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January 18, 2022 | 讟状讝 讘砖讘讟 转砖驻状讘 | TODAY'S DAF: Moed Katan 6

Today's Daf Yomi

February 20, 2020 | 讻状讛 讘砖讘讟 转砖状驻

Berakhot 48

At what age/stage can a minor join the zimun? Can you join a zimun if you only ate vegetables? If so, how many of the participants can be those who only ate vegetables (in a case where we have ten and can add God’s name)? A story is told of King Yannai who after having killed all the rabbis finds one rabbi still alive who can lead the zimun so he summons him, Shimon ben Shetach. However, he doesn’t offer him food so how can he lead the zimun? Is there a difference between the foods one needs to eat to allow one to join a zimun and leading a zimun. What are the blessings of birkhat hamazon? Is the fourth blessing inherently different from the others? Was it instituted by the rabbis? If so, why? From where is it derived that birkhat hamazon is from the Torah?

转讜讻谉 讝讛 转讜专讙诐 讙诐 诇: 注讘专讬转

诇讗转讜讬讬 拽讟谉 驻讜专讞

to include a mature minor? Explain the baraita as follows: A minor who grew two hairs is included in a zimmun, and we are not exacting with regard to a minor to ascertain whether or not he has reached the age of majority.

讜诇讬转 讛诇讻转讗 讻讻诇 讛谞讬 砖诪注转转讗 讗诇讗 讻讬 讛讗 讚讗诪专 专讘 谞讞诪谉 拽讟谉 讛讬讜讚注 诇诪讬 诪讘专讻讬谉 诪讝诪谞讬谉 注诇讬讜

The Gemara concludes: The halakha is not in accordance with all of these statements. Rather, the halakha is in accordance with this statement that Rav Na岣an said: A minor who knows to Whom one recites a blessing is included in a zimmun.

讗讘讬讬 讜专讘讗 讛讜讜 讬转讘讬 拽诪讬讛 讚专讘讛 讗诪专 诇讛讜 专讘讛 诇诪讬 诪讘专讻讬谉 讗诪专讬 诇讬讛 诇专讞诪谞讗 讜专讞诪谞讗 讛讬讻讗 讬转讬讘 专讘讗 讗讞讜讬 诇砖诪讬 讟诇诇讗 讗讘讬讬 谞驻拽 诇讘专讗 讗讞讜讬 讻诇驻讬 砖诪讬讗 讗诪专 诇讛讜 专讘讛 转专讜讬讬讻讜 专讘谞谉 讛讜讬转讜 讛讬讬谞讜 讚讗诪专讬 讗讬谞砖讬 讘讜爪讬谉 讘讜爪讬谉 诪拽讟驻讬讛 讬讚讬注:

The Gemara relates that Abaye and Rava, when they were children, were seated before Rabba. Rabba said to them: To whom does one recite blessings? They said to him: To God, the All-Merciful. Rabba asked them: And where does the All-Merciful reside? Rava pointed to the ceiling. Abaye went outside and pointed toward the heaven. Rabba said to them: You will both become Sages. It is as the popular saying goes: A cucumber can be recognized from its blossoming stage. Similarly, a great person can be recognized even from a young age.

讗诪专 专讘 讬讛讜讚讛 讘专讬讛 讚专讘 砖诪讜讗诇 讘专 砖讬诇转 诪砖诪讬讛 讚专讘 转砖注讛 讗讻诇讜 讚讙谉 讜讗讞讚 讗讻诇 讬专拽 诪爪讟专驻讬谉 讗诪专 专讘讬 讝讬专讗 讘注讗讬 诪讬谞讬讛 诪专讘 讬讛讜讚讛 砖诪谞讛 诪讛讜 砖讘注讛 诪讛讜 讗诪专 诇讬 诇讗 砖谞讗 砖砖讛 讜讚讗讬 诇讗 诪讘注讬讗 诇讬 讗诪专 诇讬讛 专讘讬 讬专诪讬讛 砖驻讬专 注讘讚转 讚诇讗 讗讬讘注讬讗 诇讱 讛转诐 讟注诪讗 诪讗讬 诪砖讜诐 讚讗讬讻讗 专讜讘讗 讛讻讗 谞诪讬 讗讬讻讗 专讜讘讗 讜讗讬讛讜 住讘专 专讜讘讗 讚诪讬谞讻专 讘注讬谞谉

Rav Yehuda, son of Rav Shmuel bar Sheilat, said in the name of Rav: If nine ate grain and one ate vegetables, they join and form a zimmun of ten. Rabbi Zeira said: I raised a dilemma before Rav Yehuda: What is the ruling if eight ate grain and two ate vegetables? May they join together? What is the ruling if seven ate grain? He said to me: There is no difference. I certainly had no dilemma with regard to six, as it was clear to me that six are insufficient to warrant a zimmun. Rabbi Yirmeya said to him: You did well that you had no dilemma with regard to six, but for the opposite reason. There, in the case of seven or eight, what is the reason that they form a zimmun of ten? Because there is a majority of those dining who ate grain. Here, too, there is a majority. Rabbi Zeira, however, held: We require an obvious majority. Therefore, contrary to the opinion of Rabbi Yirmeya, it was clear to him that six who ate grain are insufficient to form a zimmun.

讬谞讗讬 诪诇讻讗 讜诪诇讻转讗 讻专讬讻讜 专讬驻转讗 讘讛讚讬 讛讚讚讬 讜诪讚拽讟诇 诇讛讜 诇专讘谞谉 诇讗 讛讜讛 诇讬讛 讗讬谞讬砖 诇讘专讜讻讬 诇讛讜 讗诪专 诇讛 诇讚讘讬转讛讜 诪讗谉 讬讛讬讘 诇谉 讙讘专讗 讚诪讘专讱 诇谉 讗诪专讛 诇讬讛 讗砖转讘注 诇讬 讚讗讬 诪讬讬转讬谞讗 诇讱 讙讘专讗 讚诇讗 诪爪注专转 诇讬讛 讗砖转讘注 诇讛 讗讬讬转讬转讬讛 诇砖诪注讜谉 讘谉 砖讟讞 讗讞讜讛 讗讜转讘讬讛 讘讬谉 讚讬讚讬讛 诇讚讬讚讛 讗诪专 诇讬讛 讞讝讬转 讻诪讛 讬拽专讗 注讘讚讬谞讗 诇讱 讗诪专 诇讬讛 诇讗讜 讗转 拽讗 诪讜拽专转 诇讬 讗诇讗 讗讜专讬讬转讗 讛讬讗 讚诪讜拽专讗 诇讬 讚讻转讬讘 住诇住诇讛 讜转专讜诪诪讱 转讻讘讚讱 讻讬 转讞讘拽谞讛 讗诪专 诇讛 拽讗 讞讝讬转 讚诇讗 诪拽讘诇 诪专讜转

The Gemara relates: King Yannai and the queen ate bread together. And since Yannai executed the Sages, there was no one to recite the Grace after Meals blessing on their behalf. He said to his wife: Who will provide us with a man to recite the blessing on our behalf? She said to him: Swear to me that if I bring you such a man, you will not harass him. He swore, and she brought her brother, Shimon ben Shata岣. She sat him between the King鈥檚 throne and hers. The King said to him: Do you see how much honor I am according you? He responded: It is not you who honors me; rather, the Torah honors me, as it is written: 鈥淓xtol her and she will exalt you; she will bring you to honor when you embrace her鈥 (Proverbs 4:8). Yannai said to his wife: You see that he does not accept authority.

