Please ensure Javascript is enabled for purposes of website accessibility Skip to content

Today's Daf Yomi

February 12, 2022 | 讬状讗 讘讗讚专 讗壮 转砖驻状讘

  • This month's learning is dedicated by Debbie and Yossi Gevir to Rabbanit Michelle and the Hadran Zoom group for their kindness, support, and care during a medically challenging year.

Chagigah 3 – Shabbat February 12

This is the daf for Shabbat. For Friday’s daf, click here.

Today鈥檚 daf is sponsored by Tracy Akner for a refuah shleima for Shifra Hadassah bat Chana and Shimon ben Tziporah.聽

The Gemara establishes that one who can hear but not speak and one who can speak but not hear is exempt from the mitzva of 鈥渟eeing鈥 鈥 coming to the Temple and bringing holiday burnt offerings but obligated in the chagigah sacrifices. This exemption is derived by a gezeira shava from verses of Hakhel. How do we know that this person is also exempt from Hakhel? Rabbi Tanchum mentions other people who are exempt as well 鈥 one who is deaf in one ear, one who has one leg. Where are these derived from? A story is told (including within it a drasha about Hakhel) of rabbis who went to visit their rabbi, Rabbi Yehoshua, on the holiday and he wanted to know what drashot they heard in the Beit Midrash. At first, they are hesitant to say but after much coaxing, they tell him what they learned from Rabbi Elazar ben Azaria. The first drasha is why the children were also brought to Hakhel. The second drasha explains the unique 2-way relationship between God and the Jewish people. The third is an explanation of the verse in Kohelet 12:11 that compares the words of the rabbis to prodders and to nails. There is a beautiful description of the importance and beauty of learning Torah. The end of the verse refers to the multitude of different opinions among the rabbis. If that is the case, what is our job as a learner 鈥 how to make sense of it all? Why were those rabbis so hesitant to tell Rabbi Yehoshua the drashot they hear din the Beit Midrash? Their fear was due to a different story where someone was in a similar situation 鈥 went to visit Rabbi Eliezer – and after sharing what had happened in the Beit Midrash, Rabbi Eliezer prays that he be blinded and he is. Why?? The story ends with his vision restored. The Gemara goes back to analyzing the Mishna and asks how can we determine when someone is considered a shoteh and is exempt as well?

讞讬讬讘 讘砖诪讞讛 讜讗转 砖讗讬谞讜 诇讗 砖讜诪注 讜诇讗 诪讚讘专 讜砖讜讟讛 讜拽讟谉 驻讟讜专讬谉 讗祝 诪谉 讛砖诪讞讛 讛讜讗讬诇 讜驻讟讜专讬谉 诪讻诇 诪爪讜转 讛讗诪讜专讜转 讘转讜专讛 诪讗讬 砖谞讗 诇注谞讬谉 专讗讬讛 讚驻讟讬专讬 讜诪讗讬 砖谞讗 诇注谞讬谉 砖诪讞讛 讚诪讞讬讬讘讬

they are obligated in rejoicing. And one who does not hear and does not speak, an imbecile, and a minor are all exempt even from rejoicing, since they are exempt from all the mitzvot mentioned in the Torah. The Gemara asks: What is different with regard to the mitzva of appearance, that a deaf person and a mute are exempt from this mitzva? And what is different with regard to the mitzva of rejoicing, that they are obligated?

诇注谞讬谉 专讗讬讛 讙诪专 专讗讬讛 专讗讬讛 诪讛拽讛诇 讚讻转讬讘 讛拽讛诇 讗转 讛注诐 讛讗谞砖讬诐 讜讛谞砖讬诐 讜讛讟祝 讜讻转讬讘 讘讘讗 讻诇 讬砖专讗诇 诇专讗讜转

The Gemara explains: With regard to their exemption from the obligation of appearance, the tanna derives this halakha by means of a verbal analogy between the term appearance stated with regard to the mitzva of appearance at the Temple on the pilgrim Festival and the term appearance stated with regard to the mitzva of assembly, i.e., the obligation to assemble in the Temple on Sukkot in the year following the Sabbatical Year. As it is written, with regard to the mitzva of assembly: 鈥淎ssemble the people, the men and the women and the little ones鈥 (Deuteronomy聽31:12), and it is written in that context: 鈥淲hen all of Israel come to appear鈥 (Deuteronomy聽31:11). Just as a deaf person and a mute are not obligated to attend the assembly, they are likewise exempt from appearing in the Temple on the Festivals.

