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Today's Daf Yomi

February 26, 2022 | ื›ืดื” ื‘ืื“ืจ ืืณ ืชืฉืคืดื‘

  • This monthโ€™s learning is sponsored by Shlomo and Amalia Klapper in honor of the birth of Chiyenna Yochana, named after her great-great-grandmother, Chiyenna Kossovsky.

  • This month's learning is sponsored by Elaine Hochberg in honor of her husband, Arie Hochberg, who continues to journey through Daf Yomi with her. โ€œAnd with thanks to Rabbanit Farber and Hadran who have made our learning possible.โ€

Chagigah 17

Beit Shamai and Beit Hillel debate what sacrifices can be brought on Yom Tov. If Shavuot falls on Friday, the sacrifices are brought on Sunday, according to Beit Shamai. If Shavuot falls on Shabbat, even Beit Hillel hold that the sacrifices are pushed off until Sunday. The Sadducees believed that Shavuot always came out on Sunday and therefore in the event that the sacrifice was pushed off to Sunday, other things were instituted to ensure that no one thought we were celebrating the holiday on Sunday, just the sacrifices. Rabbi Oshaya brings a drasha to explain that Shavuot has seven days (6 in addition to Shavuot) in which one can bring the Chagigah offerings and the burnt โ€œappearanceโ€ offerings. Four sources are brought to raise doubts regarding his drasha, but they are all resolved. A second proof is brought by Rabbi Eliezer ben Yaakov and the Gemara then explains why we needed both Rabbi Oshayaโ€™s drasha and Rabbi Eliezer ben Yaakovโ€™s.

ืจื‘ ืืฉื™ ืืžืจ ืืคื™ืœื• ืชื™ืžื ืฆื“ื“ื™ืŸ ืžื•ืชืจื™ืŸ ื›ืœ ื“ื‘ื”ื“ื™ ื’ื‘ื” ื›ื’ื‘ื” ื“ืžื™

Rav Ashi said: Even if you say that sides are permitted in general, there is no proof from here, since anything that is near the animalโ€™s back is considered as its back. Therefore, placing the hands on the head of the animal is the same as placing them on the animal itself, as opposed to its sides.

ืžืชื ื™ืณ ื‘ื™ืช ืฉืžืื™ ืื•ืžืจื™ื ืžื‘ื™ืื™ืŸ ืฉืœืžื™ื ื•ืื™ืŸ ืกื•ืžื›ื™ืŸ ืขืœื™ื”ื ืื‘ืœ ืœื ืขื•ืœื•ืช ื•ื‘ื™ืช ื”ืœืœ ืื•ืžืจื™ื ืžื‘ื™ืื™ืŸ ืฉืœืžื™ื ื•ืขื•ืœื•ืช ื•ืกื•ืžื›ื™ืŸ ืขืœื™ื”ื

MISHNA: Beit Shammai say: One may bring peace-offerings on a Festival because both the owners and the priests partake of them, but one may not place his hands on them, on the peace-offerings before sacrificing them. However, one may not bring burnt-offerings at all because they are not eaten, and labor is permitted on Festivals only for the sake of preparing food for humans. And Beit Hillel say: One may bring peace-offerings and also burnt-offerings, and one places his hands on both of them.

ืขืฆืจืช ืฉื—ืœ ืœื”ื™ื•ืช ื‘ืขืจื‘ ืฉื‘ืช ื‘ื™ืช ืฉืžืื™ ืื•ืžืจื™ื ื™ื•ื ื˜ื‘ื•ื— ืื—ืจ ื”ืฉื‘ืช ื•ื‘ื™ืช ื”ืœืœ ืื•ืžืจื™ื ืื™ืŸ ื™ื•ื ื˜ื‘ื•ื— ืื—ืจ ื”ืฉื‘ืช ื•ืžื•ื“ื™ื ืฉืื ื—ืœื” ืœื”ื™ื•ืช ื‘ืฉื‘ืช ืฉื™ื•ื ื˜ื‘ื•ื— ืื—ืจ ื”ืฉื‘ืช

If the festival of Shavuot occurs on the eve of Shabbat, Beit Shammai say: The day of slaughter is after Shabbat, on Sunday. This is the day on which the animals brought in honor of the pilgrim Festival are slaughtered, since they maintain that the Festival burnt-offering is not sacrificed on the Festival day itself but on the following day, and all burnt-offerings vowed by individuals are postponed to the following day. And Beit Hillel say: The day of slaughter is not after Shabbat. Since the slaughter may be performed on the Festival day itself, it is unnecessary to postpone it. But they concede that if Shavuot occurs on Shabbat, the day of slaughter is after Shabbat.

ืื™ืŸ ื›ื”ืŸ ื’ื“ื•ืœ ืžืชืœื‘ืฉ ื‘ื›ืœื™ื• ื•ืžื•ืชืจื™ืŸ ื‘ื”ืกืคื“ ื•ื‘ืชืขื ื™ืช ืฉืœื ืœืงื™ื™ื ื“ื‘ืจื™ ื”ืื•ืžืจื™ืŸ ืขืฆืจืช ืื—ืจ ื”ืฉื‘ืช

The mishna relates that when the day of slaughter was on a Sunday, the High Priest would not dress in his festive garments but would wear his regular clothing. And all were permitted to eulogize and fast on this day. This was done in order not to uphold and reinforce the opinion of the Sadducees, who would say: Shavuot must always occur after Shabbat. As the day of slaughter was on Sunday, it was necessary to demonstrate that we do not accept the view of the Sadducees, and that the day is not a Festival.