讬讛讘讜 诇讬讛 讻住讗 诇讘专讜讻讬 讗诪专 讛讬讻讬 讗讘专讬讱 讘专讜讱 砖讗讻诇 讬谞讗讬 讜讞讘讬专讬讜 诪砖诇讜 砖转讬讬讛 诇讛讛讜讗 讻住讗 讬讛讘讜 诇讬讛 讻住讗 讗讞专讬谞讗 讜讘专讬讱

They gave Shimon ben Shata岣 a cup of wine over which to recite Grace after Meals. He said: How shall I recite the blessing? Shall I say: Blessed is He from Whom Yannai and his companions have eaten? I have not eaten anything. He drank that cup of wine. They gave him another cup, and he recited the Grace after Meals blessing. By drinking the first cup he joined the other diners and was therefore eligible to recite Grace after Meals on their behalf.

讗诪专 专讘讬 讗讘讗 讘专讬讛 讚专讘讬 讞讬讬讗 讘专 讗讘讗 (讗诪专 专讘讬 讬讜讞谞谉) 砖诪注讜谉 讘谉 砖讟讞 讚注讘讚 诇讙专诪讬讛 讛讜讗 讚注讘讚 讚讛讻讬 讗诪专 专讘讬 讞讬讬讗 讘专 讗讘讗 讗诪专 专讘讬 讬讜讞谞谉 诇注讜诇诐 讗讬谞讜 诪讜爪讬讗 讗转 讛专讘讬诐 讬讚讬 讞讜讘转谉 注讚 砖讬讗讻诇 讻讝讬转 讚讙谉

With regard to this story, Rabbi Abba, son of Rabbi 岣yya bar Abba, said (that Rabbi Yo岣nan said): That which Shimon ben Shata岣 did, reciting Grace after Meals on their behalf, he did on his own, and not in accordance with the accepted halakha, as Rabbi 岣yya bar Abba said that Rabbi Yo岣nan said as follows: One who recites Grace after Meals cannot fulfill the obligation of others to recite it until he eats an olive-bulk of grain.

诪讬转讬讘讬 专讘谉 砖诪注讜谉 讘谉 讙诪诇讬讗诇 讗讜诪专 注诇讛 讜讛住讬讘 注诪讛诐 讗驻讬诇讜 诇讗 讟讘诇 注诪讛诐 讗诇讗 讘爪讬专 讜诇讗 讗讻诇 注诪讛诐 讗诇讗 讙专讜讙专转 讗讞转 诪爪讟专祝

The Gemara raises an objection based on what was taught in a baraita: Rabban Shimon ben Gamliel says: One who entered and reclined together with those who were dining, even if he only dipped with them a small bit of food in spicy brine that was before them and ate with them only a single dry fig, he joins them. This baraita demonstrates that one need not necessarily eat grain to recite Grace after Meals on their behalf.

讗讬爪讟专讜驻讬 诪爪讟专祝 讗讘诇 诇讛讜爪讬讗 讗转 讛专讘讬诐 讬讚讬 讞讜讘转谉 注讚 砖讬讗讻诇 讻讝讬转 讚讙谉

The Gemara responds: Indeed, he joins them, but he cannot satisfy the obligation of the many unless he has eaten an olive-bulk of grain.

讗讬转诪专 谞诪讬 讗诪专 专讘 讞谞讗 讘专 讬讛讜讚讛 诪砖诪讬讛 讚专讘讗 讗驻讬诇讜 诇讗

Similarly, this halakha was also stated: Rav 岣na bar Yehuda said in the name of Rava: Even if he only

讟讘诇 注诪讛诐 讗诇讗 讘爪讬专 讜诇讗 讗讻诇 注诪讛诐 讗诇讗 讙专讜讙专转 讗讞转 诪爪讟专祝 讜诇讛讜爪讬讗 讗转 讛专讘讬诐 讬讚讬 讞讜讘转诐 讗讬谞讜 诪讜爪讬讗 注讚 砖讬讗讻诇 讻讝讬转 讚讙谉 讗诪专 专讘 讞谞讗 讘专 讬讛讜讚讛 诪砖诪讬讛 讚专讘讗 讛诇讻转讗 讗讻诇 注诇讛 讬专拽 讜砖转讛 讻讜住 砖诇 讬讬谉 诪爪讟专祝 诇讛讜爪讬讗 讗讬谞讜 诪讜爪讬讗 注讚 砖讬讗讻诇 讻讝讬转 讚讙谉

dipped with them a small bit of food in brine and ate with them only a single dry fig, he joins them. And to satisfy the obligation of the many, he does not satisfy their obligation until he eats an olive-bulk of grain. Rabbi 岣na bar Yehuda said in the name of Rava that the halakha is: If one ate a vegetable leaf and drank a cup of wine, he joins the diners. However, to satisfy the obligation of others, he does not satisfy their obligation until he eats an olive-bulk of grain.

讗诪专 专讘 谞讞诪谉 诪砖讛 转拽谉 诇讬砖专讗诇 讘专讻转 讛讝谉 讘砖注讛 砖讬专讚 诇讛诐 诪谉 讬讛讜砖注 转拽谉 诇讛诐 讘专讻转 讛讗专抓 讻讬讜谉 砖谞讻谞住讜 诇讗专抓 讚讜讚 讜砖诇诪讛 转拽谞讜 讘讜谞讛 讬专讜砖诇讬诐 讚讜讚 转拽谉 注诇 讬砖专讗诇 注诪讱 讜注诇 讬专讜砖诇讬诐 注讬专讱 讜砖诇诪讛 转拽谉 注诇 讛讘讬转 讛讙讚讜诇 讜讛拽讚讜砖 讛讟讜讘 讜讛诪讟讬讘 讘讬讘谞讛 转拽谞讜讛 讻谞讙讚 讛专讜讙讬 讘讬转专 讚讗诪专 专讘 诪转谞讗 讗讜转讜 讛讬讜诐 砖谞讬转谞讜 讛专讜讙讬 讘讬转专 诇拽讘讜专讛 转拽谞讜 讘讬讘谞讛 讛讟讜讘 讜讛诪讟讬讘 讛讟讜讘 砖诇讗 讛住专讬讞讜 讜讛诪讟讬讘 砖谞讬转谞讜 诇拽讘讜专讛:

With regard to the origins of the four blessings of Grace after Meals, Rav Na岣an said:
Moses instituted for Israel the first blessing of: Who feeds all, when the manna descended for them and they needed to thank God.
Joshua instituted the blessing of the land when they entered Eretz Yisrael.
David and Solomon instituted the third blessing: Who builds Jerusalem, in the following manner:
David instituted 鈥溾n Israel Your people and on Jerusalem Your city鈥︹ as he conquered the city,
and Solomon instituted 鈥溾n the great and Holy Temple鈥︹ as he was the one who built the Temple.
They instituted the blessing: Who is good and does good, at Yavne in reference to the slain Jews of the city of Beitar at the culmination of the bar Kokheva rebellion. They were ultimately brought to burial after a period during which Hadrian refused to permit their burial. As Rav Mattana said: On the same day that the slain of Beitar were brought to burial, they instituted the blessing: Who is good and does good, at Yavne. Who is good, thanking God that the corpses did not decompose while awaiting burial, and does good, thanking God that they were ultimately brought to burial.

