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Today's Daf Yomi

February 23, 2020 | 讻状讞 讘砖讘讟 转砖状驻

  • This month's learning is sponsored by Sami Groff in honor of Shoshana Keats Jaskoll and Chochmat Nashim.

Berakhot 51

What does one do if one ate without making a blessing – does make the blessing in the middle of the meal? What if one finished, can one make the blessing before the meal after one finished eating? The gemara discusses whether a drink made with wine or beer called ‘asparagus’ is healthy or not. Contradictory sources are brought and resolved. Two rabbis mention a number of things that were taught to them by angels regarding behavior and foods. There is a debate regarding laws that apply to a cup used for a blessing. This leads into a story with Yalta, wife of Rav Nachman who is insulted by Ula’s behavior and breaks 400 barrels of wine. On what issues relating to meals do Beit Shamai and Beit Hillel disagree?

转讜讻谉 讝讛 转讜专讙诐 讙诐 诇: 注讘专讬转

讘诪讬讚讬 讚诇讗 诪诪讗讬住 谞诪讬 诇住诇拽讬谞讛讜 诇爪讚 讗讞讚 讜诇讬讘专讱 转专讙诪讗 专讘 讬爪讞拽 拽住拽住讗讛 拽诪讬讛 讚专讘讬 讬讜住讬 讘专 讗讘讬谉 诪砖诪讬讛 讚专讘讬 讬讜讞谞谉 诪砖讜诐 砖谞讗诪专 讬诪诇讗 驻讬 转讛诇转讱


The Gemara asks: With regard to a food item that does not become disgusting as well, let him shift it to the side and recite the blessing. Why need he spit it out? Rav Yitz岣k Kaskesa鈥檃 explained before Rabbi Yosei bar Avin, in the name of Rabbi Yo岣nan: One spits it out because it is stated: 鈥淢y mouth will be filled with Your praise鈥 (Psalms 71:8), meaning that one should recite God鈥檚 praises with his entire mouth, not merely half.


讘注讜 诪讬谞讬讛 诪专讘 讞住讚讗 诪讬 砖讗讻诇 讜砖转讛 讜诇讗 讘专讱 诪讛讜 砖讬讞讝讜专 讜讬讘专讱 讗诪专 诇讛讜 诪讬 砖讗讻诇 砖讜诐 讜专讬讞讜 谞讜讚祝 讬讞讝讜专 讜讬讗讻诇 砖讜诐 讗讞专 讻讚讬 砖讬讛讗 专讬讞讜 谞讜讚祝


They raised a dilemma before Rav 岣sda: One who ate and drank and did not recite a blessing, what is the ruling? Does he return and recite the blessing that he should have recited beforehand before he continues eating or not? In response, Rav 岣sda said to them an analogy: Should one who ate garlic and the odor on his breath smells return and eat another garlic so that the odor on his breath will smell? That is to say, one must recite a blessing. Should one who committed a transgression and failed to recite a blessing before eating, remedy his situation by continuing to eat without reciting a blessing (Talmidei Rabbeinu Yona)?


讗诪专 专讘讬谞讗 讛诇讻讱 讗驻讬诇讜 讙诪专 住注讜讚转讜 讬讞讝讜专 讜讬讘专讱 讚转谞讬讗 讟讘诇 讜注诇讛 讗讜诪专 讘注诇讬讬转讜 讘专讜讱 讗砖专 拽讚砖谞讜 讘诪爪讜转讬讜 讜爪讜谞讜 注诇 讛讟讘讬诇讛


Ravina said: Therefore, even if one finished his meal, he must return and recite a blessing. He cites a proof, as it was taught in a baraita with regard to the laws of immersion: One who was ritually impure who immersed himself in a ritual bath and emerged, as he emerges he recites: Blessed鈥ho has made us holy through His mitzvot and has commanded us about ritual immersion. Evidently, in certain cases, one may recite the blessing after completing the act.


讜诇讗 讛讬讗 讛转诐 诪注讬拽专讗 讙讘专讗 诇讗 讞讝讬 讛讻讗 诪注讬拽专讗 讙讘专讗 讞讝讬 讜讛讜讗讬诇 讜讗讬讚讞讬 讗讬讚讞讬:


The Gemara rejects the parallel between the cases: That is not so, as there, in the case of immersion, initially, before he immersed himself, the man was unfit to recite the blessing because he was ritually impure; here, in the case where one did not recite a blessing before eating, initially he was fit to recite the blessing, and since he did not recite the blessing before he ate and he concluded his meal and is, therefore, excluded from reciting the blessing, he is completely excluded and has no way to remedy the situation.


转谞讜 专讘谞谉 讗住驻专讙讜住 讬驻讛 诇诇讘 讜讟讜讘 诇注讬谞讬诐 讜讻诇 砖讻谉 诇讘谞讬 诪注讬诐 讜讛专讙讬诇 讘讜 讬驻讛 诇讻诇 讙讜驻讜 讜讛诪砖转讻专 讛讬诪谞讜 拽砖讛 诇讻诇 讙讜驻讜


Tangential to the laws concerning wine that the Gemara cited earlier, the Sages taught: Asparagus, wine or other alcoholic beverages that they were accustomed to drink early in the morning before eating, is agreeable for the heart and beneficial for the eyes, and all the more so for the intestines. And in extolling the virtues of this drink, the Gemara says: One who is accustomed to drink it, it is agreeable for his entire body. However, one must be careful, as one who drinks excessively and becomes drunk, it is harmful for his entire body.


诪讚拽转谞讬 讬驻讛 诇诇讘 诪讻诇诇 讚讘讞诪专讗 注住拽讬谞谉 讜拽转谞讬 讜讻诇 砖讻谉 诇讘谞讬 诪注讬诐 讜讛转谞讬讗 诇诇注讟 讬驻讛 诇专诪转 拽砖讛


The Gemara discusses this: From the fact that it was taught that asparagus is agreeable for the heart, it may be inferred that we are dealing with asparagus made from wine, which is known to be agreeable for the heart. And we learned: And all the more so, asparagus is beneficial for the intestines. Wasn鈥檛 it taught in a baraita: For L-E-T, which is an acronym for lev, heart; einayim, eyes; te岣l, spleen, it is beneficial, but for R-M-T, rosh, head; me鈥檃yim, intestines; ta岣oniot, hemorrhoids, it is harmful. Apparently, asparagus is harmful for one鈥檚 intestines.


讻讬 转谞讬讗 讛讛讬讗 讘诪讬讜砖谉 讻讚转谞谉 拽讜谞诐 讬讬谉 砖讗谞讬 讟讜注诐 砖讛讬讬谉 拽砖讛 诇讘谞讬 诪注讬诐 讗诪专讜 诇讜 讜讛诇讗 诪讬讜砖谉 讬驻讛 讛讜讗 诇讘谞讬 诪注讬诐 讜砖转拽 讗住讜专 讘讞讚砖 讜诪讜转专 讘诪讬讜砖谉 砖诪注 诪讬谞讛:


The Gemara responds: That baraita, in which it was taught that asparagus is beneficial to one鈥檚 intestines, refers to asparagus made with old wine. As we learned in the mishna concerning the laws of vows that one who vowed: Wine is konam for me to taste because it is harmful to the intestines, and those who heard him said to him: But isn鈥檛 old wine beneficial to the intestines? If he was silent and did not argue the point, he is forbidden to drink new wine because of his vow, but he is permitted to drink old wine. Conclude from this that old wine is beneficial for the intestines.


转谞讜 专讘谞谉 砖砖讛 讚讘专讬诐 谞讗诪专讜 讘讗住驻专讙讜住 讗讬谉 砖讜转讬谉 讗讜转讜 讗诇讗 讻砖讛讜讗 讞讬 讜诪诇讗 诪拽讘诇讜 讘讬诪讬谉 讜砖讜转讛讜 讘砖诪讗诇 讜讗讬谉 诪砖讬讞讬谉 讗讞专讬讜 讜讗讬谉 诪驻住讬拽讬谉 讘讜 讜讗讬谉 诪讞讝讬专讬谉 讗讜转讜 讗诇讗 诇诪讬 砖谞转谞讜 诇讜 讜专拽 讗讞专讬讜 讜讗讬谉 住讜诪讻讬谉 讗讜转讜 讗诇讗 讘诪讬谞讜


The Sages taught: Six things were said with regard to asparagus: One only drinks it undiluted and from a full cup; he receives it from the attendant in his right hand and drinks it with his left hand; one should not converse after drinking it and one does not stop while drinking it, but should drink it all at once; one only returns it to the one who gave it to him; and he spits after drinking it; and one may only supplement it with its own kind, meaning that after drinking asparagus, one should only eat something that is used to make similar beverages, e.g., dates after date beer, etc.


讜讛转谞讬讗 讗讬谉 住讜诪讻讬谉 讗讜转讜 讗诇讗 讘驻转 诇讗 拽砖讬讗 讛讗 讘讚讞诪专讗 讛讗 讘讚砖讻专讗


The Gemara challenges: Wasn鈥檛 it taught in a baraita that one may only supplement asparagus with bread? The Gemara responds: That is not difficult. This baraita, in which it was taught that one supplements it with bread, refers to asparagus made of wine, while that baraita, in which it was taught that one supplements it with its own kind, refers to asparagus made of beer.


转谞讬 讞讚讗 诇诇注讟 讬驻讛 诇专诪转 拽砖讛 讜转谞讬讗 讗讬讚讱 诇专诪转 讬驻讛 诇诇注讟 拽砖讛 诇讗 拽砖讬讗 讛讗 讘讚讞诪专讗 讛讗 讘讚砖讻专讗


It was taught in one baraita that asparagus is beneficial for L-E-T, heart, eyes, and spleen, and harmful for R-M-T, head, intestines, and hemorrhoids. And it was taught in another baraita that asparagus is beneficial for R-M-T, head, intestines, and hemorrhoids, and harmful for L-E-T, heart, eyes, and spleen. The Gemara responds: That is not difficult. This baraita, in which it was taught that asparagus is beneficial for L-E-T, refers to asparagus made of wine, while that baraita, in which it was taught that asparagus is harmful for L-E-T, refers to asparagus made of beer.