讜讛转诐 诪谞诇谉 讚讻转讬讘 诇诪注谉 讬砖诪注讜 讜诇诪注谉 讬诇诪讚讜 讜转谞讬讗 诇诪注谉 讬砖诪注讜 驻专讟 诇诪讚讘专 讜讗讬谞讜 砖讜诪注 讜诇诪注谉 讬诇诪讚讜 驻专讟 诇砖讜诪注 讜讗讬谞讜 诪讚讘专

The Gemara asks: And there, with regard to the mitzva of assembly, from where do we derive that a deaf person and a mute are exempt? As it is written there: 鈥淭hat they may hear, and that they may learn鈥 (Deuteronomy 31:12), and it is taught in a baraita that the phrase 鈥渢hat they may hear鈥 excludes one who speaks but does not hear; and the phrase 鈥渁nd that they may learn鈥 excludes one who hears but does not speak, as he is unable to learn.

诇诪讬诪专讗 讚讻讬 诇讗 诪砖转注讬 诇讗 讙诪专 讜讛讗 讛谞讛讜 转专讬 讗讬诇诪讬 讚讛讜讜 讘砖讘讘讜转讬讛 讚专讘讬 讘谞讬 讘专转讬讛 讚专讘讬 讬讜讞谞谉 讘谉 讙讜讚讙讚讗 讜讗诪专讬 诇讛 讘谞讬 讗讞转讬讛 讚专讘讬 讬讜讞谞谉 讚讻诇 讗讬诪转 讚讛讜讛 注讬讬诇 专讘讬 诇讘讬 诪讚专砖讗 讛讜讜 注讬讬诇讬 讜讬转讘讬 拽诪讬讬讛讜 讜诪谞讬讬讚讬 讘专讬砖讬讬讛讜 讜诪专讞砖讬谉 砖驻讜讜转讬讬讛讜

The Gemara asks: Is that to say that one who is not able to speak is not able to learn? But consider the following incident. There were two mute people who were in the neighborhood of Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi. They were the sons of the daughter of Rabbi Yo岣nan ben Gudgeda, and some say that they were the sons of the sister of Rabbi Yo岣nan ben Gudgeda. Whenever Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi would enter the study hall they would also enter and sit before the Sages, and they would nod their heads as if they understood and move their lips.

讜讘注讬 专讘讬 专讞诪讬 注诇讬讬讛讜 讜讗讬转住讜 讜讗砖转讻讞 讚讛讜讜 讙诪讬专讬 讛诇讻转讗 讜住驻专讗 讜住驻专讬 讜讻讜诇讛 转诇诪讜讚讗

And Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi prayed for God to have mercy upon them, and they were healed. And it was discovered that they had learned and were proficient in halakha, i.e., Mishna; Sifra, the halakhic midrash on Leviticus; Sifrei, the halakhic midrash on Numbers and Deuteronomy; and the entire Talmud. This shows that those who cannot speak are able to learn.

讗诪专 诪专 讝讜讟专讗 拽专讬 讘讬讛 诇诪注谉 讬诇诪讚讜 专讘 讗砖讬 讗诪专 讜讚讗讬 诇诪注谉 讬诇诪讚讜 讛讜讗 讚讗讬 住诇拽讗 讚注转讱 诇诪注谉 讬诇诪讚讜 讜讻讬讜谉 讚诇讗 诪砖转注讬 诇讗 讙诪专 讜讻讬讜谉 讚诇讗 砖诪注 诇讗 讙诪专

Mar Zutra said that one should read into the verse: That they may teach [yelamdu], instead of: 鈥淭hat they may learn [yilmedu]鈥 (Deuteronomy 31:12). Even if a mute person is able to learn he cannot teach others. Rav Ashi said that the verse is certainly to be read: That they may teach. As, if it enters your mind that one should read: 鈥淭hat they may learn,鈥 as it is written, and you will explain that since he is not able to speak he is not able to learn, and similarly the reason for the exemption of a deaf person is that since he is not able to hear he is not able to learn, you will have erred. According to this interpretation, it is clear from the context that a deaf person is exempted by the phrase: 鈥淭hat they may hear,鈥 not merely due to his lack of hearing but because his inability to hear prevents him from learning.

讛讗讬 诪诇诪注谉 讬砖诪注讜 谞驻拽讗 讗诇讗 讜讚讗讬 诇诪注谉 讬诇诪讚讜 讛讜讗

However, this is incorrect, for if so, this exemption of a mute could also be derived from: 鈥淭hat they may hear,鈥 as the verse has already taught the basic principle that anyone who cannot learn is not obligated in the mitzva of assembly. Rather, the verse is certainly to be read as: 鈥淭hat they may teach,鈥 which indicates that although a mute is able to learn himself, and therefore he is not exempted by the previous verse, he is nevertheless exempt because he is unable to teach others.

