬转讗 砖讛专讬 驻讜注诇讬诐 注讜拽专讬诐 讗讜转讛

With regard to the matter of the blessing: Who is good and does good, Rav Yosef said: Know that the blessing: Who is good and does good, is not required by Torah law, as laborers who recite Grace after Meals at work eliminate it. If it can be eliminated, it could not be a Torah obligation.

讗诪专 专讘 讬爪讞拽 讘专 砖诪讜讗诇 讘专 诪专转讗 诪砖诪讬讛 讚专讘 转讚注 讚讛讟讜讘 讜讛诪讟讬讘 诇讗讜 讚讗讜专讬讬转讗 砖讛专讬 驻讜转讞 讘讛 讘讘专讜讱 讜讗讬谉 讞讜转诐 讘讛 讘讘专讜讱 讻讚转谞讬讗 讻诇 讛讘专讻讜转 讻讜诇谉 驻讜转讞 讘讛谉 讘讘专讜讱 讜讞讜转诐 讘讛谉 讘讘专讜讱 讞讜抓 诪讘专讻转 讛驻讬专讜转 讜讘专讻转 讛诪爪讜讜转 讜讘专讻讛 讛住诪讜讻讛 诇讞讘专转讛 讜讘专讻讛 讗讞专讜谞讛 砖讘拽专讬讗转 砖诪注 讬砖 诪讛谉 砖驻讜转讞 讘讛谉 讘讘专讜讱 讜讗讬谉 讞讜转诐 讘讘专讜讱

Rav Yitz岣k bar Shmuel bar Marta said another proof in the name of Rav: Know that the blessing: Who is good and does good, is not required by Torah law, as one who recites it begins to recite it with: Blessed, but does not conclude reciting it with: Blessed. This is the formula in all comparable blessings, as it was taught in a baraita: All blessings, one begins to recite them with: Blessed, and concludes reciting them with: Blessed, except for blessings over fruit, blessings over mitzvot, a blessing that is juxtaposed to another blessing, and the final blessing after Shema. There are among these blessings those that one who recites it begins to recite it with: Blessed, but does not conclude reciting it with: Blessed;

讜讬砖 诪讛谉 砖讞讜转诐 讘讛谉 讘讘专讜讱 讜讗讬谉 驻讜转讞 讘讘专讜讱 讜讛讟讜讘 讜讛诪讟讬讘 驻讜转讞 讘讘专讜讱 讜讗讬谉 讞讜转诐 讘讘专讜讱 诪讻诇诇 讚讘专讻讛 讘驻谞讬 注爪诪讛 讛讬讗

and there are among these blessings that one who recites it concludes reciting it with: Blessed, but does not begin reciting it with: Blessed. The blessing: Who is good and does good, one who recites it begins to recite it with: Blessed, but does not conclude reciting it with: Blessed. This proves by inference that it is an independent blessing.

讜讗诪专 专讘 谞讞诪谉 讘专 讬爪讞拽 转讚注 讚讛讟讜讘 讜讛诪讟讬讘 诇讗讜 讚讗讜专讬讬转讗 砖讛专讬 注讜拽专讬谉 讗讜转讛 讘讘讬转 讛讗讘诇 讻讚转谞讬讗 诪讛 讛诐 讗讜诪专讬诐 讘讘讬转 讛讗讘诇 讘专讜讱 讛讟讜讘 讜讛诪讟讬讘 专讘讬 注拽讬讘讗 讗讜诪专 讘专讜讱 讚讬讬谉 讛讗诪转

And Rav Na岣an bar Yitz岣k said: Know that the blessing: Who is good and does good, is not required by Torah law, as it is eliminated in the house of the mourner, as it was taught in a baraita according to the opinion of Rabbi Akiva: What do they say in the house of the mourner? Blessed鈥ho is good and does good. Rabbi Akiva says: Blessed鈥he true Judge.

讛讟讜讘 讜讛诪讟讬讘 讗讬谉 讚讬讬谉 讗诪转 诇讗 讗诇讗 讗讬诪讗 讗祝 讛讟讜讘 讜讛诪讟讬讘

The first opinion in the baraita is challenged: Who is good and does good, yes, it is recited in the house of the mourner, the true Judge, no, it is not recited? Rather, say: Who is good and does good, is recited as well.

