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December 5, 2021 | ב׳ בטבת תשפ״ב | TODAY'S DAF: Taanit 23

Today's Daf Yomi

February 23, 2020 | כ״ח בשבט תש״פ

Berakhot 51

What does one do if one ate without making a blessing – does make the blessing in the middle of the meal? What if one finished, can one make the blessing before the meal after one finished eating? The gemara discusses whether a drink made with wine or beer called ‘asparagus’ is healthy or not. Contradictory sources are brought and resolved. Two rabbis mention a number of things that were taught to them by angels regarding behavior and foods. There is a debate regarding laws that apply to a cup used for a blessing. This leads into a story with Yalta, wife of Rav Nachman who is insulted by Ula’s behavior and breaks 400 barrels of wine. On what issues relating to meals do Beit Shamai and Beit Hillel disagree?

תוכן זה תורגם גם ל: עברית

במידי דלא ממאיס נמי לסלקינהו לצד אחד וליברך תרגמא רב יצחק קסקסאה קמיה דרבי יוסי בר אבין משמיה דרבי יוחנן משום שנאמר ימלא פי תהלתך

The Gemara asks: With regard to a food item that does not become disgusting as well, let him shift it to the side and recite the blessing. Why need he spit it out? Rav Yitzḥak Kaskesa’a explained before Rabbi Yosei bar Avin, in the name of Rabbi Yoḥanan: One spits it out because it is stated: “My mouth will be filled with Your praise” (Psalms 71:8), meaning that one should recite God’s praises with his entire mouth, not merely half.

בעו מיניה מרב חסדא מי שאכל ושתה ולא ברך מהו שיחזור ויברך אמר להו מי שאכל שום וריחו נודף יחזור ויאכל שום אחר כדי שיהא ריחו נודף

They raised a dilemma before Rav Ḥisda: One who ate and drank and did not recite a blessing, what is the ruling? Does he return and recite the blessing that he should have recited beforehand before he continues eating or not? In response, Rav Ḥisda said to them an analogy: Should one who ate garlic and the odor on his breath smells return and eat another garlic so that the odor on his breath will smell? That is to say, one must recite a blessing. Should one who committed a transgression and failed to recite a blessing before eating, remedy his situation by continuing to eat without reciting a blessing (Talmidei Rabbeinu Yona)?

אמר רבינא הלכך אפילו גמר סעודתו יחזור ויברך דתניא טבל ועלה אומר בעלייתו ברוך אשר קדשנו במצותיו וצונו על הטבילה

Ravina said: Therefore, even if one finished his meal, he must return and recite a blessing. He cites a proof, as it was taught in a baraita with regard to the laws of immersion: One who was ritually impure who immersed himself in a ritual bath and emerged, as he emerges he recites: Blessed…Who has made us holy through His mitzvot and has commanded us about ritual immersion. Evidently, in certain cases, one may recite the blessing after completing the act.

ולא היא התם מעיקרא גברא לא חזי הכא מעיקרא גברא חזי והואיל ואידחי אידחי:

The Gemara rejects the parallel between the cases: That is not so, as there, in the case of immersion, initially, before he immersed himself, the man was unfit to recite the blessing because he was ritually impure; here, in the case where one did not recite a blessing before eating, initially he was fit to recite the blessing, and since he did not recite the blessing before he ate and he concluded his meal and is, therefore, excluded from reciting the blessing, he is completely excluded and has no way to remedy the situation.

תנו רבנן אספרגוס יפה ללב וטוב לעינים וכל שכן לבני מעים והרגיל בו יפה לכל גופו והמשתכר הימנו קשה לכל גופו

Tangential to the laws concerning wine that the Gemara cited earlier, the Sages taught: Asparagus, wine or other alcoholic beverages that they were accustomed to drink early in the morning before eating, is agreeable for the heart and beneficial for the eyes, and all the more so for the intestines. And in extolling the virtues of this drink, the Gemara says: One who is accustomed to drink it, it is agreeable for his entire body. However, one must be careful, as one who drinks excessively and becomes drunk, it is harmful for his entire body.

מדקתני יפה ללב מכלל דבחמרא עסקינן וקתני וכל שכן לבני מעים והתניא ללעט יפה לרמת קשה

The Gemara discusses this: From the fact that it was taught that asparagus is agreeable for the heart, it may be inferred that we are dealing with asparagus made from wine, which is known to be agreeable for the heart. And we learned: And all the more so, asparagus is beneficial for the intestines. Wasn’t it taught in a baraita: For L-E-T, which is an acronym for lev, heart; einayim, eyes; teḥol, spleen, it is beneficial, but for R-M-T, rosh, head; me’ayim, intestines; taḥtoniot, hemorrhoids, it is harmful. Apparently, asparagus is harmful for one’s intestines.

כי תניא ההיא במיושן כדתנן קונם יין שאני טועם שהיין קשה לבני מעים אמרו לו והלא מיושן יפה הוא לבני מעים ושתק אסור בחדש ומותר במיושן שמע מינה:

The Gemara responds: That baraita, in which it was taught that asparagus is beneficial to one’s intestines, refers to asparagus made with old wine. As we learned in the mishna concerning the laws of vows that one who vowed: Wine is konam for me to taste because it is harmful to the intestines, and those who heard him said to him: But isn’t old wine beneficial to the intestines? If he was silent and did not argue the point, he is forbidden to drink new wine because of his vow, but he is permitted to drink old wine. Conclude from this that old wine is beneficial for the intestines.

תנו רבנן ששה דברים נאמרו באספרגוס אין שותין אותו אלא כשהוא חי ומלא מקבלו בימין ושותהו בשמאל ואין משיחין אחריו ואין מפסיקין בו ואין מחזירין אותו אלא למי שנתנו לו ורק אחריו ואין סומכין אותו אלא במינו

The Sages taught: Six things were said with regard to asparagus: One only drinks it undiluted and from a full cup; he receives it from the attendant in his right hand and drinks it with his left hand; one should not converse after drinking it and one does not stop while drinking it, but should drink it all at once; one only returns it to the one who gave it to him; and he spits after drinking it; and one may only supplement it with its own kind, meaning that after drinking asparagus, one should only eat something that is used to make similar beverages, e.g., dates after date beer, etc.

והתניא אין סומכין אותו אלא בפת לא קשיא הא בדחמרא הא בדשכרא

The Gemara challenges: Wasn’t it taught in a baraita that one may only supplement asparagus with bread? The Gemara responds: That is not difficult. This baraita, in which it was taught that one supplements it with bread, refers to asparagus made of wine, while that baraita, in which it was taught that one supplements it with its own kind, refers to asparagus made of beer.