讗诪专 专讘讬 转谞讞讜诐 讞专砖 讘讗讝谞讜 讗讞转 驻讟讜专 诪谉 讛专讗讬讛 砖谞讗诪专 讘讗讝谞讬讛诐

Rabbi Tan岣m said: One who is deaf in one ear is exempt from the mitzva of appearance in the Temple, as it is stated with regard to the mitzva of assembly: 鈥淲hen all Israel comes to appear before the Lord your God in the place that He shall choose, you shall read this law before all Israel in their ears鈥 (Deuteronomy聽31:11). This verse indicates that the obligation of assembly applies only to those who can hear with both ears. Since the two mitzvot are connected by verbal analogy, as explained above, this halakha applies to the mitzva of appearance as well.

讜讛讗讬 讘讗讝谞讬讛诐 诪讘注讬 诇讬讛 讘讗讝谞讬讛诐 讚讻讜诇讛讜 讬砖专讗诇 讛讛讜讗 诪谞讙讚 讻诇 讬砖专讗诇 谞驻拽讗 讗讬 诪谞讙讚 讻诇 讬砖专讗诇 讛讜讛 讗诪讬谞讗 讗祝 注诇 讙讘 讚诇讗 砖诪注讬 讻转讘 专讞诪谞讗 讘讗讝谞讬讛诐 讜讛讜讗 讚砖诪注讬

The Gemara asks: But this phrase: 鈥淚n their ears,鈥 is necessary to teach that the reading of the Torah at the assembly must enter the ears of the entire Jewish people. Consequently, it cannot serve as the source of the halakha concerning one who is deaf in one ear. The Gemara answers: That halakha, that the reading of the Torah must be heard by the entire Jewish people, is derived from the phrase: 鈥淏efore all Israel鈥 (Deuteronomy聽31:11). The Gemara asks: If that halakha were derived from: 鈥淏efore all Israel,鈥 I would say that the mitzva applies even though they cannot hear; therefore, the Merciful One writes: 鈥淚n their ears,鈥 and that indicates that they must be able to hear. If so, this phrase is not available for deriving the halakha of someone who is deaf in one ear.

讛讛讜讗 诪诇诪注谉 讬砖诪注讜 谞驻拽讗

The Gemara answers: That halakha, that the people must hear, is derived from: 鈥淭hat they may hear鈥 (Deuteronomy聽31:12). Therefore, the phrase: 鈥淚n their ears,鈥 is not required for that purpose. Rather, it teaches that only those who can hear with both ears are obligated in the mitzva of assembly, and by extension, in the mitzva of appearance as well.

讗诪专 专讘讬 转谞讞讜诐 讞讬讙专 讘专讙诇讜 讗讞转 驻讟讜专 诪谉 讛专讗讬讛 砖谞讗诪专 专讙诇讬诐

Rabbi Tan岣m said: One who is lame in one leg is exempt from the mitzva of appearance, as it is stated: 鈥淭hree times [regalim] shall you keep a feast for Me in the year鈥 (Exodus 23:14).Since the term for feet is raglayim, it can be inferred from here that the obligation to ascend involves the use of both of one鈥檚 legs.

讜讛讗 专讙诇讬诐 诪讘注讬 诇讬讛 驻专讟 诇讘注诇讬 拽讘讬谉 讛讛讜讗 诪驻注诪讬诐 谞驻拽讗 讚转谞讬讗 驻注诪讬诐 讗讬谉 驻注诪讬诐 讗诇讗 专讙诇讬诐 讜讻谉 讛讜讗 讗讜诪专 转专诪住谞讛 专讙诇 专讙诇讬 注谞讬 驻注诪讬 讚诇讬诐 讜讗讜诪专 诪讛 讬驻讜 驻注诪讬讱 讘谞注诇讬诐 讘转 谞讚讬讘

The Gemara asks: But the term regalim鈥 is necessary to exclude people with artificial legs. Although these people are capable of walking, as they do not have two natural legs they are exempt from ascending to the Temple. The Gemara responds: That halakha is derived from: 鈥淭hree occasions [pe鈥檃mim] in the year all your males will appear before the Lord God鈥 (Exodus聽23:17). The term pe鈥檃mim can also mean legs, as it is taught in a baraita, with regard to the term pe鈥檃mim鈥: Pe鈥檃mim means nothing other than legs. And so it says: 鈥淭he foot shall tread it down, even the feet of the poor and the steps [pa鈥檃mei] of the needy鈥 (Isaiah 26:6), and it says: 鈥淗ow beautiful are your feet [fe鈥檃mayikh] in sandals, daughter of the prince鈥 (Song of Songs 7:2).

