Please ensure Javascript is enabled for purposes of website accessibility Skip to content

May 26, 2022 | 讻状讛 讘讗讬讬专 转砖驻状讘 | TODAY'S DAF: Yevamot 80

Today's Daf Yomi

January 11, 2020 | 讬状讚 讘讟讘转 转砖状驻

  • This month鈥檚 learning is sponsored by Yad Binyamin ladies for the refuah shleima of Asher ben Devorah Fayga.

    This month's learning is sponsored by Bracha Rutner in loving memory of her mother, Anna Rutner, Sarah bat Yom Tov and Rachel, on her 5th yahrzeit.

  • This month's shiurim are sponsored by Leora & Jonathan Kukin and Cynthia & Abe Steinberger in honor of Rella Feldman and Curtiss Pulitzer.

Berakhot 8

It is best to pray at the time that the community is praying. Why is that? What type of things is it important to pray for? Is it better to pray in a synogogue or a place where one learns? Why? Is it best to live near one’s rabbi or not? One should read the prasha twice and once with a translation before it is read in the synogogue. Is it ok to do a number of weeks at once? The gemara mentions things that rabbis taught their children regarding behaviors that one should be careful about – including some they learned from people of other nations. One should be careful not to sit on a bed of an Aramean women – three interpretations are brought regarding the meaning of this. One explanation includes a story of Rav Papa where he was almost framed for killing a baby but was saved because he checked first under the bed and found the dead baby.

转讜讻谉 讝讛 转讜专讙诐 讙诐 诇: 注讘专讬转

诪讗讬 讚讻转讬讘 讜讗谞讬 转驻诇转讬 诇讱 讛壮 注转 专爪讜谉 讗讬诪转讬 注转 专爪讜谉 讘砖注讛 砖讛爪讘讜专 诪转驻诇诇讬谉

What is the meaning of that which is written: 鈥淏ut as for me, let my prayer be unto You, Lord, in a time of favor; O God, in the abundance of Your mercy, answer me with the truth of Your salvation鈥 (Psalms 69:14)? It appears that the individual is praying that his prayers will coincide with a special time of Divine favor. When is a time of favor? It is at the time when the congregation is praying. It is beneficial to pray together with the congregation, for God does not fail to respond to the entreaties of the congregation.

专讘讬 讬讜住讬 讘专讘讬 讞谞讬谞讗 讗诪专 诪讛讻讗 讻讛 讗诪专 讛壮 讘注转 专爪讜谉 注谞讬转讬讱

Rabbi Yosei, son of Rabbi 岣nina, said that the unique quality of communal prayer is derived from here: 鈥淭hus said the Lord, in a time of acceptance I have answered you and on a day of salvation I have aided you鈥 (Isaiah 49:8).

专讘讬 讗讞讗 讘专讘讬 讞谞讬谞讗 讗诪专 诪讛讻讗 讛谉 讗诇 讻讘讬专 讜诇讗 讬诪讗住 讜讻转讬讘 驻讚讛 讘砖诇讜诐 谞驻砖讬 诪拽专讘 诇讬 讻讬 讘专讘讬诐 讛讬讜 注诪讚讬

Rabbi A岣, son of Rabbi 岣nina, said that it is derived from here: 鈥淏ehold, God is mighty, He despises no one鈥 (Job 36:5). He adopts an alternative reading of the verse: 鈥淏ehold, God will not despise鈥 the prayer of 鈥渢he mighty,鈥 i.e., the community. And it is written: 鈥淗e has redeemed my soul in peace so that none came upon me; for there were many with me. God shall hear and answer them鈥︹ (Psalms 55:19鈥20). This verse teaches that the prayer was answered because there were many with me when it was offered.

转谞讬讗 谞诪讬 讛讻讬 专讘讬 谞转谉 讗讜诪专 诪谞讬谉 砖讗讬谉 讛拽讚讜砖 讘专讜讱 讛讜讗 诪讜讗住 讘转驻诇转谉 砖诇 专讘讬诐 砖谞讗诪专 讛谉 讗诇 讻讘讬专 讜诇讗 讬诪讗住 讜讻转讬讘 驻讚讛 讘砖诇讜诐 谞驻砖讬 诪拽专讘 诇讬 讜讙讜壮 讗诪专 讛拽讚讜砖 讘专讜讱 讛讜讗 讻诇 讛注讜住拽 讘转讜专讛 讜讘讙诪讬诇讜转 讞住讚讬诐 讜诪转驻诇诇 注诐 讛爪讘讜专 诪注诇讛 讗谞讬 注诇讬讜 讻讗讬诇讜 驻讚讗谞讬 诇讬 讜诇讘谞讬 诪讘讬谉 讗讜诪讜转 讛注讜诇诐

That last proof was also taught in a baraita. Rabbi Natan says: From where do we know that the Holy One, Blessed be He, does not despise the prayer of the masses? As it is stated: 鈥淏ehold, God does not despise the mighty,鈥 and it is written: 鈥淗e has redeemed my soul in peace so that none came upon me; for there were many with me.鈥 Rabbi Natan interprets this not as David speaking about himself, but as God speaking to Israel. The Holy One, Blessed be He, says: Anyone who engages in Torah study, which is called peace in the verse: 鈥淎ll its ways are peace鈥 (Proverbs 3:17); and in acts of kindness, and prays with the congregation, I ascribe to him credit as if he redeemed Me and My children from among the nations of the world.

讗诪专 专讬砖 诇拽讬砖 讻诇 诪讬 砖讬砖 诇讜 讘讬转 讛讻谞住转 讘注讬专讜 讜讗讬谞讜 谞讻谞住 砖诐 诇讛转驻诇诇 谞拽专讗 砖讻谉 专注 砖谞讗诪专 讻讛 讗诪专 讛壮 注诇 讻诇 砖讻谞讬 讛专注讬诐 讛谞讙注讬诐 讘谞讞诇讛 讗砖专 讛谞讞诇转讬 讗转 注诪讬 讗转 讬砖专讗诇 讜诇讗 注讜讚 讗诇讗 砖讙讜专诐 讙诇讜转 诇讜 讜诇讘谞讬讜 砖谞讗诪专 讛谞谞讬 谞转砖诐 诪注诇 讗讚诪转诐 讜讗转 讘讬转 讬讛讜讚讛 讗转讜砖 诪转讜讻诐

Continuing to extol communal prayer, Reish Lakish said: One who has a synagogue nearby in his city but does not enter to pray there is called an evil neighbor, as it is stated: 鈥淭hus said the Lord: As for all My evil neighbors who touch My inheritance which I have caused My people Israel to inherit, behold, I will pluck them up from off their land, and will pluck the house of Judah up from among them鈥 (Jeremiah 12:14). One who only touches, but does not enter the place of prayer, My inheritance, is considered an evil neighbor. And furthermore, he is punished in that he causes himself and his children to go into exile, as it is stated: 鈥淏ehold, I will pluck them up from off their land, and will pluck the house of Judah up from among them.鈥

讗诪专讜 诇讬讛 诇专讘讬 讬讜讞谞谉 讗讬讻讗 住讘讬 讘讘讘诇 转诪讛 讜讗诪专 诇诪注谉 讬专讘讜 讬诪讬讻诐 讜讬诪讬 讘谞讬讻诐 注诇 讛讗讚诪讛 讻转讬讘 讗讘诇 讘讞讜爪讛 诇讗专抓 诇讗 讻讬讜谉 讚讗诪专讬 诇讬讛 诪拽讚诪讬 讜诪讞砖讻讬 诇讘讬 讻谞讬砖转讗 讗诪专 讛讬讬谞讜 讚讗讛谞讬 诇讛讜

The Gemara relates that when the Sages told Rabbi Yo岣nan that there are elders in Babylonia, he was confounded and said: It is written: 鈥淪o that your days will be lengthened and the days of your children upon the land the Lord swore to your forefathers to give to them like the days of heaven on the earth鈥 (Deuteronomy 11:21); lengthened in Eretz Yisrael but not outside of the Land. Why then, do the residents of Babylonia live long lives? When they told him that the people in Babylonia go early in the morning and go late in the evening to the synagogue, he said: That is what was effective for them in extending their lives.

讚讗诪专 专讘讬 讬讛讜砖注 讘谉 诇讜讬 诇讘谞讬讛 拽讚讬诪讜 讜讞砖讬讻讜 讜注讬讬诇讜 诇讘讬 讻谞讬砖转讗 讻讬 讛讬讻讬 讚转讜专讻讜 讞讬讬 讗诪专 专讘讬 讗讞讗 讘专讘讬 讞谞讬谞讗 诪讗讬 拽专讗 讗砖专讬 讗讚诐 砖诪注 诇讬 诇砖拽讚 注诇 讚诇转转讬 讬讜诐 讬讜诐 诇砖诪讜专 诪讝讜讝转 驻转讞讬 讜讻转讬讘 讘转专讬讛 讻讬 诪爪讗讬 诪爪讗 讞讬讬诐

As Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi said to his sons: Go early and go late and enter the synagogue, so that your lives will be extended. And Rabbi A岣, son of Rabbi 岣nina, said: Upon what verse is this based? As it is stated: 鈥淗appy is the man who listens to Me, watching daily at My gates, guarding at My door posts鈥 (Proverbs 8:34). And the reward for doing so is written thereafter: 鈥淔or whoso finds Me finds life and obtains the favor of the Lord鈥 (Proverbs 8:35).

讗诪专 专讘 讞住讚讗 诇注讜诇诐 讬讻谞住 讗讚诐 砖谞讬 驻转讞讬诐 讘讘讬转 讛讻谞住转 砖谞讬 驻转讞讬诐 住诇拽讗 讚注转讱 讗诇讗 讗讬诪讗 砖讬注讜专 砖谞讬 驻转讞讬诐 讜讗讞专 讻讱 讬转驻诇诇:

Based on this verse, Rav 岣sda said: A person should always enter two doorways into the synagogue. This statement is unclear. Immediately, the Gemara asks: Does it enter your mind that Rav 岣sda meant that one should enter two doorways literally? What if a synagogue only has a single doorway? Rather, emend his statement and say that Rav 岣sda meant that one should enter a distance of two doorways into the synagogue and then pray. In entering a distance of two doorways, one fulfills the verse: Guarding at My door posts, in the plural.

注诇 讝讗转 讬转驻诇诇 讻诇 讞住讬讚 讗诇讬讱 诇注转 诪爪讗 讗诪专 专讘讬 讞谞讬谞讗 诇注转 诪爪讗 讝讜 讗砖讛 砖谞讗诪专 诪爪讗 讗砖讛 诪爪讗 讟讜讘

Having mentioned the verse, 鈥淔or whoso finds Me finds life,鈥 the Gemara seeks to clarify its meaning. It is said, 鈥淔or this, let every pious man pray to You in the time of finding, that the overflowing waters may not reach him鈥 (Psalms 32:6). With regard to the phrase, the time of finding, Rabbi 岣nina said: The time of finding refers to the time one must find a wife, that one should pray to find a suitable woman to marry. As it is said: 鈥淗e who finds [matza] a wife finds [matza] good and obtains favor from the Lord鈥 (Proverbs 18:22).