转谞讜 专讘谞谉 住讚专 讘专讻转 讛诪讝讜谉 讻讱 讛讬讗 讘专讻讛 专讗砖讜谞讛 讘专讻转 讛讝谉 砖谞讬讛 讘专讻转 讛讗专抓 砖诇讬砖讬转 讘讜谞讛 讬专讜砖诇讬诐 专讘讬注讬转 讛讟讜讘 讜讛诪讟讬讘 讜讘砖讘转 诪转讞讬诇 讘谞讞诪讛 讜诪住讬讬诐 讘谞讞诪讛 讜讗讜诪专 拽讚讜砖转 讛讬讜诐 讘讗诪爪注 专讘讬 讗诇讬注讝专 讗讜诪专 专爪讛 诇讗讜诪专讛 讘谞讞诪讛 讗讜诪专讛 讘讘专讻转 讛讗专抓 讗讜诪专讛 讘讘专讻讛 砖转拽谞讜 讞讻诪讬诐 讘讬讘谞讛 讗讜诪专讛 讜讞讻诪讬诐 讗讜诪专讬诐 讗讬谞讜 讗讜诪专讛 讗诇讗 讘谞讞诪讛 讘诇讘讚

On the topic of the blessings of Grace after Meals, the Gemara adds that the Sages taught in a baraita that the order of Grace after Meals is as follows: The first blessing is the blessing of: Who feeds all; the second is the blessing of the land; the third is: Who builds Jerusalem; and the fourth is: Who is good and does good. On Shabbat one begins the third blessing with consolation and ends with consolation and mentions the sanctity of the day with mention of Shabbat in the middle. Rabbi Eliezer says: If one wishes to recite the supplement for the sanctity of Shabbat in the blessing of consolation: Who builds Jerusalem, he recites it there; in the blessing of the land, he recites it there; in the blessing instituted by the Sages at Yavne, Who is good and does good, he recites it there. And the Rabbis say: He may only recite the mention of the sanctity of Shabbat in the context of the blessing of consolation.

讞讻诪讬诐 讛讬讬谞讜 转谞讗 拽诪讗 讗讬讻讗 讘讬谞讬讬讛讜 讚讬注讘讚:

The Gemara remarks: The opinion of the Rabbis is identical with the opinion of the first tanna. Both opinions hold that the mention of Shabbat is in the third blessing. The Gemara responds: The difference between the opinion of the Rabbis and the opinion of the first tanna is with regard to after the fact. They both agree that ab initio, Shabbat should be mentioned in the third blessing. If, though, one inadvertently mentioned Shabbat in one of the other blessings mentioned by Rabbi Eliezer, the first tanna holds that he fulfilled his obligation and the Rabbis emphasize that it may only be recited in the blessing of consolation.

转谞讜 专讘谞谉 诪谞讬谉 诇讘专讻转 讛诪讝讜谉 诪谉 讛转讜专讛 砖谞讗诪专 讜讗讻诇转 讜砖讘注转 讜讘专讻转 讝讜 讘专讻转 讛讝谉 讗转 讛壮 讗诇讛讬讱 讝讜 讘专讻转 讛讝诪讜谉 注诇 讛讗专抓 讝讜 讘专讻转 讛讗专抓 讛讟讜讘讛 讝讜 讘讜谞讛 讬专讜砖诇讬诐 讜讻谉 讛讜讗 讗讜诪专 讛讛专 讛讟讜讘 讛讝讛 讜讛诇讘谞讜谉 讗砖专 谞转谉 诇讱 讝讜 讛讟讜讘 讜讛诪讟讬讘 讗讬谉 诇讬 讗诇讗 诇讗讞专讬讜 诇驻谞讬讜 诪谞讬谉 讗诪专转 拽诇 讜讞讜诪专 讻砖讛讜讗 砖讘注 诪讘专讱 讻砖讛讜讗 专注讘 诇讗 讻诇 砖讻谉

The Sages taught in a Tosefta: From where is it derived that Grace after Meals is from the Torah? As it is stated: 鈥淎nd you shall eat and be satisfied, and you shall bless the Lord, your God, for the good land that He has given you鈥 (Deuteronomy 8:10). The Gemara explains: And you shall bless, that is the blessing of: Who feeds all. The Lord, your God, that is the zimmun blessing in which God鈥檚 name is invoked. For the land, that is the blessing of the land; good, that is the blessing: Who builds Jerusalem, and it also says: 鈥淭his good mountain and Lebanon鈥 (Deuteronomy 3:25), which is interpreted homiletically as referring to Jerusalem and the Temple. That He gave you, that is: Who is good and does good. However, I only have a Torah source for blessings after eating, i.e., Grace after Meals. From where is it derived that one is obligated to recite blessings before eating? You said that it can be derived through an a fortiori inference: When one is satisfied, he is obligated to recite a blessing and thank God for food; when he is hungry, all the more so that he should recite a blessing to offer thanks for the food he will eat.

专讘讬 讗讜诪专 [讗讬谞讜 爪专讬讱] 讜讗讻诇转 讜砖讘注转 讜讘专讻转 讝讜 讘专讻转 讛讝谉 讗讘诇 讘专讻转 讛讝诪讜谉 诪讙讚诇讜 诇讛壮 讗转讬 谞驻拽讗 注诇 讛讗专抓 讝讜 讘专讻转 讛讗专抓 讛讟讜讘讛 讝讜 讘讜谞讛 讬专讜砖诇讬诐 讜讻谉 讛讜讗 讗讜诪专 讛讛专 讛讟讜讘 讛讝讛 讜讛诇讘谞讜谉 讛讟讜讘 讜讛诪讟讬讘 讘讬讘谞讛 转拽谞讜讛 讗讬谉 诇讬 讗诇讗 诇讗讞专讬讜 诇驻谞讬讜 诪谞讬谉 转诇诪讜讚 诇讜诪专 讗砖专 谞转谉 诇讱 诪砖谞转谉 诇讱

Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi says: It is not necessary to interpret the verse this way; rather, it should be understood in a slightly different manner, as follows: 鈥淎nd you shall eat and be satisfied, and you shall bless,鈥 that is the blessing of: Who feeds all; however, the zimmun blessing is derived from the verse: 鈥淧raise God with me and we will exalt His name together鈥 (Psalms 34:3). He continues: For the land, that is the blessing of the land. Good, that is the blessing: Who builds Jerusalem, and it also says: This good mountain and Lebanon. They instituted the blessing: Who is good and does good, at Yavne and, as such, it has no biblical source. However, I only have a Torah source for blessings after eating, i.e., Grace after Meals. From where is it derived that one is obligated to recite blessings before eating? The verse states: That he gave you. A blessing must be recited over food from the moment that God gave it to you, not only afterward.

专讘讬 讬爪讞拽 讗讜诪专 讗讬谞讜 爪专讬讱 讛专讬 讛讜讗 讗讜诪专 讜讘专讱 讗转 诇讞诪讱 讜讗转 诪讬诪讬讱 讗诇 转拽专讬 讜讘专讱 讗诇讗 讜讘专讱 讜讗讬诪转讬 拽专讜讬 诇讞诐 拽讜讚诐 砖讬讗讻诇谞讜

Rabbi Yitz岣k says: That source for the obligation to recite a blessing beforehand is not necessary, as it says: 鈥淎nd He will bless your bread and your water鈥 (Exodus 23:25); do not read: And He will bless [uveirakh], rather: And you will bless [uvareikh]. And when is it called bread? Before it is eaten.