讚专砖 专讘讗 诪讗讬 讚讻转讬讘 诪讛 讬驻讜 驻注诪讬讱 讘谞注诇讬诐 讘转 谞讚讬讘 讻诪讛 谞讗讬谉 专讙诇讬讛谉 砖诇 讬砖专讗诇 讘砖注讛 砖注讜诇讬谉 诇专讙诇 讘转 谞讚讬讘 讘转讜 砖诇 讗讘专讛诐 讗讘讬谞讜 砖谞拽专讗 谞讚讬讘 砖谞讗诪专 谞讚讬讘讬 注诪讬诐 谞讗住驻讜 注诐 讗诇讛讬 讗讘专讛诐 讗诇讛讬 讗讘专讛诐 讜诇讗 讗诇讛讬 讬爪讞拽 讜讬注拽讘 讗诇讗 讗诇讛讬 讗讘专讛诐 砖讛讬讛 转讞讬诇讛 诇讙专讬诐

With regard to the aforementioned verse, Rava taught: What is the meaning of that which is written: 鈥淗ow beautiful are your feet in sandals, daughter of the prince [nadiv]鈥? How pleasant are the feet [raglehen] of the Jewish people when they ascend to Jerusalem on the pilgrimage Festival [regel]. 鈥淒aughter of the prince鈥: this is referring to the daughter of Abraham our father who is called a prince, as it is stated: 鈥淭he princes of the peoples are gathered together, the people of the God of Abraham鈥 (Psalms 47:10). The Gemara asks: Is God only 鈥渢he God of Abraham,鈥 and not the God of Isaac and Jacob? Rather, the verse mentions 鈥渢he God of Abraham,鈥 as he was the first of the converts. Abraham was the first prince, as all converts who follow in his path are called 鈥渢he princes of the peoples.鈥

讗诪专 专讘 讻讛谞讗 讚专砖 专讘 谞转谉 讘专 诪谞讬讜诪讬 诪砖讜诐 专讘讬 转谞讞讜诐 诪讗讬 讚讻转讬讘 讜讛讘讜专 专拽 讗讬谉 讘讜 诪讬诐 诪诪砖诪注 砖谞讗诪专 讜讛讘讜专 专拽 讗讬谞讬 讬讜讚注 砖讗讬谉 讘讜 诪讬诐 讗诇讗 诪讬诐 讗讬谉 讘讜 讗讘诇 谞讞砖讬诐 讜注拽专讘讬诐 讬砖 讘讜

The Gemara cites another statement of Rabbi Tan岣m. Rav Kahana said that Rabbi Natan bar Manyumi taught in the name of Rabbi Tan岣m: What is the meaning of that which is written with regard to Joseph: 鈥淎nd they took him, and cast him into the pit; and the pit was empty, there was no water in it鈥 (Genesis 37:24). By inference from that which is stated: 鈥淎nd the pit was empty,鈥 don鈥檛 I know that there was no water in it? Rather, this teaches that there was no water in it, but there were snakes and scorpions in it.

转谞讜 专讘谞谉 诪注砖讛 讘专讘讬 讬讜讞谞谉 讘谉 讘专讜拽讛 讜专讘讬 讗诇注讝专 讘谉 讞住诪讗 砖讛诇讻讜 诇讛拽讘讬诇 驻谞讬 专讘讬 讬讛讜砖注 讘驻拽讬注讬谉 讗诪专 诇讛诐 诪讛 讞讬讚讜砖 讛讬讛 讘讘讬转 讛诪讚专砖 讛讬讜诐 讗诪专讜 诇讜 转诇诪讬讚讬讱 讗谞讜 讜诪讬诪讬讱 讗谞讜 砖讜转讬谉 讗诪专 诇讛诐 讗祝 注诇 驻讬 讻谉 讗讬 讗驻砖专 诇讘讬转 讛诪讚专砖 讘诇讗 讞讬讚讜砖

The Sages taught: There was an incident involving Rabbi Yo岣nan ben Beroka and Rabbi Elazar ben 岣sma, when they went to greet Rabbi Yehoshua in Peki鈥檌n. Rabbi Yehoshua said to them: What novel idea was taught today in the study hall? They said to him: We are your students and we drink from your water, i.e., all of our Torah knowledge comes from you, and therefore how can we tell you something you have not already learned? He said to them: Even so, there cannot be a study hall without a novelty.

砖讘转 砖诇 诪讬 讛讬转讛 砖讘转 砖诇 专讘讬 讗诇注讝专 讘谉 注讝专讬讛 讛讬转讛 讜讘诪讛 讛讬转讛 讛讙讚讛 讛讬讜诐 讗诪专讜 诇讜 讘驻专砖转 讛拽讛诇 讜诪讛 讚专砖 讘讛

He asked them: Whose week was it, i.e. who was the lecturer this week? They said to him: It was Rabbi Elazar ben Azarya鈥檚 week. He inquired: And on what subject was the lecture today? They said to him: He spoke about the portion of the mitzva of assembly. Rabbi Yehoshua persisted: And what verse did he interpret homiletically with regard to this mitzva?