转谞讬 讞讚讗 专拽 讗讞专讬讜 诇讜拽讛 讜转谞讬讗 讗讬讚讱 诇讗 专拽 讗讞专讬讜 诇讜拽讛 诇讗 拽砖讬讗 讛讗 讘讚讞诪专讗 讛讗 讘讚砖讻专讗


The Gemara resolves a contradiction between two other baraitot in the same manner. It was taught in one baraita that if he spit after drinking asparagus, he suffers an illness. And it was taught in another baraita that if he did not spit after drinking asparagus, he suffers an illness. The Gemara responds: That is not difficult. This baraita, in which it was taught that if he spit after drinking it he suffers an illness, refers to asparagus made of wine, while that baraita, in which it was taught that if he did not spit he suffers an illness, refers to asparagus made of beer.


讗诪专 专讘 讗砖讬 讛砖转讗 讚讗诪专转 诇讗 专拽 讗讞专讬讜 诇讜拽讛 诪讬诪讬讜 谞讝专拽讬谉 讗驻讬诇讜 讘驻谞讬 讛诪诇讱:


Rav Ashi said: Now that you said that if he did not spit after drinking it he suffers an illness, its water, the saliva in his mouth after drinking asparagus, may be expelled even when standing before the king, as failure to do so will endanger him.


讗诪专 专讘讬 讬砖诪注讗诇 讘谉 讗诇讬砖注 砖诇砖讛 讚讘专讬诐 住讞 诇讬 住讜专讬讗诇 砖专 讛驻谞讬诐 讗诇 转讟讜诇 讞诇讜拽讱 讘砖讞专讬转 诪讬讚 讛砖诪砖 讜转诇讘砖 讜讗诇 转讟讜诇 讬讚讬讱 诪诪讬 砖诇讗 谞讟诇 讬讚讬讜 讜讗诇 转讞讝讬专 讻讜住 讗住驻专讙讜住 讗诇讗 诇诪讬 砖谞转谞讜 诇讱 诪驻谞讬 砖转讻住驻讬转 讜讗诪专讬 诇讛 讗住转诇讙谞讬转 砖诇 诪诇讗讻讬 讞讘诇讛 诪爪驻讬谉 诇讜 诇讗讚诐 讜讗讜诪专讬诐 讗讬诪转讬 讬讘讗 讗讚诐 诇讬讚讬 讗讞讚 诪讚讘专讬诐 讛诇诇讜 讜讬诇讻讚


Rabbi Yishmael ben Elisha said: Suriel, the heavenly ministering angel of the Divine Presence, told me three things from on high: Do not take your cloak in the morning from the hand of your servant and wear it; do not ritually wash your hands from one who has not ritually washed his own hands; and only return a cup of asparagus to the one who gave it to you. Why is this? Because a band of demons and some say a band of angels of destruction lie in wait for a person and say: When will a person encounter one of these circumstances and be captured?


讗诪专 专讘讬 讬讛讜砖注 讘谉 诇讜讬 砖诇砖讛 讚讘专讬诐 住讞 诇讬 诪诇讗讱 讛诪讜转 讗诇 转讟讜诇 讞诇讜拽讱 砖讞专讬转 诪讬讚 讛砖诪砖 讜转诇讘砖 讜讗诇 转讟讜诇 讬讚讬讱 诪诪讬 砖诇讗 谞讟诇 讬讚讬讜 讜讗诇 转注诪讜讚 诇驻谞讬 讛谞砖讬诐 讘砖注讛 砖讞讜讝专讜转 诪谉 讛诪转 诪驻谞讬 砖讗谞讬 诪专拽讚 讜讘讗 诇驻谞讬讛谉 讜讞专讘讬 讘讬讚讬 讜讬砖 诇讬 专砖讜转 诇讞讘诇


Similarly, the Gemara relates that Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi said: The Angel of Death told me three things: Do not take your cloak in the morning from the hand of your servant and wear it; do not ritually wash your hands from one who has not ritually washed his own hands; and do not stand before the women when they return from the burial of the deceased, because I dance and come before them and my sword is in hand, and I have license to destroy.


讜讗讬 驻讙注 诪讗讬 转拽谞转讬讛 诇讬谞砖讜祝 诪讚讜讻转讬讛 讗专讘注 讗诪讜转 讗讬 讗讬讻讗 谞讛专讗 诇讬注讘专讬讛 讜讗讬 讗讬讻讗 讚专讻讗 讗讞专讬谞讗 诇讬讝讬诇 讘讛 讜讗讬 讗讬讻讗 讙讜讚讗 诇讬拽讜 讗讞讜专讗 讜讗讬 诇讗 诇讬讛讚专 讗驻讬讛 讜诇讬诪讗 讜讬讗诪专 讛壮 讗诇 讛砖讟谉 讬讙注专 讛壮 讘讱 讜讙讜壮 注讚 讚讞诇驻讬 诪讬谞讬讛:


The Gemara asks: And if one encounters women returning from a funeral, what is his remedy? The Gemara answers: Let him jump four cubits from where he stands; if there is a river, let him cross it; if there is another path, let him go down it; if there is a wall, let him stand behind it; and if not, he should turn his face around and recite the verse: 鈥淎nd the Lord said to the Satan: The Lord rebukes you, Satan, the Lord that has chosen Jerusalem rebukes you; is not this man a brand plucked from the fire?鈥 (Zechariah 3:2), until they pass him.


讗诪专 专讘讬 讝讬专讗 讗诪专 专讘讬 讗讘讛讜 讜讗诪专讬 诇讛 讘诪转谞讬转讗 转谞讗 注砖专讛 讚讘专讬诐 谞讗诪专讜 讘讻讜住 砖诇 讘专讻讛 讟注讜谉 讛讚讞讛 讜砖讟讬驻讛 讞讬 讜诪诇讗 注讬讟讜专 讜注讬讟讜祝 谞讜讟诇讜 讘砖转讬 讬讚讬讜 讜谞讜转谞讜 讘讬诪讬谉 讜诪讙讘讬讛讜 诪谉 讛拽专拽注 讟驻讞 讜谞讜转谉 注讬谞讬讜 讘讜 讜讬砖 讗讜诪专讬诐 讗祝 诪砖讙专讜 讘诪转谞讛 诇讗谞砖讬 讘讬转讜


Rabbi Zeira said that Rabbi Abbahu said, and some say that this halakha was taught in a baraita: Ten things were said with regard to a cup of blessing, e.g., the cup of wine over which Grace after Meals is recited: It requires rinsing and washing; it must be undiluted wine, and full; it requires adorning and wrapping; he takes it in his two hands and places it in his right hand, and he lifts it at least one handbreadth from the ground, and when reciting the blessing he fixes his eyes upon it. And some say: He also sends it as a gift to members of his household.


讗诪专 专讘讬 讬讜讞谞谉 讗谞讜 讗讬谉 诇谞讜 讗诇讗 讗专讘注讛 讘诇讘讚 讛讚讞讛 砖讟讬驻讛 讞讬 讜诪诇讗 转谞讗 讛讚讞讛 诪讘驻谞讬诐 讜砖讟讬驻讛 诪讘讞讜抓


Rabbi Yo岣nan said: We only have four of those ten things: Rinsing, washing, the wine must be undiluted, and the cup must be full. In explanation, it was taught: Rinsing is from the inside of the cup, and washing is from the outside of the cup.


讗诪专 专讘讬 讬讜讞谞谉 讻诇 讛诪讘专讱 注诇 讻讜住 诪诇讗 谞讜转谞讬谉 诇讜 谞讞诇讛 讘诇讬 诪爪专讬诐 砖谞讗诪专 讜诪诇讗 讘专讻转 讛壮 讬诐 讜讚专讜诐 讬专砖讛 专讘讬 讬讜住讬 讘专 讞谞讬谞讗 讗讜诪专 讝讜讻讛 讜谞讜讞诇 砖谞讬 注讜诇诪讬诐 讛注讜诇诐 讛讝讛 讜讛注讜诇诐 讛讘讗


Rabbi Yo岣nan said: Anyone who recites a blessing over a full cup, they give him a boundless inheritance, as it is stated: 鈥淎nd full of the blessing of the Lord, possess the sea and the south鈥 (Deuteronomy 33:23), indicating that one whose cup is full will receive God鈥檚 blessing and will inherit from all sides. Rabbi Yosei bar 岣nina says: He merits and inherits two worlds, this world and the World-to-Come.


注讬讟讜专 专讘 讬讛讜讚讛 诪注讟专讛讜 讘转诇诪讬讚讬诐 专讘 讞住讚讗 诪注讟专 诇讬讛 讘谞讟诇讬 讗诪专 专讘讬 讞谞谉 讜讘讞讬 讗诪专 专讘 砖砖转 讜讘讘专讻转 讛讗专抓


The Gemara continues explaining the ten things said with regard to the cup of blessing: The Sages would adorn the cup of blessing in different ways. Rav Yehuda would adorn it with students, as when he recited the blessing he would surround himself with students to accord honor to the blessing. Rav 岣sda, however, would adorn it with other cups; he would surround the cup of blessing with other cups. Rabbi 岣nan said: And specifically with undiluted wine. Rav Sheshet said: And in the blessing of the land.


注讬讟讜祝 专讘 驻驻讗 诪注讟祝 讜讬转讬讘 专讘 讗住讬 驻专讬住 住讜讚专讗 注诇 专讬砖讬讛


The Sages also had different customs with regard to wrapping. Rav Pappa would wrap himself in his prayer shawl and sit and recite Grace after Meals. Rav Asi spread a cloth on his head as an sign of respect.