专讘讬 谞转谉 讗讜诪专 讗讬谞讜 爪专讬讱 讛专讬 讛讜讗 讗讜诪专 讻讘讗讻诐 讛注讬专 讻谉 转诪爪讗讜谉 讗讜转讜 讘讟专诐 讬注诇讛 讛讘诪转讛 诇讗讻讜诇 讻讬 诇讗 讬讗讻诇 讛注诐 注讚 讘讗讜 讻讬 讛讜讗 讬讘专讱 讛讝讘讞 讗讞专讬 讻谉 讬讗讻诇讜 讛拽专讗讬诐

Rabbi Natan says: That source for the obligation to recite a blessing beforehand is not necessary, as it says when the maidens told Saul: 鈥淎s soon you come into the city, find him right away, before he goes up to the high place to eat; for the people will not eat until he comes, because he will bless the sacrifice; and afterwards all those who are invited will eat; now go, for you shall find him at this time of day鈥 (I Samuel 9:13). A blessing recited prior to eating is explicitly mentioned in that verse.

讜讻诇 讻讱 诇诪讛 诇驻讬 砖讛谞砖讬诐 讚讘专谞讬讜转 讛谉 讜砖诪讜讗诇 讗诪专 讻讚讬 诇讛住转讻诇 讘讬驻讬讜 砖诇 砖讗讜诇 讚讻转讬讘 诪砖讻诪讜 讜诪注诇讛 讙讘讛 诪讻诇 讛注诐 讜专讘讬 讬讜讞谞谉 讗诪专 诇驻讬 砖讗讬谉 诪诇讻讜转 谞讜讙注转 讘讞讘专转讛 讗驻讬诇讜 讻诪诇讗 谞讬诪讗

Tangentially, the Gemara asks: Why did these maidens go on so expansively while speaking to Saul? It is because women are chatterers. And Shmuel said a different reason: They spoke expansively in order to gaze upon Saul鈥檚 beauty longer, as it is written about him: 鈥淎n excellent young man; no one among the Israelites was better than he; he was taller than the people from the shoulders up鈥 (I Samuel 9:2). Rabbi Yo岣nan said that their expansiveness was initiated by God, because one sovereignty does not overlap with its counterpart, even one hairbreadth. Saul鈥檚 coronation was delayed so that Samuel鈥檚 leadership would not be curtailed.

讜讗讬谉 诇讬 讗诇讗 讘专讻转 讛诪讝讜谉 讘专讻转 讛转讜专讛 诪谞讬谉 讗诪专 专讘讬 讬砖诪注讗诇 拽诇 讜讞讜诪专 注诇 讞讬讬 砖注讛 诪讘专讱 注诇 讞讬讬 注讜诇诐 讛讘讗 诇讗 讻诇 砖讻谉 专讘讬 讞讬讬讗 讘专 谞讞诪谞讬 转诇诪讬讚讜 砖诇 专讘讬 讬砖诪注讗诇 讗讜诪专 诪砖讜诐 专讘讬 讬砖诪注讗诇 讗讬谞讜 爪专讬讱 讛专讬 讛讜讗 讗讜诪专 注诇 讛讗专抓 讛讟讜讘讛 讗砖专 谞转谉 诇讱 讜诇讛诇谉 讛讜讗 讗讜诪专 讜讗转谞讛 诇讱 讗转 诇讞转 讛讗讘谉 讜讛转讜专讛 讜讛诪爪讜讛 讜讙讜壮

The baraita with regard to Grace after Meals continues: I only have a Torah source for Grace after Meals. From where is the obligation to recite the blessing of the Torah derived? Several answers are offered: Rabbi Yishmael said: It is derived through an a fortiori inference from Grace after Meals: Over food, which is an aspect of temporal life, one recites a blessing, all the more so one recites a blessing over the Torah, which is eternal life. Rabbi 岣yya bar Na岣ani, the student of Rabbi Yishmael, says in the name of Rabbi Yishmael: This a fortiori inference is not necessary, as this halakha can be derived from the same verse from which Grace after Meals is derived, as it states: 鈥淔or the good land that He gave [natan] you,鈥 and below, with regard to the Torah, it says: 鈥淎nd I will give [ve鈥檈tna] you the stone tablets, and the Torah and the mitzva, which I have written, that you may teach them鈥 (Exodus 24:12). Here, just as giving with regard to the good land requires a blessing, giving with regard to the Torah requires a blessing.

专讘讬 诪讗讬专 讗讜诪专 讜诪谞讬谉 砖讻砖诐 砖诪讘专讱 注诇 讛讟讜讘讛 讻讱 诪讘专讱 注诇 讛专注讛 转诇诪讜讚 诇讜诪专 讗砖专 谞转谉 诇讱 讛壮 讗诇讛讬讱 讚讬讬谞讱 讘讻诇 讚讬谉 砖讚谞讱 讘讬谉 诪讚讛 讟讜讘讛 讜讘讬谉 诪讚讛 驻讜专注谞讜转

Concerning this verse, Rabbi Meir says: From where is it derived that just as one recites a blessing over the good that befalls him he recites a blessing over the bad? The verse states: 鈥淭hat the Lord, your God gave you.鈥 鈥淵our God鈥 is a reference to the attribute of divine justice; your Judge, in whatever judgment that He judges you, whether it is a positive measure of goodness or a measure of calamity.

专讘讬 讬讛讜讚讛 讘谉 讘转讬专讗 讗讜诪专 讗讬谞讜 爪专讬讱 讛专讬 讛讜讗 讗讜诪专 讟讜讘讛 讛讟讜讘讛 讟讜讘讛 讝讜 转讜专讛 讜讻谉 讛讜讗 讗讜诪专 讻讬 诇拽讞 讟讜讘 谞转转讬 诇讻诐 讛讟讜讘讛 讝讜 讘谞讬谉 讬专讜砖诇讬诐 讜讻谉 讛讜讗 讗讜诪专 讛讛专 讛讟讜讘 讛讝讛 讜讛诇讘谞讜谉:

Rabbi Yehuda ben Beteira says: Proof for a blessing over the Torah from a different verse is not necessary, as it says: 鈥淔or the good [hatova] land.鈥 Two different matters are derived from different aspects of the word hatova: Tova, that is Torah, as it says: 鈥淔or I have given you good [tov] teachings, do not forsake My Torah鈥 (Proverbs 4:2); hatova, that is the building of Jerusalem, as it says: 鈥淭his good mountain [hatov] and Lebanon.鈥

转谞讬讗 专讘讬 讗诇讬注讝专 讗讜诪专 讻诇 砖诇讗 讗诪专 讗专抓 讞诪讚讛 讟讜讘讛 讜专讞讘讛 讘讘专讻转 讛讗专抓 讜诪诇讻讜转 讘讬转 讚讜讚 讘讘讜谞讛 讬专讜砖诇讬诐 诇讗 讬爪讗 讬讚讬 讞讜讘转讜 谞讞讜诐 讛讝拽谉 讗讜诪专 爪专讬讱 砖讬讝讻讜专 讘讛 讘专讬转 专讘讬 讬讜住讬 讗讜诪专 爪专讬讱 砖讬讝讻讜专 讘讛 转讜专讛 驻诇讬诪讜 讗讜诪专 爪专讬讱 砖讬拽讚讬诐 讘专讬转 诇转讜专讛 砖讝讜 谞转谞讛 讘砖诇砖 讘专讬转讜转

With regard to the formula of Grace after Meals, the Gemara continues: It was taught in a baraita: Rabbi Eliezer says: Anyone who did not say: A desirable, good, and spacious land in the blessing of the land, and who did not mention the royal house of David in the blessing: Who builds Jerusalem, did not fulfill his obligation. Na岣m the Elder says: One must mention the covenant of circumcision in the blessing of the land. Rabbi Yosei says: One must mention the Torah in the blessing of the land. Pelimu, one of the last tanna鈥檌m, says: He must make mention of the covenant of circumcision preceding mention of the Torah, as this, the Torah, was given to the Jewish people with three covenants,

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When Abaye and Rava Were Little Kids

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Berakhot 48

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Berakhot 48

诇讗转讜讬讬 拽讟谉 驻讜专讞

to include a mature minor? Explain the baraita as follows: A minor who grew two hairs is included in a zimmun, and we are not exacting with regard to a minor to ascertain whether or not he has reached the age of majority.