תני חדא ללעט יפה לרמת קשה ותניא אידך לרמת יפה ללעט קשה לא קשיא הא בדחמרא הא בדשכרא

It was taught in one baraita that asparagus is beneficial for L-E-T, heart, eyes, and spleen, and harmful for R-M-T, head, intestines, and hemorrhoids. And it was taught in another baraita that asparagus is beneficial for R-M-T, head, intestines, and hemorrhoids, and harmful for L-E-T, heart, eyes, and spleen. The Gemara responds: That is not difficult. This baraita, in which it was taught that asparagus is beneficial for L-E-T, refers to asparagus made of wine, while that baraita, in which it was taught that asparagus is harmful for L-E-T, refers to asparagus made of beer.

תני חדא רק אחריו לוקה ותניא אידך לא רק אחריו לוקה לא קשיא הא בדחמרא הא בדשכרא

The Gemara resolves a contradiction between two other baraitot in the same manner. It was taught in one baraita that if he spit after drinking asparagus, he suffers an illness. And it was taught in another baraita that if he did not spit after drinking asparagus, he suffers an illness. The Gemara responds: That is not difficult. This baraita, in which it was taught that if he spit after drinking it he suffers an illness, refers to asparagus made of wine, while that baraita, in which it was taught that if he did not spit he suffers an illness, refers to asparagus made of beer.

אמר רב אשי השתא דאמרת לא רק אחריו לוקה מימיו נזרקין אפילו בפני המלך:

Rav Ashi said: Now that you said that if he did not spit after drinking it he suffers an illness, its water, the saliva in his mouth after drinking asparagus, may be expelled even when standing before the king, as failure to do so will endanger him.

אמר רבי ישמעאל בן אלישע שלשה דברים סח לי סוריאל שר הפנים אל תטול חלוקך בשחרית מיד השמש ותלבש ואל תטול ידיך ממי שלא נטל ידיו ואל תחזיר כוס אספרגוס אלא למי שנתנו לך מפני שתכספית ואמרי לה אסתלגנית של מלאכי חבלה מצפין לו לאדם ואומרים אימתי יבא אדם לידי אחד מדברים הללו וילכד

Rabbi Yishmael ben Elisha said: Suriel, the heavenly ministering angel of the Divine Presence, told me three things from on high: Do not take your cloak in the morning from the hand of your servant and wear it; do not ritually wash your hands from one who has not ritually washed his own hands; and only return a cup of asparagus to the one who gave it to you. Why is this? Because a band of demons and some say a band of angels of destruction lie in wait for a person and say: When will a person encounter one of these circumstances and be captured?

אמר רבי יהושע בן לוי שלשה דברים סח לי מלאך המות אל תטול חלוקך שחרית מיד השמש ותלבש ואל תטול ידיך ממי שלא נטל ידיו ואל תעמוד לפני הנשים בשעה שחוזרות מן המת מפני שאני מרקד ובא לפניהן וחרבי בידי ויש לי רשות לחבל

Similarly, the Gemara relates that Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi said: The Angel of Death told me three things: Do not take your cloak in the morning from the hand of your servant and wear it; do not ritually wash your hands from one who has not ritually washed his own hands; and do not stand before the women when they return from the burial of the deceased, because I dance and come before them and my sword is in hand, and I have license to destroy.

ואי פגע מאי תקנתיה לינשוף מדוכתיה ארבע אמות אי איכא נהרא ליעבריה ואי איכא דרכא אחרינא ליזיל בה ואי איכא גודא ליקו אחורא ואי לא ליהדר אפיה ולימא ויאמר ה׳ אל השטן יגער ה׳ בך וגו׳ עד דחלפי מיניה:

The Gemara asks: And if one encounters women returning from a funeral, what is his remedy? The Gemara answers: Let him jump four cubits from where he stands; if there is a river, let him cross it; if there is another path, let him go down it; if there is a wall, let him stand behind it; and if not, he should turn his face around and recite the verse: “And the Lord said to the Satan: The Lord rebukes you, Satan, the Lord that has chosen Jerusalem rebukes you; is not this man a brand plucked from the fire?” (Zechariah 3:2), until they pass him.

אמר רבי זירא אמר רבי אבהו ואמרי לה במתניתא תנא עשרה דברים נאמרו בכוס של ברכה טעון הדחה ושטיפה חי ומלא עיטור ועיטוף נוטלו בשתי ידיו ונותנו בימין ומגביהו מן הקרקע טפח ונותן עיניו בו ויש אומרים אף משגרו במתנה לאנשי ביתו

Rabbi Zeira said that Rabbi Abbahu said, and some say that this halakha was taught in a baraita: Ten things were said with regard to a cup of blessing, e.g., the cup of wine over which Grace after Meals is recited: It requires rinsing and washing; it must be undiluted wine, and full; it requires adorning and wrapping; he takes it in his two hands and places it in his right hand, and he lifts it at least one handbreadth from the ground, and when reciting the blessing he fixes his eyes upon it. And some say: He also sends it as a gift to members of his household.

אמר רבי יוחנן אנו אין לנו אלא ארבעה בלבד הדחה שטיפה חי ומלא תנא הדחה מבפנים ושטיפה מבחוץ

Rabbi Yoḥanan said: We only have four of those ten things: Rinsing, washing, the wine must be undiluted, and the cup must be full. In explanation, it was taught: Rinsing is from the inside of the cup, and washing is from the outside of the cup.

אמר רבי יוחנן כל המברך על כוס מלא נותנין לו נחלה בלי מצרים שנאמר ומלא ברכת ה׳ ים ודרום ירשה רבי יוסי בר חנינא אומר זוכה ונוחל שני עולמים העולם הזה והעולם הבא

Rabbi Yoḥanan said: Anyone who recites a blessing over a full cup, they give him a boundless inheritance, as it is stated: “And full of the blessing of the Lord, possess the sea and the south” (Deuteronomy 33:23), indicating that one whose cup is full will receive God’s blessing and will inherit from all sides. Rabbi Yosei bar Ḥanina says: He merits and inherits two worlds, this world and the World-to-Come.

עיטור רב יהודה מעטרהו בתלמידים רב חסדא מעטר ליה בנטלי אמר רבי חנן ובחי אמר רב ששת ובברכת הארץ

The Gemara continues explaining the ten things said with regard to the cup of blessing: The Sages would adorn the cup of blessing in different ways. Rav Yehuda would adorn it with students, as when he recited the blessing he would surround himself with students to accord honor to the blessing. Rav Ḥisda, however, would adorn it with other cups; he would surround the cup of blessing with other cups. Rabbi Ḥanan said: And specifically with undiluted wine. Rav Sheshet said: And in the blessing of the land.