讛拽讛诇 讗转 讛注诐 讛讗谞砖讬诐 讜讛谞砖讬诐 讜讛讟祝 讗诐 讗谞砖讬诐 讘讗讬诐 诇诇诪讜讚 谞砖讬诐 讘讗讜转 诇砖诪讜注 讟祝 诇诪讛 讘讗讬谉 讻讚讬 诇讬转谉 砖讻专 诇诪讘讬讗讬讛谉 讗诪专 诇讛诐 诪专讙诇讬转 讟讜讘讛 讛讬转讛 讘讬讚讻诐 讜讘拽砖转诐 诇讗讘讚讛 诪诪谞讬

They said to him that Rabbi Elazar ben Azarya interpreted the following verse: 鈥淎ssemble the people, the men and the women and the little ones鈥 (Deuteronomy 31:12). This verse is puzzling: If men come to learn, and women, who might not understand, come at least to hear, why do the little ones come? They come in order for God to give a reward to those who bring them, i.e., God credits those who bring their children to the assembly. Rabbi Yehoshua said to them: This good pearl of wisdom was in your hands, and you tried to conceal it from me?

讜注讜讚 讚专砖 讗转 讛壮 讛讗诪专转 讛讬讜诐 讜讛壮 讛讗诪讬专讱 讛讬讜诐

Upon seeing that Rabbi Yehoshua was pleased to hear this idea, Rabbi Yo岣nan ben Beroka and Rabbi Elazar ben 岣sma said to him: Additionally, Rabbi Elazar interpreted the following verses homiletically: 鈥淵ou have affirmed, this day, that the Lord is your God, and that you will walk in His ways and keep His statutes, His mitzvot, and His ordinances, and listen to His voice. And the Lord has affirmed you, this day, to be His treasure, asHe promised you, and that you should keep all His mitzvot鈥 (Deuteronomy 26:17鈥18).

讗诪专 诇讛诐 讛拽讚讜砖 讘专讜讱 讛讜讗 诇讬砖专讗诇 讗转诐 注砖讬转讜谞讬 讞讟讬讘讛 讗讞转 讘注讜诇诐 讜讗谞讬 讗注砖讛 讗转讻诐 讞讟讬讘讛 讗讞转 讘注讜诇诐 讗转诐 注砖讬转讜谞讬 讞讟讬讘讛 讗讞转 讘注讜诇诐 讚讻转讬讘 砖诪注 讬砖专讗诇 讛壮 讗诇讛讬谞讜 讛壮 讗讞讚 讜讗谞讬 讗注砖讛 讗转讻诐 讞讟讬讘讛 讗讞转 讘注讜诇诐 砖谞讗诪专

Rabbi Elazar explained: The Holy One, Blessed be He, said to the Jewish people: You have made Me a single entity聽in the world, as you singled Me out as separate and unique. And therefore I will make you a single entity in the world, as you will be a treasured nation, chosen by God. You have made Me a single entity in the world, as it is written: 鈥淗ear, O Israel, the Lord our God, the Lord is One鈥 (Deuteronomy 6:4). And therefore I will make you a single entity in the world, as it is stated:

讜诪讬 讻注诪讱 讬砖专讗诇 讙讜讬 讗讞讚 讘讗专抓

鈥淎nd who is like Your people, Israel, one nation in the land?鈥 (I聽Chronicles 17:21).

讜讗祝 讛讜讗 驻转讞 讜讚专砖 讚讘专讬 讞讻诪讬诐 讻讚专讘谞讜转 讜讻诪砖诪专讜转 谞讟讜注讬诐 讘注诇讬 讗住驻讜转 谞转谞讜 诪专讜注讛 讗讞讚 诇诪讛 谞诪砖诇讜 讚讘专讬 转讜专讛 诇讚专讘谉 诇讜诪专 诇讱 诪讛 讚专讘谉 讝讛 诪讻讜讬谉 讗转 讛驻专讛 诇转诇诪讬讛 诇讛讜爪讬讗 讞讬讬诐 诇注讜诇诐 讗祝 讚讘专讬 转讜专讛 诪讻讜讜谞讬谉 讗转 诇讜诪讚讬讛谉 诪讚专讻讬 诪讬转讛 诇讚专讻讬 讞讬讬诐 讗讬 诪讛 讚专讘谉 讝讛 诪讟诇讟诇 讗祝 讚讘专讬 转讜专讛 诪讟诇讟诇讬谉 转诇诪讜讚 诇讜诪专 诪砖诪专讜转