ื’ืžืณ ืืžืจ ืจื‘ื™ ืืœืขื–ืจ ืืžืจ ืจื‘ื™ ืื•ืฉืขื™ื ืžื ื™ื™ืŸ ืœืขืฆืจืช ืฉื™ืฉ ืœื” ืชืฉืœื•ืžื™ืŸ ื›ืœ ืฉื‘ืขื” ืฉื ืืžืจ ื‘ื—ื’ ื”ืžืฆื•ืช ื•ื‘ื—ื’ ื”ืฉื‘ื•ืขื•ืช ื•ื‘ื—ื’ ื”ืกื•ื›ื•ืช ืžืงื™ืฉ ื—ื’ ื”ืฉื‘ื•ืขื•ืช ืœื—ื’ ื”ืžืฆื•ืช ืžื” ื—ื’ ื”ืžืฆื•ืช ื™ืฉ ืœื” ืชืฉืœื•ืžื™ืŸ ื›ืœ ืฉื‘ืขื” ืืฃ ื—ื’ ื”ืฉื‘ื•ืขื•ืช ื™ืฉ ืœื” ืชืฉืœื•ืžื™ืŸ ื›ืœ ืฉื‘ืขื”

GEMARA: Rabbi Elazar said that Rabbi Oshaya said: From where is it derived that the Shavuot offerings can be redressed, i.e., that the obligatory Festival offerings can be sacrificed all seven days following the Festival? As it is stated: โ€œThree times a year all your males shall appearโ€ฆon the festival of Passover, and on the festival of Shavuot, and on the festival of Sukkotโ€ (Deuteronomy 16:16). The verse compares the festival of Shavuot to the festival of Passover by analogy: Just as one can redress the failure to bring the offering on the festival of Passover on all seven days of the Festival, so too, on the festival of Shavuot, one can redress the failure to bring the offering for all seven, i.e., Shavuot and the six days following it.

ื•ืื™ืžื ืžืงื™ืฉ ืœื—ื’ ื”ืกื•ื›ื•ืช ืžื” ื—ื’ ื”ืกื•ื›ื•ืช ื™ืฉ ืœื” ืชืฉืœื•ืžื™ืŸ ื›ืœ ืฉืžื•ื ื” ืืฃ ื—ื’ ื”ืฉื‘ื•ืขื•ืช ื™ืฉ ืœื” ืชืฉืœื•ืžื™ืŸ ื›ืœ ืฉืžื•ื ื” ืฉืžื™ื ื™ ืจื’ืœ ื‘ืคื ื™ ืขืฆืžื• ื”ื•ื

The Gemara raises a difficulty: But perhaps you should say instead that the verse compares Shavuot to the festival of Sukkot by analogy: Just as the Festival day of Sukkot can be redressed for all eight days, as the Eighth Day of Assembly is part of the Festival, so too can the festival of Shavuot be redressed for all eight days. The Gemara answers: The Eighth Day of Assembly is an independent pilgrimage Festival and is not considered part of Sukkot.

ืื™ืžื•ืจ ื“ืืžืจื™ ืฉืžื™ื ื™ ืจื’ืœ ื‘ืคื ื™ ืขืฆืžื• ื”ื•ื ื”ื ื™ ืžื™ืœื™ ืœืขื ื™ืŸ ืคื–ืจ ืงืฉื‘ ืื‘ืœ ืœืขื ื™ืŸ ืชืฉืœื•ืžื™ืŸ ืชืฉืœื•ืžื™ืŸ ื“ืจืืฉื•ืŸ ื”ื•ื ื“ืชื ืŸ ืžื™ ืฉืœื ื—ื’ ื‘ื™ื•ื ื˜ื•ื‘ ื”ืจืืฉื•ืŸ ืฉืœ ื—ื’ ื—ื•ื’ื’ ืืช ื›ืœ ื”ืจื’ืœ ื•ื™ื•ื ื˜ื•ื‘ ื”ืื—ืจื•ืŸ

The Gemara continues to ask: You can say that when they said that The Eighth Day of Assembly is an independent pilgrimage Festival, this applies only to the issue of peh, zayin, reish, kuf, shin, beit, an acronym for the six halakhot that differentiate The Eighth Day of Assembly from the festival of Sukkot. But with regard to the redress of the Festival offerings, it is considered a day of redress for the first Festival day, as we learned in a mishna (9a): One who did not celebrate by sacrificing the Festival offerings on the first day of the Sukkot Festival can celebrate by sacrificing them throughout the pilgrimage Festival of Sukkot and on the last day of that Festival. If so, the question remains: Why do we not compare Shavuot to Sukkot and allow its offerings to be completed on all eight days?

ืชืคืฉืช ืžืจื•ื‘ื” ืœื ืชืคืฉืช ืชืคืฉืช ืžื•ืขื˜ ืชืคืฉืช

The Gemara answers by implementing the following principle: If you grasped many, you did not grasp anything; if you grasped few, you grasped something. In other words, when one must choose between a smaller number and a larger one, there is more certainty in choosing the smaller one. Even if that choice turns out to be erroneous, it is preferable to the larger one, as it is included in it. In this case, seven is included in eight. Therefore, it is preferable to compare Shavuot to the seven days of Passover than to the eight days of Sukkot.

ืืœื ืœืžืื™ ื”ืœื›ืชื ื›ืชื‘ื™ื” ืจื—ืžื ื ืœื—ื’ ื”ืกื•ื›ื•ืช ืœืืงื•ืฉื™ ืœื—ื’ ื”ืžืฆื•ืช ืžื” ื—ื’ ื”ืžืฆื•ืช ื˜ืขื•ืŸ ืœื™ื ื” ืืฃ ื—ื’ ื”ืกื•ื›ื•ืช ื˜ืขื•ืŸ ืœื™ื ื”

The Gemara asks: But if we do not compare Shavuot to Sukkot, for the sake of what halakha did the Merciful One write the festival of Sukkot in this context? The laws of all the Festivals were already listed, so the Torah must have mentioned their names again in order to compare them for a particular reason. The Gemara answers: The festival of Sukkot was mentioned in order to compare it by analogy to the festival of Passover, in the following manner: Just as the festival of Passover requires lodging overnight in Jerusalem after the conclusion of the Festival, as one may not depart that night, so too the festival of Sukkot requires lodging in Jerusalem after Sukkot has ended.

ื•ื”ืชื ืžื ืœืŸ

The Gemara asks: And there, with regard to Passover itself, from where do we derive that it requires lodging?

ื“ื›ืชื™ื‘ ื•ืคื ื™ืช ื‘ื‘ืงืจ ื•ื”ืœื›ืช ืœืื”ืœื™ืš

The Gemara answers: One may leave Jerusalem only in the morning, after staying there for the night following the Festival, as it is written following the laws of the Paschal offering: โ€œAnd you shall turn in the morning and go to your tentsโ€ (Deuteronomy 16:7).