诪专 讝讜讟专讗 讗讬拽诇注 诇讘讬 专讘 讗砖讬 讗讬转专注 讘讬讛 诪诇转讗 驻转讞 讜讘专讬讱 讛讟讜讘 讜讛诪讟讬讘 讗诇 讗诪转 讚讬讬谉 讗诪转 砖讜驻讟 讘爪讚拽 诇讜拽讞 讘诪砖驻讟 讜砖诇讬讟 讘注讜诇诪讜 诇注砖讜转 讘讜 讻专爪讜谞讜 讻讬 讻诇 讚专讻讬讜 诪砖驻讟 砖讛讻诇 砖诇讜 讜讗谞讞谞讜 注诪讜 讜注讘讚讬讜 讜讘讻诇 讗谞讞谞讜 讞讬讬讘讬诐 诇讛讜讚讜转 诇讜 讜诇讘专讻讜 讙讜讚专 驻专爪讜转 讘讬砖专讗诇 讛讜讗 讬讙讚讜专 讗转 讛驻专爪讛 讛讝讗转 讘讬砖专讗诇 诇讞讬讬诐

The Gemara recounts: Mar Zutra happened to come to Rav Ashi鈥檚 home when an incident of mourning befell Rav Ashi. Mar Zutra began a combined blessing and recited:
Who is good and does good,
God of truth, the true Judge,
Who judges with righteousness, takes away with justice,
and is the ruler of His world to do in it as He wills,
as all His ways are just,
that all is His and we are His people and His servants,
and in everything we are obligated to thank Him and bless Him,
Who repairs the breaches in Israel,
He will repair this breach in Israel for life.
Mar Zutra included both: Who is good and does good, as well as mourning and acceptance of divine justice.

诇讛讬讻谉 讛讜讗 讞讜讝专 专讘 讝讘讬讚 诪砖诪讬讛 讚讗讘讬讬 讗诪专 讞讜讝专 诇专讗砖 讜专讘谞谉 讗诪专讬 诇诪拽讜诐 砖驻住拽 讜讛诇讻转讗 诇诪拽讜诐 砖驻住拽:

Returning to the original topic, it was mentioned above that one interrupts his meal to form a zimmun with two others who finished eating. The question is raised: To where does he return when he finishes his own meal and must begin to recite his own Grace after Meals? Rav Zevid in the name of Abaye said: He returns to the beginning and recites the entire Grace after Meals. And the Rabbis say: He returns to the place that he stopped. And the halakha is: He returns to the place that he stopped, i.e., to the beginning of the second blessing.

讗诪专 诇讬讛 专讬砖 讙诇讜转讗 诇专讘 砖砖转 讗祝 注诇 讙讘 讚专讘谞谉 拽砖讬砖讬 讗转讜谉 驻专住讗讬 讘爪专讻讬 住注讜讚讛 讘拽讬讗讬 诪讬谞讬讬讻讜 讘讝诪谉 砖讛谉 砖转讬 诪讟讜转 讙讚讜诇 诪住讘 讘专讗砖 讜砖谞讬 诇讜 诇诪注诇讛 讛讬诪谞讜 讜讘讝诪谉 砖讛诐 砖诇砖 讙讚讜诇 诪住讘 讘讗诪爪注 砖谞讬 诇讜 诇诪注诇讛 讛讬诪谞讜 砖诇讬砖讬 诇讜 诇诪讟讛 讛讬诪谞讜

On the topic of meals, the Gemara relates the following: The Exilarch said to Rav Sheshet: Although you are elderly Sages, the Persians are more expert than you with regard to the required etiquette at meals. The Persian custom is that when there are two divans on which they would recline, the greater of the two people reclines first and the person second to him in importance reclines on the divan above him, alongside his head. When there are three divans, the greatest of the three reclines on the middle divan, the one second to him in importance reclines on the divan above him, and the one third to him in importance reclines on the divan below the greatest of the three.

讗诪专 诇讬讛 讜讻讬 讘注讬 讗讬砖转注讜讬讬 讘讛讚讬讛 诪转专讬抓 转专讜爪讬 讜讬转讬讘 讜诪砖转注讬 讘讛讚讬讛 讗诪专 诇讬讛 砖讗谞讬 驻专住讗讬 讚诪讞讜讬 诇讬讛 讘诪讞讜讙

Rav Sheshet said to the Exilarch that the custom is flawed. If the greater wishes to speak with the one second to him in importance who is reclining above his head, he must straighten up and sit and only then will he be able to speak to him. The Exilarch answered: The Persians are different, as they signal and communicate with hand gestures, especially during mealtimes, so there is no need to sit up.

诪讬诐 专讗砖讜谞讬诐 诪讛讬讻谉 诪转讞讬诇讬谉 讗诪专 诇讬讛 诪谉 讛讙讚讜诇

Rav Sheshet asked the Exilarch about the Persian practice with regard to the first waters. When washing hands before the meal, from where do they begin? The Exilarch said to him: They begin from the greatest.

讬砖讘 讙讚讜诇 讜讬砖诪讜专 讬讚讬讜 注讚 砖谞讜讟诇讬谉 讻讜诇谉 讗诪专 诇讬讛 诇讗诇转专 诪讬讬转讜 转讻讗 拽诪讬讛

Rav Sheshet asked: If that is so, should the greatest person present sit and keep his hands clean and wait until everyone has washed so that they may all be served? The Exilarch said to him: They bring him his table [takka] immediately, as the custom was that each person ate at his own private table, and they brought the table before the greatest person present immediately after he washed so that he need not wait for the others.