谞讜讟诇讜 讘砖转讬 讬讚讬讜 讗诪专 专讘讬 讞讬谞谞讗 讘专 驻驻讗 诪讗讬 拽专讗讛 砖讗讜 讬讚讬讻诐 拽讚砖 讜讘专讻讜 讗转 讛壮


With regard to what was said that he takes it in his two hands, Rabbi 岣nnana bar Pappa said: What is the verse that proves this? As it is stated: 鈥淟ift your hands in holiness and bless the Lord鈥 (Psalms 134:2).


讜谞讜转谞讜 诇讬诪讬谉 讗诪专 专讘讬 讞讬讬讗 讘专 讗讘讗 讗诪专 专讘讬 讬讜讞谞谉 专讗砖讜谞讬诐 砖讗诇讜 砖诪讗诇 诪讛讜 砖转住讬讬注 诇讬诪讬谉 讗诪专 专讘 讗砖讬 讛讜讗讬诇 讜专讗砖讜谞讬诐 讗讬讘注讬讗 诇讛讜 讜诇讗 讗讬驻砖讟 诇讛讜


As for what was said after he takes it in his two hands: And he places it in his right hand, Rabbi 岣yya bar Abba said that Rabbi Yo岣nan said: The early Sages asked: What is the ruling, may the left hand assist the right when taking the cup? Rav Ashi said: Since the early Sages raised this dilemma and it was not resolved for them,


讗谞谉 谞注讘讚 诇讞讜诪专讗


we will act stringently and not assist the right hand with the left.


讜诪讙讘讬讛讜 诪谉 讛拽专拽注 讟驻讞 讗诪专 专讘 讗讞讗 讘专讘讬 讞谞讬谞讗 诪讗讬 拽专讗讛 讻讜住 讬砖讜注讜转 讗砖讗 讜讘砖诐 讛壮 讗拽专讗


And he lifts it at least one handbreadth from the ground. Rav A岣, son of Rabbi 岣nina, says: What is the verse that proves this? 鈥淚 will lift the cup of salvation and upon the name of the Lord I will call鈥 (Psalms 116:13).


讜谞讜转谉 注讬谞讬讜 讘讜 讻讬 讛讬讻讬 讚诇讗 谞讬住讞 讚注转讬讛 诪讬谞讬讛


And he fixes his eyes upon the cup; so that his attention will not be distracted from it.


讜诪砖讙专讜 诇讗谞砖讬 讘讬转讜 讘诪转谞讛 讻讬 讛讬讻讬 讚转转讘专讱 讚讘讬转讛讜


And he sends it as a gift to members of his household; so that his wife will be blessed.


注讜诇讗 讗拽诇注 诇讘讬 专讘 谞讞诪谉 讻专讬讱 专讬驻转讗 讘专讬讱 讘专讻转 诪讝讜谞讗 讬讛讘 诇讬讛 讻住讗 讚讘专讻转讗 诇专讘 谞讞诪谉 讗诪专 诇讬讛 专讘 谞讞诪谉 诇讬砖讚专 诪专 讻住讗 讚讘专讻转讗 诇讬诇转讗 讗诪专 诇讬讛 讛讻讬 讗诪专 专讘讬 讬讜讞谞谉 讗讬谉 驻专讬 讘讟谞讛 砖诇 讗砖讛 诪转讘专讱 讗诇讗 诪驻专讬 讘讟谞讜 砖诇 讗讬砖 砖谞讗诪专 讜讘专讱 驻专讬 讘讟谞讱 驻专讬 讘讟谞讛 诇讗 谞讗诪专 讗诇讗 驻专讬 讘讟谞讱


The Gemara relates: Ulla happened to come to the house of Rav Na岣an. He ate bread, recited Grace after Meals, and gave the cup of blessing to Rav Na岣an. Rav Na岣an said to him: Master, please send the cup of blessing to Yalta, my wife. Ulla responded to him: There is no need, as Rabbi Yo岣nan said as follows: The fruit of a woman鈥檚 body is blessed only from the fruit of a man鈥檚 body, as it is stated: 鈥淎nd He will love you, and bless you, and make you numerous, and He will bless the fruit of your body鈥 (Deuteronomy 7:13). The Gemara infers: 鈥淗e will bless the fruit of her body鈥 was not stated. Rather, 鈥淗e will bless the fruit of your [masculine singular] body.鈥 For his wife to be blessed with children, it is sufficient to give the cup to Rav Na岣an.


转谞讬讗 谞诪讬 讛讻讬 专讘讬 谞转谉 讗讜诪专 诪谞讬谉 砖讗讬谉 驻专讬 讘讟谞讛 砖诇 讗砖讛 诪转讘专讱 讗诇讗 诪驻专讬 讘讟谞讜 砖诇 讗讬砖 砖谞讗诪专 讜讘专讱 驻专讬 讘讟谞讱 驻专讬 讘讟谞讛 诇讗 谞讗诪专 讗诇讗 驻专讬 讘讟谞讱


That opinion was also taught in a baraita: Rabbi Natan says: From where is it derived that the fruit of a woman鈥檚 body is only blessed from the fruit of a man鈥檚 body? As it is stated: And He will bless the fruit of your body; He will bless the fruit of her body was not stated. Rather, He will bless the fruit of your body.


讗讚讛讻讬 砖诪注讛 讬诇转讗 拽诪讛 讘讝讬讛专讗 讜注诇转讛 诇讘讬 讞诪专讗 讜转讘专讗 讗专讘注 诪讗讛 讚谞讬 讚讞诪专讗 讗诪专 诇讬讛 专讘 谞讞诪谉 谞砖讚专 诇讛 诪专 讻住讗 讗讞专讬谞讗 砖诇讞 诇讛 讻诇 讛讗讬 谞讘讙讗 讚讘专讻转讗 讛讬讗 砖诇讞讛 诇讬讛 诪诪讛讚讜专讬 诪讬诇讬 讜诪住诪专讟讜讟讬 讻诇诪讬


The Gemara relates that meanwhile Yalta heard Ulla鈥檚 refusal to send her the cup of blessing. Yalta was the daughter of the Exilarch and was accustomed to being treated with deference, so she arose in a rage, entered the wine-storage, and broke four hundred barrels of wine. Afterward, Rav Na岣an said to Ulla: Let the Master send her another cup. Ulla sent Yalta a different cup with a message saying that all of the wine in this barrel is wine of blessing; although you did not drink from the cup of blessing itself, you may at least drink from the barrel from which the cup of blessing was poured. She sent him a stinging response: From itinerant peddlers, Ulla traveled regularly from Eretz Yisrael to Babylonia and back, come meaningless words, and from rags come lice.


讗诪专 专讘 讗住讬 讗讬谉 诪住讬讞讬谉 注诇 讻讜住 砖诇 讘专讻讛 讜讗诪专 专讘 讗住讬 讗讬谉 诪讘专讻讬谉 注诇 讻讜住 砖诇 驻讜专注谞讜转 诪讗讬 讻讜住 砖诇 驻讜专注谞讜转 讗诪专 专讘 谞讞诪谉 讘专 讬爪讞拽 讻讜住 砖谞讬 转谞讬讗 谞诪讬 讛讻讬 讛砖讜转讛 讻驻诇讬诐 诇讗 讬讘专讱 诪砖讜诐 砖谞讗诪专 讛讻讜谉 诇拽专讗转 讗诇讛讬讱 讬砖专讗诇 讜讛讗讬 诇讗 诪转拽谉


Rav Asi said: One may not speak over a cup of blessing from the moment he takes it in his hand until he drinks it. And Rav Asi said: One may not recite a blessing over a cup of punishment. The Gemara clarifies: What is a cup of punishment? Rav Na岣an bar Yitz岣k said: A second cup. That opinion was also taught in a baraita: One who drinks in pairs should not recite a blessing, because it is stated: 鈥淧repare to meet your God, O Israel鈥 (Amos 4:12). One must be well-prepared in order to stand before his Creator, and this person who drank two cups of wine is not prepared, as drinking an even number of cups of wine is dangerous due to demons.


讗诪专 专讘讬 讗讘讛讜 讜讗诪专讬 诇讛 讘诪转谞讬转讗 转谞讗 讛讗讜讻诇 讜诪讛诇讱 诪讘专讱 诪注讜诪讚 讜讻砖讛讜讗 讗讜讻诇 诪注讜诪讚 诪讘专讱 诪讬讜砖讘 讜讻砖讛讜讗 诪讬住讘 讜讗讜讻诇 讬讜砖讘 讜诪讘专讱 讜讛诇讻转讗 讘讻讜诇讛讜 讬讜砖讘 讜诪讘专讱:


In concluding the halakhot of blessings, the Gemara cites that Rabbi Abbahu said, and some say it was taught in a baraita: One who eats and walks, recites the blessing of Grace after Meals standing in one place, and one who eats standing, recites the blessing while seated, and one who eats reclining on a divan sits and then recites the blessing. And the halakha is: In all of these cases one sits and then recites the blessing.


讛讚专谉 注诇讱 砖诇砖讛 砖讗讻诇讜


May we return unto thee : Three who ate !


诪转谞讬壮 讗诇讜 讚讘专讬诐 砖讘讬谉 讘讬转 砖诪讗讬 讜讘讬谉 讘讬转 讛诇诇 讘住注讜讚讛 讘讬转 砖诪讗讬 讗讜诪专讬诐 诪讘专讱 注诇 讛讬讜诐 讜讗讞专 讻讱 诪讘专讱 注诇 讛讬讬谉 讜讘讬转 讛诇诇 讗讜诪专讬诐 诪讘专讱 注诇 讛讬讬谉 讜讗讞专 讻讱 诪讘专讱 注诇 讛讬讜诐


MISHNA: These are the matters of dispute between Beit Shammai and Beit Hillel with regard to the halakhot of a meal: One dispute concerns the order of blessings in kiddush. Beit Shammai say: When one recites kiddush over wine, one recites a blessing over the sanctification of the day and recites a blessing over the wine thereafter. And Beit Hillel say: One recites a blessing over the wine and recites a blessing over the day thereafter.