ืชื ืŸ ืขืฆืจืช ืฉื—ืœ ืœื”ื™ื•ืช ืขืจื‘ ืฉื‘ืช ื‘ื™ืช ืฉืžืื™ ืื•ืžืจื™ื ื™ื•ื ื˜ื‘ื•ื— ืื—ืจ ื”ืฉื‘ืช ื•ื‘ื™ืช ื”ืœืœ ืื•ืžืจื™ื ืื™ืŸ ืœื” ื™ื•ื ื˜ื‘ื•ื— ืžืื™ ืœืื• ืื™ืŸ ืœื” ื™ื•ื ื˜ื‘ื•ื— ื›ืœืœ ืœื ืฉืื™ื ื” ืฆืจื™ื›ื” ื™ื•ื ื˜ื‘ื•ื—

ยง We learned in the mishna: If the festival of Shavuot occurs on the eve of Shabbat, Beit Shammai say: The day of slaughter is after Shabbat; and Beit Hillel say: It does not have a day of slaughter. What, is it not that it does not have a day of slaughter at all; i.e., there are no days of redress for an offering that was meant to be sacrificed on the festival of Shavuot itself? The Gemara rejects this: No, Beit Hillel means that it does not require a day of slaughter.

ื•ืžืื™ ืงื ืžืฉืžืข ืœืŸ ื“ืžืงืจื‘ื™ื ืŸ ื‘ื™ื•ืžื™ื” ื”ื ืื™ืคืœื™ื’ื• ื‘ื” ื—ื“ื ื–ื™ืžื ื ื“ืชื ืŸ ื‘ื™ืช ืฉืžืื™ ืื•ืžืจื™ื ืžื‘ื™ืื™ืŸ ืฉืœืžื™ื ื•ืื™ืŸ ืกื•ืžื›ื™ืŸ ืขืœื™ื”ื ืื‘ืœ ืœื ืขื•ืœื•ืช ื•ื‘ื™ืช ื”ืœืœ ืื•ืžืจื™ื ืžื‘ื™ืื™ืŸ ืฉืœืžื™ื ื•ืขื•ืœื•ืช ื•ืกื•ืžื›ื™ืŸ ืขืœื™ื”ื

The Gemara asks: And what does this teach us; that all offerings are sacrificed on their day? But they have already disputed this once, as we learned in a mishna: Beit Shammai say: One may bring peace-offerings on a Festival but one may not place his hands on them. However, one may not bring burnt-offerings at all; and Beit Hillel say: One may bring peace-offerings and also burnt-offerings, and one places his hands on both of them. Why is it necessary to restate this argument in different terms?

ืฆืจื™ื›ื ื“ืื™ ืืฉืžืขื™ื ืŸ ื‘ื”ื ื‘ื”ื ืงื ืืžืจื™ ื‘ื™ืช ืฉืžืื™ ืžืฉื•ื ื“ืืคืฉืจ ืœืžื—ืจ ืื‘ืœ ื”ื›ื ืื™ืžื ืžื•ื“ื• ืœื”ื• ืœื‘ื™ืช ื”ืœืœ

The Gemara answers: It is necessary, for had the mishna taught us only this case, that Beit Shammai prohibits bringing burnt-offerings on a Festival, we might have said: It is with regard to this case, a regular Festival followed by a weekday, that Beit Shammai state their opinion, because it is possible to sacrifice these burnt-offerings on the following day, on the day of slaughter after the Festival; but there, with regard to a Shavuot that occurs on a Friday, when one cannot sacrifice offerings on the following day, you might perhaps say that they agree with Beit Hillel that the burnt-offerings should be sacrificed on the Festival itself. It was therefore necessary to state that Beit Shammaiโ€™s view is the same in both cases.

ื•ืื™ ืืฉืžืขื™ื ืŸ ื‘ื”ื ื‘ื”ื ืงืืžืจื™ ื‘ื™ืช ื”ืœืœ ืžืฉื•ื ื“ืœื ืืคืฉืจ ืœืžื—ืจ ืื‘ืœ ื‘ื”ื ืื™ืžื ืžื•ื“ื• ืœื‘ื™ืช ืฉืžืื™ ืฆืจื™ื›ื

The reverse also applies: And had it taught us only that case, that there is no day of slaughter after Shabbat, we might have said: It is with regard to that case that Beit Hillel state their view, that the offerings should be sacrificed on the Festival itself, because it is not possible to sacrifice them on the following day, which is Shabbat; but here, on a regular Festival followed by a weekday, you might say that perhaps they agree with Beit Shammai. It is therefore necessary for the mishna to specify both cases. The question of whether there days of redress for Shavuot according to Beit Hillel therefore remains unresolved.

ืชื ืฉืžืข ืžื™ ืฉืœื ื—ื’ ืฉื‘ืขืช ื™ืžื™ ื”ืคืกื— ื•ืฉืžื•ื ืช ื™ืžื™ ื”ื—ื’ ื•ื™ื•ื ื˜ื•ื‘ ื”ืจืืฉื•ืŸ ืฉืœ ืขืฆืจืช ืฉื•ื‘ ืื™ื ื• ื—ื•ื’ื’ ืžืื™ ืœืื• ื™ื•ื ื˜ื•ื‘ ืฉืœ ืขืฆืจืช ืœื ื™ื•ื ื˜ื‘ื•ื— ืื™ ื”ื›ื™ ื ื™ืคืฉื•ื˜ ืžื™ื ื” ื“ื—ื“ ื™ื•ื ื˜ื‘ื•ื— ืื™ืžื ื™ืžื™ ื˜ื‘ื•ื—

The Gemara suggests: Come and hear a proof from a different source: One who did not celebrate by sacrificing the peace-offerings of the Festival on the seven days of Passover, or on the eight days of the festival of Sukkot, or on the first day of Shavuot may no longer celebrate and sacrifice those offerings. The Gemara infers: Does this not mean that if one did not sacrifice on the Festival day of Shavuot itself, this lapse cannot be remedied, thereby demonstrating that there are no days of redress for Shavuot? The Gemara refutes this: No, the term Festival day is referring to the day of slaughter, rather than the Festival itself. The Gemara immediately counters: If so, let us at least resolve from here, i.e., the mishna that there is only one day of slaughter and not seven days. The Gemara rejects this: Say that the wording of the mishna should be corrected, so that instead of: A day of slaughter, it reads: Days of slaughter.