讜诇讬转 讛诇讻转讗 讻讻诇 讛谞讬 砖诪注转转讗 讗诇讗 讻讬 讛讗 讚讗诪专 专讘 谞讞诪谉 拽讟谉 讛讬讜讚注 诇诪讬 诪讘专讻讬谉 诪讝诪谞讬谉 注诇讬讜

The Gemara concludes: The halakha is not in accordance with all of these statements. Rather, the halakha is in accordance with this statement that Rav Na岣an said: A minor who knows to Whom one recites a blessing is included in a zimmun.

讗讘讬讬 讜专讘讗 讛讜讜 讬转讘讬 拽诪讬讛 讚专讘讛 讗诪专 诇讛讜 专讘讛 诇诪讬 诪讘专讻讬谉 讗诪专讬 诇讬讛 诇专讞诪谞讗 讜专讞诪谞讗 讛讬讻讗 讬转讬讘 专讘讗 讗讞讜讬 诇砖诪讬 讟诇诇讗 讗讘讬讬 谞驻拽 诇讘专讗 讗讞讜讬 讻诇驻讬 砖诪讬讗 讗诪专 诇讛讜 专讘讛 转专讜讬讬讻讜 专讘谞谉 讛讜讬转讜 讛讬讬谞讜 讚讗诪专讬 讗讬谞砖讬 讘讜爪讬谉 讘讜爪讬谉 诪拽讟驻讬讛 讬讚讬注:

The Gemara relates that Abaye and Rava, when they were children, were seated before Rabba. Rabba said to them: To whom does one recite blessings? They said to him: To God, the All-Merciful. Rabba asked them: And where does the All-Merciful reside? Rava pointed to the ceiling. Abaye went outside and pointed toward the heaven. Rabba said to them: You will both become Sages. It is as the popular saying goes: A cucumber can be recognized from its blossoming stage. Similarly, a great person can be recognized even from a young age.

讗诪专 专讘 讬讛讜讚讛 讘专讬讛 讚专讘 砖诪讜讗诇 讘专 砖讬诇转 诪砖诪讬讛 讚专讘 转砖注讛 讗讻诇讜 讚讙谉 讜讗讞讚 讗讻诇 讬专拽 诪爪讟专驻讬谉 讗诪专 专讘讬 讝讬专讗 讘注讗讬 诪讬谞讬讛 诪专讘 讬讛讜讚讛 砖诪谞讛 诪讛讜 砖讘注讛 诪讛讜 讗诪专 诇讬 诇讗 砖谞讗 砖砖讛 讜讚讗讬 诇讗 诪讘注讬讗 诇讬 讗诪专 诇讬讛 专讘讬 讬专诪讬讛 砖驻讬专 注讘讚转 讚诇讗 讗讬讘注讬讗 诇讱 讛转诐 讟注诪讗 诪讗讬 诪砖讜诐 讚讗讬讻讗 专讜讘讗 讛讻讗 谞诪讬 讗讬讻讗 专讜讘讗 讜讗讬讛讜 住讘专 专讜讘讗 讚诪讬谞讻专 讘注讬谞谉

Rav Yehuda, son of Rav Shmuel bar Sheilat, said in the name of Rav: If nine ate grain and one ate vegetables, they join and form a zimmun of ten. Rabbi Zeira said: I raised a dilemma before Rav Yehuda: What is the ruling if eight ate grain and two ate vegetables? May they join together? What is the ruling if seven ate grain? He said to me: There is no difference. I certainly had no dilemma with regard to six, as it was clear to me that six are insufficient to warrant a zimmun. Rabbi Yirmeya said to him: You did well that you had no dilemma with regard to six, but for the opposite reason. There, in the case of seven or eight, what is the reason that they form a zimmun of ten? Because there is a majority of those dining who ate grain. Here, too, there is a majority. Rabbi Zeira, however, held: We require an obvious majority. Therefore, contrary to the opinion of Rabbi Yirmeya, it was clear to him that six who ate grain are insufficient to form a zimmun.

讬谞讗讬 诪诇讻讗 讜诪诇讻转讗 讻专讬讻讜 专讬驻转讗 讘讛讚讬 讛讚讚讬 讜诪讚拽讟诇 诇讛讜 诇专讘谞谉 诇讗 讛讜讛 诇讬讛 讗讬谞讬砖 诇讘专讜讻讬 诇讛讜 讗诪专 诇讛 诇讚讘讬转讛讜 诪讗谉 讬讛讬讘 诇谉 讙讘专讗 讚诪讘专讱 诇谉 讗诪专讛 诇讬讛 讗砖转讘注 诇讬 讚讗讬 诪讬讬转讬谞讗 诇讱 讙讘专讗 讚诇讗 诪爪注专转 诇讬讛 讗砖转讘注 诇讛 讗讬讬转讬转讬讛 诇砖诪注讜谉 讘谉 砖讟讞 讗讞讜讛 讗讜转讘讬讛 讘讬谉 讚讬讚讬讛 诇讚讬讚讛 讗诪专 诇讬讛 讞讝讬转 讻诪讛 讬拽专讗 注讘讚讬谞讗 诇讱 讗诪专 诇讬讛 诇讗讜 讗转 拽讗 诪讜拽专转 诇讬 讗诇讗 讗讜专讬讬转讗 讛讬讗 讚诪讜拽专讗 诇讬 讚讻转讬讘 住诇住诇讛 讜转专讜诪诪讱 转讻讘讚讱 讻讬 转讞讘拽谞讛 讗诪专 诇讛 拽讗 讞讝讬转 讚诇讗 诪拽讘诇 诪专讜转

The Gemara relates: King Yannai and the queen ate bread together. And since Yannai executed the Sages, there was no one to recite the Grace after Meals blessing on their behalf. He said to his wife: Who will provide us with a man to recite the blessing on our behalf? She said to him: Swear to me that if I bring you such a man, you will not harass him. He swore, and she brought her brother, Shimon ben Shata岣. She sat him between the King鈥檚 throne and hers. The King said to him: Do you see how much honor I am according you? He responded: It is not you who honors me; rather, the Torah honors me, as it is written: 鈥淓xtol her and she will exalt you; she will bring you to honor when you embrace her鈥 (Proverbs 4:8). Yannai said to his wife: You see that he does not accept authority.