讘讬转 砖诪讗讬 讗讜诪专讬诐 谞讜讟诇讬谉 诇讬讚讬诐 讜讗讞专 讻讱 诪讜讝讙讬谉 讗转 讛讻讜住 讜讘讬转 讛诇诇 讗讜诪专讬诐 诪讜讝讙讬谉 讗转 讛讻讜住 讜讗讞专 讻讱 谞讜讟诇讬谉 诇讬讚讬诐


Similarly, Beit Hillel and Beit Shammai disagree with regard to drinking wine before a meal. Beit Shammai say: One washes his hands and mixes water with the wine in the cup thereafter, and Beit Hillel say: One mixes water with the wine in the cup and only washes his hands thereafter. The basis of this particular dispute is with regard to the laws of ritual purity, as the Gemara will explain below.


讘讬转 砖诪讗讬 讗讜诪专讬诐 诪拽谞讞 讬讚讬讜 讘诪驻讛 讜诪谞讬讞讛 注诇 讛砖讜诇讞谉 讜讘讬转 讛诇诇 讗讜诪专讬诐 注诇 讛讻住转


Also with regard to the laws of ritual purity, Beit Shammai say: After washing, one dries his hands with a cloth and places it on the table. And Beit Hillel say: One places it on the cushion upon which he is sitting.


讘讬转 砖诪讗讬 讗讜诪专讬诐 诪讻讘讚讬谉 讗转 讛讘讬转 讜讗讞专 讻讱 谞讜讟诇讬谉 诇讬讚讬诐 讜讘讬转 讛诇诇 讗讜诪专讬诐 谞讜讟诇讬谉 诇讬讚讬诐 讜讗讞专 讻讱 诪讻讘讚讬谉 讗转 讛讘讬转


Similarly, Beit Shammai say: One sweeps the area of the house where the meal took place and he washes his hands with the final waters before Grace after Meals thereafter. And Beit Hillel say: One washes his hands and sweeps the house thereafter.


讘讬转 砖诪讗讬 讗讜诪专讬诐 谞专 讜诪讝讜谉 讘砖诪讬诐 讜讛讘讚诇讛 讜讘讬转 讛诇诇 讗讜诪专讬诐 谞专 讜讘砖诪讬诐 诪讝讜谉 讜讛讘讚诇讛


Just as they dispute the order of the blessings in kiddush, they dispute the order of the blessings in havdala. If a meal continued until the conclusion of Shabbat, Beit Shammai say: One recites the blessing over the candle, then the Grace after Meals blessing, then the blessing over the spices, and finally the blessing of havdala. And Beit Hillel say: The order is candle, spices, Grace after Meals, and havdala.


讘讬转 砖诪讗讬 讗讜诪专讬诐 砖讘专讗 诪讗讜专 讛讗砖 讜讘讬转 讛诇诇 讗讜诪专讬诐 讘讜专讗 诪讗讜专讬 讛讗砖


With regard to the blessing over the candle, Beit Shammai say: Who created [bara] the light of fire. And Beit Hillel say: Who creates [boreh] the lights of fire.


讗讬谉 诪讘专讻讬谉 诇讗 注诇 讛谞专 讜诇讗 注诇 讛讘砖诪讬诐 砖诇 讙讜讬诐 讜诇讗 注诇 讛谞专 讜诇讗 注诇 讛讘砖诪讬诐 砖诇 诪转讬诐 讜诇讗 注诇 讛谞专 讜诇讗 注诇 讛讘砖诪讬诐 砖诇 注讘讜讚讛 讝专讛 讜讗讬谉 诪讘专讻讬谉 注诇 讛谞专 注讚 砖讬讗讜转讜 诇讗讜专讜


One may neither recite a blessing over the candle nor over the spices of gentiles, nor over the candle nor the spices designated to pay respects to the dead, nor over the candle nor the spices of idolatry. The mishna cites another halakha with regard to the blessing over the candle: And one does not recite the blessing over the candle until he derives benefit from its light.


诪讬 砖讗讻诇 讜砖讻讞 讜诇讗 讘讬专讱 讘讬转 砖诪讗讬 讗讜诪专讬诐 讬讞讝讜专 诇诪拽讜诪讜 讜讬讘专讱 讜讘讬转 讛诇诇 讗讜诪专讬诐 讬讘专讱 讘诪拽讜诐 砖谞讝讻专 讜注讚 诪转讬 诪讘专讱 注讚 讻讚讬 砖讬转注讻诇 讛诪讝讜谉 砖讘诪注讬讜


The mishna cites an additional dispute: One who ate and forgot and did not recite a blessing; Beit Shammai say: He returns to the place where he ate and recites the blessing. Beit Hillel say: That is unnecessary. He recites the blessing at the place where he remembered. Both agree, however, that there is a limit with regard to how long after eating one may recite Grace after Meals. And until when does he recite the blessing? Until the food is digested in his intestines.


讘讗 诇讛谉 讬讬谉 讗讞专 讛诪讝讜谉 讗诐 讗讬谉 砖诐 讗诇讗 讗讜转讜 讻讜住 讘讬转 砖诪讗讬 讗讜诪专讬诐 诪讘专讱 注诇 讛讬讬谉 讜讗讞专 讻讱 诪讘专讱 注诇 讛诪讝讜谉 讜讘讬转 讛诇诇 讗讜诪专讬诐 诪讘专讱 注诇 讛诪讝讜谉 讜讗讞专 讻讱 诪讘专讱 注诇 讛讬讬谉


Wine came before the diners after the meal; if only that cup of wine is there, Beit Shammai say: One recites a blessing over the wine and recites a blessing over the food, Grace after Meals, thereafter. And Beit Hillel say: One recites a blessing over the food and recites a blessing over the wine thereafter.


讜注讜谞讬谉 讗诪谉 讗讞专 讬砖专讗诇 讛诪讘专讱 讜讗讬谉 注讜谞讬谉 讗诪谉 讗讞专 讻讜转讬 讛诪讘专讱 注讚 砖讬砖诪注 讻诇 讛讘专讻讛 讻讜诇讛:


And one answers amen after a Jew who recites a blessing even if he did not hear the entire blessing, and one does not answer amen after a Samaritan [Kuti] who recites a blessing until he hears the whole blessing in its entirety, as perhaps the Kuti introduced an element inconsistent with the Jewish faith in that section of the blessing that he did not hear.


讙诪壮 转谞讜 专讘谞谉 讚讘专讬诐 砖讘讬谉 讘讬转 砖诪讗讬 讜讘讬转 讛诇诇 讘住注讜讚讛 讘讬转 砖诪讗讬 讗讜诪专讬诐 诪讘专讱 注诇 讛讬讜诐 讜讗讞专 讻讱 诪讘专讱 注诇 讛讬讬谉 砖讛讬讜诐 讙讜专诐 诇讬讬谉 砖讬讘讗 讜讻讘专 拽讚砖 讛讬讜诐 讜注讚讬讬谉 讬讬谉 诇讗 讘讗


GEMARA: The Sages taught in a Tosefta: These are the matters of dispute between Beit Shammai and Beit Hillel with regard to the halakhot of a meal: Beit Shammai say: When one recites kiddush over wine, one recites a blessing over the sanctification of the day and recites a blessing over the wine thereafter as the day causes the wine to come before the meal. And Beit Shammai offer an additional reason: The day has already been sanctified and the wine has not yet come. Since Shabbat was sanctified first, it should likewise be mentioned first.


讜讘讬转 讛诇诇 讗讜诪专讬诐 诪讘专讱 注诇 讛讬讬谉 讜讗讞专 讻讱 诪讘专讱 注诇 讛讬讜诐 砖讛讬讬谉 讙讜专诐 诇拽讚讜砖讛 砖转讗诪专 讚讘专 讗讞专 讘专讻转 讛讬讬谉 转讚讬专讛 讜讘专讻转 讛讬讜诐 讗讬谞讛 转讚讬专讛 转讚讬专 讜砖讗讬谞讜 转讚讬专 转讚讬专 拽讜讚诐 讜讛诇讻讛 讻讚讘专讬 讘讬转 讛诇诇


And Beit Hillel say: One recites a blessing over the wine and recites a blessing over the day thereafter, because the wine causes the sanctification to be recited. Were there no wine, kiddush would not be recited. Alternatively, Beit Hillel say: The blessing over wine is recited frequently, and the blessing over the day is not recited frequently, and there is a general principle: When a frequent practice and an infrequent practice clash, the frequent practice takes precedence over the infrequent practice. The Tosefta concludes: The halakha is in accordance with the statement of Beit Hillel.


诪讗讬 讚讘专 讗讞专 讜讻讬 转讬诪讗 讛转诐 转专转讬 讜讛讻讗 讞讚讗 讛讻讬 谞诪讬 转专转讬 谞讬谞讛讜 讘专讻转 讛讬讬谉 转讚讬专讛 讜讘专讻转 讛讬讜诐 讗讬谞讛 转讚讬专讛 转讚讬专 讜砖讗讬谞讜 转讚讬专 转讚讬专 拽讜讚诐


The Gemara asks: What is alternatively? Why did Beit Hillel cite an additional reason? The Gemara responds: And if you say that there Beit Shammai cite two reasons, and here Beit Hillel offer only one, therefore Beit Hillel said they are two reasons here as well: The blessing over wine is recited frequently and the blessing over the day is not recited frequently. When a frequent practice and an infrequent practice clash, the frequent practice takes precedence over the infrequent practice.


讜讛诇讻讛 讻讚讘专讬 讘讬转 讛诇诇 驻砖讬讟讗 讚讛讗 谞驻拽讗 讘转 拽讜诇


It was taught in the Tosefta: The halakha is in accordance with the statement of Beit Hillel. The Gemara remarks: It is obvious, as a Divine Voice emerged and proclaimed that the halakha is always in accordance with the opinion of Beit Hillel. Why did the Tosefta tell us here that the halakha is in accordance with their opinion?