ืชื ืฉืžืข ื“ืชื ื™ ืจื‘ื” ื‘ืจ ืฉืžื•ืืœ ืืžืจื” ืชื•ืจื” ืžื ื” ื™ืžื™ื ื•ืงื“ืฉ ื—ื“ืฉ ืžื ื” ื™ืžื™ื ื•ืงื“ืฉ ืขืฆืจืช ืžื” ื—ื“ืฉ ืœืžื ื•ื™ื™ื• ืืฃ ืขืฆืจืช ืœืžื ื•ื™ื™ื” ืžืื™ ืœืื• ื’ืžืจ ืžื—ื“ืฉ ืžื” ื—ื“ืฉ ื™ื•ื ืื—ื“ ืืฃ ืขืฆืจืช ื™ื•ื ืื—ื“

The Gemara suggests further: Come and hear a proof from another source, as Rabba bar Shmuel taught the following baraita: The Torah said to count thirty days, as it is stated: โ€œA month of daysโ€ (Numbers 11:20), and then sanctify the month with offerings. And the Torah also said to count days from Passover and then sanctify the festival of Shavuot with offerings, as it is stated: โ€œYou shall count fifty daysโ€ (Leviticus 23:16). From this comparison, we learn the following halakha: Just as the new month is sanctified for the unit of time by which it is counted, i.e., for one day, so too, Shavuot is sanctified for the unit of time by which it is counted, i.e., for one full week, as it is stated: โ€œSeven complete weeks shall there beโ€ (Leviticus 23:15). The Gemara infers from this: Does this not mean that we learn from the month? If so, we can also learn that just as the festival of a month, the New Moon, is one day, so too Shavuot is only one day, without days of redress.

ืืžืจ ืจื‘ื ื•ืชืกื‘ืจื ืื˜ื• ืขืฆืจืช ื™ื•ืžื™ ืžื ื™ื ืŸ ืฉื‘ื•ืขื™ ืœื ืžื ื™ื ืŸ ื•ื”ืืžืจ ืื‘ื™ื™ ืžืฆื•ื” ืœืžื™ืžื ื™ ื™ื•ืžื™ ื“ื›ืชื™ื‘ ืชืกืคืจื• ื—ืžืฉื™ื ื™ื•ื ื•ืžืฆื•ื” ืœืžื™ืžื ื™ ืฉื‘ื•ืขื™ ื“ื›ืชื™ื‘ ืฉื‘ืขื” ืฉื‘ื•ืขื•ืช ืชืกืคืจ ืœืš ื•ืขื•ื“ ื—ื’ ืฉื‘ื•ืขื•ืช ื›ืชื™ื‘

Rava said: And how can you understand it that way? Is that to say that for Shavuot we count days but we do not count weeks? Didnโ€™t Abaye say: It is a mitzva to count days, in the counting of the omer, as it is written: โ€œUntil the morrow of the seventh week, you shall count fifty daysโ€ (Leviticus 23:16); and it is also a mitzva to count weeks, as it is written: โ€œSeven weeks you shall count for yourself, from when the sickle is first put to the standing cornโ€ (Deuteronomy 16:9);and further, it is written: โ€œThe festival of weeks [shavuot]โ€ (Deuteronomy 16:10), which indicates that it is a Festival that is established through a count of weeks? Consequently, the days of redress for Shavuot should last a week, in accordance with its components.

ื“ื‘ื™ ืจื‘ื™ ืืœื™ืขื–ืจ ื‘ืŸ ื™ืขืงื‘ ืชื ื ืืžืจ ืงืจื ื•ืงืจืืชื ื•ื‘ืงืฆืจื›ื ืื™ื–ื”ื• ื—ื’ ืฉืืชื” ืงื•ืจื ื•ืงื•ืฆืจ ื‘ื• ื”ื•ื™ ืื•ืžืจ ื–ื” ื—ื’ ืขืฆืจืช

ยง In the school of Rabbi Eliezer ben Yaโ€™akov, a Sage taught the following: The verse states with regard to Shavuot: โ€œAnd you shall make a proclamation on this very day, it shall be a holy convocation, you shall do no kind of laborious workโ€ (Leviticus 23:21), and it states in the same chapter: โ€œAnd when you reap the harvest of your landโ€ (Leviticus 23:22). Which is the Festival on which you make a proclamation and also reap, i.e., which Festival occurs in the harvest season? You must say it is the festival of Shavuot.

ืื™ืžืช ืื™ืœื™ืžื ื‘ื™ื•ื ื˜ื•ื‘ ืงืฆื™ืจื” ื‘ื™ื•ื ื˜ื•ื‘ ืžื™ ืฉืจื™ ืืœื ืœืื• ืœืชืฉืœื•ืžื™ืŸ

The Gemara proceeds to analyze the teaching: When exactly does this refer to? If we say it is referring to the Festival day itself, is it permitted to reap on a Festival? Obviously, ordinary work is prohibited on Festivals. Rather, is it not referring to the issue of redress? In other words, it speaks of those days on which redress can be made for the offerings of the Festival, i.e., the days of slaughter, on which one may indeed reap because they are regular weekdays, and they nevertheless have a festive quality.

ื•ืืฃ ืขืœ ื’ื‘ ื“ืื™ืชืžืจ ื“ืจื‘ื™ ืืœืขื–ืจ ืืžืจ ืจื‘ื™ ืื•ืฉืขื™ื ืืฆื˜ืจื™ืš ื“ืจื‘ื™ ืืœื™ืขื–ืจ ื‘ืŸ ื™ืขืงื‘ ื“ืื™ ืžื“ืจื‘ื™ ืืœืขื–ืจ ืืžืจ ืจื‘ื™ ืื•ืฉืขื™ื ื”ื•ื” ืืžื™ื ื ืžื” ืชืฉืœื•ืžื™ืŸ ืฉืœ ื—ื’ ื”ืžืฆื•ืช ืืกื•ืจ ื‘ืขืฉื™ื™ืช ืžืœืื›ื” ืืฃ ืชืฉืœื•ืžื™ ืขืฆืจืช ื ืžื™ ืืกื•ืจ ื‘ืขืฉื™ื™ืช ืžืœืื›ื” ืงืžืฉืžืข ืœืŸ ื“ืจื‘ื™ ืืœื™ืขื–ืจ ื‘ืŸ ื™ืขืงื‘ ื•ืื™ ืžื“ืจื‘ื™ ืืœื™ืขื–ืจ ื‘ืŸ ื™ืขืงื‘

The Gemara comments: And even though the teaching that Rabbi Elazar said that Rabbi Oshaya said, that the halakha of the redress for Shavuot is derived from the comparison to Passover, was stated, it was nevertheless necessary to state the teaching of Rabbi Eliezer ben Yaโ€™akov as well, for if we had learned only the proof that Rabbi Elazar said that Rabbi Oshaya said, I would say the following: Just as on the days of redress for the festival of Passover it is prohibited to perform any work that will not cause irretrievable loss, as they are part of the Festival, so too on the days of redress for Shavuot it is also prohibited to perform work. We are therefore taught the statement of Rabbi Eliezer ben Yaโ€™akov as well, that on these festive days one may reap, as they are weekdays. Conversely, if we had learned the halakha only from the words of Rabbi Eliezer ben Yaโ€™akov,

  • This monthโ€™s learning is sponsored by Shlomo and Amalia Klapper in honor of the birth of Chiyenna Yochana, named after her great-great-grandmother, Chiyenna Kossovsky.