讘诪注专讘讗 讻讬 谞住讬讘 讗讬谞砖 讗转转讗 讗诪专讬 诇讬讛 讛讻讬 诪爪讗 讗讜 诪讜爪讗 诪爪讗 讚讻转讬讘 诪爪讗 讗砖讛 诪爪讗 讟讜讘 讜讬驻拽 专爪讜谉 诪讛壮 诪讜爪讗 讚讻转讬讘 讜诪讜爪讗 讗谞讬 诪专 诪诪讜转 讗转 讛讗砖讛 讜讙讜壮

In Eretz Yisrael, the custom was that when a man married a woman, they would ask him: Matza or motzeh? In other words, they would ask the groom whether the appropriate passage for his wife is the above verse from Proverbs that begins with the word matza, as it is written: 鈥淗e who finds a wife finds good and obtains favor from the Lord鈥 or whether the more appropriate verse is the one beginning with the word motzeh, as it is written: 鈥淎nd I find [motzeh] the woman more bitter than death鈥 (Ecclesiastes 7:26).

专讘讬 谞转谉 讗讜诪专 诇注转 诪爪讗 讝讜 转讜专讛 砖谞讗诪专 讻讬 诪爪讗讬 诪爪讗 讞讬讬诐 讜讙讜壮

Rabbi Natan says: The time of finding refers to the time of finding Torah, as it is stated in a verse referring to Torah: 鈥淗e who finds Me finds life.鈥 The Torah is the object most sought.

专讘 谞讞诪谉 讘专 讬爪讞拽 讗诪专 诇注转 诪爪讗 讝讜 诪讬转讛 砖谞讗诪专 诇诪讜转 转讜爪讗讜转

Rav Na岣an bar Yitz岣k said: The time of finding refers to death. One should pray that when death comes, he will leave the world peacefully, as it is stated: 鈥淚ssues [totzaot] of death鈥 (Psalms 68:21). Rav Na岣an bar Yitz岣k鈥檚 statement is based on the etymological similarity between totzaot and matza, finding.

转谞讬讗 谞诪讬 讛讻讬 转砖注 诪讗讜转 讜砖诇砖讛 诪讬谞讬 诪讬转讛 谞讘专讗讜 讘注讜诇诐 砖谞讗诪专 诇诪讜转 转讜爪讗讜转 转讜爪讗讜转 讘讙讬诪讟专讬讗 讛讻讬 讛讜讜 拽砖讛 砖讘讻诇谉 讗住讻专讗 谞讬讞讗 砖讘讻诇谉 谞砖讬拽讛 讗住讻专讗 讚诪讬讗 讻讞讬讝专讗 讘讙讘讘讗 讚注诪专讗 讚诇讗讞讜专讬 谞砖专讗 讜讗讬讻讗 讚讗诪专讬 讻驻讬讟讜专讬 讘驻讬 讜砖讟 谞砖讬拽讛 讚诪讬讗 讻诪砖讞诇 讘谞讬转讗 诪讞诇讘讗

It was also taught in a baraita: Nine hundred and three types of death were created in the world, as it is stated: 鈥淚ssues [totzaot] of death,鈥 and that, 903, is the numerical value [gimatriya] of totzaot. The Gemara explains that the most difficult of all these types of death is croup [askara], while the easiest is the kiss of death. Croup is like a thorn entangled in a wool fleece, which, when pulled out backwards, tears the wool. Some say that croup is like ropes at the entrance to the esophagus, which would be nearly impossible to insert and excruciating to remove. The kiss of death is like drawing a hair from milk. One should pray that he does not die a painful death.

专讘讬 讬讜讞谞谉 讗诪专 诇注转 诪爪讗 讝讜 拽讘讜专讛 讗诪专 专讘讬 讞谞讬谞讗 诪讗讬 拽专讗 讛砖诪讞讬诐 讗诇讬 讙讬诇 讬砖讬砖讜 讻讬 讬诪爪讗讜 拽讘专 讗诪专 专讘讛 讘专 专讘 砖讬诇讗 讛讬讬谞讜 讚讗诪专讬 讗讬谞砖讬 诇讬讘注讬 讗讬谞砖 专讞诪讬 讗驻讬诇讜 注讚 讝讬讘讜诇讗 讘转专讬讬转讗 砖诇诪讗

Rabbi Yo岣nan said: The time of finding refers to a respectful burial, for which one should pray. Supporting Rabbi Yo岣nan鈥檚 interpretation, Rabbi 岣nina said: What is the verse that teaches that the time of finding refers to burial? 鈥淲ho rejoice in exultation and are glad when they can find a grave鈥 (Job 3:22), as there are situations in which one is relieved when his body finds a grave in which to rest. Rabba bar Rav Sheila said, that is the meaning of the folk saying: A person should even pray for mercy until the final shovelful of dirt is thrown upon his grave.

诪专 讝讜讟专讗 讗诪专 诇注转 诪爪讗 讝讛 讘讬转 讛讻住讗 讗诪专讬 讘诪注专讘讗 讛讗 讚诪专 讝讜讟专讗 注讚讬驻讗 诪讻诇讛讜

Mar Zutra said: The time of finding refers to finding a lavatory. As most places did not have a sewage system, one was forced to relieve himself outside the city. Because of this unpleasantness, finding a suitable location was called by Mar Zutra, the time of finding. In the West, Eretz Yisrael, they say: This explanation of Mar Zutra is preferable to all of them, as the term motza is explicitly associated in the Bible (see II Kings 10:27) with the lavatory (Rabbi Abraham Moshe Horovitz).

讗诪专 诇讬讛 专讘讗 诇专驻专诐 讘专 驻驻讗 诇讬诪讗 诇谉 诪专 诪讛谞讬 诪讬诇讬 诪注诇讬讬转讗 讚讗诪专转 诪砖诪讬讛 讚专讘 讞住讚讗 讘诪讬诇讬 讚讘讬 讻谞讬砖转讗

Returning to the tractate鈥檚 central topic, Rava said to Rafram bar Pappa: Let the Master say to us some of those outstanding statements that you said in the name of Rav 岣sda with regard to matters of the synagogue.

讗诪专 诇讬讛 讛讻讬 讗诪专 专讘 讞住讚讗 诪讗讬 讚讻转讬讘 讗讛讘 讛壮 砖注专讬 爪讬讜谉 诪讻诇 诪砖讻谞讜转 讬注拽讘 讗讜讛讘 讛壮 砖注专讬诐 讛诪爪讜讬讬谞讬诐 讘讛诇讻讛 讬讜转专 诪讘转讬 讻谞住讬讜转 讜诪讘转讬 诪讚专砖讜转

Rafram said to him, Rav 岣sda said as follows: What is the meaning of the verse: 鈥淭he Lord loves the gates of Zion [Tziyyon] more than all the dwellings of Jacob鈥 (Psalms 87:2)? This means that the Lord loves the gates distinguished [metzuyanim] through the study of halakha as they are the gates of Zion, the outstanding gates, more than the synagogues and study halls. Although those places are the most outstanding of the dwellings of Jacob, they are not engaged in the study of halakha.

讜讛讬讬谞讜 讚讗诪专 专讘讬 讞讬讬讗 讘专 讗诪讬 诪砖诪讬讛 讚注讜诇讗 诪讬讜诐 砖讞专讘 讘讬转 讛诪拽讚砖 讗讬谉 诇讜 诇讛拽讚讜砖 讘专讜讱 讛讜讗 讘注讜诇诪讜 讗诇讗 讗专讘注 讗诪讜转 砖诇 讛诇讻讛 讘诇讘讚

And this concept, that halakha is the most sublime pursuit, is expressed in that which Rabbi 岣yya bar Ami said in the name of Ulla: Since the day the Temple, where the Divine Presence rested in this world, was destroyed, the Holy One, Blessed be He, has only one place in His world where he reveals His presence exclusively; only the four cubits where the study of halakha is undertaken.

讜讗诪专 讗讘讬讬 诪专讬砖 讛讜讛 讙专讬住谞讗 讘讙讜 讘讬转讗 讜诪爪诇讬谞讗 讘讘讬 讻谞讬砖转讗 讻讬讜谉 讚砖诪注谞讗 诇讛讗 讚讗诪专 专讘讬 讞讬讬讗 讘专 讗诪讬 诪砖诪讬讛 讚注讜诇讗 诪讬讜诐 砖讞专讘 讘讬转 讛诪拽讚砖 讗讬谉 诇讜 诇讛拽讚讜砖 讘专讜讱 讛讜讗 讘注讜诇诪讜 讗诇讗 讗专讘注 讗诪讜转 砖诇 讛诇讻讛 讘诇讘讚 诇讗 讛讜讛 诪爪诇讬谞讗 讗诇讗 讛讬讻讗 讚讙专讬住谞讗

This statement has practical ramifications. Abaye said: At first I studied in the house and prayed in the synagogue. Once I heard what Rabbi 岣yya bar Ami said in the name of Ulla: Since the day the Temple was destroyed, the Holy One, Blessed be He, has only one place in His world, only the four cubits of halakha alone, from which I understood the significance of the four cubits of halakha, and I pray only where I study.

专讘讬 讗诪讬 讜专讘讬 讗住讬 讗祝 注诇 讙讘 讚讛讜讜 诇讛讜 转诇讬住专 讘讬 讻谞讬砖转讗 讘讟讘专讬讗 诇讗 诪爪诇讜 讗诇讗 讘讬谞讬 注诪讜讚讬 讛讬讻讗 讚讛讜讜 讙专住讬:

Similarly, the Gemara relates that Rabbi Ami and Rabbi Asi, despite the fact that they had thirteen synagogues in Tiberias, they would only pray between the pillars where they studied.

讜讗诪专 专讘讬 讞讬讬讗 讘专 讗诪讬 诪砖诪讬讛 讚注讜诇讗 讙讚讜诇 讛谞讛谞讛 诪讬讙讬注讜 讬讜转专 诪讬专讗 砖诪讬诐 讚讗讬诇讜 讙讘讬 讬专讗 砖诪讬诐 讻转讬讘 讗砖专讬 讗讬砖 讬专讗 讗转 讛壮 讜讗讬诇讜 讙讘讬 谞讛谞讛 诪讬讙讬注讜 讻转讬讘 讬讙讬注 讻驻讬讱 讻讬 转讗讻诇 讗砖专讬讱 讜讟讜讘 诇讱 讗砖专讬讱 讘注讜诇诐 讛讝讛 讜讟讜讘 诇讱 诇注讜诇诐 讛讘讗 讜诇讙讘讬 讬专讗 砖诪讬诐 讜讟讜讘 诇讱 诇讗 讻转讬讘 讘讬讛:

And Rabbi 岣yya bar Ami said in the name of Ulla: One who benefits from his hard labor is greater than a God-fearing person, i.e., one who is so enthralled by his fear of God that he sits idly by and does not work. As with regard to a God-fearing person, it is written: 鈥淗appy is the man who fears the Lord, who greatly desires His mitzvot鈥 (Psalms 112:1), while with regard to one who benefits from his hard work, it is written: 鈥淏y the labor of your hands you will live; you are happy and it is good for you鈥 (Psalms 128:2). The Gemara explains this verse to mean that you are happy in this world, and it is good for you in the World-to-Come. And regarding a God-fearing person, happy is the man, is written about him but and it is good for you, is not written about him.

讜讗诪专 专讘讬 讞讬讬讗 讘专 讗诪讬 诪砖诪讬讛 讚注讜诇讗 诇注讜诇诐 讬讚讜专 讗讚诐 讘诪拽讜诐 专讘讜 砖讻诇 讝诪谉 砖砖诪注讬 讘谉 讙专讗 拽讬讬诐 诇讗 谞砖讗 砖诇诪讛 讗转 讘转 驻专注讛

And Rabbi 岣yya bar Ami said in the name of Ulla: One should always live in the place where his teacher lives; thereby he will avoid sin. For as long as Shimi ben Gera, who according to tradition was a great Torah scholar and teacher of Solomon (see Gittin 59a), was alive, Solomon did not marry Pharaoh鈥檚 daughter. Immediately after the Bible relates the death of Shimi (I Kings, end of ch. 2), Solomon鈥檚 marriage to Pharaoh鈥檚 daughter is recorded (beginning of ch. 3).