讗讬讘注讬转 讗讬诪讗 拽讜讚诐 讘转 拽讜诇 讜讗讬讘注讬转 讗讬诪讗 诇讗讞专 讘转 拽讜诇


The Gemara offers two answers: If you wish, say that this Tosefta was taught before the Divine Voice emerged and proclaimed that general principle. And if you wish, say instead, that this Tosefta was indeed taught after the Divine Voice emerged,


  • This month's learning is sponsored by Sami Groff in honor of Shoshana Keats Jaskoll and Chochmat Nashim.

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Berakhot 51

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Berakhot 51

讘诪讬讚讬 讚诇讗 诪诪讗讬住 谞诪讬 诇住诇拽讬谞讛讜 诇爪讚 讗讞讚 讜诇讬讘专讱 转专讙诪讗 专讘 讬爪讞拽 拽住拽住讗讛 拽诪讬讛 讚专讘讬 讬讜住讬 讘专 讗讘讬谉 诪砖诪讬讛 讚专讘讬 讬讜讞谞谉 诪砖讜诐 砖谞讗诪专 讬诪诇讗 驻讬 转讛诇转讱


The Gemara asks: With regard to a food item that does not become disgusting as well, let him shift it to the side and recite the blessing. Why need he spit it out? Rav Yitz岣k Kaskesa鈥檃 explained before Rabbi Yosei bar Avin, in the name of Rabbi Yo岣nan: One spits it out because it is stated: 鈥淢y mouth will be filled with Your praise鈥 (Psalms 71:8), meaning that one should recite God鈥檚 praises with his entire mouth, not merely half.


讘注讜 诪讬谞讬讛 诪专讘 讞住讚讗 诪讬 砖讗讻诇 讜砖转讛 讜诇讗 讘专讱 诪讛讜 砖讬讞讝讜专 讜讬讘专讱 讗诪专 诇讛讜 诪讬 砖讗讻诇 砖讜诐 讜专讬讞讜 谞讜讚祝 讬讞讝讜专 讜讬讗讻诇 砖讜诐 讗讞专 讻讚讬 砖讬讛讗 专讬讞讜 谞讜讚祝


They raised a dilemma before Rav 岣sda: One who ate and drank and did not recite a blessing, what is the ruling? Does he return and recite the blessing that he should have recited beforehand before he continues eating or not? In response, Rav 岣sda said to them an analogy: Should one who ate garlic and the odor on his breath smells return and eat another garlic so that the odor on his breath will smell? That is to say, one must recite a blessing. Should one who committed a transgression and failed to recite a blessing before eating, remedy his situation by continuing to eat without reciting a blessing (Talmidei Rabbeinu Yona)?


讗诪专 专讘讬谞讗 讛诇讻讱 讗驻讬诇讜 讙诪专 住注讜讚转讜 讬讞讝讜专 讜讬讘专讱 讚转谞讬讗 讟讘诇 讜注诇讛 讗讜诪专 讘注诇讬讬转讜 讘专讜讱 讗砖专 拽讚砖谞讜 讘诪爪讜转讬讜 讜爪讜谞讜 注诇 讛讟讘讬诇讛


Ravina said: Therefore, even if one finished his meal, he must return and recite a blessing. He cites a proof, as it was taught in a baraita with regard to the laws of immersion: One who was ritually impure who immersed himself in a ritual bath and emerged, as he emerges he recites: Blessed鈥ho has made us holy through His mitzvot and has commanded us about ritual immersion. Evidently, in certain cases, one may recite the blessing after completing the act.


讜诇讗 讛讬讗 讛转诐 诪注讬拽专讗 讙讘专讗 诇讗 讞讝讬 讛讻讗 诪注讬拽专讗 讙讘专讗 讞讝讬 讜讛讜讗讬诇 讜讗讬讚讞讬 讗讬讚讞讬:


The Gemara rejects the parallel between the cases: That is not so, as there, in the case of immersion, initially, before he immersed himself, the man was unfit to recite the blessing because he was ritually impure; here, in the case where one did not recite a blessing before eating, initially he was fit to recite the blessing, and since he did not recite the blessing before he ate and he concluded his meal and is, therefore, excluded from reciting the blessing, he is completely excluded and has no way to remedy the situation.


转谞讜 专讘谞谉 讗住驻专讙讜住 讬驻讛 诇诇讘 讜讟讜讘 诇注讬谞讬诐 讜讻诇 砖讻谉 诇讘谞讬 诪注讬诐 讜讛专讙讬诇 讘讜 讬驻讛 诇讻诇 讙讜驻讜 讜讛诪砖转讻专 讛讬诪谞讜 拽砖讛 诇讻诇 讙讜驻讜


Tangential to the laws concerning wine that the Gemara cited earlier, the Sages taught: Asparagus, wine or other alcoholic beverages that they were accustomed to drink early in the morning before eating, is agreeable for the heart and beneficial for the eyes, and all the more so for the intestines. And in extolling the virtues of this drink, the Gemara says: One who is accustomed to drink it, it is agreeable for his entire body. However, one must be careful, as one who drinks excessively and becomes drunk, it is harmful for his entire body.


诪讚拽转谞讬 讬驻讛 诇诇讘 诪讻诇诇 讚讘讞诪专讗 注住拽讬谞谉 讜拽转谞讬 讜讻诇 砖讻谉 诇讘谞讬 诪注讬诐 讜讛转谞讬讗 诇诇注讟 讬驻讛 诇专诪转 拽砖讛


The Gemara discusses this: From the fact that it was taught that asparagus is agreeable for the heart, it may be inferred that we are dealing with asparagus made from wine, which is known to be agreeable for the heart. And we learned: And all the more so, asparagus is beneficial for the intestines. Wasn鈥檛 it taught in a baraita: For L-E-T, which is an acronym for lev, heart; einayim, eyes; te岣l, spleen, it is beneficial, but for R-M-T, rosh, head; me鈥檃yim, intestines; ta岣oniot, hemorrhoids, it is harmful. Apparently, asparagus is harmful for one鈥檚 intestines.


讻讬 转谞讬讗 讛讛讬讗 讘诪讬讜砖谉 讻讚转谞谉 拽讜谞诐 讬讬谉 砖讗谞讬 讟讜注诐 砖讛讬讬谉 拽砖讛 诇讘谞讬 诪注讬诐 讗诪专讜 诇讜 讜讛诇讗 诪讬讜砖谉 讬驻讛 讛讜讗 诇讘谞讬 诪注讬诐 讜砖转拽 讗住讜专 讘讞讚砖 讜诪讜转专 讘诪讬讜砖谉 砖诪注 诪讬谞讛:


The Gemara responds: That baraita, in which it was taught that asparagus is beneficial to one鈥檚 intestines, refers to asparagus made with old wine. As we learned in the mishna concerning the laws of vows that one who vowed: Wine is konam for me to taste because it is harmful to the intestines, and those who heard him said to him: But isn鈥檛 old wine beneficial to the intestines? If he was silent and did not argue the point, he is forbidden to drink new wine because of his vow, but he is permitted to drink old wine. Conclude from this that old wine is beneficial for the intestines.


转谞讜 专讘谞谉 砖砖讛 讚讘专讬诐 谞讗诪专讜 讘讗住驻专讙讜住 讗讬谉 砖讜转讬谉 讗讜转讜 讗诇讗 讻砖讛讜讗 讞讬 讜诪诇讗 诪拽讘诇讜 讘讬诪讬谉 讜砖讜转讛讜 讘砖诪讗诇 讜讗讬谉 诪砖讬讞讬谉 讗讞专讬讜 讜讗讬谉 诪驻住讬拽讬谉 讘讜 讜讗讬谉 诪讞讝讬专讬谉 讗讜转讜 讗诇讗 诇诪讬 砖谞转谞讜 诇讜 讜专拽 讗讞专讬讜 讜讗讬谉 住讜诪讻讬谉 讗讜转讜 讗诇讗 讘诪讬谞讜


The Sages taught: Six things were said with regard to asparagus: One only drinks it undiluted and from a full cup; he receives it from the attendant in his right hand and drinks it with his left hand; one should not converse after drinking it and one does not stop while drinking it, but should drink it all at once; one only returns it to the one who gave it to him; and he spits after drinking it; and one may only supplement it with its own kind, meaning that after drinking asparagus, one should only eat something that is used to make similar beverages, e.g., dates after date beer, etc.


讜讛转谞讬讗 讗讬谉 住讜诪讻讬谉 讗讜转讜 讗诇讗 讘驻转 诇讗 拽砖讬讗 讛讗 讘讚讞诪专讗 讛讗 讘讚砖讻专讗


The Gemara challenges: Wasn鈥檛 it taught in a baraita that one may only supplement asparagus with bread? The Gemara responds: That is not difficult. This baraita, in which it was taught that one supplements it with bread, refers to asparagus made of wine, while that baraita, in which it was taught that one supplements it with its own kind, refers to asparagus made of beer.


转谞讬 讞讚讗 诇诇注讟 讬驻讛 诇专诪转 拽砖讛 讜转谞讬讗 讗讬讚讱 诇专诪转 讬驻讛 诇诇注讟 拽砖讛 诇讗 拽砖讬讗 讛讗 讘讚讞诪专讗 讛讗 讘讚砖讻专讗


It was taught in one baraita that asparagus is beneficial for L-E-T, heart, eyes, and spleen, and harmful for R-M-T, head, intestines, and hemorrhoids. And it was taught in another baraita that asparagus is beneficial for R-M-T, head, intestines, and hemorrhoids, and harmful for L-E-T, heart, eyes, and spleen. The Gemara responds: That is not difficult. This baraita, in which it was taught that asparagus is beneficial for L-E-T, refers to asparagus made of wine, while that baraita, in which it was taught that asparagus is harmful for L-E-T, refers to asparagus made of beer.