The Gemara adds: And Rabbi Elazar ben Azarya also commenced his lecture and taught: It is written: 鈥淭he words of the wise are as goads, and as nails well fastened are those that are composed in collections; they are given from one shepherd鈥 (Ecclesiastes 12:11). Why are matters of Torah compared to a goad? To tell you that just as this goad directs the cow to her furrow to bring forth sustenance for life to the world, so too the words of Torah direct those who study them from the paths of death to the paths of life. The Gemara asks: If so, derive the following from that same analogy: Just as this goad is movable and not rigid, so too matters of Torah are movable in accordance with circumstance and are not permanent. Therefore, the verse states: 鈥淣ails,鈥 which are permanent.

讗讬 诪讛 诪住诪专 讝讛 讞住专 讜诇讗 讬转专 讗祝 讚讘专讬 转讜专讛 讞住讬专讬谉 讜诇讗 讬转讬专讬谉 转诇诪讜讚 诇讜诪专 谞讟讜注讬诐 诪讛 谞讟讬注讛 讝讜 驻专讛 讜专讘讛 讗祝 讚讘专讬 转讜专讛 驻专讬谉 讜专讘讬谉 讘注诇讬 讗住驻讜转 讗诇讜 转诇诪讬讚讬 讞讻诪讬诐 砖讬讜砖讘讬谉 讗住讜驻讜转 讗住讜驻讜转 讜注讜住拽讬谉 讘转讜专讛 讛诇诇讜 诪讟诪讗讬谉 讜讛诇诇讜 诪讟讛专讬谉 讛诇诇讜 讗讜住专讬谉 讜讛诇诇讜 诪转讬专讬谉 讛诇诇讜 驻讜住诇讬谉 讜讛诇诇讜 诪讻砖讬专讬谉

The Gemara further asks: If so, one can explain as follows: Just as this nail is diminished in size and does not expand, as it wastes away over time, so too matters of Torah are gradually diminished and do not expand. Therefore, the verse states: 鈥淲ell fastened [netuim].鈥 Just as this plant [neti鈥檃] flourishes and multiplies, so too matters of Torah flourish and multiply. 鈥淭hose that are composed in collections [ba鈥檃lei asufot]鈥: These are Torah scholars who sit in many groups [asupot] and engage in Torah study. There are often debates among these groups, as some of these Sages render an object or person ritually impure and these render it pure; these prohibit an action and these permit it; these deem an item invalid and these deem it valid.

砖诪讗 讬讗诪专 讗讚诐 讛讬讗讱 讗谞讬 诇诪讚 转讜专讛 诪注转讛 转诇诪讜讚 诇讜诪专 讻讜诇诐 谞转谞讜 诪专讜注讛 讗讞讚 讗诇 讗讞讚 谞转谞谉 驻专谞住 讗讞讚 讗诪专谉 诪驻讬 讗讚讜谉 讻诇 讛诪注砖讬诐 讘专讜讱 讛讜讗 讚讻转讬讘 讜讬讚讘专 讗诇讛讬诐 讗转 讻诇 讛讚讘专讬诐 讛讗诇讛

Lest a person say: Now, how can I study Torah when it contains so many different opinions? The verse states that they are all 鈥済iven from one shepherd.鈥 One God gave them; one leader, i.e., Moses, said them from the mouth of the Master of all creation, Blessed be He, as it is written: 鈥淎nd God spoke all these words鈥 (Exodus聽20:1). The plural form 鈥渨ords鈥 indicates that God transmitted all the interpretations of the Ten Commandments. Since the Sages invariably utilize the Torah itself or the statements of the prophets as the sources for their opinions, there is a certain unity to the study of Torah, despite the numerous explanations and applications.

讗祝 讗转讛 注砖讛 讗讝谞讬讱 讻讗驻专讻住转 讜拽谞讛 诇讱 诇讘 诪讘讬谉 诇砖诪讜注 讗转 讚讘专讬 诪讟诪讗讬诐 讜讗转 讚讘专讬 诪讟讛专讬诐 讗转 讚讘专讬 讗讜住专讬谉 讜讗转 讚讘专讬 诪转讬专讬谉 讗转 讚讘专讬 驻讜住诇讬谉 讜讗转 讚讘专讬 诪讻砖讬专讬谉 讘诇砖讜谉 讛讝讛 讗诪专 诇讛诐 讗讬谉 讚讜专 讬转讜诐 砖专讘讬 讗诇注讝专 讘谉 注讝专讬讛 砖专讜讬 讘转讜讻讜

So too you, the student, make your ears like a funnel and acquire for yourself an understanding heart to hear both the statements of those who render objects ritually impure and the statements of those who render them pure; the statements of those who prohibit actions and the statements of those who permit them; the statements of those who deem items invalid and the statements of those who deem them valid. When Rabbi Yehoshua heard these interpretations, he said to them in these words: No generation is considered orphaned, i.e. without a leader, if Rabbi Elazar ben Azarya dwells among it.