讜讛转谞讬讗 讗诇 讬讚讜专

The Gemara raises an objection: Wasn鈥檛 it taught in a baraita that one should not live where his teacher lives?

诇讗 拽砖讬讗 讛讗 讚讻讬讬祝 诇讬讛 讛讗 讚诇讗 讻讬讬祝 诇讬讛:

The Gemara answers: This is not difficult. This, which says that one should live where his teacher lives, is referring to a case where he is acquiescent to his teacher and will heed his teaching and instruction. While this baraita, which says that one should not live where his teacher lives, is referring to a case where he is not acquiescent to him and that will lead them to quarrel.

讗诪专 专讘 讛讜谞讗 讘专 讬讛讜讚讛 讗诪专 专讘讬 诪谞讞诐 讗诪专 专讘讬 讗诪讬 诪讗讬 讚讻转讬讘 讜注讜讝讘讬 讛壮 讬讻诇讜 讝讛 讛诪谞讬讞 住驻专 转讜专讛 讜讬讜爪讗

The Gemara again returns to the topic of the synagogue. Rav Huna bar Yehuda said that Rabbi Mena岣m said that Rabbi Ami said: What is the practical halakhic meaning of that which is written: 鈥淭hey who forsake the Lord will perish鈥 (Isaiah 1:28)? This verse refers to one who abandons the Torah scroll when it was taken out to be read and leaves the synagogue, as it appears that he is fleeing from God.

专讘讬 讗讘讛讜 谞驻讬拽 讘讬谉 讙讘专讗 诇讙讘专讗

Practically speaking, the Gemara relates that Rabbi Abbahu would go out between one person who read the Torah and the next person who did so. Since the scroll was closed between readers, it was not considered to be a show of contempt.

讘注讬 专讘 驻驻讗 讘讬谉 驻住讜拽讗 诇驻住讜拽讗 诪讛讜

Rav Pappa raised a dilemma: What is the ruling with regard to leaving between one verse and the next verse? Is one permitted to leave during a break in the Torah reading while the verse was translated into Aramaic?

转讬拽讜

An answer to this question was not found, so the dilemma stands unresolved.

专讘 砖砖转 诪讛讚专 讗驻讬讛 讜讙专讬住 讗诪专 讗谞谉 讘讚讬讚谉 讜讗讬谞讛讜 讘讚讬讚讛讜:

The Gemara relates that Rav Sheshet would turn his face away from the Torah while it was being read and study. Explaining this practice, he said: We are engaged in ours, the study of the Oral Torah and they are engaged in theirs, listening to the Written Torah. Since Rav Sheshet was engaged in Torah study, he is not considered one who forsakes the Lord.

讗诪专 专讘 讛讜谞讗 讘专 讬讛讜讚讛 讗诪专 专讘讬 讗诪讬 诇注讜诇诐 讬砖诇讬诐 讗讚诐 驻专砖讬讜转讬讜 注诐 讛爪讘讜专 砖谞讬诐 诪拽专讗 讜讗讞讚 转专讙讜诐

Rav Huna bar Yehuda said that Rabbi Ami said: A person should always complete his Torah portions with the congregation. The congregation reads a particular Torah portion every Shabbat, and during the week prior to each Shabbat, one is required to read the Bible text of the weekly portion twice and the translation once.

讜讗驻讬诇讜 注讟专讜转 讜讚讬讘谉 砖讻诇 讛诪砖诇讬诐 驻专砖讬讜转讬讜 注诐 讛爪讘讜专 诪讗专讬讻讬谉 诇讜 讬诪讬讜 讜砖谞讜转讬讜

This applies to every verse, even a verse like: 鈥淎tarot and Divon and Yazer and Nimra and 岣shbon and Elaleh and Sevam and Nevo and Beon鈥 (Numbers 32:3). While that verse is comprised entirely of names of places that are identical in Hebrew and Aramaic, one is nevertheless required to read the verse twice and its translation once, as one who completes his Torah portions with the congregation is rewarded that his days and years are extended.

专讘 讘讬讘讬 讘专 讗讘讬讬 住讘专 诇讗砖诇讜诪讬谞讛讜 诇驻专砖讬讬转讗 讚讻诇讗 砖转讗 讘诪注诇讬 讬讜诪讗 讚讻驻讜专讬 转谞讗 诇讬讛 讞讬讬讗 讘专 专讘 诪讚驻转讬 讻转讬讘 讜注谞讬转诐 讗转 谞驻砖转讬讻诐 讘转砖注讛 诇讞讚砖 讘注专讘

Rav Beivai bar Abaye thought to finish all the Torah portions of the entire year, which he had been unable to complete at their appointed time, on the eve of Yom Kippur when he would have time to do so. But 岣yya bar Rav of Difti taught him: It is written with regard to Yom Kippur: 鈥淎nd you shall afflict your souls on the ninth day of the month in the evening, from evening to evening you shall keep your Sabbath鈥 (Leviticus 23:32).

讜讻讬 讘转砖注讛 诪转注谞讬谉 讜讛诇讗 讘注砖专讛 诪转注谞讬谉 讗诇讗 诇讜诪专 诇讱 讻诇 讛讗讜讻诇 讜砖讜转讛 讘转砖讬注讬 诪注诇讛 注诇讬讜 讛讻转讜讘 讻讗讬诇讜 诪转注谞讛 转砖讬注讬 讜注砖讬专讬

The Gemara wonders: And does one fast on the ninth of Tishrei? Doesn鈥檛 one fast on the tenth of Tishrei, as the Torah says at the beginning of that portion: 鈥淗owever, on the tenth day of this seventh month is the Day of Atonement; there shall be a holy convocation for you, and you shall afflict your souls鈥 (Leviticus 23:27)? Rather, this verse comes to tell you: One who eats and drinks on the ninth day of Tishrei in preparation for the fast the next day, the verse ascribes him credit as if he fasted on both the ninth and the tenth of Tishrei. 岣yya bar Rav of Difti cited this verse to Rav Beivai bar Abaye to teach him that Yom Kippur eve is dedicated to eating and drinking, not to completing the Torah portions one may have missed throughout the year.

住讘专 诇讗拽讚讜诪讬谞讛讜 讗诪专 诇讬讛 讛讛讜讗 住讘讗 转谞讬谞讗 讜讘诇讘讚 砖诇讗 讬拽讚讬诐 讜砖诇讗 讬讗讞专

When Rav Beivai heard this, he thought to read the Torah portions earlier, before they were to be read by the community. A certain unnamed elder told him, we learned: As long as one does not read the Torah portions earlier or later than the congregation. One must read them together with the congregation.

讻讚讗诪专 诇讛讜 专讘讬 讬讛讜砖注 讘谉 诇讜讬 诇讘谞讬讛 讗砖诇讬诪讜 驻专砖讬讜转讬讬讻讜 注诐 讛爪讘讜专 砖谞讬诐 诪拽专讗 讜讗讞讚 转专讙讜诐

As Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi told his sons: Complete your portions with the congregation, the Bible text twice and the translation once.

讜讛讝讛专讜 讘讜专讬讚讬谉 讻专讘讬 讬讛讜讚讛 讚转谞谉 专讘讬 讬讛讜讚讛 讗讜诪专 注讚 砖讬砖讞讜讟 讗转 讛讜专讬讚讬谉

He also advised them: Be careful with the jugular veins, in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Yehuda, as we learned in a mishna with regard to the laws of ritual slaughter: Rabbi Yehuda said: Cutting the trachea and esophagus in the ritual slaughter of a bird does not render the bird kosher until he slaughters the jugular veins as well. While this is not halakhically required, it is appropriate to do so to prevent significant amounts of blood from remaining in the bird.

讜讛讝讛专讜 讘讝拽谉 砖砖讻讞 转诇诪讜讚讜 诪讞诪转 讗讜谞住讜 讚讗诪专讬谞谉 诇讜讞讜转 讜砖讘专讬 诇讜讞讜转 诪讜谞讞讜转 讘讗专讜谉

Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi further advised: And be careful to continue to respect an elder who has forgotten his Torah knowledge due to circumstances beyond his control. Even though he is no longer a Torah scholar, he must still be respected for the Torah that he once possessed. As we say: Both the tablets of the Covenant and the broken tablets are placed in the Ark of the Covenant in the Temple. Even though the first tablets were broken, their sanctity obligates one not to treat them with contempt. An elder who forgot the Torah knowledge he once possessed is likened to these broken tablets.

讗诪专 诇讛讜 专讘讗 诇讘谞讬讛 讻砖讗转诐 讞讜转讻讬谉 讘砖专 讗诇 转讞转讻讜 注诇 讙讘 讛讬讚 讗讬讻讗 讚讗诪专讬 诪砖讜诐 住讻谞讛 讜讗讬讻讗 讚讗诪专讬 诪砖讜诐 拽诇拽讜诇 住注讜讚讛

Rava said to his sons three bits of advice: When you cut meat, do not cut it on your hand. The Gemara offers two explanations for this. Some say: Due to the danger that one might accidentally cut his hand, and some say: Due to the fact that it could ruin the meal, as even if one only cut himself slightly, that small amount of blood could still spoil the meat and render it repulsive to eat.

讜讗诇 转砖讘讜 注诇 诪讟转 讗专诪讬转 讜讗诇 转注讘专讜 讗讞讜专讬 讘讬转 讛讻谞住转 讘砖注讛 砖讛爪讘讜专 诪转驻诇诇讬谉 讜讗诇 转砖讘讜 注诇 诪讟转 讗专诪讬转 讗讬讻讗 讚讗诪专讬 诇讗 转讙谞讜 讘诇讗 拽专讬讗转 砖诪注 讜讗讬讻讗 讚讗诪专讬 讚诇讗 转谞住讘讜 讙讬讜专转讗 讜讗讬讻讗 讚讗诪专讬 讗专诪讬转 诪诪砖

And Rava also advised: Do not sit on the bed of an Aramean woman, and do not pass by a synagogue when the community is praying. The Gemara explains: Some say: Do not sit on the bed of an Aramean woman means one should not go to sleep without reciting Shema, as by doing so, it is tantamount to sleeping in the bed of a non-Jew, as his conduct is unbecoming a Jew. Others say: This means that one should not marry a woman who converted, and it is better to marry a woman who was born Jewish. And some say: It literally means that one should not sit on the bed of an Aramean, i.e., a non-Jewish woman.

讜诪砖讜诐 诪注砖讛 讚专讘 驻驻讗 讚专讘 驻驻讗 讗讝诇 诇讙讘讬 讗专诪讬转 讛讜爪讬讗讛 诇讜 诪讟讛 讗诪专讛 诇讜 砖讘 讗诪专 诇讛 讗讬谞讬 讬讜砖讘 注讚 砖转讙讘讬讛讬 讗转 讛诪讟讛 讛讙讘讬讛讛 讗转 讛诪讟讛 讜诪爪讗讜 砖诐 转讬谞讜拽 诪转 诪讻讗谉 讗诪专讜 讞讻诪讬诐 讗住讜专 诇讬砖讘 注诇 诪讟转 讗专诪讬转

This bit of advice was due to an incident involving Rav Pappa. Rav Pappa went to visit an Aramean woman. She took out a bed and she said to him: Sit. He said to her: I will not sit until you lift the sheets covering the bed. She did so and they found a dead baby there. Had Rav Pappa sat upon the bed, he would have been blamed for killing the baby. From that incident, the Sages said: One is prohibited from sitting on the bed of an Aramean woman.