עיטוף רב פפא מעטף ויתיב רב אסי פריס סודרא על רישיה

The Sages also had different customs with regard to wrapping. Rav Pappa would wrap himself in his prayer shawl and sit and recite Grace after Meals. Rav Asi spread a cloth on his head as an sign of respect.

נוטלו בשתי ידיו אמר רבי חיננא בר פפא מאי קראה שאו ידיכם קדש וברכו את ה׳

With regard to what was said that he takes it in his two hands, Rabbi Ḥinnana bar Pappa said: What is the verse that proves this? As it is stated: “Lift your hands in holiness and bless the Lord” (Psalms 134:2).

ונותנו לימין אמר רבי חייא בר אבא אמר רבי יוחנן ראשונים שאלו שמאל מהו שתסייע לימין אמר רב אשי הואיל וראשונים איבעיא להו ולא איפשט להו

As for what was said after he takes it in his two hands: And he places it in his right hand, Rabbi Ḥiyya bar Abba said that Rabbi Yoḥanan said: The early Sages asked: What is the ruling, may the left hand assist the right when taking the cup? Rav Ashi said: Since the early Sages raised this dilemma and it was not resolved for them,

אנן נעבד לחומרא

we will act stringently and not assist the right hand with the left.

ומגביהו מן הקרקע טפח אמר רב אחא ברבי חנינא מאי קראה כוס ישועות אשא ובשם ה׳ אקרא

And he lifts it at least one handbreadth from the ground. Rav Aḥa, son of Rabbi Ḥanina, says: What is the verse that proves this? “I will lift the cup of salvation and upon the name of the Lord I will call” (Psalms 116:13).

ונותן עיניו בו כי היכי דלא ניסח דעתיה מיניה

And he fixes his eyes upon the cup; so that his attention will not be distracted from it.

ומשגרו לאנשי ביתו במתנה כי היכי דתתברך דביתהו

And he sends it as a gift to members of his household; so that his wife will be blessed.

עולא אקלע לבי רב נחמן כריך ריפתא בריך ברכת מזונא יהב ליה כסא דברכתא לרב נחמן אמר ליה רב נחמן לישדר מר כסא דברכתא לילתא אמר ליה הכי אמר רבי יוחנן אין פרי בטנה של אשה מתברך אלא מפרי בטנו של איש שנאמר וברך פרי בטנך פרי בטנה לא נאמר אלא פרי בטנך

The Gemara relates: Ulla happened to come to the house of Rav Naḥman. He ate bread, recited Grace after Meals, and gave the cup of blessing to Rav Naḥman. Rav Naḥman said to him: Master, please send the cup of blessing to Yalta, my wife. Ulla responded to him: There is no need, as Rabbi Yoḥanan said as follows: The fruit of a woman’s body is blessed only from the fruit of a man’s body, as it is stated: “And He will love you, and bless you, and make you numerous, and He will bless the fruit of your body” (Deuteronomy 7:13). The Gemara infers: “He will bless the fruit of her body” was not stated. Rather, “He will bless the fruit of your [masculine singular] body.” For his wife to be blessed with children, it is sufficient to give the cup to Rav Naḥman.

תניא נמי הכי רבי נתן אומר מנין שאין פרי בטנה של אשה מתברך אלא מפרי בטנו של איש שנאמר וברך פרי בטנך פרי בטנה לא נאמר אלא פרי בטנך

That opinion was also taught in a baraita: Rabbi Natan says: From where is it derived that the fruit of a woman’s body is only blessed from the fruit of a man’s body? As it is stated: And He will bless the fruit of your body; He will bless the fruit of her body was not stated. Rather, He will bless the fruit of your body.

אדהכי שמעה ילתא קמה בזיהרא ועלתה לבי חמרא ותברא ארבע מאה דני דחמרא אמר ליה רב נחמן נשדר לה מר כסא אחרינא שלח לה כל האי נבגא דברכתא היא שלחה ליה ממהדורי מילי ומסמרטוטי כלמי

The Gemara relates that meanwhile Yalta heard Ulla’s refusal to send her the cup of blessing. Yalta was the daughter of the Exilarch and was accustomed to being treated with deference, so she arose in a rage, entered the wine-storage, and broke four hundred barrels of wine. Afterward, Rav Naḥman said to Ulla: Let the Master send her another cup. Ulla sent Yalta a different cup with a message saying that all of the wine in this barrel is wine of blessing; although you did not drink from the cup of blessing itself, you may at least drink from the barrel from which the cup of blessing was poured. She sent him a stinging response: From itinerant peddlers, Ulla traveled regularly from Eretz Yisrael to Babylonia and back, come meaningless words, and from rags come lice.

אמר רב אסי אין מסיחין על כוס של ברכה ואמר רב אסי אין מברכין על כוס של פורענות מאי כוס של פורענות אמר רב נחמן בר יצחק כוס שני תניא נמי הכי השותה כפלים לא יברך משום שנאמר הכון לקראת אלהיך ישראל והאי לא מתקן

Rav Asi said: One may not speak over a cup of blessing from the moment he takes it in his hand until he drinks it. And Rav Asi said: One may not recite a blessing over a cup of punishment. The Gemara clarifies: What is a cup of punishment? Rav Naḥman bar Yitzḥak said: A second cup. That opinion was also taught in a baraita: One who drinks in pairs should not recite a blessing, because it is stated: “Prepare to meet your God, O Israel” (Amos 4:12). One must be well-prepared in order to stand before his Creator, and this person who drank two cups of wine is not prepared, as drinking an even number of cups of wine is dangerous due to demons.

אמר רבי אבהו ואמרי לה במתניתא תנא האוכל ומהלך מברך מעומד וכשהוא אוכל מעומד מברך מיושב וכשהוא מיסב ואוכל יושב ומברך והלכתא בכולהו יושב ומברך:

In concluding the halakhot of blessings, the Gemara cites that Rabbi Abbahu said, and some say it was taught in a baraita: One who eats and walks, recites the blessing of Grace after Meals standing in one place, and one who eats standing, recites the blessing while seated, and one who eats reclining on a divan sits and then recites the blessing. And the halakha is: In all of these cases one sits and then recites the blessing.

הדרן עלך שלשה שאכלו

 

מתני׳ אלו דברים שבין בית שמאי ובין בית הלל בסעודה בית שמאי אומרים מברך על היום ואחר כך מברך על היין ובית הלל אומרים מברך על היין ואחר כך מברך על היום

MISHNA: These are the matters of dispute between Beit Shammai and Beit Hillel with regard to the halakhot of a meal: One dispute concerns the order of blessings in kiddush. Beit Shammai say: When one recites kiddush over wine, one recites a blessing over the sanctification of the day and recites a blessing over the wine thereafter. And Beit Hillel say: One recites a blessing over the wine and recites a blessing over the day thereafter.