诪讬诐 讗讞专讜谞讬诐 诪讛讬讻谉 诪转讞讬诇讬谉 讗诪专 诇讬讛 诪谉 讛拽讟谉

Rav Sheshet asked the Exilarch about the Persian practice with regard to the final waters. When washing hands after the meal, from where do they begin? The Exilarch said to him: They begin with the least significant of the attendees.

讜讙讚讜诇 讬转讬讘 讜讬讚讬讜 诪讝讜讛诪讜转 注讚 砖谞讜讟诇讬谉 讻讜诇谉 讗诪专 诇讬讛 诇讗 诪住诇拽讬 转讻讗 诪拽诪讬讛 注讚 讚谞讬诪讟讬 诪讬讗 诇讙讘讬讛

Rav Sheshet said: If so, should the greatest person present sit with dirty hands until everyone washes his hands? The Exilarch said to him: They do not remove the table from before him until the water reaches him; he can continue eating while the others are washing.

讗诪专 专讘 砖砖转 讗谞讗 诪转谞讬转讗 讬讚注谞讗 讚转谞讬讗 讻讬爪讚 住讚专 讛住讘讛 讘讝诪谉 砖讛谉 砖转讬 诪讟讜转 讙讚讜诇 诪住讘 讘专讗砖 讜砖谞讬 诇讜 诇诪讟讛 讛讬诪谞讜 讘讝诪谉 砖讛谉 砖诇砖 诪讟讜转 讙讚讜诇 诪住讘 讘专讗砖 砖谞讬 诇讜 诇诪注诇讛 讛讬诪谞讜 砖诇讬砖讬 诇讜 诇诪讟讛 讛讬诪谞讜 诪讬诐 讛专讗砖讜谞讬诐 诪转讞讬诇讬谉 诪谉 讛讙讚讜诇 诪讬诐 讗讞专讜谞讬诐 讘讝诪谉 砖讛诐 讞诪砖讛 诪转讞讬诇讬谉 诪谉 讛讙讚讜诇 讜讘讝诪谉 砖讛诐 诪讗讛 诪转讞讬诇讬谉 诪谉 讛拽讟谉 注讚 砖诪讙讬注讬诐 讗爪诇 讞诪砖讬 讜讞讜讝专讬谉 讜诪转讞讬诇讬谉 诪谉 讛讙讚讜诇 讜诇诪拽讜诐 砖诪讬诐 讗讞专讜谞讬诐 讞讜讝专讬谉 诇砖诐 讘专讻讛 讞讜讝专转

Rav Sheshet said: In terms of conduct at a meal, I know a baraita, as it was taught: What is the order of reclining? When there are two divans on which they would recline, the greater of the two people reclines first, and the person second to him in importance reclines on the divan below him. When there are three divans, the greatest of the three reclines first, on the middle divan, the one second to him in importance reclines on the divan above him, and the one third to him in importance reclines on the divan below the greatest of the three. The first waters before the meal, they begin with the greatest person present. The final waters; when they are five people, they begin with the greatest person present. When they are more than that, even one hundred, they begin the final waters with the least significant of the attendees until they reach the five greatest present, at which point they return and begin with the greatest present. And to the place that the final waters return the blessing also reverts, and the greatest present, the first among the final five to wash his hands, recites Grace after Meals.

诪住讬讬注 诇讬讛 诇专讘 讚讗诪专 专讘讬 讞讬讬讗 讘专 讗砖讬 讗诪专 专讘 讻诇 讛谞讜讟诇 讬讚讬讜 讘讗讞专讜谞讛 转讞诇讛 讛讜讗 诪讝讜诪谉 诇讘专讻讛

This baraita supports the opinion of Rav, as Rabbi 岣yya bar Ashi said that Rav said: Whoever washes his hands first at the end of the meal is designated to recite the blessing of Grace after Meals.

专讘 讜专讘讬 讞讬讬讗 讛讜讜 讬转讘讬 讘住注讜讚转讗 拽诪讬讛 讚专讘讬 讗诪专 诇讬讛 专讘讬 诇专讘 拽讜诐 诪砖讬 讬讚讱 讞讝讬讬讛 讚拽讗 诪专转转 讗诪专 诇讬讛 讘专 驻讞转讬 注讬讬谉 讘讘专讻转 诪讝讜谞讗 拽讗诪专 诇讱

Similarly, the Gemara relates: Rav and Rabbi 岣yya were seated at a meal before Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi. Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi said to Rav: Stand, wash your hands. Rabbi 岣yya saw that Rav was trembling in fear that perhaps he had conducted himself improperly during the meal and therefore had to wash his hands. Rabbi 岣yya said to him: Son of noblemen, he is saying to you to review Grace after Meals, as the first to wash his hands after the meal is honored with leading the blessing.

转谞讜 专讘谞谉 讗讬谉 诪讻讘讚讬谉 诇讗 讘讚专讻讬诐 讜诇讗 讘讙砖专讬诐

The Gemara continues to discuss the topic of washing after a meal. The Sages taught: Although it is customary to defer to greater people, nevertheless, one shows deference neither on roads nor on bridges,

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