讜讗诇 转注讘专讜 讗讞讜专讬 讘讬转 讛讻谞住转 讘砖注讛 砖讛爪讘讜专 诪转驻诇诇讬谉 诪住讬讬注 诇讬讛 诇专讘讬 讬讛讜砖注 讘谉 诇讜讬 讚讗诪专 专讘讬 讬讛讜砖注 讘谉 诇讜讬 讗住讜专 诇讜 诇讗讚诐 砖讬注讘讜专 讗讞讜专讬 讘讬转 讛讻谞住转 讘砖注讛 砖讛爪讘讜专 诪转驻诇诇讬谉

And Rava鈥檚 third bit of advice was, do not pass behind a synagogue while the congregation is praying. This statement supports the opinion of Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi, as Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi said: One is prohibited from passing behind a synagogue while the congregation is praying because they will suspect that he does not want to pray, and it is a show of contempt for the synagogue.

讗诪专 讗讘讬讬 讜诇讗 讗诪专谉 讗诇讗 讚诇讬讻讗 驻转讞讗 讗讞专讬谞讗 讗讘诇 讗讬讻讗 驻转讞讗 讗讞专讬谞讗 诇讬转 诇谉 讘讛 讜诇讗 讗诪专谉 讗诇讗 讚诇讬讻讗 讘讬 讻谞讬砖转讗 讗讞专讬谞讗 讗讘诇 讗讬讻讗 讘讬 讻谞讬砖转讗 讗讞专讬谞讗 诇讬转 诇谉 讘讛 讜诇讗 讗诪专谉 讗诇讗 讚诇讗 讚专讬 讟讜谞讗 讜诇讗 专讛讬讟 讜诇讗 诪谞讞 转驻讬诇讬谉 讗讘诇 讗讬讻讗 讞讚 诪讛谞讱 诇讬转 诇谉 讘讛:

Abaye introduced several caveats to Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi鈥檚 statement and said:
We only said this prohibition if there is no other entrance to the synagogue, but if there is another entrance, since it is possible that he will simply use the second entrance, they will not suspect him, and the prohibition does not apply.
And we only said this prohibition if there is no other synagogue in the city, but if there is another synagogue, the prohibition does not apply.
And we only said this prohibition when he is not carrying a burden, and not running, and not wearing phylacteries. But if one of those factors applies, the prohibition does not apply. If he is carrying a burden or running, clearly he is occupied with his work. If he is wearing phylacteries, it is evident that he is a God-fearing individual and they will not suspect him.

转谞讬讗 讗诪专 专讘讬 注拽讬讘讗 讘砖诇砖讛 讚讘专讬诐 讗讜讛讘 讗谞讬 讗转 讛诪讚讬讬诐 讻砖讞讜转讻讬谉 讗转 讛讘砖专 讗讬谉 讞讜转讻讬谉 讗诇讗 注诇 讙讘讬 讛砖讜诇讞谉 讻砖谞讜砖拽讬谉 讗讬谉 谞讜砖拽讬谉 讗诇讗 注诇 讙讘 讛讬讚 讜讻砖讬讜注爪讬谉 讗讬谉 讬讜注爪讬谉 讗诇讗 讘砖讚讛

The Gemara cites a statement from a baraita, along the lines of Rava鈥檚 advice to refrain from cutting meat on one鈥檚 hands: Rabbi Akiva said: In three aspects of their conduct, I like the Medes, and we should learn from their practices. When they cut meat, they cut it only on the table and not on their hands; when they kiss, either as a show of affection or honor, they kiss only the back of the hand and do not give the person being kissed an unpleasant feeling; and when they hold counsel, they only hold counsel in the field so others will not hear their secrets.

讗诪专 专讘 讗讚讗 讘专 讗讛讘讛 诪讗讬 拽专讗讛 讜讬砖诇讞 讬注拽讘 讜讬拽专讗 诇专讞诇 讜诇诇讗讛 讛砖讚讛 讗诇 爪讗谞讜:

Rav Adda bar Ahava said: From what verse is this derived? From the verse, 鈥淎nd Jacob sent and he called Rachel and Leah to the field to his flock鈥 (Genesis 31:4); it was only there in the field that he held counsel with them.

转谞讬讗 讗诪专 专讘谉 讙诪诇讬讗诇 讘砖诇砖讛 讚讘专讬诐 讗讜讛讘 讗谞讬 讗转 讛驻专住讬讬诐 讛谉 爪谞讜注讬谉 讘讗讻讬诇转谉 讜爪谞讜注讬谉 讘讘讬转 讛讻住讗 讜爪谞讜注讬谉 讘讚讘专 讗讞专:

It was taught in a baraita, Rabban Gamliel said: In three aspects of their conduct, I like the Persians: They are a modest people; they are modest in their eating, they are modest in the lavatory, and they are modest in another matter, i.e., sexual relations.

讗谞讬 爪讜讬转讬 诇诪拽讚砖讬 转谞讬 专讘 讬讜住祝 讗诇讜 讛驻专住讬讬诐 讛诪拽讜讚砖讬谉 讜诪讝讜诪谞讬谉 诇讙讬讛谞诐:

While they have been praised here regarding certain specific aspects of their conduct, the Gemara proceeds to offer another perspective on the Persians based on a verse describing the destruction of Babylonia at the hands of the Persian and Medean armies: 鈥淚 have commanded My consecrated ones; I have also called My mighty ones for My anger, even My proudly exulting ones鈥 (Isaiah 13:3). Rav Yosef taught a baraita: These are the Persians who are consecrated and designated for Gehenna, for they have been sent by God to carry out his mission of anger, and they will be sent to Gehenna.

专讘谉 讙诪诇讬讗诇 讗讜诪专 讜讻讜壮: 讗诪专 专讘 讬讛讜讚讛 讗诪专 砖诪讜讗诇 讛诇讻讛 讻专讘谉 讙诪诇讬讗诇

The Gemara returns to explain the mishna, in which we learned that Rabban Gamliel says: One may recite Shema until dawn. Rav Yehuda said that Shmuel said: The halakha is in accordance with the opinion of Rabban Gamliel.

转谞讬讗 专讘讬 砖诪注讜谉 讘谉 讬讜讞讬 讗讜诪专 驻注诪讬诐 砖讗讚诐 拽讜专讗 拽专讬讗转 砖诪注 砖转讬 驻注诪讬诐 讘诇讬诇讛 讗讞转 拽讜讚诐 砖讬注诇讛 注诪讜讚 讛砖讞专 讜讗讞转 诇讗讞专 砖讬注诇讛 注诪讜讚 讛砖讞专 讜讬讜爪讗 讘讛谉 讬讚讬 讞讜讘转讜 讗讞转 砖诇 讬讜诐 讜讗讞转 砖诇 诇讬诇讛

It was taught in a baraita: Based on Rabban Gamliel鈥檚 ruling, Rabbi Shimon ben Yo岣i said: At times, one recites Shema twice at night, once just before dawn and once just after dawn, and he thereby fulfills his obligation to recite Shema, one of the day and one of the night. According to Rabban Gamliel, the Shema that he recited before dawn fulfills his evening obligation and the Shema that he recited after dawn fulfills his morning obligation.

讛讗 讙讜驻讗 拽砖讬讗 讗诪专转 驻注诪讬诐 砖讗讚诐 拽讜专讗 拽专讬讗转 砖诪注 砖转讬 驻注诪讬诐 讘诇讬诇讛 讗诇诪讗 诇讗讞专 砖讬注诇讛 注诪讜讚 讛砖讞专 诇讬诇讬讗 讛讜讗 讜讛讚专 转谞讬 讬讜爪讗 讘讛谉 讬讚讬 讞讜讘转讜 讗讞转 砖诇 讬讜诐 讜讗讞转 砖诇 诇讬诇讛 讗诇诪讗 讬诪诪讗 讛讜讗

This Tosefta is self-contradictory. Initially, you said: At times one recites Shema twice at night. Apparently, the time just after dawn is still night. And then you taught: He thereby fulfills his obligation to recite Shema one of the day and one of the night. Apparently, the time in question is considered day, as otherwise, he would not have fulfilled his obligation to recite Shema during the day. There is an internal contradiction with regard to the status of the time just after dawn. Is it considered day or night?

诇讗 诇注讜诇诐 诇讬诇讬讗 讛讜讗 讜讛讗 讚拽专讬 诇讬讛 讬讜诐 讚讗讬讻讗 讗讬谞砖讬 讚拽讬讬诪讬 讘讛讛讬讗 砖注转讗

The Gemara answers: No, there is no contradiction. Actually, the time just after dawn, when it is still dark, is considered night and the fact that it is referred to here as day is because there are people who rise from their sleep at that time and, if the need arises, it can be characterized as bekumekha, when you rise, despite the fact that it is still night.

讗诪专 专讘 讗讞讗 讘专 讞谞讬谞讗 讗诪专 专讘讬 讬讛讜砖注 讘谉 诇讜讬 讛诇讻讛 讻专讘讬 砖诪注讜谉 讘谉 讬讜讞讬

Rav A岣 bar 岣nina said that Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi said: The halakha is in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Shimon ben Yo岣i.

讗讬讻讗 讚诪转谞讬 诇讛讗 讚专讘 讗讞讗 讘专 讞谞讬谞讗 讗讛讗 讚转谞讬讗 专讘讬 砖诪注讜谉 讘谉 讬讜讞讬 讗讜诪专 诪砖讜诐 专讘讬 注拽讬讘讗 驻注诪讬诐 砖讗讚诐 拽讜专讗 拽专讬讗转 砖诪注 砖转讬 驻注诪讬诐 讘讬讜诐 讗讞转 拽讜讚诐 讛谞抓 讛讞诪讛 讜讗讞转 诇讗讞专 讛谞抓 讛讞诪讛 讜讬讜爪讗 讘讛谉 讬讚讬 讞讜讘转讜 讗讞转 砖诇 讬讜诐 讜讗讞转 砖诇 诇讬诇讛

Some teach this statement of Rav A岣 bar 岣nina, in which he ruled that the halakha is in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Shimon ben Yo岣i, with regard to this halakha, which is stylistically similar to the previous halakha. As it was taught in a baraita that Rabbi Shimon ben Yo岣i said in the name of Rabbi Akiva: At times, one recites Shema twice during the day, once just before sunrise and once just after sunrise, and he thereby fulfills his dual obligation to recite Shema: One, that he recites after sunrise, Shema of the day, and one, that he recites before sunrise, Shema of the night.

讛讗 讙讜驻讗 拽砖讬讗 讗诪专转 驻注诪讬诐 砖讗讚诐 拽讜专讗 拽专讬讗转 砖诪注 砖转讬 驻注诪讬诐 讘讬讜诐 讗诇诪讗 拽讜讚诐 讛谞抓 讛讞诪讛 讬诪诪讗 讛讜讗 讜讛讚专 转谞讬 讬讜爪讗 讘讛谉 讬讚讬 讞讜讘转讜 讗讞转 砖诇 讬讜诐 讜讗讞转 砖诇 诇讬诇讛 讗诇诪讗 诇讬诇讬讗 讛讜讗

This baraita is self-contradictory. Initially, you said: 鈥淎t times one recites Shema twice during the day.鈥 Apparently, the time just before sunrise is considered day. And then you taught: 鈥淗e thereby fulfills his dual obligation to recite Shema, one of the day and one of the night.鈥 Apparently, the time in question is considered night, as otherwise, he could not thereby fulfill his obligation to recite Shema during the night.