  • This month's learning is sponsored by Elaine Hochberg in honor of her husband, Arie Hochberg, who continues to journey through Daf Yomi with her. โ€œAnd with thanks to Rabbanit Farber and Hadran who have made our learning possible.โ€

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Chagigah 17

The William Davidson Talmud | Powered by Sefaria

Chagigah 17

ืจื‘ ืืฉื™ ืืžืจ ืืคื™ืœื• ืชื™ืžื ืฆื“ื“ื™ืŸ ืžื•ืชืจื™ืŸ ื›ืœ ื“ื‘ื”ื“ื™ ื’ื‘ื” ื›ื’ื‘ื” ื“ืžื™

Rav Ashi said: Even if you say that sides are permitted in general, there is no proof from here, since anything that is near the animalโ€™s back is considered as its back. Therefore, placing the hands on the head of the animal is the same as placing them on the animal itself, as opposed to its sides.

ืžืชื ื™ืณ ื‘ื™ืช ืฉืžืื™ ืื•ืžืจื™ื ืžื‘ื™ืื™ืŸ ืฉืœืžื™ื ื•ืื™ืŸ ืกื•ืžื›ื™ืŸ ืขืœื™ื”ื ืื‘ืœ ืœื ืขื•ืœื•ืช ื•ื‘ื™ืช ื”ืœืœ ืื•ืžืจื™ื ืžื‘ื™ืื™ืŸ ืฉืœืžื™ื ื•ืขื•ืœื•ืช ื•ืกื•ืžื›ื™ืŸ ืขืœื™ื”ื

MISHNA: Beit Shammai say: One may bring peace-offerings on a Festival because both the owners and the priests partake of them, but one may not place his hands on them, on the peace-offerings before sacrificing them. However, one may not bring burnt-offerings at all because they are not eaten, and labor is permitted on Festivals only for the sake of preparing food for humans. And Beit Hillel say: One may bring peace-offerings and also burnt-offerings, and one places his hands on both of them.

ืขืฆืจืช ืฉื—ืœ ืœื”ื™ื•ืช ื‘ืขืจื‘ ืฉื‘ืช ื‘ื™ืช ืฉืžืื™ ืื•ืžืจื™ื ื™ื•ื ื˜ื‘ื•ื— ืื—ืจ ื”ืฉื‘ืช ื•ื‘ื™ืช ื”ืœืœ ืื•ืžืจื™ื ืื™ืŸ ื™ื•ื ื˜ื‘ื•ื— ืื—ืจ ื”ืฉื‘ืช ื•ืžื•ื“ื™ื ืฉืื ื—ืœื” ืœื”ื™ื•ืช ื‘ืฉื‘ืช ืฉื™ื•ื ื˜ื‘ื•ื— ืื—ืจ ื”ืฉื‘ืช

If the festival of Shavuot occurs on the eve of Shabbat, Beit Shammai say: The day of slaughter is after Shabbat, on Sunday. This is the day on which the animals brought in honor of the pilgrim Festival are slaughtered, since they maintain that the Festival burnt-offering is not sacrificed on the Festival day itself but on the following day, and all burnt-offerings vowed by individuals are postponed to the following day. And Beit Hillel say: The day of slaughter is not after Shabbat. Since the slaughter may be performed on the Festival day itself, it is unnecessary to postpone it. But they concede that if Shavuot occurs on Shabbat, the day of slaughter is after Shabbat.

ืื™ืŸ ื›ื”ืŸ ื’ื“ื•ืœ ืžืชืœื‘ืฉ ื‘ื›ืœื™ื• ื•ืžื•ืชืจื™ืŸ ื‘ื”ืกืคื“ ื•ื‘ืชืขื ื™ืช ืฉืœื ืœืงื™ื™ื ื“ื‘ืจื™ ื”ืื•ืžืจื™ืŸ ืขืฆืจืช ืื—ืจ ื”ืฉื‘ืช

The mishna relates that when the day of slaughter was on a Sunday, the High Priest would not dress in his festive garments but would wear his regular clothing. And all were permitted to eulogize and fast on this day. This was done in order not to uphold and reinforce the opinion of the Sadducees, who would say: Shavuot must always occur after Shabbat. As the day of slaughter was on Sunday, it was necessary to demonstrate that we do not accept the view of the Sadducees, and that the day is not a Festival.

ื’ืžืณ ืืžืจ ืจื‘ื™ ืืœืขื–ืจ ืืžืจ ืจื‘ื™ ืื•ืฉืขื™ื ืžื ื™ื™ืŸ ืœืขืฆืจืช ืฉื™ืฉ ืœื” ืชืฉืœื•ืžื™ืŸ ื›ืœ ืฉื‘ืขื” ืฉื ืืžืจ ื‘ื—ื’ ื”ืžืฆื•ืช ื•ื‘ื—ื’ ื”ืฉื‘ื•ืขื•ืช ื•ื‘ื—ื’ ื”ืกื•ื›ื•ืช ืžืงื™ืฉ ื—ื’ ื”ืฉื‘ื•ืขื•ืช ืœื—ื’ ื”ืžืฆื•ืช ืžื” ื—ื’ ื”ืžืฆื•ืช ื™ืฉ ืœื” ืชืฉืœื•ืžื™ืŸ ื›ืœ ืฉื‘ืขื” ืืฃ ื—ื’ ื”ืฉื‘ื•ืขื•ืช ื™ืฉ ืœื” ืชืฉืœื•ืžื™ืŸ ื›ืœ ืฉื‘ืขื”

GEMARA: Rabbi Elazar said that Rabbi Oshaya said: From where is it derived that the Shavuot offerings can be redressed, i.e., that the obligatory Festival offerings can be sacrificed all seven days following the Festival? As it is stated: โ€œThree times a year all your males shall appearโ€ฆon the festival of Passover, and on the festival of Shavuot, and on the festival of Sukkotโ€ (Deuteronomy 16:16). The verse compares the festival of Shavuot to the festival of Passover by analogy: Just as one can redress the failure to bring the offering on the festival of Passover on all seven days of the Festival, so too, on the festival of Shavuot, one can redress the failure to bring the offering for all seven, i.e., Shavuot and the six days following it.