讬讛讘讜 诇讬讛 讻住讗 诇讘专讜讻讬 讗诪专 讛讬讻讬 讗讘专讬讱 讘专讜讱 砖讗讻诇 讬谞讗讬 讜讞讘讬专讬讜 诪砖诇讜 砖转讬讬讛 诇讛讛讜讗 讻住讗 讬讛讘讜 诇讬讛 讻住讗 讗讞专讬谞讗 讜讘专讬讱

They gave Shimon ben Shata岣 a cup of wine over which to recite Grace after Meals. He said: How shall I recite the blessing? Shall I say: Blessed is He from Whom Yannai and his companions have eaten? I have not eaten anything. He drank that cup of wine. They gave him another cup, and he recited the Grace after Meals blessing. By drinking the first cup he joined the other diners and was therefore eligible to recite Grace after Meals on their behalf.

讗诪专 专讘讬 讗讘讗 讘专讬讛 讚专讘讬 讞讬讬讗 讘专 讗讘讗 (讗诪专 专讘讬 讬讜讞谞谉) 砖诪注讜谉 讘谉 砖讟讞 讚注讘讚 诇讙专诪讬讛 讛讜讗 讚注讘讚 讚讛讻讬 讗诪专 专讘讬 讞讬讬讗 讘专 讗讘讗 讗诪专 专讘讬 讬讜讞谞谉 诇注讜诇诐 讗讬谞讜 诪讜爪讬讗 讗转 讛专讘讬诐 讬讚讬 讞讜讘转谉 注讚 砖讬讗讻诇 讻讝讬转 讚讙谉

With regard to this story, Rabbi Abba, son of Rabbi 岣yya bar Abba, said (that Rabbi Yo岣nan said): That which Shimon ben Shata岣 did, reciting Grace after Meals on their behalf, he did on his own, and not in accordance with the accepted halakha, as Rabbi 岣yya bar Abba said that Rabbi Yo岣nan said as follows: One who recites Grace after Meals cannot fulfill the obligation of others to recite it until he eats an olive-bulk of grain.

诪讬转讬讘讬 专讘谉 砖诪注讜谉 讘谉 讙诪诇讬讗诇 讗讜诪专 注诇讛 讜讛住讬讘 注诪讛诐 讗驻讬诇讜 诇讗 讟讘诇 注诪讛诐 讗诇讗 讘爪讬专 讜诇讗 讗讻诇 注诪讛诐 讗诇讗 讙专讜讙专转 讗讞转 诪爪讟专祝

The Gemara raises an objection based on what was taught in a baraita: Rabban Shimon ben Gamliel says: One who entered and reclined together with those who were dining, even if he only dipped with them a small bit of food in spicy brine that was before them and ate with them only a single dry fig, he joins them. This baraita demonstrates that one need not necessarily eat grain to recite Grace after Meals on their behalf.

讗讬爪讟专讜驻讬 诪爪讟专祝 讗讘诇 诇讛讜爪讬讗 讗转 讛专讘讬诐 讬讚讬 讞讜讘转谉 注讚 砖讬讗讻诇 讻讝讬转 讚讙谉

The Gemara responds: Indeed, he joins them, but he cannot satisfy the obligation of the many unless he has eaten an olive-bulk of grain.

讗讬转诪专 谞诪讬 讗诪专 专讘 讞谞讗 讘专 讬讛讜讚讛 诪砖诪讬讛 讚专讘讗 讗驻讬诇讜 诇讗

Similarly, this halakha was also stated: Rav 岣na bar Yehuda said in the name of Rava: Even if he only

讟讘诇 注诪讛诐 讗诇讗 讘爪讬专 讜诇讗 讗讻诇 注诪讛诐 讗诇讗 讙专讜讙专转 讗讞转 诪爪讟专祝 讜诇讛讜爪讬讗 讗转 讛专讘讬诐 讬讚讬 讞讜讘转诐 讗讬谞讜 诪讜爪讬讗 注讚 砖讬讗讻诇 讻讝讬转 讚讙谉 讗诪专 专讘 讞谞讗 讘专 讬讛讜讚讛 诪砖诪讬讛 讚专讘讗 讛诇讻转讗 讗讻诇 注诇讛 讬专拽 讜砖转讛 讻讜住 砖诇 讬讬谉 诪爪讟专祝 诇讛讜爪讬讗 讗讬谞讜 诪讜爪讬讗 注讚 砖讬讗讻诇 讻讝讬转 讚讙谉

dipped with them a small bit of food in brine and ate with them only a single dry fig, he joins them. And to satisfy the obligation of the many, he does not satisfy their obligation until he eats an olive-bulk of grain. Rabbi 岣na bar Yehuda said in the name of Rava that the halakha is: If one ate a vegetable leaf and drank a cup of wine, he joins the diners. However, to satisfy the obligation of others, he does not satisfy their obligation until he eats an olive-bulk of grain.

讗诪专 专讘 谞讞诪谉 诪砖讛 转拽谉 诇讬砖专讗诇 讘专讻转 讛讝谉 讘砖注讛 砖讬专讚 诇讛诐 诪谉 讬讛讜砖注 转拽谉 诇讛诐 讘专讻转 讛讗专抓 讻讬讜谉 砖谞讻谞住讜 诇讗专抓 讚讜讚 讜砖诇诪讛 转拽谞讜 讘讜谞讛 讬专讜砖诇讬诐 讚讜讚 转拽谉 注诇 讬砖专讗诇 注诪讱 讜注诇 讬专讜砖诇讬诐 注讬专讱 讜砖诇诪讛 转拽谉 注诇 讛讘讬转 讛讙讚讜诇 讜讛拽讚讜砖 讛讟讜讘 讜讛诪讟讬讘 讘讬讘谞讛 转拽谞讜讛 讻谞讙讚 讛专讜讙讬 讘讬转专 讚讗诪专 专讘 诪转谞讗 讗讜转讜 讛讬讜诐 砖谞讬转谞讜 讛专讜讙讬 讘讬转专 诇拽讘讜专讛 转拽谞讜 讘讬讘谞讛 讛讟讜讘 讜讛诪讟讬讘 讛讟讜讘 砖诇讗 讛住专讬讞讜 讜讛诪讟讬讘 砖谞讬转谞讜 诇拽讘讜专讛:

With regard to the origins of the four blessings of Grace after Meals, Rav Na岣an said:
Moses instituted for Israel the first blessing of: Who feeds all, when the manna descended for them and they needed to thank God.
Joshua instituted the blessing of the land when they entered Eretz Yisrael.
David and Solomon instituted the third blessing: Who builds Jerusalem, in the following manner:
David instituted 鈥溾n Israel Your people and on Jerusalem Your city鈥︹ as he conquered the city,
and Solomon instituted 鈥溾n the great and Holy Temple鈥︹ as he was the one who built the Temple.
They instituted the blessing: Who is good and does good, at Yavne in reference to the slain Jews of the city of Beitar at the culmination of the bar Kokheva rebellion. They were ultimately brought to burial after a period during which Hadrian refused to permit their burial. As Rav Mattana said: On the same day that the slain of Beitar were brought to burial, they instituted the blessing: Who is good and does good, at Yavne. Who is good, thanking God that the corpses did not decompose while awaiting burial, and does good, thanking God that they were ultimately brought to burial.