  • This month鈥檚 learning is sponsored by Yad Binyamin ladies for the refuah shleima of Asher ben Devorah Fayga.

    This month's learning is sponsored by Bracha Rutner in loving memory of her mother, Anna Rutner, Sarah bat Yom Tov and Rachel, on her 5th yahrzeit.

  • This month's shiurim are sponsored by Leora & Jonathan Kukin and Cynthia & Abe Steinberger in honor of Rella Feldman and Curtiss Pulitzer.

Want to explore more about the Daf?

See insights from our partners, contributors and community of women learners

daf_icon

Extempore Effusions on the Completion of Masechet Berakhot (chapters 1-3)

PEREK ALEPH: (2a) When may we say Shma at night? From the time the priests take their first bite 鈥楾il...

Berakhot 8

The William Davidson Talmud | Powered by Sefaria

Berakhot 8

诪讗讬 讚讻转讬讘 讜讗谞讬 转驻诇转讬 诇讱 讛壮 注转 专爪讜谉 讗讬诪转讬 注转 专爪讜谉 讘砖注讛 砖讛爪讘讜专 诪转驻诇诇讬谉

What is the meaning of that which is written: 鈥淏ut as for me, let my prayer be unto You, Lord, in a time of favor; O God, in the abundance of Your mercy, answer me with the truth of Your salvation鈥 (Psalms 69:14)? It appears that the individual is praying that his prayers will coincide with a special time of Divine favor. When is a time of favor? It is at the time when the congregation is praying. It is beneficial to pray together with the congregation, for God does not fail to respond to the entreaties of the congregation.

专讘讬 讬讜住讬 讘专讘讬 讞谞讬谞讗 讗诪专 诪讛讻讗 讻讛 讗诪专 讛壮 讘注转 专爪讜谉 注谞讬转讬讱

Rabbi Yosei, son of Rabbi 岣nina, said that the unique quality of communal prayer is derived from here: 鈥淭hus said the Lord, in a time of acceptance I have answered you and on a day of salvation I have aided you鈥 (Isaiah 49:8).

专讘讬 讗讞讗 讘专讘讬 讞谞讬谞讗 讗诪专 诪讛讻讗 讛谉 讗诇 讻讘讬专 讜诇讗 讬诪讗住 讜讻转讬讘 驻讚讛 讘砖诇讜诐 谞驻砖讬 诪拽专讘 诇讬 讻讬 讘专讘讬诐 讛讬讜 注诪讚讬

Rabbi A岣, son of Rabbi 岣nina, said that it is derived from here: 鈥淏ehold, God is mighty, He despises no one鈥 (Job 36:5). He adopts an alternative reading of the verse: 鈥淏ehold, God will not despise鈥 the prayer of 鈥渢he mighty,鈥 i.e., the community. And it is written: 鈥淗e has redeemed my soul in peace so that none came upon me; for there were many with me. God shall hear and answer them鈥︹ (Psalms 55:19鈥20). This verse teaches that the prayer was answered because there were many with me when it was offered.

转谞讬讗 谞诪讬 讛讻讬 专讘讬 谞转谉 讗讜诪专 诪谞讬谉 砖讗讬谉 讛拽讚讜砖 讘专讜讱 讛讜讗 诪讜讗住 讘转驻诇转谉 砖诇 专讘讬诐 砖谞讗诪专 讛谉 讗诇 讻讘讬专 讜诇讗 讬诪讗住 讜讻转讬讘 驻讚讛 讘砖诇讜诐 谞驻砖讬 诪拽专讘 诇讬 讜讙讜壮 讗诪专 讛拽讚讜砖 讘专讜讱 讛讜讗 讻诇 讛注讜住拽 讘转讜专讛 讜讘讙诪讬诇讜转 讞住讚讬诐 讜诪转驻诇诇 注诐 讛爪讘讜专 诪注诇讛 讗谞讬 注诇讬讜 讻讗讬诇讜 驻讚讗谞讬 诇讬 讜诇讘谞讬 诪讘讬谉 讗讜诪讜转 讛注讜诇诐

That last proof was also taught in a baraita. Rabbi Natan says: From where do we know that the Holy One, Blessed be He, does not despise the prayer of the masses? As it is stated: 鈥淏ehold, God does not despise the mighty,鈥 and it is written: 鈥淗e has redeemed my soul in peace so that none came upon me; for there were many with me.鈥 Rabbi Natan interprets this not as David speaking about himself, but as God speaking to Israel. The Holy One, Blessed be He, says: Anyone who engages in Torah study, which is called peace in the verse: 鈥淎ll its ways are peace鈥 (Proverbs 3:17); and in acts of kindness, and prays with the congregation, I ascribe to him credit as if he redeemed Me and My children from among the nations of the world.

讗诪专 专讬砖 诇拽讬砖 讻诇 诪讬 砖讬砖 诇讜 讘讬转 讛讻谞住转 讘注讬专讜 讜讗讬谞讜 谞讻谞住 砖诐 诇讛转驻诇诇 谞拽专讗 砖讻谉 专注 砖谞讗诪专 讻讛 讗诪专 讛壮 注诇 讻诇 砖讻谞讬 讛专注讬诐 讛谞讙注讬诐 讘谞讞诇讛 讗砖专 讛谞讞诇转讬 讗转 注诪讬 讗转 讬砖专讗诇 讜诇讗 注讜讚 讗诇讗 砖讙讜专诐 讙诇讜转 诇讜 讜诇讘谞讬讜 砖谞讗诪专 讛谞谞讬 谞转砖诐 诪注诇 讗讚诪转诐 讜讗转 讘讬转 讬讛讜讚讛 讗转讜砖 诪转讜讻诐

Continuing to extol communal prayer, Reish Lakish said: One who has a synagogue nearby in his city but does not enter to pray there is called an evil neighbor, as it is stated: 鈥淭hus said the Lord: As for all My evil neighbors who touch My inheritance which I have caused My people Israel to inherit, behold, I will pluck them up from off their land, and will pluck the house of Judah up from among them鈥 (Jeremiah 12:14). One who only touches, but does not enter the place of prayer, My inheritance, is considered an evil neighbor. And furthermore, he is punished in that he causes himself and his children to go into exile, as it is stated: 鈥淏ehold, I will pluck them up from off their land, and will pluck the house of Judah up from among them.鈥

讗诪专讜 诇讬讛 诇专讘讬 讬讜讞谞谉 讗讬讻讗 住讘讬 讘讘讘诇 转诪讛 讜讗诪专 诇诪注谉 讬专讘讜 讬诪讬讻诐 讜讬诪讬 讘谞讬讻诐 注诇 讛讗讚诪讛 讻转讬讘 讗讘诇 讘讞讜爪讛 诇讗专抓 诇讗 讻讬讜谉 讚讗诪专讬 诇讬讛 诪拽讚诪讬 讜诪讞砖讻讬 诇讘讬 讻谞讬砖转讗 讗诪专 讛讬讬谞讜 讚讗讛谞讬 诇讛讜

The Gemara relates that when the Sages told Rabbi Yo岣nan that there are elders in Babylonia, he was confounded and said: It is written: 鈥淪o that your days will be lengthened and the days of your children upon the land the Lord swore to your forefathers to give to them like the days of heaven on the earth鈥 (Deuteronomy 11:21); lengthened in Eretz Yisrael but not outside of the Land. Why then, do the residents of Babylonia live long lives? When they told him that the people in Babylonia go early in the morning and go late in the evening to the synagogue, he said: That is what was effective for them in extending their lives.

讚讗诪专 专讘讬 讬讛讜砖注 讘谉 诇讜讬 诇讘谞讬讛 拽讚讬诪讜 讜讞砖讬讻讜 讜注讬讬诇讜 诇讘讬 讻谞讬砖转讗 讻讬 讛讬讻讬 讚转讜专讻讜 讞讬讬 讗诪专 专讘讬 讗讞讗 讘专讘讬 讞谞讬谞讗 诪讗讬 拽专讗 讗砖专讬 讗讚诐 砖诪注 诇讬 诇砖拽讚 注诇 讚诇转转讬 讬讜诐 讬讜诐 诇砖诪讜专 诪讝讜讝转 驻转讞讬 讜讻转讬讘 讘转专讬讛 讻讬 诪爪讗讬 诪爪讗 讞讬讬诐

As Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi said to his sons: Go early and go late and enter the synagogue, so that your lives will be extended. And Rabbi A岣, son of Rabbi 岣nina, said: Upon what verse is this based? As it is stated: 鈥淗appy is the man who listens to Me, watching daily at My gates, guarding at My door posts鈥 (Proverbs 8:34). And the reward for doing so is written thereafter: 鈥淔or whoso finds Me finds life and obtains the favor of the Lord鈥 (Proverbs 8:35).

讗诪专 专讘 讞住讚讗 诇注讜诇诐 讬讻谞住 讗讚诐 砖谞讬 驻转讞讬诐 讘讘讬转 讛讻谞住转 砖谞讬 驻转讞讬诐 住诇拽讗 讚注转讱 讗诇讗 讗讬诪讗 砖讬注讜专 砖谞讬 驻转讞讬诐 讜讗讞专 讻讱 讬转驻诇诇:

Based on this verse, Rav 岣sda said: A person should always enter two doorways into the synagogue. This statement is unclear. Immediately, the Gemara asks: Does it enter your mind that Rav 岣sda meant that one should enter two doorways literally? What if a synagogue only has a single doorway? Rather, emend his statement and say that Rav 岣sda meant that one should enter a distance of two doorways into the synagogue and then pray. In entering a distance of two doorways, one fulfills the verse: Guarding at My door posts, in the plural.

注诇 讝讗转 讬转驻诇诇 讻诇 讞住讬讚 讗诇讬讱 诇注转 诪爪讗 讗诪专 专讘讬 讞谞讬谞讗 诇注转 诪爪讗 讝讜 讗砖讛 砖谞讗诪专 诪爪讗 讗砖讛 诪爪讗 讟讜讘

Having mentioned the verse, 鈥淔or whoso finds Me finds life,鈥 the Gemara seeks to clarify its meaning. It is said, 鈥淔or this, let every pious man pray to You in the time of finding, that the overflowing waters may not reach him鈥 (Psalms 32:6). With regard to the phrase, the time of finding, Rabbi 岣nina said: The time of finding refers to the time one must find a wife, that one should pray to find a suitable woman to marry. As it is said: 鈥淗e who finds [matza] a wife finds [matza] good and obtains favor from the Lord鈥 (Proverbs 18:22).

讘诪注专讘讗 讻讬 谞住讬讘 讗讬谞砖 讗转转讗 讗诪专讬 诇讬讛 讛讻讬 诪爪讗 讗讜 诪讜爪讗 诪爪讗 讚讻转讬讘 诪爪讗 讗砖讛 诪爪讗 讟讜讘 讜讬驻拽 专爪讜谉 诪讛壮 诪讜爪讗 讚讻转讬讘 讜诪讜爪讗 讗谞讬 诪专 诪诪讜转 讗转 讛讗砖讛 讜讙讜壮

In Eretz Yisrael, the custom was that when a man married a woman, they would ask him: Matza or motzeh? In other words, they would ask the groom whether the appropriate passage for his wife is the above verse from Proverbs that begins with the word matza, as it is written: 鈥淗e who finds a wife finds good and obtains favor from the Lord鈥 or whether the more appropriate verse is the one beginning with the word motzeh, as it is written: 鈥淎nd I find [motzeh] the woman more bitter than death鈥 (Ecclesiastes 7:26).