ื•ืื™ืžื ืžืงื™ืฉ ืœื—ื’ ื”ืกื•ื›ื•ืช ืžื” ื—ื’ ื”ืกื•ื›ื•ืช ื™ืฉ ืœื” ืชืฉืœื•ืžื™ืŸ ื›ืœ ืฉืžื•ื ื” ืืฃ ื—ื’ ื”ืฉื‘ื•ืขื•ืช ื™ืฉ ืœื” ืชืฉืœื•ืžื™ืŸ ื›ืœ ืฉืžื•ื ื” ืฉืžื™ื ื™ ืจื’ืœ ื‘ืคื ื™ ืขืฆืžื• ื”ื•ื

The Gemara raises a difficulty: But perhaps you should say instead that the verse compares Shavuot to the festival of Sukkot by analogy: Just as the Festival day of Sukkot can be redressed for all eight days, as the Eighth Day of Assembly is part of the Festival, so too can the festival of Shavuot be redressed for all eight days. The Gemara answers: The Eighth Day of Assembly is an independent pilgrimage Festival and is not considered part of Sukkot.

ืื™ืžื•ืจ ื“ืืžืจื™ ืฉืžื™ื ื™ ืจื’ืœ ื‘ืคื ื™ ืขืฆืžื• ื”ื•ื ื”ื ื™ ืžื™ืœื™ ืœืขื ื™ืŸ ืคื–ืจ ืงืฉื‘ ืื‘ืœ ืœืขื ื™ืŸ ืชืฉืœื•ืžื™ืŸ ืชืฉืœื•ืžื™ืŸ ื“ืจืืฉื•ืŸ ื”ื•ื ื“ืชื ืŸ ืžื™ ืฉืœื ื—ื’ ื‘ื™ื•ื ื˜ื•ื‘ ื”ืจืืฉื•ืŸ ืฉืœ ื—ื’ ื—ื•ื’ื’ ืืช ื›ืœ ื”ืจื’ืœ ื•ื™ื•ื ื˜ื•ื‘ ื”ืื—ืจื•ืŸ

The Gemara continues to ask: You can say that when they said that The Eighth Day of Assembly is an independent pilgrimage Festival, this applies only to the issue of peh, zayin, reish, kuf, shin, beit, an acronym for the six halakhot that differentiate The Eighth Day of Assembly from the festival of Sukkot. But with regard to the redress of the Festival offerings, it is considered a day of redress for the first Festival day, as we learned in a mishna (9a): One who did not celebrate by sacrificing the Festival offerings on the first day of the Sukkot Festival can celebrate by sacrificing them throughout the pilgrimage Festival of Sukkot and on the last day of that Festival. If so, the question remains: Why do we not compare Shavuot to Sukkot and allow its offerings to be completed on all eight days?

ืชืคืฉืช ืžืจื•ื‘ื” ืœื ืชืคืฉืช ืชืคืฉืช ืžื•ืขื˜ ืชืคืฉืช

The Gemara answers by implementing the following principle: If you grasped many, you did not grasp anything; if you grasped few, you grasped something. In other words, when one must choose between a smaller number and a larger one, there is more certainty in choosing the smaller one. Even if that choice turns out to be erroneous, it is preferable to the larger one, as it is included in it. In this case, seven is included in eight. Therefore, it is preferable to compare Shavuot to the seven days of Passover than to the eight days of Sukkot.

ืืœื ืœืžืื™ ื”ืœื›ืชื ื›ืชื‘ื™ื” ืจื—ืžื ื ืœื—ื’ ื”ืกื•ื›ื•ืช ืœืืงื•ืฉื™ ืœื—ื’ ื”ืžืฆื•ืช ืžื” ื—ื’ ื”ืžืฆื•ืช ื˜ืขื•ืŸ ืœื™ื ื” ืืฃ ื—ื’ ื”ืกื•ื›ื•ืช ื˜ืขื•ืŸ ืœื™ื ื”

The Gemara asks: But if we do not compare Shavuot to Sukkot, for the sake of what halakha did the Merciful One write the festival of Sukkot in this context? The laws of all the Festivals were already listed, so the Torah must have mentioned their names again in order to compare them for a particular reason. The Gemara answers: The festival of Sukkot was mentioned in order to compare it by analogy to the festival of Passover, in the following manner: Just as the festival of Passover requires lodging overnight in Jerusalem after the conclusion of the Festival, as one may not depart that night, so too the festival of Sukkot requires lodging in Jerusalem after Sukkot has ended.

ื•ื”ืชื ืžื ืœืŸ

The Gemara asks: And there, with regard to Passover itself, from where do we derive that it requires lodging?

ื“ื›ืชื™ื‘ ื•ืคื ื™ืช ื‘ื‘ืงืจ ื•ื”ืœื›ืช ืœืื”ืœื™ืš

The Gemara answers: One may leave Jerusalem only in the morning, after staying there for the night following the Festival, as it is written following the laws of the Paschal offering: โ€œAnd you shall turn in the morning and go to your tentsโ€ (Deuteronomy 16:7).

ืชื ืŸ ืขืฆืจืช ืฉื—ืœ ืœื”ื™ื•ืช ืขืจื‘ ืฉื‘ืช ื‘ื™ืช ืฉืžืื™ ืื•ืžืจื™ื ื™ื•ื ื˜ื‘ื•ื— ืื—ืจ ื”ืฉื‘ืช ื•ื‘ื™ืช ื”ืœืœ ืื•ืžืจื™ื ืื™ืŸ ืœื” ื™ื•ื ื˜ื‘ื•ื— ืžืื™ ืœืื• ืื™ืŸ ืœื” ื™ื•ื ื˜ื‘ื•ื— ื›ืœืœ ืœื ืฉืื™ื ื” ืฆืจื™ื›ื” ื™ื•ื ื˜ื‘ื•ื—

ยง We learned in the mishna: If the festival of Shavuot occurs on the eve of Shabbat, Beit Shammai say: The day of slaughter is after Shabbat; and Beit Hillel say: It does not have a day of slaughter. What, is it not that it does not have a day of slaughter at all; i.e., there are no days of redress for an offering that was meant to be sacrificed on the festival of Shavuot itself? The Gemara rejects this: No, Beit Hillel means that it does not require a day of slaughter.