בית שמאי אומרים נוטלין לידים ואחר כך מוזגין את הכוס ובית הלל אומרים מוזגין את הכוס ואחר כך נוטלין לידים

Similarly, Beit Hillel and Beit Shammai disagree with regard to drinking wine before a meal. Beit Shammai say: One washes his hands and mixes water with the wine in the cup thereafter, and Beit Hillel say: One mixes water with the wine in the cup and only washes his hands thereafter. The basis of this particular dispute is with regard to the laws of ritual purity, as the Gemara will explain below.

בית שמאי אומרים מקנח ידיו במפה ומניחה על השולחן ובית הלל אומרים על הכסת

Also with regard to the laws of ritual purity, Beit Shammai say: After washing, one dries his hands with a cloth and places it on the table. And Beit Hillel say: One places it on the cushion upon which he is sitting.

בית שמאי אומרים מכבדין את הבית ואחר כך נוטלין לידים ובית הלל אומרים נוטלין לידים ואחר כך מכבדין את הבית

Similarly, Beit Shammai say: One sweeps the area of the house where the meal took place and he washes his hands with the final waters before Grace after Meals thereafter. And Beit Hillel say: One washes his hands and sweeps the house thereafter.

בית שמאי אומרים נר ומזון בשמים והבדלה ובית הלל אומרים נר ובשמים מזון והבדלה

Just as they dispute the order of the blessings in kiddush, they dispute the order of the blessings in havdala. If a meal continued until the conclusion of Shabbat, Beit Shammai say: One recites the blessing over the candle, then the Grace after Meals blessing, then the blessing over the spices, and finally the blessing of havdala. And Beit Hillel say: The order is candle, spices, Grace after Meals, and havdala.

בית שמאי אומרים שברא מאור האש ובית הלל אומרים בורא מאורי האש

With regard to the blessing over the candle, Beit Shammai say: Who created [bara] the light of fire. And Beit Hillel say: Who creates [boreh] the lights of fire.

אין מברכין לא על הנר ולא על הבשמים של גוים ולא על הנר ולא על הבשמים של מתים ולא על הנר ולא על הבשמים של עבודה זרה ואין מברכין על הנר עד שיאותו לאורו

One may neither recite a blessing over the candle nor over the spices of gentiles, nor over the candle nor the spices designated to pay respects to the dead, nor over the candle nor the spices of idolatry. The mishna cites another halakha with regard to the blessing over the candle: And one does not recite the blessing over the candle until he derives benefit from its light.

מי שאכל ושכח ולא בירך בית שמאי אומרים יחזור למקומו ויברך ובית הלל אומרים יברך במקום שנזכר ועד מתי מברך עד כדי שיתעכל המזון שבמעיו

The mishna cites an additional dispute: One who ate and forgot and did not recite a blessing; Beit Shammai say: He returns to the place where he ate and recites the blessing. Beit Hillel say: That is unnecessary. He recites the blessing at the place where he remembered. Both agree, however, that there is a limit with regard to how long after eating one may recite Grace after Meals. And until when does he recite the blessing? Until the food is digested in his intestines.

בא להן יין אחר המזון אם אין שם אלא אותו כוס בית שמאי אומרים מברך על היין ואחר כך מברך על המזון ובית הלל אומרים מברך על המזון ואחר כך מברך על היין

Wine came before the diners after the meal; if only that cup of wine is there, Beit Shammai say: One recites a blessing over the wine and recites a blessing over the food, Grace after Meals, thereafter. And Beit Hillel say: One recites a blessing over the food and recites a blessing over the wine thereafter.

ועונין אמן אחר ישראל המברך ואין עונין אמן אחר כותי המברך עד שישמע כל הברכה כולה:

And one answers amen after a Jew who recites a blessing even if he did not hear the entire blessing, and one does not answer amen after a Samaritan [Kuti] who recites a blessing until he hears the whole blessing in its entirety, as perhaps the Kuti introduced an element inconsistent with the Jewish faith in that section of the blessing that he did not hear.

גמ׳ תנו רבנן דברים שבין בית שמאי ובית הלל בסעודה בית שמאי אומרים מברך על היום ואחר כך מברך על היין שהיום גורם ליין שיבא וכבר קדש היום ועדיין יין לא בא

GEMARA: The Sages taught in a Tosefta: These are the matters of dispute between Beit Shammai and Beit Hillel with regard to the halakhot of a meal: Beit Shammai say: When one recites kiddush over wine, one recites a blessing over the sanctification of the day and recites a blessing over the wine thereafter as the day causes the wine to come before the meal. And Beit Shammai offer an additional reason: The day has already been sanctified and the wine has not yet come. Since Shabbat was sanctified first, it should likewise be mentioned first.

ובית הלל אומרים מברך על היין ואחר כך מברך על היום שהיין גורם לקדושה שתאמר דבר אחר ברכת היין תדירה וברכת היום אינה תדירה תדיר ושאינו תדיר תדיר קודם והלכה כדברי בית הלל

And Beit Hillel say: One recites a blessing over the wine and recites a blessing over the day thereafter, because the wine causes the sanctification to be recited. Were there no wine, kiddush would not be recited. Alternatively, Beit Hillel say: The blessing over wine is recited frequently, and the blessing over the day is not recited frequently, and there is a general principle: When a frequent practice and an infrequent practice clash, the frequent practice takes precedence over the infrequent practice. The Tosefta concludes: The halakha is in accordance with the statement of Beit Hillel.

מאי דבר אחר וכי תימא התם תרתי והכא חדא הכי נמי תרתי נינהו ברכת היין תדירה וברכת היום אינה תדירה תדיר ושאינו תדיר תדיר קודם

The Gemara asks: What is alternatively? Why did Beit Hillel cite an additional reason? The Gemara responds: And if you say that there Beit Shammai cite two reasons, and here Beit Hillel offer only one, therefore Beit Hillel said they are two reasons here as well: The blessing over wine is recited frequently and the blessing over the day is not recited frequently. When a frequent practice and an infrequent practice clash, the frequent practice takes precedence over the infrequent practice.

והלכה כדברי בית הלל פשיטא דהא נפקא בת קול

It was taught in the Tosefta: The halakha is in accordance with the statement of Beit Hillel. The Gemara remarks: It is obvious, as a Divine Voice emerged and proclaimed that the halakha is always in accordance with the opinion of Beit Hillel. Why did the Tosefta tell us here that the halakha is in accordance with their opinion?