专讘讬 谞转谉 讗讜诪专 诇注转 诪爪讗 讝讜 转讜专讛 砖谞讗诪专 讻讬 诪爪讗讬 诪爪讗 讞讬讬诐 讜讙讜壮

Rabbi Natan says: The time of finding refers to the time of finding Torah, as it is stated in a verse referring to Torah: 鈥淗e who finds Me finds life.鈥 The Torah is the object most sought.

专讘 谞讞诪谉 讘专 讬爪讞拽 讗诪专 诇注转 诪爪讗 讝讜 诪讬转讛 砖谞讗诪专 诇诪讜转 转讜爪讗讜转

Rav Na岣an bar Yitz岣k said: The time of finding refers to death. One should pray that when death comes, he will leave the world peacefully, as it is stated: 鈥淚ssues [totzaot] of death鈥 (Psalms 68:21). Rav Na岣an bar Yitz岣k鈥檚 statement is based on the etymological similarity between totzaot and matza, finding.

转谞讬讗 谞诪讬 讛讻讬 转砖注 诪讗讜转 讜砖诇砖讛 诪讬谞讬 诪讬转讛 谞讘专讗讜 讘注讜诇诐 砖谞讗诪专 诇诪讜转 转讜爪讗讜转 转讜爪讗讜转 讘讙讬诪讟专讬讗 讛讻讬 讛讜讜 拽砖讛 砖讘讻诇谉 讗住讻专讗 谞讬讞讗 砖讘讻诇谉 谞砖讬拽讛 讗住讻专讗 讚诪讬讗 讻讞讬讝专讗 讘讙讘讘讗 讚注诪专讗 讚诇讗讞讜专讬 谞砖专讗 讜讗讬讻讗 讚讗诪专讬 讻驻讬讟讜专讬 讘驻讬 讜砖讟 谞砖讬拽讛 讚诪讬讗 讻诪砖讞诇 讘谞讬转讗 诪讞诇讘讗

It was also taught in a baraita: Nine hundred and three types of death were created in the world, as it is stated: 鈥淚ssues [totzaot] of death,鈥 and that, 903, is the numerical value [gimatriya] of totzaot. The Gemara explains that the most difficult of all these types of death is croup [askara], while the easiest is the kiss of death. Croup is like a thorn entangled in a wool fleece, which, when pulled out backwards, tears the wool. Some say that croup is like ropes at the entrance to the esophagus, which would be nearly impossible to insert and excruciating to remove. The kiss of death is like drawing a hair from milk. One should pray that he does not die a painful death.

专讘讬 讬讜讞谞谉 讗诪专 诇注转 诪爪讗 讝讜 拽讘讜专讛 讗诪专 专讘讬 讞谞讬谞讗 诪讗讬 拽专讗 讛砖诪讞讬诐 讗诇讬 讙讬诇 讬砖讬砖讜 讻讬 讬诪爪讗讜 拽讘专 讗诪专 专讘讛 讘专 专讘 砖讬诇讗 讛讬讬谞讜 讚讗诪专讬 讗讬谞砖讬 诇讬讘注讬 讗讬谞砖 专讞诪讬 讗驻讬诇讜 注讚 讝讬讘讜诇讗 讘转专讬讬转讗 砖诇诪讗

Rabbi Yo岣nan said: The time of finding refers to a respectful burial, for which one should pray. Supporting Rabbi Yo岣nan鈥檚 interpretation, Rabbi 岣nina said: What is the verse that teaches that the time of finding refers to burial? 鈥淲ho rejoice in exultation and are glad when they can find a grave鈥 (Job 3:22), as there are situations in which one is relieved when his body finds a grave in which to rest. Rabba bar Rav Sheila said, that is the meaning of the folk saying: A person should even pray for mercy until the final shovelful of dirt is thrown upon his grave.

诪专 讝讜讟专讗 讗诪专 诇注转 诪爪讗 讝讛 讘讬转 讛讻住讗 讗诪专讬 讘诪注专讘讗 讛讗 讚诪专 讝讜讟专讗 注讚讬驻讗 诪讻诇讛讜

Mar Zutra said: The time of finding refers to finding a lavatory. As most places did not have a sewage system, one was forced to relieve himself outside the city. Because of this unpleasantness, finding a suitable location was called by Mar Zutra, the time of finding. In the West, Eretz Yisrael, they say: This explanation of Mar Zutra is preferable to all of them, as the term motza is explicitly associated in the Bible (see II Kings 10:27) with the lavatory (Rabbi Abraham Moshe Horovitz).

讗诪专 诇讬讛 专讘讗 诇专驻专诐 讘专 驻驻讗 诇讬诪讗 诇谉 诪专 诪讛谞讬 诪讬诇讬 诪注诇讬讬转讗 讚讗诪专转 诪砖诪讬讛 讚专讘 讞住讚讗 讘诪讬诇讬 讚讘讬 讻谞讬砖转讗

Returning to the tractate鈥檚 central topic, Rava said to Rafram bar Pappa: Let the Master say to us some of those outstanding statements that you said in the name of Rav 岣sda with regard to matters of the synagogue.

讗诪专 诇讬讛 讛讻讬 讗诪专 专讘 讞住讚讗 诪讗讬 讚讻转讬讘 讗讛讘 讛壮 砖注专讬 爪讬讜谉 诪讻诇 诪砖讻谞讜转 讬注拽讘 讗讜讛讘 讛壮 砖注专讬诐 讛诪爪讜讬讬谞讬诐 讘讛诇讻讛 讬讜转专 诪讘转讬 讻谞住讬讜转 讜诪讘转讬 诪讚专砖讜转

Rafram said to him, Rav 岣sda said as follows: What is the meaning of the verse: 鈥淭he Lord loves the gates of Zion [Tziyyon] more than all the dwellings of Jacob鈥 (Psalms 87:2)? This means that the Lord loves the gates distinguished [metzuyanim] through the study of halakha as they are the gates of Zion, the outstanding gates, more than the synagogues and study halls. Although those places are the most outstanding of the dwellings of Jacob, they are not engaged in the study of halakha.

讜讛讬讬谞讜 讚讗诪专 专讘讬 讞讬讬讗 讘专 讗诪讬 诪砖诪讬讛 讚注讜诇讗 诪讬讜诐 砖讞专讘 讘讬转 讛诪拽讚砖 讗讬谉 诇讜 诇讛拽讚讜砖 讘专讜讱 讛讜讗 讘注讜诇诪讜 讗诇讗 讗专讘注 讗诪讜转 砖诇 讛诇讻讛 讘诇讘讚

And this concept, that halakha is the most sublime pursuit, is expressed in that which Rabbi 岣yya bar Ami said in the name of Ulla: Since the day the Temple, where the Divine Presence rested in this world, was destroyed, the Holy One, Blessed be He, has only one place in His world where he reveals His presence exclusively; only the four cubits where the study of halakha is undertaken.

讜讗诪专 讗讘讬讬 诪专讬砖 讛讜讛 讙专讬住谞讗 讘讙讜 讘讬转讗 讜诪爪诇讬谞讗 讘讘讬 讻谞讬砖转讗 讻讬讜谉 讚砖诪注谞讗 诇讛讗 讚讗诪专 专讘讬 讞讬讬讗 讘专 讗诪讬 诪砖诪讬讛 讚注讜诇讗 诪讬讜诐 砖讞专讘 讘讬转 讛诪拽讚砖 讗讬谉 诇讜 诇讛拽讚讜砖 讘专讜讱 讛讜讗 讘注讜诇诪讜 讗诇讗 讗专讘注 讗诪讜转 砖诇 讛诇讻讛 讘诇讘讚 诇讗 讛讜讛 诪爪诇讬谞讗 讗诇讗 讛讬讻讗 讚讙专讬住谞讗

This statement has practical ramifications. Abaye said: At first I studied in the house and prayed in the synagogue. Once I heard what Rabbi 岣yya bar Ami said in the name of Ulla: Since the day the Temple was destroyed, the Holy One, Blessed be He, has only one place in His world, only the four cubits of halakha alone, from which I understood the significance of the four cubits of halakha, and I pray only where I study.

专讘讬 讗诪讬 讜专讘讬 讗住讬 讗祝 注诇 讙讘 讚讛讜讜 诇讛讜 转诇讬住专 讘讬 讻谞讬砖转讗 讘讟讘专讬讗 诇讗 诪爪诇讜 讗诇讗 讘讬谞讬 注诪讜讚讬 讛讬讻讗 讚讛讜讜 讙专住讬:

Similarly, the Gemara relates that Rabbi Ami and Rabbi Asi, despite the fact that they had thirteen synagogues in Tiberias, they would only pray between the pillars where they studied.

讜讗诪专 专讘讬 讞讬讬讗 讘专 讗诪讬 诪砖诪讬讛 讚注讜诇讗 讙讚讜诇 讛谞讛谞讛 诪讬讙讬注讜 讬讜转专 诪讬专讗 砖诪讬诐 讚讗讬诇讜 讙讘讬 讬专讗 砖诪讬诐 讻转讬讘 讗砖专讬 讗讬砖 讬专讗 讗转 讛壮 讜讗讬诇讜 讙讘讬 谞讛谞讛 诪讬讙讬注讜 讻转讬讘 讬讙讬注 讻驻讬讱 讻讬 转讗讻诇 讗砖专讬讱 讜讟讜讘 诇讱 讗砖专讬讱 讘注讜诇诐 讛讝讛 讜讟讜讘 诇讱 诇注讜诇诐 讛讘讗 讜诇讙讘讬 讬专讗 砖诪讬诐 讜讟讜讘 诇讱 诇讗 讻转讬讘 讘讬讛:

And Rabbi 岣yya bar Ami said in the name of Ulla: One who benefits from his hard labor is greater than a God-fearing person, i.e., one who is so enthralled by his fear of God that he sits idly by and does not work. As with regard to a God-fearing person, it is written: 鈥淗appy is the man who fears the Lord, who greatly desires His mitzvot鈥 (Psalms 112:1), while with regard to one who benefits from his hard work, it is written: 鈥淏y the labor of your hands you will live; you are happy and it is good for you鈥 (Psalms 128:2). The Gemara explains this verse to mean that you are happy in this world, and it is good for you in the World-to-Come. And regarding a God-fearing person, happy is the man, is written about him but and it is good for you, is not written about him.

讜讗诪专 专讘讬 讞讬讬讗 讘专 讗诪讬 诪砖诪讬讛 讚注讜诇讗 诇注讜诇诐 讬讚讜专 讗讚诐 讘诪拽讜诐 专讘讜 砖讻诇 讝诪谉 砖砖诪注讬 讘谉 讙专讗 拽讬讬诐 诇讗 谞砖讗 砖诇诪讛 讗转 讘转 驻专注讛

And Rabbi 岣yya bar Ami said in the name of Ulla: One should always live in the place where his teacher lives; thereby he will avoid sin. For as long as Shimi ben Gera, who according to tradition was a great Torah scholar and teacher of Solomon (see Gittin 59a), was alive, Solomon did not marry Pharaoh鈥檚 daughter. Immediately after the Bible relates the death of Shimi (I Kings, end of ch. 2), Solomon鈥檚 marriage to Pharaoh鈥檚 daughter is recorded (beginning of ch. 3).