讜诇讬诪专讜 诇讬讛 讘讛讚讬讗 诪砖讜诐 诪注砖讛 砖讛讬讛 讚转谞讬讗 诪注砖讛 讘专讘讬 讬讜住讬 讘谉 讚讜专诪住拽讬转 砖讛诇讱 诇讛拽讘讬诇 驻谞讬 专讘讬 (讗诇注讝专) 讗诇讬注讝专 讘诇讜讚 讗诪专 诇讜 诪讛 讞讬讚讜砖 讛讬讛 讘讘讬转 讛诪讚专砖 讛讬讜诐

The Gemara asks: But Rabbi Yo岣nan ben Beroka and Rabbi Elazar ben 岣sma should have told Rabbi Yehoshua these statements of Rabbi Elazar ben Azarya directly, without delay. Why did they hesitate at first? The Gemara answers: They were hesitant due to an incident that occurred. As it is taught in a baraita: There was an incident involving Rabbi Yosei ben Durmaskit, who went to greet Rabbi Eliezer in Lod. Rabbi Elazar said to him: What novel idea was taught today in the study hall?

讗诪专 诇讬讛 谞诪谞讜 讜讙诪专讜 注诪讜谉 讜诪讜讗讘 诪注砖专讬谉 诪注砖专 注谞讬 讘砖讘讬注讬转

Rabbi Yosei ben Durmaskit said to him: The Sages assembled, counted the votes, and concluded that although the lands of Ammon and Moab on the eastern side of the Jordan River are not part of Eretz Yisrael, and therefore the halakhot of the Sabbatical Year and tithes should not apply to them, as these lands are adjacent to Eretz Yisrael, one separates the poor man鈥檚 tithe there in the Sabbatical Year. Since the Sages debated which tithes should be separated, they had to take a vote to determine the halakha in this regard.

讗诪专 诇讜 讬讜住讬 驻砖讜讟 讬讚讬讱 讜拽讘诇 注讬谞讬讱 驻砖讟 讬讚讬讜 讜拽讘诇 注讬谞讬讜 讘讻讛 专讘讬 讗诇注讝专 讜讗诪专 住讜讚 讛壮 诇讬专讗讬讜 讜讘专讬转讜 诇讛讜讚讬注诐

Rabbi Elazar said to him in anger: Yosei, extend your hands and catch your eyes, which are about to come out of their sockets. He extended his hands and caught his eyes. Rabbi Elazar wept and said the verse: 鈥淭he counsel of the Lord is with them who fear Him; and His covenant, to make them know it鈥 (Psalms聽25:14), i.e., the Sages arrived at the correct conclusion, although they were unaware of the proper rationale behind it.

讗诪专 诇讜 诇讱 讗诪讜专 诇讛诐 讗诇 转讞讜砖讜 诇诪谞讬讬谞讻诐 讻讱 诪拽讜讘诇谞讬 诪专讘谉 讬讜讞谞谉 讘谉 讝讻讗讬 砖砖诪注 诪专讘讜 讜专讘讜 诪专讘讜 讛诇讻转讗 诇诪砖讛 诪住讬谞讬 注诪讜谉 讜诪讜讗讘 诪注砖专讬谉 诪注砖专 注谞讬 讘砖讘讬注讬转 诪讛 讟注诐 讛专讘讛 讻专讻讬诐 讻讘砖讜 注讜诇讬 诪爪专讬诐 讜诇讗 讻讘砖讜诐 注讜诇讬 讘讘诇

Rabbi Elazar said to Rabbi Yosei to go and say to the Sages in the study hall: Do not be concerned with regard to your counting, that you might not have ruled properly, as you have not in fact instituted a new ordinance at all. This is the tradition that I received from Rabban Yo岣nan ben Zakkai, who heard from his teacher, and his teacher from his teacher: It is a halakha transmitted to Moses from Sinai that in Ammon and Moab one separates the poor man鈥檚 tithe in the Sabbatical Year. What is the reason? Those who ascended from Egypt conquered many cities, and those who ascended from Babylonia did not conquer them after the destruction of the First Temple.