איבעית אימא קודם בת קול ואיבעית אימא לאחר בת קול

The Gemara offers two answers: If you wish, say that this Tosefta was taught before the Divine Voice emerged and proclaimed that general principle. And if you wish, say instead, that this Tosefta was indeed taught after the Divine Voice emerged,

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Berakhot 51

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Berakhot 51

במידי דלא ממאיס נמי לסלקינהו לצד אחד וליברך תרגמא רב יצחק קסקסאה קמיה דרבי יוסי בר אבין משמיה דרבי יוחנן משום שנאמר ימלא פי תהלתך

The Gemara asks: With regard to a food item that does not become disgusting as well, let him shift it to the side and recite the blessing. Why need he spit it out? Rav Yitzḥak Kaskesa’a explained before Rabbi Yosei bar Avin, in the name of Rabbi Yoḥanan: One spits it out because it is stated: “My mouth will be filled with Your praise” (Psalms 71:8), meaning that one should recite God’s praises with his entire mouth, not merely half.

בעו מיניה מרב חסדא מי שאכל ושתה ולא ברך מהו שיחזור ויברך אמר להו מי שאכל שום וריחו נודף יחזור ויאכל שום אחר כדי שיהא ריחו נודף

They raised a dilemma before Rav Ḥisda: One who ate and drank and did not recite a blessing, what is the ruling? Does he return and recite the blessing that he should have recited beforehand before he continues eating or not? In response, Rav Ḥisda said to them an analogy: Should one who ate garlic and the odor on his breath smells return and eat another garlic so that the odor on his breath will smell? That is to say, one must recite a blessing. Should one who committed a transgression and failed to recite a blessing before eating, remedy his situation by continuing to eat without reciting a blessing (Talmidei Rabbeinu Yona)?

אמר רבינא הלכך אפילו גמר סעודתו יחזור ויברך דתניא טבל ועלה אומר בעלייתו ברוך אשר קדשנו במצותיו וצונו על הטבילה

Ravina said: Therefore, even if one finished his meal, he must return and recite a blessing. He cites a proof, as it was taught in a baraita with regard to the laws of immersion: One who was ritually impure who immersed himself in a ritual bath and emerged, as he emerges he recites: Blessed…Who has made us holy through His mitzvot and has commanded us about ritual immersion. Evidently, in certain cases, one may recite the blessing after completing the act.

ולא היא התם מעיקרא גברא לא חזי הכא מעיקרא גברא חזי והואיל ואידחי אידחי:

The Gemara rejects the parallel between the cases: That is not so, as there, in the case of immersion, initially, before he immersed himself, the man was unfit to recite the blessing because he was ritually impure; here, in the case where one did not recite a blessing before eating, initially he was fit to recite the blessing, and since he did not recite the blessing before he ate and he concluded his meal and is, therefore, excluded from reciting the blessing, he is completely excluded and has no way to remedy the situation.

תנו רבנן אספרגוס יפה ללב וטוב לעינים וכל שכן לבני מעים והרגיל בו יפה לכל גופו והמשתכר הימנו קשה לכל גופו

Tangential to the laws concerning wine that the Gemara cited earlier, the Sages taught: Asparagus, wine or other alcoholic beverages that they were accustomed to drink early in the morning before eating, is agreeable for the heart and beneficial for the eyes, and all the more so for the intestines. And in extolling the virtues of this drink, the Gemara says: One who is accustomed to drink it, it is agreeable for his entire body. However, one must be careful, as one who drinks excessively and becomes drunk, it is harmful for his entire body.

מדקתני יפה ללב מכלל דבחמרא עסקינן וקתני וכל שכן לבני מעים והתניא ללעט יפה לרמת קשה

The Gemara discusses this: From the fact that it was taught that asparagus is agreeable for the heart, it may be inferred that we are dealing with asparagus made from wine, which is known to be agreeable for the heart. And we learned: And all the more so, asparagus is beneficial for the intestines. Wasn’t it taught in a baraita: For L-E-T, which is an acronym for lev, heart; einayim, eyes; teḥol, spleen, it is beneficial, but for R-M-T, rosh, head; me’ayim, intestines; taḥtoniot, hemorrhoids, it is harmful. Apparently, asparagus is harmful for one’s intestines.

כי תניא ההיא במיושן כדתנן קונם יין שאני טועם שהיין קשה לבני מעים אמרו לו והלא מיושן יפה הוא לבני מעים ושתק אסור בחדש ומותר במיושן שמע מינה:

The Gemara responds: That baraita, in which it was taught that asparagus is beneficial to one’s intestines, refers to asparagus made with old wine. As we learned in the mishna concerning the laws of vows that one who vowed: Wine is konam for me to taste because it is harmful to the intestines, and those who heard him said to him: But isn’t old wine beneficial to the intestines? If he was silent and did not argue the point, he is forbidden to drink new wine because of his vow, but he is permitted to drink old wine. Conclude from this that old wine is beneficial for the intestines.

תנו רבנן ששה דברים נאמרו באספרגוס אין שותין אותו אלא כשהוא חי ומלא מקבלו בימין ושותהו בשמאל ואין משיחין אחריו ואין מפסיקין בו ואין מחזירין אותו אלא למי שנתנו לו ורק אחריו ואין סומכין אותו אלא במינו

The Sages taught: Six things were said with regard to asparagus: One only drinks it undiluted and from a full cup; he receives it from the attendant in his right hand and drinks it with his left hand; one should not converse after drinking it and one does not stop while drinking it, but should drink it all at once; one only returns it to the one who gave it to him; and he spits after drinking it; and one may only supplement it with its own kind, meaning that after drinking asparagus, one should only eat something that is used to make similar beverages, e.g., dates after date beer, etc.

והתניא אין סומכין אותו אלא בפת לא קשיא הא בדחמרא הא בדשכרא

The Gemara challenges: Wasn’t it taught in a baraita that one may only supplement asparagus with bread? The Gemara responds: That is not difficult. This baraita, in which it was taught that one supplements it with bread, refers to asparagus made of wine, while that baraita, in which it was taught that one supplements it with its own kind, refers to asparagus made of beer.

תני חדא ללעט יפה לרמת קשה ותניא אידך לרמת יפה ללעט קשה לא קשיא הא בדחמרא הא בדשכרא

It was taught in one baraita that asparagus is beneficial for L-E-T, heart, eyes, and spleen, and harmful for R-M-T, head, intestines, and hemorrhoids. And it was taught in another baraita that asparagus is beneficial for R-M-T, head, intestines, and hemorrhoids, and harmful for L-E-T, heart, eyes, and spleen. The Gemara responds: That is not difficult. This baraita, in which it was taught that asparagus is beneficial for L-E-T, refers to asparagus made of wine, while that baraita, in which it was taught that asparagus is harmful for L-E-T, refers to asparagus made of beer.