转谞讜 专讘谞谉 住讚专 讘专讻转 讛诪讝讜谉 讻讱 讛讬讗 讘专讻讛 专讗砖讜谞讛 讘专讻转 讛讝谉 砖谞讬讛 讘专讻转 讛讗专抓 砖诇讬砖讬转 讘讜谞讛 讬专讜砖诇讬诐 专讘讬注讬转 讛讟讜讘 讜讛诪讟讬讘 讜讘砖讘转 诪转讞讬诇 讘谞讞诪讛 讜诪住讬讬诐 讘谞讞诪讛 讜讗讜诪专 拽讚讜砖转 讛讬讜诐 讘讗诪爪注 专讘讬 讗诇讬注讝专 讗讜诪专 专爪讛 诇讗讜诪专讛 讘谞讞诪讛 讗讜诪专讛 讘讘专讻转 讛讗专抓 讗讜诪专讛 讘讘专讻讛 砖转拽谞讜 讞讻诪讬诐 讘讬讘谞讛 讗讜诪专讛 讜讞讻诪讬诐 讗讜诪专讬诐 讗讬谞讜 讗讜诪专讛 讗诇讗 讘谞讞诪讛 讘诇讘讚

On the topic of the blessings of Grace after Meals, the Gemara adds that the Sages taught in a baraita that the order of Grace after Meals is as follows: The first blessing is the blessing of: Who feeds all; the second is the blessing of the land; the third is: Who builds Jerusalem; and the fourth is: Who is good and does good. On Shabbat one begins the third blessing with consolation and ends with consolation and mentions the sanctity of the day with mention of Shabbat in the middle. Rabbi Eliezer says: If one wishes to recite the supplement for the sanctity of Shabbat in the blessing of consolation: Who builds Jerusalem, he recites it there; in the blessing of the land, he recites it there; in the blessing instituted by the Sages at Yavne, Who is good and does good, he recites it there. And the Rabbis say: He may only recite the mention of the sanctity of Shabbat in the context of the blessing of consolation.

讞讻诪讬诐 讛讬讬谞讜 转谞讗 拽诪讗 讗讬讻讗 讘讬谞讬讬讛讜 讚讬注讘讚:

The Gemara remarks: The opinion of the Rabbis is identical with the opinion of the first tanna. Both opinions hold that the mention of Shabbat is in the third blessing. The Gemara responds: The difference between the opinion of the Rabbis and the opinion of the first tanna is with regard to after the fact. They both agree that ab initio, Shabbat should be mentioned in the third blessing. If, though, one inadvertently mentioned Shabbat in one of the other blessings mentioned by Rabbi Eliezer, the first tanna holds that he fulfilled his obligation and the Rabbis emphasize that it may only be recited in the blessing of consolation.

转谞讜 专讘谞谉 诪谞讬谉 诇讘专讻转 讛诪讝讜谉 诪谉 讛转讜专讛 砖谞讗诪专 讜讗讻诇转 讜砖讘注转 讜讘专讻转 讝讜 讘专讻转 讛讝谉 讗转 讛壮 讗诇讛讬讱 讝讜 讘专讻转 讛讝诪讜谉 注诇 讛讗专抓 讝讜 讘专讻转 讛讗专抓 讛讟讜讘讛 讝讜 讘讜谞讛 讬专讜砖诇讬诐 讜讻谉 讛讜讗 讗讜诪专 讛讛专 讛讟讜讘 讛讝讛 讜讛诇讘谞讜谉 讗砖专 谞转谉 诇讱 讝讜 讛讟讜讘 讜讛诪讟讬讘 讗讬谉 诇讬 讗诇讗 诇讗讞专讬讜 诇驻谞讬讜 诪谞讬谉 讗诪专转 拽诇 讜讞讜诪专 讻砖讛讜讗 砖讘注 诪讘专讱 讻砖讛讜讗 专注讘 诇讗 讻诇 砖讻谉

The Sages taught in a Tosefta: From where is it derived that Grace after Meals is from the Torah? As it is stated: 鈥淎nd you shall eat and be satisfied, and you shall bless the Lord, your God, for the good land that He has given you鈥 (Deuteronomy 8:10). The Gemara explains: And you shall bless, that is the blessing of: Who feeds all. The Lord, your God, that is the zimmun blessing in which God鈥檚 name is invoked. For the land, that is the blessing of the land; good, that is the blessing: Who builds Jerusalem, and it also says: 鈥淭his good mountain and Lebanon鈥 (Deuteronomy 3:25), which is interpreted homiletically as referring to Jerusalem and the Temple. That He gave you, that is: Who is good and does good. However, I only have a Torah source for blessings after eating, i.e., Grace after Meals. From where is it derived that one is obligated to recite blessings before eating? You said that it can be derived through an a fortiori inference: When one is satisfied, he is obligated to recite a blessing and thank God for food; when he is hungry, all the more so that he should recite a blessing to offer thanks for the food he will eat.

专讘讬 讗讜诪专 [讗讬谞讜 爪专讬讱] 讜讗讻诇转 讜砖讘注转 讜讘专讻转 讝讜 讘专讻转 讛讝谉 讗讘诇 讘专讻转 讛讝诪讜谉 诪讙讚诇讜 诇讛壮 讗转讬 谞驻拽讗 注诇 讛讗专抓 讝讜 讘专讻转 讛讗专抓 讛讟讜讘讛 讝讜 讘讜谞讛 讬专讜砖诇讬诐 讜讻谉 讛讜讗 讗讜诪专 讛讛专 讛讟讜讘 讛讝讛 讜讛诇讘谞讜谉 讛讟讜讘 讜讛诪讟讬讘 讘讬讘谞讛 转拽谞讜讛 讗讬谉 诇讬 讗诇讗 诇讗讞专讬讜 诇驻谞讬讜 诪谞讬谉 转诇诪讜讚 诇讜诪专 讗砖专 谞转谉 诇讱 诪砖谞转谉 诇讱

Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi says: It is not necessary to interpret the verse this way; rather, it should be understood in a slightly different manner, as follows: 鈥淎nd you shall eat and be satisfied, and you shall bless,鈥 that is the blessing of: Who feeds all; however, the zimmun blessing is derived from the verse: 鈥淧raise God with me and we will exalt His name together鈥 (Psalms 34:3). He continues: For the land, that is the blessing of the land. Good, that is the blessing: Who builds Jerusalem, and it also says: This good mountain and Lebanon. They instituted the blessing: Who is good and does good, at Yavne and, as such, it has no biblical source. However, I only have a Torah source for blessings after eating, i.e., Grace after Meals. From where is it derived that one is obligated to recite blessings before eating? The verse states: That he gave you. A blessing must be recited over food from the moment that God gave it to you, not only afterward.

专讘讬 讬爪讞拽 讗讜诪专 讗讬谞讜 爪专讬讱 讛专讬 讛讜讗 讗讜诪专 讜讘专讱 讗转 诇讞诪讱 讜讗转 诪讬诪讬讱 讗诇 转拽专讬 讜讘专讱 讗诇讗 讜讘专讱 讜讗讬诪转讬 拽专讜讬 诇讞诐 拽讜讚诐 砖讬讗讻诇谞讜

Rabbi Yitz岣k says: That source for the obligation to recite a blessing beforehand is not necessary, as it says: 鈥淎nd He will bless your bread and your water鈥 (Exodus 23:25); do not read: And He will bless [uveirakh], rather: And you will bless [uvareikh]. And when is it called bread? Before it is eaten.

专讘讬 谞转谉 讗讜诪专 讗讬谞讜 爪专讬讱 讛专讬 讛讜讗 讗讜诪专 讻讘讗讻诐 讛注讬专 讻谉 转诪爪讗讜谉 讗讜转讜 讘讟专诐 讬注诇讛 讛讘诪转讛 诇讗讻讜诇 讻讬 诇讗 讬讗讻诇 讛注诐 注讚 讘讗讜 讻讬 讛讜讗 讬讘专讱 讛讝讘讞 讗讞专讬 讻谉 讬讗讻诇讜 讛拽专讗讬诐

Rabbi Natan says: That source for the obligation to recite a blessing beforehand is not necessary, as it says when the maidens told Saul: 鈥淎s soon you come into the city, find him right away, before he goes up to the high place to eat; for the people will not eat until he comes, because he will bless the sacrifice; and afterwards all those who are invited will eat; now go, for you shall find him at this time of day鈥 (I Samuel 9:13). A blessing recited prior to eating is explicitly mentioned in that verse.