ื•ืžืื™ ืงื ืžืฉืžืข ืœืŸ ื“ืžืงืจื‘ื™ื ืŸ ื‘ื™ื•ืžื™ื” ื”ื ืื™ืคืœื™ื’ื• ื‘ื” ื—ื“ื ื–ื™ืžื ื ื“ืชื ืŸ ื‘ื™ืช ืฉืžืื™ ืื•ืžืจื™ื ืžื‘ื™ืื™ืŸ ืฉืœืžื™ื ื•ืื™ืŸ ืกื•ืžื›ื™ืŸ ืขืœื™ื”ื ืื‘ืœ ืœื ืขื•ืœื•ืช ื•ื‘ื™ืช ื”ืœืœ ืื•ืžืจื™ื ืžื‘ื™ืื™ืŸ ืฉืœืžื™ื ื•ืขื•ืœื•ืช ื•ืกื•ืžื›ื™ืŸ ืขืœื™ื”ื

The Gemara asks: And what does this teach us; that all offerings are sacrificed on their day? But they have already disputed this once, as we learned in a mishna: Beit Shammai say: One may bring peace-offerings on a Festival but one may not place his hands on them. However, one may not bring burnt-offerings at all; and Beit Hillel say: One may bring peace-offerings and also burnt-offerings, and one places his hands on both of them. Why is it necessary to restate this argument in different terms?

ืฆืจื™ื›ื ื“ืื™ ืืฉืžืขื™ื ืŸ ื‘ื”ื ื‘ื”ื ืงื ืืžืจื™ ื‘ื™ืช ืฉืžืื™ ืžืฉื•ื ื“ืืคืฉืจ ืœืžื—ืจ ืื‘ืœ ื”ื›ื ืื™ืžื ืžื•ื“ื• ืœื”ื• ืœื‘ื™ืช ื”ืœืœ

The Gemara answers: It is necessary, for had the mishna taught us only this case, that Beit Shammai prohibits bringing burnt-offerings on a Festival, we might have said: It is with regard to this case, a regular Festival followed by a weekday, that Beit Shammai state their opinion, because it is possible to sacrifice these burnt-offerings on the following day, on the day of slaughter after the Festival; but there, with regard to a Shavuot that occurs on a Friday, when one cannot sacrifice offerings on the following day, you might perhaps say that they agree with Beit Hillel that the burnt-offerings should be sacrificed on the Festival itself. It was therefore necessary to state that Beit Shammaiโ€™s view is the same in both cases.

ื•ืื™ ืืฉืžืขื™ื ืŸ ื‘ื”ื ื‘ื”ื ืงืืžืจื™ ื‘ื™ืช ื”ืœืœ ืžืฉื•ื ื“ืœื ืืคืฉืจ ืœืžื—ืจ ืื‘ืœ ื‘ื”ื ืื™ืžื ืžื•ื“ื• ืœื‘ื™ืช ืฉืžืื™ ืฆืจื™ื›ื

The reverse also applies: And had it taught us only that case, that there is no day of slaughter after Shabbat, we might have said: It is with regard to that case that Beit Hillel state their view, that the offerings should be sacrificed on the Festival itself, because it is not possible to sacrifice them on the following day, which is Shabbat; but here, on a regular Festival followed by a weekday, you might say that perhaps they agree with Beit Shammai. It is therefore necessary for the mishna to specify both cases. The question of whether there days of redress for Shavuot according to Beit Hillel therefore remains unresolved.

ืชื ืฉืžืข ืžื™ ืฉืœื ื—ื’ ืฉื‘ืขืช ื™ืžื™ ื”ืคืกื— ื•ืฉืžื•ื ืช ื™ืžื™ ื”ื—ื’ ื•ื™ื•ื ื˜ื•ื‘ ื”ืจืืฉื•ืŸ ืฉืœ ืขืฆืจืช ืฉื•ื‘ ืื™ื ื• ื—ื•ื’ื’ ืžืื™ ืœืื• ื™ื•ื ื˜ื•ื‘ ืฉืœ ืขืฆืจืช ืœื ื™ื•ื ื˜ื‘ื•ื— ืื™ ื”ื›ื™ ื ื™ืคืฉื•ื˜ ืžื™ื ื” ื“ื—ื“ ื™ื•ื ื˜ื‘ื•ื— ืื™ืžื ื™ืžื™ ื˜ื‘ื•ื—

The Gemara suggests: Come and hear a proof from a different source: One who did not celebrate by sacrificing the peace-offerings of the Festival on the seven days of Passover, or on the eight days of the festival of Sukkot, or on the first day of Shavuot may no longer celebrate and sacrifice those offerings. The Gemara infers: Does this not mean that if one did not sacrifice on the Festival day of Shavuot itself, this lapse cannot be remedied, thereby demonstrating that there are no days of redress for Shavuot? The Gemara refutes this: No, the term Festival day is referring to the day of slaughter, rather than the Festival itself. The Gemara immediately counters: If so, let us at least resolve from here, i.e., the mishna that there is only one day of slaughter and not seven days. The Gemara rejects this: Say that the wording of the mishna should be corrected, so that instead of: A day of slaughter, it reads: Days of slaughter.

ืชื ืฉืžืข ื“ืชื ื™ ืจื‘ื” ื‘ืจ ืฉืžื•ืืœ ืืžืจื” ืชื•ืจื” ืžื ื” ื™ืžื™ื ื•ืงื“ืฉ ื—ื“ืฉ ืžื ื” ื™ืžื™ื ื•ืงื“ืฉ ืขืฆืจืช ืžื” ื—ื“ืฉ ืœืžื ื•ื™ื™ื• ืืฃ ืขืฆืจืช ืœืžื ื•ื™ื™ื” ืžืื™ ืœืื• ื’ืžืจ ืžื—ื“ืฉ ืžื” ื—ื“ืฉ ื™ื•ื ืื—ื“ ืืฃ ืขืฆืจืช ื™ื•ื ืื—ื“

The Gemara suggests further: Come and hear a proof from another source, as Rabba bar Shmuel taught the following baraita: The Torah said to count thirty days, as it is stated: โ€œA month of daysโ€ (Numbers 11:20), and then sanctify the month with offerings. And the Torah also said to count days from Passover and then sanctify the festival of Shavuot with offerings, as it is stated: โ€œYou shall count fifty daysโ€ (Leviticus 23:16). From this comparison, we learn the following halakha: Just as the new month is sanctified for the unit of time by which it is counted, i.e., for one day, so too, Shavuot is sanctified for the unit of time by which it is counted, i.e., for one full week, as it is stated: โ€œSeven complete weeks shall there beโ€ (Leviticus 23:15). The Gemara infers from this: Does this not mean that we learn from the month? If so, we can also learn that just as the festival of a month, the New Moon, is one day, so too Shavuot is only one day, without days of redress.