תני חדא רק אחריו לוקה ותניא אידך לא רק אחריו לוקה לא קשיא הא בדחמרא הא בדשכרא

The Gemara resolves a contradiction between two other baraitot in the same manner. It was taught in one baraita that if he spit after drinking asparagus, he suffers an illness. And it was taught in another baraita that if he did not spit after drinking asparagus, he suffers an illness. The Gemara responds: That is not difficult. This baraita, in which it was taught that if he spit after drinking it he suffers an illness, refers to asparagus made of wine, while that baraita, in which it was taught that if he did not spit he suffers an illness, refers to asparagus made of beer.

אמר רב אשי השתא דאמרת לא רק אחריו לוקה מימיו נזרקין אפילו בפני המלך:

Rav Ashi said: Now that you said that if he did not spit after drinking it he suffers an illness, its water, the saliva in his mouth after drinking asparagus, may be expelled even when standing before the king, as failure to do so will endanger him.

אמר רבי ישמעאל בן אלישע שלשה דברים סח לי סוריאל שר הפנים אל תטול חלוקך בשחרית מיד השמש ותלבש ואל תטול ידיך ממי שלא נטל ידיו ואל תחזיר כוס אספרגוס אלא למי שנתנו לך מפני שתכספית ואמרי לה אסתלגנית של מלאכי חבלה מצפין לו לאדם ואומרים אימתי יבא אדם לידי אחד מדברים הללו וילכד

Rabbi Yishmael ben Elisha said: Suriel, the heavenly ministering angel of the Divine Presence, told me three things from on high: Do not take your cloak in the morning from the hand of your servant and wear it; do not ritually wash your hands from one who has not ritually washed his own hands; and only return a cup of asparagus to the one who gave it to you. Why is this? Because a band of demons and some say a band of angels of destruction lie in wait for a person and say: When will a person encounter one of these circumstances and be captured?

אמר רבי יהושע בן לוי שלשה דברים סח לי מלאך המות אל תטול חלוקך שחרית מיד השמש ותלבש ואל תטול ידיך ממי שלא נטל ידיו ואל תעמוד לפני הנשים בשעה שחוזרות מן המת מפני שאני מרקד ובא לפניהן וחרבי בידי ויש לי רשות לחבל

Similarly, the Gemara relates that Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi said: The Angel of Death told me three things: Do not take your cloak in the morning from the hand of your servant and wear it; do not ritually wash your hands from one who has not ritually washed his own hands; and do not stand before the women when they return from the burial of the deceased, because I dance and come before them and my sword is in hand, and I have license to destroy.

ואי פגע מאי תקנתיה לינשוף מדוכתיה ארבע אמות אי איכא נהרא ליעבריה ואי איכא דרכא אחרינא ליזיל בה ואי איכא גודא ליקו אחורא ואי לא ליהדר אפיה ולימא ויאמר ה׳ אל השטן יגער ה׳ בך וגו׳ עד דחלפי מיניה:

The Gemara asks: And if one encounters women returning from a funeral, what is his remedy? The Gemara answers: Let him jump four cubits from where he stands; if there is a river, let him cross it; if there is another path, let him go down it; if there is a wall, let him stand behind it; and if not, he should turn his face around and recite the verse: “And the Lord said to the Satan: The Lord rebukes you, Satan, the Lord that has chosen Jerusalem rebukes you; is not this man a brand plucked from the fire?” (Zechariah 3:2), until they pass him.

אמר רבי זירא אמר רבי אבהו ואמרי לה במתניתא תנא עשרה דברים נאמרו בכוס של ברכה טעון הדחה ושטיפה חי ומלא עיטור ועיטוף נוטלו בשתי ידיו ונותנו בימין ומגביהו מן הקרקע טפח ונותן עיניו בו ויש אומרים אף משגרו במתנה לאנשי ביתו

Rabbi Zeira said that Rabbi Abbahu said, and some say that this halakha was taught in a baraita: Ten things were said with regard to a cup of blessing, e.g., the cup of wine over which Grace after Meals is recited: It requires rinsing and washing; it must be undiluted wine, and full; it requires adorning and wrapping; he takes it in his two hands and places it in his right hand, and he lifts it at least one handbreadth from the ground, and when reciting the blessing he fixes his eyes upon it. And some say: He also sends it as a gift to members of his household.

אמר רבי יוחנן אנו אין לנו אלא ארבעה בלבד הדחה שטיפה חי ומלא תנא הדחה מבפנים ושטיפה מבחוץ

Rabbi Yoḥanan said: We only have four of those ten things: Rinsing, washing, the wine must be undiluted, and the cup must be full. In explanation, it was taught: Rinsing is from the inside of the cup, and washing is from the outside of the cup.

אמר רבי יוחנן כל המברך על כוס מלא נותנין לו נחלה בלי מצרים שנאמר ומלא ברכת ה׳ ים ודרום ירשה רבי יוסי בר חנינא אומר זוכה ונוחל שני עולמים העולם הזה והעולם הבא

Rabbi Yoḥanan said: Anyone who recites a blessing over a full cup, they give him a boundless inheritance, as it is stated: “And full of the blessing of the Lord, possess the sea and the south” (Deuteronomy 33:23), indicating that one whose cup is full will receive God’s blessing and will inherit from all sides. Rabbi Yosei bar Ḥanina says: He merits and inherits two worlds, this world and the World-to-Come.

עיטור רב יהודה מעטרהו בתלמידים רב חסדא מעטר ליה בנטלי אמר רבי חנן ובחי אמר רב ששת ובברכת הארץ

The Gemara continues explaining the ten things said with regard to the cup of blessing: The Sages would adorn the cup of blessing in different ways. Rav Yehuda would adorn it with students, as when he recited the blessing he would surround himself with students to accord honor to the blessing. Rav Ḥisda, however, would adorn it with other cups; he would surround the cup of blessing with other cups. Rabbi Ḥanan said: And specifically with undiluted wine. Rav Sheshet said: And in the blessing of the land.

עיטוף רב פפא מעטף ויתיב רב אסי פריס סודרא על רישיה

The Sages also had different customs with regard to wrapping. Rav Pappa would wrap himself in his prayer shawl and sit and recite Grace after Meals. Rav Asi spread a cloth on his head as an sign of respect.