讜讛转谞讬讗 讗诇 讬讚讜专

The Gemara raises an objection: Wasn鈥檛 it taught in a baraita that one should not live where his teacher lives?

诇讗 拽砖讬讗 讛讗 讚讻讬讬祝 诇讬讛 讛讗 讚诇讗 讻讬讬祝 诇讬讛:

The Gemara answers: This is not difficult. This, which says that one should live where his teacher lives, is referring to a case where he is acquiescent to his teacher and will heed his teaching and instruction. While this baraita, which says that one should not live where his teacher lives, is referring to a case where he is not acquiescent to him and that will lead them to quarrel.

讗诪专 专讘 讛讜谞讗 讘专 讬讛讜讚讛 讗诪专 专讘讬 诪谞讞诐 讗诪专 专讘讬 讗诪讬 诪讗讬 讚讻转讬讘 讜注讜讝讘讬 讛壮 讬讻诇讜 讝讛 讛诪谞讬讞 住驻专 转讜专讛 讜讬讜爪讗

The Gemara again returns to the topic of the synagogue. Rav Huna bar Yehuda said that Rabbi Mena岣m said that Rabbi Ami said: What is the practical halakhic meaning of that which is written: 鈥淭hey who forsake the Lord will perish鈥 (Isaiah 1:28)? This verse refers to one who abandons the Torah scroll when it was taken out to be read and leaves the synagogue, as it appears that he is fleeing from God.

专讘讬 讗讘讛讜 谞驻讬拽 讘讬谉 讙讘专讗 诇讙讘专讗

Practically speaking, the Gemara relates that Rabbi Abbahu would go out between one person who read the Torah and the next person who did so. Since the scroll was closed between readers, it was not considered to be a show of contempt.

讘注讬 专讘 驻驻讗 讘讬谉 驻住讜拽讗 诇驻住讜拽讗 诪讛讜

Rav Pappa raised a dilemma: What is the ruling with regard to leaving between one verse and the next verse? Is one permitted to leave during a break in the Torah reading while the verse was translated into Aramaic?

转讬拽讜

An answer to this question was not found, so the dilemma stands unresolved.

专讘 砖砖转 诪讛讚专 讗驻讬讛 讜讙专讬住 讗诪专 讗谞谉 讘讚讬讚谉 讜讗讬谞讛讜 讘讚讬讚讛讜:

The Gemara relates that Rav Sheshet would turn his face away from the Torah while it was being read and study. Explaining this practice, he said: We are engaged in ours, the study of the Oral Torah and they are engaged in theirs, listening to the Written Torah. Since Rav Sheshet was engaged in Torah study, he is not considered one who forsakes the Lord.

讗诪专 专讘 讛讜谞讗 讘专 讬讛讜讚讛 讗诪专 专讘讬 讗诪讬 诇注讜诇诐 讬砖诇讬诐 讗讚诐 驻专砖讬讜转讬讜 注诐 讛爪讘讜专 砖谞讬诐 诪拽专讗 讜讗讞讚 转专讙讜诐

Rav Huna bar Yehuda said that Rabbi Ami said: A person should always complete his Torah portions with the congregation. The congregation reads a particular Torah portion every Shabbat, and during the week prior to each Shabbat, one is required to read the Bible text of the weekly portion twice and the translation once.

讜讗驻讬诇讜 注讟专讜转 讜讚讬讘谉 砖讻诇 讛诪砖诇讬诐 驻专砖讬讜转讬讜 注诐 讛爪讘讜专 诪讗专讬讻讬谉 诇讜 讬诪讬讜 讜砖谞讜转讬讜

This applies to every verse, even a verse like: 鈥淎tarot and Divon and Yazer and Nimra and 岣shbon and Elaleh and Sevam and Nevo and Beon鈥 (Numbers 32:3). While that verse is comprised entirely of names of places that are identical in Hebrew and Aramaic, one is nevertheless required to read the verse twice and its translation once, as one who completes his Torah portions with the congregation is rewarded that his days and years are extended.

专讘 讘讬讘讬 讘专 讗讘讬讬 住讘专 诇讗砖诇讜诪讬谞讛讜 诇驻专砖讬讬转讗 讚讻诇讗 砖转讗 讘诪注诇讬 讬讜诪讗 讚讻驻讜专讬 转谞讗 诇讬讛 讞讬讬讗 讘专 专讘 诪讚驻转讬 讻转讬讘 讜注谞讬转诐 讗转 谞驻砖转讬讻诐 讘转砖注讛 诇讞讚砖 讘注专讘

Rav Beivai bar Abaye thought to finish all the Torah portions of the entire year, which he had been unable to complete at their appointed time, on the eve of Yom Kippur when he would have time to do so. But 岣yya bar Rav of Difti taught him: It is written with regard to Yom Kippur: 鈥淎nd you shall afflict your souls on the ninth day of the month in the evening, from evening to evening you shall keep your Sabbath鈥 (Leviticus 23:32).

讜讻讬 讘转砖注讛 诪转注谞讬谉 讜讛诇讗 讘注砖专讛 诪转注谞讬谉 讗诇讗 诇讜诪专 诇讱 讻诇 讛讗讜讻诇 讜砖讜转讛 讘转砖讬注讬 诪注诇讛 注诇讬讜 讛讻转讜讘 讻讗讬诇讜 诪转注谞讛 转砖讬注讬 讜注砖讬专讬

The Gemara wonders: And does one fast on the ninth of Tishrei? Doesn鈥檛 one fast on the tenth of Tishrei, as the Torah says at the beginning of that portion: 鈥淗owever, on the tenth day of this seventh month is the Day of Atonement; there shall be a holy convocation for you, and you shall afflict your souls鈥 (Leviticus 23:27)? Rather, this verse comes to tell you: One who eats and drinks on the ninth day of Tishrei in preparation for the fast the next day, the verse ascribes him credit as if he fasted on both the ninth and the tenth of Tishrei. 岣yya bar Rav of Difti cited this verse to Rav Beivai bar Abaye to teach him that Yom Kippur eve is dedicated to eating and drinking, not to completing the Torah portions one may have missed throughout the year.

住讘专 诇讗拽讚讜诪讬谞讛讜 讗诪专 诇讬讛 讛讛讜讗 住讘讗 转谞讬谞讗 讜讘诇讘讚 砖诇讗 讬拽讚讬诐 讜砖诇讗 讬讗讞专

When Rav Beivai heard this, he thought to read the Torah portions earlier, before they were to be read by the community. A certain unnamed elder told him, we learned: As long as one does not read the Torah portions earlier or later than the congregation. One must read them together with the congregation.

讻讚讗诪专 诇讛讜 专讘讬 讬讛讜砖注 讘谉 诇讜讬 诇讘谞讬讛 讗砖诇讬诪讜 驻专砖讬讜转讬讬讻讜 注诐 讛爪讘讜专 砖谞讬诐 诪拽专讗 讜讗讞讚 转专讙讜诐

As Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi told his sons: Complete your portions with the congregation, the Bible text twice and the translation once.

讜讛讝讛专讜 讘讜专讬讚讬谉 讻专讘讬 讬讛讜讚讛 讚转谞谉 专讘讬 讬讛讜讚讛 讗讜诪专 注讚 砖讬砖讞讜讟 讗转 讛讜专讬讚讬谉

He also advised them: Be careful with the jugular veins, in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Yehuda, as we learned in a mishna with regard to the laws of ritual slaughter: Rabbi Yehuda said: Cutting the trachea and esophagus in the ritual slaughter of a bird does not render the bird kosher until he slaughters the jugular veins as well. While this is not halakhically required, it is appropriate to do so to prevent significant amounts of blood from remaining in the bird.

讜讛讝讛专讜 讘讝拽谉 砖砖讻讞 转诇诪讜讚讜 诪讞诪转 讗讜谞住讜 讚讗诪专讬谞谉 诇讜讞讜转 讜砖讘专讬 诇讜讞讜转 诪讜谞讞讜转 讘讗专讜谉

Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi further advised: And be careful to continue to respect an elder who has forgotten his Torah knowledge due to circumstances beyond his control. Even though he is no longer a Torah scholar, he must still be respected for the Torah that he once possessed. As we say: Both the tablets of the Covenant and the broken tablets are placed in the Ark of the Covenant in the Temple. Even though the first tablets were broken, their sanctity obligates one not to treat them with contempt. An elder who forgot the Torah knowledge he once possessed is likened to these broken tablets.

讗诪专 诇讛讜 专讘讗 诇讘谞讬讛 讻砖讗转诐 讞讜转讻讬谉 讘砖专 讗诇 转讞转讻讜 注诇 讙讘 讛讬讚 讗讬讻讗 讚讗诪专讬 诪砖讜诐 住讻谞讛 讜讗讬讻讗 讚讗诪专讬 诪砖讜诐 拽诇拽讜诇 住注讜讚讛

Rava said to his sons three bits of advice: When you cut meat, do not cut it on your hand. The Gemara offers two explanations for this. Some say: Due to the danger that one might accidentally cut his hand, and some say: Due to the fact that it could ruin the meal, as even if one only cut himself slightly, that small amount of blood could still spoil the meat and render it repulsive to eat.

讜讗诇 转砖讘讜 注诇 诪讟转 讗专诪讬转 讜讗诇 转注讘专讜 讗讞讜专讬 讘讬转 讛讻谞住转 讘砖注讛 砖讛爪讘讜专 诪转驻诇诇讬谉 讜讗诇 转砖讘讜 注诇 诪讟转 讗专诪讬转 讗讬讻讗 讚讗诪专讬 诇讗 转讙谞讜 讘诇讗 拽专讬讗转 砖诪注 讜讗讬讻讗 讚讗诪专讬 讚诇讗 转谞住讘讜 讙讬讜专转讗 讜讗讬讻讗 讚讗诪专讬 讗专诪讬转 诪诪砖

And Rava also advised: Do not sit on the bed of an Aramean woman, and do not pass by a synagogue when the community is praying. The Gemara explains: Some say: Do not sit on the bed of an Aramean woman means one should not go to sleep without reciting Shema, as by doing so, it is tantamount to sleeping in the bed of a non-Jew, as his conduct is unbecoming a Jew. Others say: This means that one should not marry a woman who converted, and it is better to marry a woman who was born Jewish. And some say: It literally means that one should not sit on the bed of an Aramean, i.e., a non-Jewish woman.

讜诪砖讜诐 诪注砖讛 讚专讘 驻驻讗 讚专讘 驻驻讗 讗讝诇 诇讙讘讬 讗专诪讬转 讛讜爪讬讗讛 诇讜 诪讟讛 讗诪专讛 诇讜 砖讘 讗诪专 诇讛 讗讬谞讬 讬讜砖讘 注讚 砖转讙讘讬讛讬 讗转 讛诪讟讛 讛讙讘讬讛讛 讗转 讛诪讟讛 讜诪爪讗讜 砖诐 转讬谞讜拽 诪转 诪讻讗谉 讗诪专讜 讞讻诪讬诐 讗住讜专 诇讬砖讘 注诇 诪讟转 讗专诪讬转

This bit of advice was due to an incident involving Rav Pappa. Rav Pappa went to visit an Aramean woman. She took out a bed and she said to him: Sit. He said to her: I will not sit until you lift the sheets covering the bed. She did so and they found a dead baby there. Had Rav Pappa sat upon the bed, he would have been blamed for killing the baby. From that incident, the Sages said: One is prohibited from sitting on the bed of an Aramean woman.