讜讻诇 讻讱 诇诪讛 诇驻讬 砖讛谞砖讬诐 讚讘专谞讬讜转 讛谉 讜砖诪讜讗诇 讗诪专 讻讚讬 诇讛住转讻诇 讘讬驻讬讜 砖诇 砖讗讜诇 讚讻转讬讘 诪砖讻诪讜 讜诪注诇讛 讙讘讛 诪讻诇 讛注诐 讜专讘讬 讬讜讞谞谉 讗诪专 诇驻讬 砖讗讬谉 诪诇讻讜转 谞讜讙注转 讘讞讘专转讛 讗驻讬诇讜 讻诪诇讗 谞讬诪讗

Tangentially, the Gemara asks: Why did these maidens go on so expansively while speaking to Saul? It is because women are chatterers. And Shmuel said a different reason: They spoke expansively in order to gaze upon Saul鈥檚 beauty longer, as it is written about him: 鈥淎n excellent young man; no one among the Israelites was better than he; he was taller than the people from the shoulders up鈥 (I Samuel 9:2). Rabbi Yo岣nan said that their expansiveness was initiated by God, because one sovereignty does not overlap with its counterpart, even one hairbreadth. Saul鈥檚 coronation was delayed so that Samuel鈥檚 leadership would not be curtailed.

讜讗讬谉 诇讬 讗诇讗 讘专讻转 讛诪讝讜谉 讘专讻转 讛转讜专讛 诪谞讬谉 讗诪专 专讘讬 讬砖诪注讗诇 拽诇 讜讞讜诪专 注诇 讞讬讬 砖注讛 诪讘专讱 注诇 讞讬讬 注讜诇诐 讛讘讗 诇讗 讻诇 砖讻谉 专讘讬 讞讬讬讗 讘专 谞讞诪谞讬 转诇诪讬讚讜 砖诇 专讘讬 讬砖诪注讗诇 讗讜诪专 诪砖讜诐 专讘讬 讬砖诪注讗诇 讗讬谞讜 爪专讬讱 讛专讬 讛讜讗 讗讜诪专 注诇 讛讗专抓 讛讟讜讘讛 讗砖专 谞转谉 诇讱 讜诇讛诇谉 讛讜讗 讗讜诪专 讜讗转谞讛 诇讱 讗转 诇讞转 讛讗讘谉 讜讛转讜专讛 讜讛诪爪讜讛 讜讙讜壮

The baraita with regard to Grace after Meals continues: I only have a Torah source for Grace after Meals. From where is the obligation to recite the blessing of the Torah derived? Several answers are offered: Rabbi Yishmael said: It is derived through an a fortiori inference from Grace after Meals: Over food, which is an aspect of temporal life, one recites a blessing, all the more so one recites a blessing over the Torah, which is eternal life. Rabbi 岣yya bar Na岣ani, the student of Rabbi Yishmael, says in the name of Rabbi Yishmael: This a fortiori inference is not necessary, as this halakha can be derived from the same verse from which Grace after Meals is derived, as it states: 鈥淔or the good land that He gave [natan] you,鈥 and below, with regard to the Torah, it says: 鈥淎nd I will give [ve鈥檈tna] you the stone tablets, and the Torah and the mitzva, which I have written, that you may teach them鈥 (Exodus 24:12). Here, just as giving with regard to the good land requires a blessing, giving with regard to the Torah requires a blessing.

专讘讬 诪讗讬专 讗讜诪专 讜诪谞讬谉 砖讻砖诐 砖诪讘专讱 注诇 讛讟讜讘讛 讻讱 诪讘专讱 注诇 讛专注讛 转诇诪讜讚 诇讜诪专 讗砖专 谞转谉 诇讱 讛壮 讗诇讛讬讱 讚讬讬谞讱 讘讻诇 讚讬谉 砖讚谞讱 讘讬谉 诪讚讛 讟讜讘讛 讜讘讬谉 诪讚讛 驻讜专注谞讜转

Concerning this verse, Rabbi Meir says: From where is it derived that just as one recites a blessing over the good that befalls him he recites a blessing over the bad? The verse states: 鈥淭hat the Lord, your God gave you.鈥 鈥淵our God鈥 is a reference to the attribute of divine justice; your Judge, in whatever judgment that He judges you, whether it is a positive measure of goodness or a measure of calamity.

专讘讬 讬讛讜讚讛 讘谉 讘转讬专讗 讗讜诪专 讗讬谞讜 爪专讬讱 讛专讬 讛讜讗 讗讜诪专 讟讜讘讛 讛讟讜讘讛 讟讜讘讛 讝讜 转讜专讛 讜讻谉 讛讜讗 讗讜诪专 讻讬 诇拽讞 讟讜讘 谞转转讬 诇讻诐 讛讟讜讘讛 讝讜 讘谞讬谉 讬专讜砖诇讬诐 讜讻谉 讛讜讗 讗讜诪专 讛讛专 讛讟讜讘 讛讝讛 讜讛诇讘谞讜谉:

Rabbi Yehuda ben Beteira says: Proof for a blessing over the Torah from a different verse is not necessary, as it says: 鈥淔or the good [hatova] land.鈥 Two different matters are derived from different aspects of the word hatova: Tova, that is Torah, as it says: 鈥淔or I have given you good [tov] teachings, do not forsake My Torah鈥 (Proverbs 4:2); hatova, that is the building of Jerusalem, as it says: 鈥淭his good mountain [hatov] and Lebanon.鈥

转谞讬讗 专讘讬 讗诇讬注讝专 讗讜诪专 讻诇 砖诇讗 讗诪专 讗专抓 讞诪讚讛 讟讜讘讛 讜专讞讘讛 讘讘专讻转 讛讗专抓 讜诪诇讻讜转 讘讬转 讚讜讚 讘讘讜谞讛 讬专讜砖诇讬诐 诇讗 讬爪讗 讬讚讬 讞讜讘转讜 谞讞讜诐 讛讝拽谉 讗讜诪专 爪专讬讱 砖讬讝讻讜专 讘讛 讘专讬转 专讘讬 讬讜住讬 讗讜诪专 爪专讬讱 砖讬讝讻讜专 讘讛 转讜专讛 驻诇讬诪讜 讗讜诪专 爪专讬讱 砖讬拽讚讬诐 讘专讬转 诇转讜专讛 砖讝讜 谞转谞讛 讘砖诇砖 讘专讬转讜转

With regard to the formula of Grace after Meals, the Gemara continues: It was taught in a baraita: Rabbi Eliezer says: Anyone who did not say: A desirable, good, and spacious land in the blessing of the land, and who did not mention the royal house of David in the blessing: Who builds Jerusalem, did not fulfill his obligation. Na岣m the Elder says: One must mention the covenant of circumcision in the blessing of the land. Rabbi Yosei says: One must mention the Torah in the blessing of the land. Pelimu, one of the last tanna鈥檌m, says: He must make mention of the covenant of circumcision preceding mention of the Torah, as this, the Torah, was given to the Jewish people with three covenants,

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