נוטלו בשתי ידיו אמר רבי חיננא בר פפא מאי קראה שאו ידיכם קדש וברכו את ה׳

With regard to what was said that he takes it in his two hands, Rabbi Ḥinnana bar Pappa said: What is the verse that proves this? As it is stated: “Lift your hands in holiness and bless the Lord” (Psalms 134:2).

ונותנו לימין אמר רבי חייא בר אבא אמר רבי יוחנן ראשונים שאלו שמאל מהו שתסייע לימין אמר רב אשי הואיל וראשונים איבעיא להו ולא איפשט להו

As for what was said after he takes it in his two hands: And he places it in his right hand, Rabbi Ḥiyya bar Abba said that Rabbi Yoḥanan said: The early Sages asked: What is the ruling, may the left hand assist the right when taking the cup? Rav Ashi said: Since the early Sages raised this dilemma and it was not resolved for them,

אנן נעבד לחומרא

we will act stringently and not assist the right hand with the left.

ומגביהו מן הקרקע טפח אמר רב אחא ברבי חנינא מאי קראה כוס ישועות אשא ובשם ה׳ אקרא

And he lifts it at least one handbreadth from the ground. Rav Aḥa, son of Rabbi Ḥanina, says: What is the verse that proves this? “I will lift the cup of salvation and upon the name of the Lord I will call” (Psalms 116:13).

ונותן עיניו בו כי היכי דלא ניסח דעתיה מיניה

And he fixes his eyes upon the cup; so that his attention will not be distracted from it.

ומשגרו לאנשי ביתו במתנה כי היכי דתתברך דביתהו

And he sends it as a gift to members of his household; so that his wife will be blessed.

עולא אקלע לבי רב נחמן כריך ריפתא בריך ברכת מזונא יהב ליה כסא דברכתא לרב נחמן אמר ליה רב נחמן לישדר מר כסא דברכתא לילתא אמר ליה הכי אמר רבי יוחנן אין פרי בטנה של אשה מתברך אלא מפרי בטנו של איש שנאמר וברך פרי בטנך פרי בטנה לא נאמר אלא פרי בטנך

The Gemara relates: Ulla happened to come to the house of Rav Naḥman. He ate bread, recited Grace after Meals, and gave the cup of blessing to Rav Naḥman. Rav Naḥman said to him: Master, please send the cup of blessing to Yalta, my wife. Ulla responded to him: There is no need, as Rabbi Yoḥanan said as follows: The fruit of a woman’s body is blessed only from the fruit of a man’s body, as it is stated: “And He will love you, and bless you, and make you numerous, and He will bless the fruit of your body” (Deuteronomy 7:13). The Gemara infers: “He will bless the fruit of her body” was not stated. Rather, “He will bless the fruit of your [masculine singular] body.” For his wife to be blessed with children, it is sufficient to give the cup to Rav Naḥman.

תניא נמי הכי רבי נתן אומר מנין שאין פרי בטנה של אשה מתברך אלא מפרי בטנו של איש שנאמר וברך פרי בטנך פרי בטנה לא נאמר אלא פרי בטנך

That opinion was also taught in a baraita: Rabbi Natan says: From where is it derived that the fruit of a woman’s body is only blessed from the fruit of a man’s body? As it is stated: And He will bless the fruit of your body; He will bless the fruit of her body was not stated. Rather, He will bless the fruit of your body.

אדהכי שמעה ילתא קמה בזיהרא ועלתה לבי חמרא ותברא ארבע מאה דני דחמרא אמר ליה רב נחמן נשדר לה מר כסא אחרינא שלח לה כל האי נבגא דברכתא היא שלחה ליה ממהדורי מילי ומסמרטוטי כלמי

The Gemara relates that meanwhile Yalta heard Ulla’s refusal to send her the cup of blessing. Yalta was the daughter of the Exilarch and was accustomed to being treated with deference, so she arose in a rage, entered the wine-storage, and broke four hundred barrels of wine. Afterward, Rav Naḥman said to Ulla: Let the Master send her another cup. Ulla sent Yalta a different cup with a message saying that all of the wine in this barrel is wine of blessing; although you did not drink from the cup of blessing itself, you may at least drink from the barrel from which the cup of blessing was poured. She sent him a stinging response: From itinerant peddlers, Ulla traveled regularly from Eretz Yisrael to Babylonia and back, come meaningless words, and from rags come lice.

אמר רב אסי אין מסיחין על כוס של ברכה ואמר רב אסי אין מברכין על כוס של פורענות מאי כוס של פורענות אמר רב נחמן בר יצחק כוס שני תניא נמי הכי השותה כפלים לא יברך משום שנאמר הכון לקראת אלהיך ישראל והאי לא מתקן

Rav Asi said: One may not speak over a cup of blessing from the moment he takes it in his hand until he drinks it. And Rav Asi said: One may not recite a blessing over a cup of punishment. The Gemara clarifies: What is a cup of punishment? Rav Naḥman bar Yitzḥak said: A second cup. That opinion was also taught in a baraita: One who drinks in pairs should not recite a blessing, because it is stated: “Prepare to meet your God, O Israel” (Amos 4:12). One must be well-prepared in order to stand before his Creator, and this person who drank two cups of wine is not prepared, as drinking an even number of cups of wine is dangerous due to demons.

אמר רבי אבהו ואמרי לה במתניתא תנא האוכל ומהלך מברך מעומד וכשהוא אוכל מעומד מברך מיושב וכשהוא מיסב ואוכל יושב ומברך והלכתא בכולהו יושב ומברך:

In concluding the halakhot of blessings, the Gemara cites that Rabbi Abbahu said, and some say it was taught in a baraita: One who eats and walks, recites the blessing of Grace after Meals standing in one place, and one who eats standing, recites the blessing while seated, and one who eats reclining on a divan sits and then recites the blessing. And the halakha is: In all of these cases one sits and then recites the blessing.

הדרן עלך שלשה שאכלו

 

מתני׳ אלו דברים שבין בית שמאי ובין בית הלל בסעודה בית שמאי אומרים מברך על היום ואחר כך מברך על היין ובית הלל אומרים מברך על היין ואחר כך מברך על היום

MISHNA: These are the matters of dispute between Beit Shammai and Beit Hillel with regard to the halakhot of a meal: One dispute concerns the order of blessings in kiddush. Beit Shammai say: When one recites kiddush over wine, one recites a blessing over the sanctification of the day and recites a blessing over the wine thereafter. And Beit Hillel say: One recites a blessing over the wine and recites a blessing over the day thereafter.