讜讗诇 转注讘专讜 讗讞讜专讬 讘讬转 讛讻谞住转 讘砖注讛 砖讛爪讘讜专 诪转驻诇诇讬谉 诪住讬讬注 诇讬讛 诇专讘讬 讬讛讜砖注 讘谉 诇讜讬 讚讗诪专 专讘讬 讬讛讜砖注 讘谉 诇讜讬 讗住讜专 诇讜 诇讗讚诐 砖讬注讘讜专 讗讞讜专讬 讘讬转 讛讻谞住转 讘砖注讛 砖讛爪讘讜专 诪转驻诇诇讬谉

And Rava鈥檚 third bit of advice was, do not pass behind a synagogue while the congregation is praying. This statement supports the opinion of Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi, as Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi said: One is prohibited from passing behind a synagogue while the congregation is praying because they will suspect that he does not want to pray, and it is a show of contempt for the synagogue.

讗诪专 讗讘讬讬 讜诇讗 讗诪专谉 讗诇讗 讚诇讬讻讗 驻转讞讗 讗讞专讬谞讗 讗讘诇 讗讬讻讗 驻转讞讗 讗讞专讬谞讗 诇讬转 诇谉 讘讛 讜诇讗 讗诪专谉 讗诇讗 讚诇讬讻讗 讘讬 讻谞讬砖转讗 讗讞专讬谞讗 讗讘诇 讗讬讻讗 讘讬 讻谞讬砖转讗 讗讞专讬谞讗 诇讬转 诇谉 讘讛 讜诇讗 讗诪专谉 讗诇讗 讚诇讗 讚专讬 讟讜谞讗 讜诇讗 专讛讬讟 讜诇讗 诪谞讞 转驻讬诇讬谉 讗讘诇 讗讬讻讗 讞讚 诪讛谞讱 诇讬转 诇谉 讘讛:

Abaye introduced several caveats to Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi鈥檚 statement and said:
We only said this prohibition if there is no other entrance to the synagogue, but if there is another entrance, since it is possible that he will simply use the second entrance, they will not suspect him, and the prohibition does not apply.
And we only said this prohibition if there is no other synagogue in the city, but if there is another synagogue, the prohibition does not apply.
And we only said this prohibition when he is not carrying a burden, and not running, and not wearing phylacteries. But if one of those factors applies, the prohibition does not apply. If he is carrying a burden or running, clearly he is occupied with his work. If he is wearing phylacteries, it is evident that he is a God-fearing individual and they will not suspect him.

转谞讬讗 讗诪专 专讘讬 注拽讬讘讗 讘砖诇砖讛 讚讘专讬诐 讗讜讛讘 讗谞讬 讗转 讛诪讚讬讬诐 讻砖讞讜转讻讬谉 讗转 讛讘砖专 讗讬谉 讞讜转讻讬谉 讗诇讗 注诇 讙讘讬 讛砖讜诇讞谉 讻砖谞讜砖拽讬谉 讗讬谉 谞讜砖拽讬谉 讗诇讗 注诇 讙讘 讛讬讚 讜讻砖讬讜注爪讬谉 讗讬谉 讬讜注爪讬谉 讗诇讗 讘砖讚讛

The Gemara cites a statement from a baraita, along the lines of Rava鈥檚 advice to refrain from cutting meat on one鈥檚 hands: Rabbi Akiva said: In three aspects of their conduct, I like the Medes, and we should learn from their practices. When they cut meat, they cut it only on the table and not on their hands; when they kiss, either as a show of affection or honor, they kiss only the back of the hand and do not give the person being kissed an unpleasant feeling; and when they hold counsel, they only hold counsel in the field so others will not hear their secrets.

讗诪专 专讘 讗讚讗 讘专 讗讛讘讛 诪讗讬 拽专讗讛 讜讬砖诇讞 讬注拽讘 讜讬拽专讗 诇专讞诇 讜诇诇讗讛 讛砖讚讛 讗诇 爪讗谞讜:

Rav Adda bar Ahava said: From what verse is this derived? From the verse, 鈥淎nd Jacob sent and he called Rachel and Leah to the field to his flock鈥 (Genesis 31:4); it was only there in the field that he held counsel with them.

转谞讬讗 讗诪专 专讘谉 讙诪诇讬讗诇 讘砖诇砖讛 讚讘专讬诐 讗讜讛讘 讗谞讬 讗转 讛驻专住讬讬诐 讛谉 爪谞讜注讬谉 讘讗讻讬诇转谉 讜爪谞讜注讬谉 讘讘讬转 讛讻住讗 讜爪谞讜注讬谉 讘讚讘专 讗讞专:

It was taught in a baraita, Rabban Gamliel said: In three aspects of their conduct, I like the Persians: They are a modest people; they are modest in their eating, they are modest in the lavatory, and they are modest in another matter, i.e., sexual relations.

讗谞讬 爪讜讬转讬 诇诪拽讚砖讬 转谞讬 专讘 讬讜住祝 讗诇讜 讛驻专住讬讬诐 讛诪拽讜讚砖讬谉 讜诪讝讜诪谞讬谉 诇讙讬讛谞诐:

While they have been praised here regarding certain specific aspects of their conduct, the Gemara proceeds to offer another perspective on the Persians based on a verse describing the destruction of Babylonia at the hands of the Persian and Medean armies: 鈥淚 have commanded My consecrated ones; I have also called My mighty ones for My anger, even My proudly exulting ones鈥 (Isaiah 13:3). Rav Yosef taught a baraita: These are the Persians who are consecrated and designated for Gehenna, for they have been sent by God to carry out his mission of anger, and they will be sent to Gehenna.

专讘谉 讙诪诇讬讗诇 讗讜诪专 讜讻讜壮: 讗诪专 专讘 讬讛讜讚讛 讗诪专 砖诪讜讗诇 讛诇讻讛 讻专讘谉 讙诪诇讬讗诇

The Gemara returns to explain the mishna, in which we learned that Rabban Gamliel says: One may recite Shema until dawn. Rav Yehuda said that Shmuel said: The halakha is in accordance with the opinion of Rabban Gamliel.

转谞讬讗 专讘讬 砖诪注讜谉 讘谉 讬讜讞讬 讗讜诪专 驻注诪讬诐 砖讗讚诐 拽讜专讗 拽专讬讗转 砖诪注 砖转讬 驻注诪讬诐 讘诇讬诇讛 讗讞转 拽讜讚诐 砖讬注诇讛 注诪讜讚 讛砖讞专 讜讗讞转 诇讗讞专 砖讬注诇讛 注诪讜讚 讛砖讞专 讜讬讜爪讗 讘讛谉 讬讚讬 讞讜讘转讜 讗讞转 砖诇 讬讜诐 讜讗讞转 砖诇 诇讬诇讛

It was taught in a baraita: Based on Rabban Gamliel鈥檚 ruling, Rabbi Shimon ben Yo岣i said: At times, one recites Shema twice at night, once just before dawn and once just after dawn, and he thereby fulfills his obligation to recite Shema, one of the day and one of the night. According to Rabban Gamliel, the Shema that he recited before dawn fulfills his evening obligation and the Shema that he recited after dawn fulfills his morning obligation.

讛讗 讙讜驻讗 拽砖讬讗 讗诪专转 驻注诪讬诐 砖讗讚诐 拽讜专讗 拽专讬讗转 砖诪注 砖转讬 驻注诪讬诐 讘诇讬诇讛 讗诇诪讗 诇讗讞专 砖讬注诇讛 注诪讜讚 讛砖讞专 诇讬诇讬讗 讛讜讗 讜讛讚专 转谞讬 讬讜爪讗 讘讛谉 讬讚讬 讞讜讘转讜 讗讞转 砖诇 讬讜诐 讜讗讞转 砖诇 诇讬诇讛 讗诇诪讗 讬诪诪讗 讛讜讗

This Tosefta is self-contradictory. Initially, you said: At times one recites Shema twice at night. Apparently, the time just after dawn is still night. And then you taught: He thereby fulfills his obligation to recite Shema one of the day and one of the night. Apparently, the time in question is considered day, as otherwise, he would not have fulfilled his obligation to recite Shema during the day. There is an internal contradiction with regard to the status of the time just after dawn. Is it considered day or night?

诇讗 诇注讜诇诐 诇讬诇讬讗 讛讜讗 讜讛讗 讚拽专讬 诇讬讛 讬讜诐 讚讗讬讻讗 讗讬谞砖讬 讚拽讬讬诪讬 讘讛讛讬讗 砖注转讗

The Gemara answers: No, there is no contradiction. Actually, the time just after dawn, when it is still dark, is considered night and the fact that it is referred to here as day is because there are people who rise from their sleep at that time and, if the need arises, it can be characterized as bekumekha, when you rise, despite the fact that it is still night.

讗诪专 专讘 讗讞讗 讘专 讞谞讬谞讗 讗诪专 专讘讬 讬讛讜砖注 讘谉 诇讜讬 讛诇讻讛 讻专讘讬 砖诪注讜谉 讘谉 讬讜讞讬

Rav A岣 bar 岣nina said that Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi said: The halakha is in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Shimon ben Yo岣i.

讗讬讻讗 讚诪转谞讬 诇讛讗 讚专讘 讗讞讗 讘专 讞谞讬谞讗 讗讛讗 讚转谞讬讗 专讘讬 砖诪注讜谉 讘谉 讬讜讞讬 讗讜诪专 诪砖讜诐 专讘讬 注拽讬讘讗 驻注诪讬诐 砖讗讚诐 拽讜专讗 拽专讬讗转 砖诪注 砖转讬 驻注诪讬诐 讘讬讜诐 讗讞转 拽讜讚诐 讛谞抓 讛讞诪讛 讜讗讞转 诇讗讞专 讛谞抓 讛讞诪讛 讜讬讜爪讗 讘讛谉 讬讚讬 讞讜讘转讜 讗讞转 砖诇 讬讜诐 讜讗讞转 砖诇 诇讬诇讛

Some teach this statement of Rav A岣 bar 岣nina, in which he ruled that the halakha is in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Shimon ben Yo岣i, with regard to this halakha, which is stylistically similar to the previous halakha. As it was taught in a baraita that Rabbi Shimon ben Yo岣i said in the name of Rabbi Akiva: At times, one recites Shema twice during the day, once just before sunrise and once just after sunrise, and he thereby fulfills his dual obligation to recite Shema: One, that he recites after sunrise, Shema of the day, and one, that he recites before sunrise, Shema of the night.

讛讗 讙讜驻讗 拽砖讬讗 讗诪专转 驻注诪讬诐 砖讗讚诐 拽讜专讗 拽专讬讗转 砖诪注 砖转讬 驻注诪讬诐 讘讬讜诐 讗诇诪讗 拽讜讚诐 讛谞抓 讛讞诪讛 讬诪诪讗 讛讜讗 讜讛讚专 转谞讬 讬讜爪讗 讘讛谉 讬讚讬 讞讜讘转讜 讗讞转 砖诇 讬讜诐 讜讗讞转 砖诇 诇讬诇讛 讗诇诪讗 诇讬诇讬讗 讛讜讗

This baraita is self-contradictory. Initially, you said: 鈥淎t times one recites Shema twice during the day.鈥 Apparently, the time just before sunrise is considered day. And then you taught: 鈥淗e thereby fulfills his dual obligation to recite Shema, one of the day and one of the night.鈥 Apparently, the time in question is considered night, as otherwise, he could not thereby fulfill his obligation to recite Shema during the night.

Scroll To Top