ืืžืจ ืจื‘ื ื•ืชืกื‘ืจื ืื˜ื• ืขืฆืจืช ื™ื•ืžื™ ืžื ื™ื ืŸ ืฉื‘ื•ืขื™ ืœื ืžื ื™ื ืŸ ื•ื”ืืžืจ ืื‘ื™ื™ ืžืฆื•ื” ืœืžื™ืžื ื™ ื™ื•ืžื™ ื“ื›ืชื™ื‘ ืชืกืคืจื• ื—ืžืฉื™ื ื™ื•ื ื•ืžืฆื•ื” ืœืžื™ืžื ื™ ืฉื‘ื•ืขื™ ื“ื›ืชื™ื‘ ืฉื‘ืขื” ืฉื‘ื•ืขื•ืช ืชืกืคืจ ืœืš ื•ืขื•ื“ ื—ื’ ืฉื‘ื•ืขื•ืช ื›ืชื™ื‘

Rava said: And how can you understand it that way? Is that to say that for Shavuot we count days but we do not count weeks? Didnโ€™t Abaye say: It is a mitzva to count days, in the counting of the omer, as it is written: โ€œUntil the morrow of the seventh week, you shall count fifty daysโ€ (Leviticus 23:16); and it is also a mitzva to count weeks, as it is written: โ€œSeven weeks you shall count for yourself, from when the sickle is first put to the standing cornโ€ (Deuteronomy 16:9);and further, it is written: โ€œThe festival of weeks [shavuot]โ€ (Deuteronomy 16:10), which indicates that it is a Festival that is established through a count of weeks? Consequently, the days of redress for Shavuot should last a week, in accordance with its components.

ื“ื‘ื™ ืจื‘ื™ ืืœื™ืขื–ืจ ื‘ืŸ ื™ืขืงื‘ ืชื ื ืืžืจ ืงืจื ื•ืงืจืืชื ื•ื‘ืงืฆืจื›ื ืื™ื–ื”ื• ื—ื’ ืฉืืชื” ืงื•ืจื ื•ืงื•ืฆืจ ื‘ื• ื”ื•ื™ ืื•ืžืจ ื–ื” ื—ื’ ืขืฆืจืช

ยง In the school of Rabbi Eliezer ben Yaโ€™akov, a Sage taught the following: The verse states with regard to Shavuot: โ€œAnd you shall make a proclamation on this very day, it shall be a holy convocation, you shall do no kind of laborious workโ€ (Leviticus 23:21), and it states in the same chapter: โ€œAnd when you reap the harvest of your landโ€ (Leviticus 23:22). Which is the Festival on which you make a proclamation and also reap, i.e., which Festival occurs in the harvest season? You must say it is the festival of Shavuot.

ืื™ืžืช ืื™ืœื™ืžื ื‘ื™ื•ื ื˜ื•ื‘ ืงืฆื™ืจื” ื‘ื™ื•ื ื˜ื•ื‘ ืžื™ ืฉืจื™ ืืœื ืœืื• ืœืชืฉืœื•ืžื™ืŸ

The Gemara proceeds to analyze the teaching: When exactly does this refer to? If we say it is referring to the Festival day itself, is it permitted to reap on a Festival? Obviously, ordinary work is prohibited on Festivals. Rather, is it not referring to the issue of redress? In other words, it speaks of those days on which redress can be made for the offerings of the Festival, i.e., the days of slaughter, on which one may indeed reap because they are regular weekdays, and they nevertheless have a festive quality.

ื•ืืฃ ืขืœ ื’ื‘ ื“ืื™ืชืžืจ ื“ืจื‘ื™ ืืœืขื–ืจ ืืžืจ ืจื‘ื™ ืื•ืฉืขื™ื ืืฆื˜ืจื™ืš ื“ืจื‘ื™ ืืœื™ืขื–ืจ ื‘ืŸ ื™ืขืงื‘ ื“ืื™ ืžื“ืจื‘ื™ ืืœืขื–ืจ ืืžืจ ืจื‘ื™ ืื•ืฉืขื™ื ื”ื•ื” ืืžื™ื ื ืžื” ืชืฉืœื•ืžื™ืŸ ืฉืœ ื—ื’ ื”ืžืฆื•ืช ืืกื•ืจ ื‘ืขืฉื™ื™ืช ืžืœืื›ื” ืืฃ ืชืฉืœื•ืžื™ ืขืฆืจืช ื ืžื™ ืืกื•ืจ ื‘ืขืฉื™ื™ืช ืžืœืื›ื” ืงืžืฉืžืข ืœืŸ ื“ืจื‘ื™ ืืœื™ืขื–ืจ ื‘ืŸ ื™ืขืงื‘ ื•ืื™ ืžื“ืจื‘ื™ ืืœื™ืขื–ืจ ื‘ืŸ ื™ืขืงื‘

The Gemara comments: And even though the teaching that Rabbi Elazar said that Rabbi Oshaya said, that the halakha of the redress for Shavuot is derived from the comparison to Passover, was stated, it was nevertheless necessary to state the teaching of Rabbi Eliezer ben Yaโ€™akov as well, for if we had learned only the proof that Rabbi Elazar said that Rabbi Oshaya said, I would say the following: Just as on the days of redress for the festival of Passover it is prohibited to perform any work that will not cause irretrievable loss, as they are part of the Festival, so too on the days of redress for Shavuot it is also prohibited to perform work. We are therefore taught the statement of Rabbi Eliezer ben Yaโ€™akov as well, that on these festive days one may reap, as they are weekdays. Conversely, if we had learned the halakha only from the words of Rabbi Eliezer ben Yaโ€™akov,

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