转谞讬 讞讚讗 专拽 讗讞专讬讜 诇讜拽讛 讜转谞讬讗 讗讬讚讱 诇讗 专拽 讗讞专讬讜 诇讜拽讛 诇讗 拽砖讬讗 讛讗 讘讚讞诪专讗 讛讗 讘讚砖讻专讗


The Gemara resolves a contradiction between two other baraitot in the same manner. It was taught in one baraita that if he spit after drinking asparagus, he suffers an illness. And it was taught in another baraita that if he did not spit after drinking asparagus, he suffers an illness. The Gemara responds: That is not difficult. This baraita, in which it was taught that if he spit after drinking it he suffers an illness, refers to asparagus made of wine, while that baraita, in which it was taught that if he did not spit he suffers an illness, refers to asparagus made of beer.


讗诪专 专讘 讗砖讬 讛砖转讗 讚讗诪专转 诇讗 专拽 讗讞专讬讜 诇讜拽讛 诪讬诪讬讜 谞讝专拽讬谉 讗驻讬诇讜 讘驻谞讬 讛诪诇讱:


Rav Ashi said: Now that you said that if he did not spit after drinking it he suffers an illness, its water, the saliva in his mouth after drinking asparagus, may be expelled even when standing before the king, as failure to do so will endanger him.


讗诪专 专讘讬 讬砖诪注讗诇 讘谉 讗诇讬砖注 砖诇砖讛 讚讘专讬诐 住讞 诇讬 住讜专讬讗诇 砖专 讛驻谞讬诐 讗诇 转讟讜诇 讞诇讜拽讱 讘砖讞专讬转 诪讬讚 讛砖诪砖 讜转诇讘砖 讜讗诇 转讟讜诇 讬讚讬讱 诪诪讬 砖诇讗 谞讟诇 讬讚讬讜 讜讗诇 转讞讝讬专 讻讜住 讗住驻专讙讜住 讗诇讗 诇诪讬 砖谞转谞讜 诇讱 诪驻谞讬 砖转讻住驻讬转 讜讗诪专讬 诇讛 讗住转诇讙谞讬转 砖诇 诪诇讗讻讬 讞讘诇讛 诪爪驻讬谉 诇讜 诇讗讚诐 讜讗讜诪专讬诐 讗讬诪转讬 讬讘讗 讗讚诐 诇讬讚讬 讗讞讚 诪讚讘专讬诐 讛诇诇讜 讜讬诇讻讚


Rabbi Yishmael ben Elisha said: Suriel, the heavenly ministering angel of the Divine Presence, told me three things from on high: Do not take your cloak in the morning from the hand of your servant and wear it; do not ritually wash your hands from one who has not ritually washed his own hands; and only return a cup of asparagus to the one who gave it to you. Why is this? Because a band of demons and some say a band of angels of destruction lie in wait for a person and say: When will a person encounter one of these circumstances and be captured?


讗诪专 专讘讬 讬讛讜砖注 讘谉 诇讜讬 砖诇砖讛 讚讘专讬诐 住讞 诇讬 诪诇讗讱 讛诪讜转 讗诇 转讟讜诇 讞诇讜拽讱 砖讞专讬转 诪讬讚 讛砖诪砖 讜转诇讘砖 讜讗诇 转讟讜诇 讬讚讬讱 诪诪讬 砖诇讗 谞讟诇 讬讚讬讜 讜讗诇 转注诪讜讚 诇驻谞讬 讛谞砖讬诐 讘砖注讛 砖讞讜讝专讜转 诪谉 讛诪转 诪驻谞讬 砖讗谞讬 诪专拽讚 讜讘讗 诇驻谞讬讛谉 讜讞专讘讬 讘讬讚讬 讜讬砖 诇讬 专砖讜转 诇讞讘诇


Similarly, the Gemara relates that Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi said: The Angel of Death told me three things: Do not take your cloak in the morning from the hand of your servant and wear it; do not ritually wash your hands from one who has not ritually washed his own hands; and do not stand before the women when they return from the burial of the deceased, because I dance and come before them and my sword is in hand, and I have license to destroy.


讜讗讬 驻讙注 诪讗讬 转拽谞转讬讛 诇讬谞砖讜祝 诪讚讜讻转讬讛 讗专讘注 讗诪讜转 讗讬 讗讬讻讗 谞讛专讗 诇讬注讘专讬讛 讜讗讬 讗讬讻讗 讚专讻讗 讗讞专讬谞讗 诇讬讝讬诇 讘讛 讜讗讬 讗讬讻讗 讙讜讚讗 诇讬拽讜 讗讞讜专讗 讜讗讬 诇讗 诇讬讛讚专 讗驻讬讛 讜诇讬诪讗 讜讬讗诪专 讛壮 讗诇 讛砖讟谉 讬讙注专 讛壮 讘讱 讜讙讜壮 注讚 讚讞诇驻讬 诪讬谞讬讛:


The Gemara asks: And if one encounters women returning from a funeral, what is his remedy? The Gemara answers: Let him jump four cubits from where he stands; if there is a river, let him cross it; if there is another path, let him go down it; if there is a wall, let him stand behind it; and if not, he should turn his face around and recite the verse: 鈥淎nd the Lord said to the Satan: The Lord rebukes you, Satan, the Lord that has chosen Jerusalem rebukes you; is not this man a brand plucked from the fire?鈥 (Zechariah 3:2), until they pass him.


讗诪专 专讘讬 讝讬专讗 讗诪专 专讘讬 讗讘讛讜 讜讗诪专讬 诇讛 讘诪转谞讬转讗 转谞讗 注砖专讛 讚讘专讬诐 谞讗诪专讜 讘讻讜住 砖诇 讘专讻讛 讟注讜谉 讛讚讞讛 讜砖讟讬驻讛 讞讬 讜诪诇讗 注讬讟讜专 讜注讬讟讜祝 谞讜讟诇讜 讘砖转讬 讬讚讬讜 讜谞讜转谞讜 讘讬诪讬谉 讜诪讙讘讬讛讜 诪谉 讛拽专拽注 讟驻讞 讜谞讜转谉 注讬谞讬讜 讘讜 讜讬砖 讗讜诪专讬诐 讗祝 诪砖讙专讜 讘诪转谞讛 诇讗谞砖讬 讘讬转讜


Rabbi Zeira said that Rabbi Abbahu said, and some say that this halakha was taught in a baraita: Ten things were said with regard to a cup of blessing, e.g., the cup of wine over which Grace after Meals is recited: It requires rinsing and washing; it must be undiluted wine, and full; it requires adorning and wrapping; he takes it in his two hands and places it in his right hand, and he lifts it at least one handbreadth from the ground, and when reciting the blessing he fixes his eyes upon it. And some say: He also sends it as a gift to members of his household.


讗诪专 专讘讬 讬讜讞谞谉 讗谞讜 讗讬谉 诇谞讜 讗诇讗 讗专讘注讛 讘诇讘讚 讛讚讞讛 砖讟讬驻讛 讞讬 讜诪诇讗 转谞讗 讛讚讞讛 诪讘驻谞讬诐 讜砖讟讬驻讛 诪讘讞讜抓


Rabbi Yo岣nan said: We only have four of those ten things: Rinsing, washing, the wine must be undiluted, and the cup must be full. In explanation, it was taught: Rinsing is from the inside of the cup, and washing is from the outside of the cup.


讗诪专 专讘讬 讬讜讞谞谉 讻诇 讛诪讘专讱 注诇 讻讜住 诪诇讗 谞讜转谞讬谉 诇讜 谞讞诇讛 讘诇讬 诪爪专讬诐 砖谞讗诪专 讜诪诇讗 讘专讻转 讛壮 讬诐 讜讚专讜诐 讬专砖讛 专讘讬 讬讜住讬 讘专 讞谞讬谞讗 讗讜诪专 讝讜讻讛 讜谞讜讞诇 砖谞讬 注讜诇诪讬诐 讛注讜诇诐 讛讝讛 讜讛注讜诇诐 讛讘讗


Rabbi Yo岣nan said: Anyone who recites a blessing over a full cup, they give him a boundless inheritance, as it is stated: 鈥淎nd full of the blessing of the Lord, possess the sea and the south鈥 (Deuteronomy 33:23), indicating that one whose cup is full will receive God鈥檚 blessing and will inherit from all sides. Rabbi Yosei bar 岣nina says: He merits and inherits two worlds, this world and the World-to-Come.


注讬讟讜专 专讘 讬讛讜讚讛 诪注讟专讛讜 讘转诇诪讬讚讬诐 专讘 讞住讚讗 诪注讟专 诇讬讛 讘谞讟诇讬 讗诪专 专讘讬 讞谞谉 讜讘讞讬 讗诪专 专讘 砖砖转 讜讘讘专讻转 讛讗专抓


The Gemara continues explaining the ten things said with regard to the cup of blessing: The Sages would adorn the cup of blessing in different ways. Rav Yehuda would adorn it with students, as when he recited the blessing he would surround himself with students to accord honor to the blessing. Rav 岣sda, however, would adorn it with other cups; he would surround the cup of blessing with other cups. Rabbi 岣nan said: And specifically with undiluted wine. Rav Sheshet said: And in the blessing of the land.


注讬讟讜祝 专讘 驻驻讗 诪注讟祝 讜讬转讬讘 专讘 讗住讬 驻专讬住 住讜讚专讗 注诇 专讬砖讬讛


The Sages also had different customs with regard to wrapping. Rav Pappa would wrap himself in his prayer shawl and sit and recite Grace after Meals. Rav Asi spread a cloth on his head as an sign of respect.


谞讜讟诇讜 讘砖转讬 讬讚讬讜 讗诪专 专讘讬 讞讬谞谞讗 讘专 驻驻讗 诪讗讬 拽专讗讛 砖讗讜 讬讚讬讻诐 拽讚砖 讜讘专讻讜 讗转 讛壮


With regard to what was said that he takes it in his two hands, Rabbi 岣nnana bar Pappa said: What is the verse that proves this? As it is stated: 鈥淟ift your hands in holiness and bless the Lord鈥 (Psalms 134:2).