בית שמאי אומרים נוטלין לידים ואחר כך מוזגין את הכוס ובית הלל אומרים מוזגין את הכוס ואחר כך נוטלין לידים

Similarly, Beit Hillel and Beit Shammai disagree with regard to drinking wine before a meal. Beit Shammai say: One washes his hands and mixes water with the wine in the cup thereafter, and Beit Hillel say: One mixes water with the wine in the cup and only washes his hands thereafter. The basis of this particular dispute is with regard to the laws of ritual purity, as the Gemara will explain below.

בית שמאי אומרים מקנח ידיו במפה ומניחה על השולחן ובית הלל אומרים על הכסת

Also with regard to the laws of ritual purity, Beit Shammai say: After washing, one dries his hands with a cloth and places it on the table. And Beit Hillel say: One places it on the cushion upon which he is sitting.

בית שמאי אומרים מכבדין את הבית ואחר כך נוטלין לידים ובית הלל אומרים נוטלין לידים ואחר כך מכבדין את הבית

Similarly, Beit Shammai say: One sweeps the area of the house where the meal took place and he washes his hands with the final waters before Grace after Meals thereafter. And Beit Hillel say: One washes his hands and sweeps the house thereafter.

בית שמאי אומרים נר ומזון בשמים והבדלה ובית הלל אומרים נר ובשמים מזון והבדלה

Just as they dispute the order of the blessings in kiddush, they dispute the order of the blessings in havdala. If a meal continued until the conclusion of Shabbat, Beit Shammai say: One recites the blessing over the candle, then the Grace after Meals blessing, then the blessing over the spices, and finally the blessing of havdala. And Beit Hillel say: The order is candle, spices, Grace after Meals, and havdala.

בית שמאי אומרים שברא מאור האש ובית הלל אומרים בורא מאורי האש

With regard to the blessing over the candle, Beit Shammai say: Who created [bara] the light of fire. And Beit Hillel say: Who creates [boreh] the lights of fire.

אין מברכין לא על הנר ולא על הבשמים של גוים ולא על הנר ולא על הבשמים של מתים ולא על הנר ולא על הבשמים של עבודה זרה ואין מברכין על הנר עד שיאותו לאורו

One may neither recite a blessing over the candle nor over the spices of gentiles, nor over the candle nor the spices designated to pay respects to the dead, nor over the candle nor the spices of idolatry. The mishna cites another halakha with regard to the blessing over the candle: And one does not recite the blessing over the candle until he derives benefit from its light.

מי שאכל ושכח ולא בירך בית שמאי אומרים יחזור למקומו ויברך ובית הלל אומרים יברך במקום שנזכר ועד מתי מברך עד כדי שיתעכל המזון שבמעיו

The mishna cites an additional dispute: One who ate and forgot and did not recite a blessing; Beit Shammai say: He returns to the place where he ate and recites the blessing. Beit Hillel say: That is unnecessary. He recites the blessing at the place where he remembered. Both agree, however, that there is a limit with regard to how long after eating one may recite Grace after Meals. And until when does he recite the blessing? Until the food is digested in his intestines.

בא להן יין אחר המזון אם אין שם אלא אותו כוס בית שמאי אומרים מברך על היין ואחר כך מברך על המזון ובית הלל אומרים מברך על המזון ואחר כך מברך על היין

Wine came before the diners after the meal; if only that cup of wine is there, Beit Shammai say: One recites a blessing over the wine and recites a blessing over the food, Grace after Meals, thereafter. And Beit Hillel say: One recites a blessing over the food and recites a blessing over the wine thereafter.

ועונין אמן אחר ישראל המברך ואין עונין אמן אחר כותי המברך עד שישמע כל הברכה כולה:

And one answers amen after a Jew who recites a blessing even if he did not hear the entire blessing, and one does not answer amen after a Samaritan [Kuti] who recites a blessing until he hears the whole blessing in its entirety, as perhaps the Kuti introduced an element inconsistent with the Jewish faith in that section of the blessing that he did not hear.

גמ׳ תנו רבנן דברים שבין בית שמאי ובית הלל בסעודה בית שמאי אומרים מברך על היום ואחר כך מברך על היין שהיום גורם ליין שיבא וכבר קדש היום ועדיין יין לא בא

GEMARA: The Sages taught in a Tosefta: These are the matters of dispute between Beit Shammai and Beit Hillel with regard to the halakhot of a meal: Beit Shammai say: When one recites kiddush over wine, one recites a blessing over the sanctification of the day and recites a blessing over the wine thereafter as the day causes the wine to come before the meal. And Beit Shammai offer an additional reason: The day has already been sanctified and the wine has not yet come. Since Shabbat was sanctified first, it should likewise be mentioned first.

ובית הלל אומרים מברך על היין ואחר כך מברך על היום שהיין גורם לקדושה שתאמר דבר אחר ברכת היין תדירה וברכת היום אינה תדירה תדיר ושאינו תדיר תדיר קודם והלכה כדברי בית הלל

And Beit Hillel say: One recites a blessing over the wine and recites a blessing over the day thereafter, because the wine causes the sanctification to be recited. Were there no wine, kiddush would not be recited. Alternatively, Beit Hillel say: The blessing over wine is recited frequently, and the blessing over the day is not recited frequently, and there is a general principle: When a frequent practice and an infrequent practice clash, the frequent practice takes precedence over the infrequent practice. The Tosefta concludes: The halakha is in accordance with the statement of Beit Hillel.

מאי דבר אחר וכי תימא התם תרתי והכא חדא הכי נמי תרתי נינהו ברכת היין תדירה וברכת היום אינה תדירה תדיר ושאינו תדיר תדיר קודם

The Gemara asks: What is alternatively? Why did Beit Hillel cite an additional reason? The Gemara responds: And if you say that there Beit Shammai cite two reasons, and here Beit Hillel offer only one, therefore Beit Hillel said they are two reasons here as well: The blessing over wine is recited frequently and the blessing over the day is not recited frequently. When a frequent practice and an infrequent practice clash, the frequent practice takes precedence over the infrequent practice.

והלכה כדברי בית הלל פשיטא דהא נפקא בת קול

It was taught in the Tosefta: The halakha is in accordance with the statement of Beit Hillel. The Gemara remarks: It is obvious, as a Divine Voice emerged and proclaimed that the halakha is always in accordance with the opinion of Beit Hillel. Why did the Tosefta tell us here that the halakha is in accordance with their opinion?

איבעית אימא קודם בת קול ואיבעית אימא לאחר בת קול

The Gemara offers two answers: If you wish, say that this Tosefta was taught before the Divine Voice emerged and proclaimed that general principle. And if you wish, say instead, that this Tosefta was indeed taught after the Divine Voice emerged,

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