讜谞讜转谞讜 诇讬诪讬谉 讗诪专 专讘讬 讞讬讬讗 讘专 讗讘讗 讗诪专 专讘讬 讬讜讞谞谉 专讗砖讜谞讬诐 砖讗诇讜 砖诪讗诇 诪讛讜 砖转住讬讬注 诇讬诪讬谉 讗诪专 专讘 讗砖讬 讛讜讗讬诇 讜专讗砖讜谞讬诐 讗讬讘注讬讗 诇讛讜 讜诇讗 讗讬驻砖讟 诇讛讜


As for what was said after he takes it in his two hands: And he places it in his right hand, Rabbi 岣yya bar Abba said that Rabbi Yo岣nan said: The early Sages asked: What is the ruling, may the left hand assist the right when taking the cup? Rav Ashi said: Since the early Sages raised this dilemma and it was not resolved for them,


讗谞谉 谞注讘讚 诇讞讜诪专讗


we will act stringently and not assist the right hand with the left.


讜诪讙讘讬讛讜 诪谉 讛拽专拽注 讟驻讞 讗诪专 专讘 讗讞讗 讘专讘讬 讞谞讬谞讗 诪讗讬 拽专讗讛 讻讜住 讬砖讜注讜转 讗砖讗 讜讘砖诐 讛壮 讗拽专讗


And he lifts it at least one handbreadth from the ground. Rav A岣, son of Rabbi 岣nina, says: What is the verse that proves this? 鈥淚 will lift the cup of salvation and upon the name of the Lord I will call鈥 (Psalms 116:13).


讜谞讜转谉 注讬谞讬讜 讘讜 讻讬 讛讬讻讬 讚诇讗 谞讬住讞 讚注转讬讛 诪讬谞讬讛


And he fixes his eyes upon the cup; so that his attention will not be distracted from it.


讜诪砖讙专讜 诇讗谞砖讬 讘讬转讜 讘诪转谞讛 讻讬 讛讬讻讬 讚转转讘专讱 讚讘讬转讛讜


And he sends it as a gift to members of his household; so that his wife will be blessed.


注讜诇讗 讗拽诇注 诇讘讬 专讘 谞讞诪谉 讻专讬讱 专讬驻转讗 讘专讬讱 讘专讻转 诪讝讜谞讗 讬讛讘 诇讬讛 讻住讗 讚讘专讻转讗 诇专讘 谞讞诪谉 讗诪专 诇讬讛 专讘 谞讞诪谉 诇讬砖讚专 诪专 讻住讗 讚讘专讻转讗 诇讬诇转讗 讗诪专 诇讬讛 讛讻讬 讗诪专 专讘讬 讬讜讞谞谉 讗讬谉 驻专讬 讘讟谞讛 砖诇 讗砖讛 诪转讘专讱 讗诇讗 诪驻专讬 讘讟谞讜 砖诇 讗讬砖 砖谞讗诪专 讜讘专讱 驻专讬 讘讟谞讱 驻专讬 讘讟谞讛 诇讗 谞讗诪专 讗诇讗 驻专讬 讘讟谞讱


The Gemara relates: Ulla happened to come to the house of Rav Na岣an. He ate bread, recited Grace after Meals, and gave the cup of blessing to Rav Na岣an. Rav Na岣an said to him: Master, please send the cup of blessing to Yalta, my wife. Ulla responded to him: There is no need, as Rabbi Yo岣nan said as follows: The fruit of a woman鈥檚 body is blessed only from the fruit of a man鈥檚 body, as it is stated: 鈥淎nd He will love you, and bless you, and make you numerous, and He will bless the fruit of your body鈥 (Deuteronomy 7:13). The Gemara infers: 鈥淗e will bless the fruit of her body鈥 was not stated. Rather, 鈥淗e will bless the fruit of your [masculine singular] body.鈥 For his wife to be blessed with children, it is sufficient to give the cup to Rav Na岣an.


转谞讬讗 谞诪讬 讛讻讬 专讘讬 谞转谉 讗讜诪专 诪谞讬谉 砖讗讬谉 驻专讬 讘讟谞讛 砖诇 讗砖讛 诪转讘专讱 讗诇讗 诪驻专讬 讘讟谞讜 砖诇 讗讬砖 砖谞讗诪专 讜讘专讱 驻专讬 讘讟谞讱 驻专讬 讘讟谞讛 诇讗 谞讗诪专 讗诇讗 驻专讬 讘讟谞讱


That opinion was also taught in a baraita: Rabbi Natan says: From where is it derived that the fruit of a woman鈥檚 body is only blessed from the fruit of a man鈥檚 body? As it is stated: And He will bless the fruit of your body; He will bless the fruit of her body was not stated. Rather, He will bless the fruit of your body.


讗讚讛讻讬 砖诪注讛 讬诇转讗 拽诪讛 讘讝讬讛专讗 讜注诇转讛 诇讘讬 讞诪专讗 讜转讘专讗 讗专讘注 诪讗讛 讚谞讬 讚讞诪专讗 讗诪专 诇讬讛 专讘 谞讞诪谉 谞砖讚专 诇讛 诪专 讻住讗 讗讞专讬谞讗 砖诇讞 诇讛 讻诇 讛讗讬 谞讘讙讗 讚讘专讻转讗 讛讬讗 砖诇讞讛 诇讬讛 诪诪讛讚讜专讬 诪讬诇讬 讜诪住诪专讟讜讟讬 讻诇诪讬


The Gemara relates that meanwhile Yalta heard Ulla鈥檚 refusal to send her the cup of blessing. Yalta was the daughter of the Exilarch and was accustomed to being treated with deference, so she arose in a rage, entered the wine-storage, and broke four hundred barrels of wine. Afterward, Rav Na岣an said to Ulla: Let the Master send her another cup. Ulla sent Yalta a different cup with a message saying that all of the wine in this barrel is wine of blessing; although you did not drink from the cup of blessing itself, you may at least drink from the barrel from which the cup of blessing was poured. She sent him a stinging response: From itinerant peddlers, Ulla traveled regularly from Eretz Yisrael to Babylonia and back, come meaningless words, and from rags come lice.


讗诪专 专讘 讗住讬 讗讬谉 诪住讬讞讬谉 注诇 讻讜住 砖诇 讘专讻讛 讜讗诪专 专讘 讗住讬 讗讬谉 诪讘专讻讬谉 注诇 讻讜住 砖诇 驻讜专注谞讜转 诪讗讬 讻讜住 砖诇 驻讜专注谞讜转 讗诪专 专讘 谞讞诪谉 讘专 讬爪讞拽 讻讜住 砖谞讬 转谞讬讗 谞诪讬 讛讻讬 讛砖讜转讛 讻驻诇讬诐 诇讗 讬讘专讱 诪砖讜诐 砖谞讗诪专 讛讻讜谉 诇拽专讗转 讗诇讛讬讱 讬砖专讗诇 讜讛讗讬 诇讗 诪转拽谉


Rav Asi said: One may not speak over a cup of blessing from the moment he takes it in his hand until he drinks it. And Rav Asi said: One may not recite a blessing over a cup of punishment. The Gemara clarifies: What is a cup of punishment? Rav Na岣an bar Yitz岣k said: A second cup. That opinion was also taught in a baraita: One who drinks in pairs should not recite a blessing, because it is stated: 鈥淧repare to meet your God, O Israel鈥 (Amos 4:12). One must be well-prepared in order to stand before his Creator, and this person who drank two cups of wine is not prepared, as drinking an even number of cups of wine is dangerous due to demons.


讗诪专 专讘讬 讗讘讛讜 讜讗诪专讬 诇讛 讘诪转谞讬转讗 转谞讗 讛讗讜讻诇 讜诪讛诇讱 诪讘专讱 诪注讜诪讚 讜讻砖讛讜讗 讗讜讻诇 诪注讜诪讚 诪讘专讱 诪讬讜砖讘 讜讻砖讛讜讗 诪讬住讘 讜讗讜讻诇 讬讜砖讘 讜诪讘专讱 讜讛诇讻转讗 讘讻讜诇讛讜 讬讜砖讘 讜诪讘专讱:


In concluding the halakhot of blessings, the Gemara cites that Rabbi Abbahu said, and some say it was taught in a baraita: One who eats and walks, recites the blessing of Grace after Meals standing in one place, and one who eats standing, recites the blessing while seated, and one who eats reclining on a divan sits and then recites the blessing. And the halakha is: In all of these cases one sits and then recites the blessing.


讛讚专谉 注诇讱 砖诇砖讛 砖讗讻诇讜


May we return unto thee : Three who ate !


诪转谞讬壮 讗诇讜 讚讘专讬诐 砖讘讬谉 讘讬转 砖诪讗讬 讜讘讬谉 讘讬转 讛诇诇 讘住注讜讚讛 讘讬转 砖诪讗讬 讗讜诪专讬诐 诪讘专讱 注诇 讛讬讜诐 讜讗讞专 讻讱 诪讘专讱 注诇 讛讬讬谉 讜讘讬转 讛诇诇 讗讜诪专讬诐 诪讘专讱 注诇 讛讬讬谉 讜讗讞专 讻讱 诪讘专讱 注诇 讛讬讜诐


MISHNA: These are the matters of dispute between Beit Shammai and Beit Hillel with regard to the halakhot of a meal: One dispute concerns the order of blessings in kiddush. Beit Shammai say: When one recites kiddush over wine, one recites a blessing over the sanctification of the day and recites a blessing over the wine thereafter. And Beit Hillel say: One recites a blessing over the wine and recites a blessing over the day thereafter.


讘讬转 砖诪讗讬 讗讜诪专讬诐 谞讜讟诇讬谉 诇讬讚讬诐 讜讗讞专 讻讱 诪讜讝讙讬谉 讗转 讛讻讜住 讜讘讬转 讛诇诇 讗讜诪专讬诐 诪讜讝讙讬谉 讗转 讛讻讜住 讜讗讞专 讻讱 谞讜讟诇讬谉 诇讬讚讬诐


Similarly, Beit Hillel and Beit Shammai disagree with regard to drinking wine before a meal. Beit Shammai say: One washes his hands and mixes water with the wine in the cup thereafter, and Beit Hillel say: One mixes water with the wine in the cup and only washes his hands thereafter. The basis of this particular dispute is with regard to the laws of ritual purity, as the Gemara will explain below.


讘讬转 砖诪讗讬 讗讜诪专讬诐 诪拽谞讞 讬讚讬讜 讘诪驻讛 讜诪谞讬讞讛 注诇 讛砖讜诇讞谉 讜讘讬转 讛诇诇 讗讜诪专讬诐 注诇 讛讻住转


Also with regard to the laws of ritual purity, Beit Shammai say: After washing, one dries his hands with a cloth and places it on the table. And Beit Hillel say: One places it on the cushion upon which he is sitting.


讘讬转 砖诪讗讬 讗讜诪专讬诐 诪讻讘讚讬谉 讗转 讛讘讬转 讜讗讞专 讻讱 谞讜讟诇讬谉 诇讬讚讬诐 讜讘讬转 讛诇诇 讗讜诪专讬诐 谞讜讟诇讬谉 诇讬讚讬诐 讜讗讞专 讻讱 诪讻讘讚讬谉 讗转 讛讘讬转


Similarly, Beit Shammai say: One sweeps the area of the house where the meal took place and he washes his hands with the final waters before Grace after Meals thereafter. And Beit Hillel say: One washes his hands and sweeps the house thereafter.


讘讬转 砖诪讗讬 讗讜诪专讬诐 谞专 讜诪讝讜谉 讘砖诪讬诐 讜讛讘讚诇讛 讜讘讬转 讛诇诇 讗讜诪专讬诐 谞专 讜讘砖诪讬诐 诪讝讜谉 讜讛讘讚诇讛


Just as they dispute the order of the blessings in kiddush, they dispute the order of the blessings in havdala. If a meal continued until the conclusion of Shabbat, Beit Shammai say: One recites the blessing over the candle, then the Grace after Meals blessing, then the blessing over the spices, and finally the blessing of havdala. And Beit Hillel say: The order is candle, spices, Grace after Meals, and havdala.


讘讬转 砖诪讗讬 讗讜诪专讬诐 砖讘专讗 诪讗讜专 讛讗砖 讜讘讬转 讛诇诇 讗讜诪专讬诐 讘讜专讗 诪讗讜专讬 讛讗砖


With regard to the blessing over the candle, Beit Shammai say: Who created [bara] the light of fire. And Beit Hillel say: Who creates [boreh] the lights of fire.


讗讬谉 诪讘专讻讬谉 诇讗 注诇 讛谞专 讜诇讗 注诇 讛讘砖诪讬诐 砖诇 讙讜讬诐 讜诇讗 注诇 讛谞专 讜诇讗 注诇 讛讘砖诪讬诐 砖诇 诪转讬诐 讜诇讗 注诇 讛谞专 讜诇讗 注诇 讛讘砖诪讬诐 砖诇 注讘讜讚讛 讝专讛 讜讗讬谉 诪讘专讻讬谉 注诇 讛谞专 注讚 砖讬讗讜转讜 诇讗讜专讜


One may neither recite a blessing over the candle nor over the spices of gentiles, nor over the candle nor the spices designated to pay respects to the dead, nor over the candle nor the spices of idolatry. The mishna cites another halakha with regard to the blessing over the candle: And one does not recite the blessing over the candle until he derives benefit from its light.


诪讬 砖讗讻诇 讜砖讻讞 讜诇讗 讘讬专讱 讘讬转 砖诪讗讬 讗讜诪专讬诐 讬讞讝讜专 诇诪拽讜诪讜 讜讬讘专讱 讜讘讬转 讛诇诇 讗讜诪专讬诐 讬讘专讱 讘诪拽讜诐 砖谞讝讻专 讜注讚 诪转讬 诪讘专讱 注讚 讻讚讬 砖讬转注讻诇 讛诪讝讜谉 砖讘诪注讬讜


The mishna cites an additional dispute: One who ate and forgot and did not recite a blessing; Beit Shammai say: He returns to the place where he ate and recites the blessing. Beit Hillel say: That is unnecessary. He recites the blessing at the place where he remembered. Both agree, however, that there is a limit with regard to how long after eating one may recite Grace after Meals. And until when does he recite the blessing? Until the food is digested in his intestines.


讘讗 诇讛谉 讬讬谉 讗讞专 讛诪讝讜谉 讗诐 讗讬谉 砖诐 讗诇讗 讗讜转讜 讻讜住 讘讬转 砖诪讗讬 讗讜诪专讬诐 诪讘专讱 注诇 讛讬讬谉 讜讗讞专 讻讱 诪讘专讱 注诇 讛诪讝讜谉 讜讘讬转 讛诇诇 讗讜诪专讬诐 诪讘专讱 注诇 讛诪讝讜谉 讜讗讞专 讻讱 诪讘专讱 注诇 讛讬讬谉


Wine came before the diners after the meal; if only that cup of wine is there, Beit Shammai say: One recites a blessing over the wine and recites a blessing over the food, Grace after Meals, thereafter. And Beit Hillel say: One recites a blessing over the food and recites a blessing over the wine thereafter.


讜注讜谞讬谉 讗诪谉 讗讞专 讬砖专讗诇 讛诪讘专讱 讜讗讬谉 注讜谞讬谉 讗诪谉 讗讞专 讻讜转讬 讛诪讘专讱 注讚 砖讬砖诪注 讻诇 讛讘专讻讛 讻讜诇讛:


And one answers amen after a Jew who recites a blessing even if he did not hear the entire blessing, and one does not answer amen after a Samaritan [Kuti] who recites a blessing until he hears the whole blessing in its entirety, as perhaps the Kuti introduced an element inconsistent with the Jewish faith in that section of the blessing that he did not hear.


讙诪壮 转谞讜 专讘谞谉 讚讘专讬诐 砖讘讬谉 讘讬转 砖诪讗讬 讜讘讬转 讛诇诇 讘住注讜讚讛 讘讬转 砖诪讗讬 讗讜诪专讬诐 诪讘专讱 注诇 讛讬讜诐 讜讗讞专 讻讱 诪讘专讱 注诇 讛讬讬谉 砖讛讬讜诐 讙讜专诐 诇讬讬谉 砖讬讘讗 讜讻讘专 拽讚砖 讛讬讜诐 讜注讚讬讬谉 讬讬谉 诇讗 讘讗


GEMARA: The Sages taught in a Tosefta: These are the matters of dispute between Beit Shammai and Beit Hillel with regard to the halakhot of a meal: Beit Shammai say: When one recites kiddush over wine, one recites a blessing over the sanctification of the day and recites a blessing over the wine thereafter as the day causes the wine to come before the meal. And Beit Shammai offer an additional reason: The day has already been sanctified and the wine has not yet come. Since Shabbat was sanctified first, it should likewise be mentioned first.


讜讘讬转 讛诇诇 讗讜诪专讬诐 诪讘专讱 注诇 讛讬讬谉 讜讗讞专 讻讱 诪讘专讱 注诇 讛讬讜诐 砖讛讬讬谉 讙讜专诐 诇拽讚讜砖讛 砖转讗诪专 讚讘专 讗讞专 讘专讻转 讛讬讬谉 转讚讬专讛 讜讘专讻转 讛讬讜诐 讗讬谞讛 转讚讬专讛 转讚讬专 讜砖讗讬谞讜 转讚讬专 转讚讬专 拽讜讚诐 讜讛诇讻讛 讻讚讘专讬 讘讬转 讛诇诇


And Beit Hillel say: One recites a blessing over the wine and recites a blessing over the day thereafter, because the wine causes the sanctification to be recited. Were there no wine, kiddush would not be recited. Alternatively, Beit Hillel say: The blessing over wine is recited frequently, and the blessing over the day is not recited frequently, and there is a general principle: When a frequent practice and an infrequent practice clash, the frequent practice takes precedence over the infrequent practice. The Tosefta concludes: The halakha is in accordance with the statement of Beit Hillel.


诪讗讬 讚讘专 讗讞专 讜讻讬 转讬诪讗 讛转诐 转专转讬 讜讛讻讗 讞讚讗 讛讻讬 谞诪讬 转专转讬 谞讬谞讛讜 讘专讻转 讛讬讬谉 转讚讬专讛 讜讘专讻转 讛讬讜诐 讗讬谞讛 转讚讬专讛 转讚讬专 讜砖讗讬谞讜 转讚讬专 转讚讬专 拽讜讚诐


The Gemara asks: What is alternatively? Why did Beit Hillel cite an additional reason? The Gemara responds: And if you say that there Beit Shammai cite two reasons, and here Beit Hillel offer only one, therefore Beit Hillel said they are two reasons here as well: The blessing over wine is recited frequently and the blessing over the day is not recited frequently. When a frequent practice and an infrequent practice clash, the frequent practice takes precedence over the infrequent practice.


讜讛诇讻讛 讻讚讘专讬 讘讬转 讛诇诇 驻砖讬讟讗 讚讛讗 谞驻拽讗 讘转 拽讜诇


It was taught in the Tosefta: The halakha is in accordance with the statement of Beit Hillel. The Gemara remarks: It is obvious, as a Divine Voice emerged and proclaimed that the halakha is always in accordance with the opinion of Beit Hillel. Why did the Tosefta tell us here that the halakha is in accordance with their opinion?


讗讬讘注讬转 讗讬诪讗 拽讜讚诐 讘转 拽讜诇 讜讗讬讘注讬转 讗讬诪讗 诇讗讞专 讘转 拽讜诇


The Gemara offers two answers: If you wish, say that this Tosefta was taught before the Divine Voice emerged and proclaimed that general principle. And if you wish, say instead, that this Tosefta was indeed taught after the Divine Voice emerged,


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