诪驻谞讬 砖拽讚讜砖讛 专讗砖讜谞讛 拽讚砖讛 诇砖注转讛 讜诇讗 拽讚砖讛 诇注转讬讚 诇讘讗 讜讛谞讬讞讜诐 讻讚讬 砖讬住诪讻讜 注诇讬讛谉 注谞讬讬诐 讘砖讘讬注讬转

This difference is important, because the first consecration of Eretz Yisrael, by those who ascended from Egypt, caused it to be sanctified only for its time and it was not sanctified forever, as that depended on the renewed conquest of the land by the Jewish people. And those who ascended from Babylonia left those cities aside and did not consider them part of Eretz Yisrael even after Jewish settlement was renewed there. They would plow and harvest in these places in the Sabbatical Year and tithe the poor man鈥檚 tithe, so that the poor of Eretz Yisrael, who did not have sufficient income from the previous years, could rely upon that produce in the Sabbatical Year, receiving help from this tithe.

转谞讗 诇讗讞专 砖谞转讬讬砖讘讛 讚注转讜 讗诪专 讬讛讬 专爪讜谉 砖讬讞讝专讜 注讬谞讬 讬讜住讬 诇诪拽讜诪谉 讜讞讝专讜

It was taught that after Rabbi Elazar鈥檚 mind was put at ease, he said: May it be God鈥檚 will that Rabbi Yosei鈥檚 eyes should return to their place. And indeed his eyes returned. Due to this event, in which Rabbi Elazar responded harshly when his disciple related what he considered a novel idea, the students of Rabbi Yehoshua hesitated to recount what they had heard until their teacher encouraged them to do so.

转谞讜 专讘谞谉 讗讬讝讛讜 砖讜讟讛 讛讬讜爪讗 讬讞讬讚讬 讘诇讬诇讛 讜讛诇谉 讘讘讬转 讛拽讘专讜转 讜讛诪拽专注 讗转 讻住讜转讜 讗讬转诪专 专讘 讛讜谞讗 讗诪专 注讚 砖讬讛讜 讻讜诇谉 讘讘转 讗讞转 专讘讬 讬讜讞谞谉 讗诪专 讗驻讬诇讜 讘讗讞转 诪讛谉

The Sages taught: Who is considered an imbecile? One who goes out alone at night, and one who sleeps in a cemetery, and one who rends his garment. It was stated that Rav Huna said: One does not have the halakhic status of an imbecile until there are all of these signs present in him at the same time. Rabbi Yo岣nan said: He is considered an imbecile even due to the appearance of one of these signs.

讛讬讻讬 讚诪讬 讗讬 讚注讘讬讚 诇讛讜 讚专讱 砖讟讜转 讗驻讬诇讜 讘讞讚讗 谞诪讬 讗讬 讚诇讗 注讘讬讚 诇讛讜 讚专讱 砖讟讜转 讗驻讬诇讜 讻讜诇讛讜 谞诪讬 诇讗

The Gemara asks: What are the circumstances of the case under discussion? If he performs them in a deranged manner, then even the appearance of one sign should be enough to classify him as an imbecile. If he does not perform these actions in a deranged manner, but has a reason to act this way, then even if he performs all of them he should not be deemed an imbecile.

诇注讜诇诐 讚拽讗 注讘讬讚 诇讛讜 讚专讱 砖讟讜转 讜讛诇谉 讘讘讬转 讛拽讘专讜转 讗讬诪讜专 讻讚讬 砖转砖专讛 注诇讬讜 专讜讞 讟讜诪讗讛 讛讜讗 讚拽讗 注讘讬讚 讜讛讬讜爪讗 讬讞讬讚讬 讘诇讬诇讛 讗讬诪讜专 讙谞讚专讬驻住 讗讞讚讬讛 讜讛诪拽专注 讗转 讻住讜转讜 讗讬诪讜专 讘注诇 诪讞砖讘讜转 讛讜讗 讻讬讜谉 讚注讘讚讬谞讛讜 诇讻讜诇讛讜 讛讜讛 诇讛讜

The Gemara answers: Actually, the baraita is referring to one who performs these actions in a deranged manner, but each action on its own could be explained rationally. With regard to one who sleeps in the cemetery, one could say that he is doing so in order that an impure spirit should settle upon him. Although it is inappropriate to do this, as there is a reason for this behavior it is not a sign of madness. And with regard to one who goes out alone at night, one could say that perhaps a fever took hold of him and he is trying to cool himself down. And as for one who tears his garments, one could say that he is a man engaged in thought, and out of anxiety he tears his clothing unintentionally. Despite these possible explanations, since one performed all of these together they are considered

  • This month's learning is dedicated by Debbie and Yossi Gevir to Rabbanit Michelle and the Hadran Zoom group for their kindness, support, and care during a medically challenging year.

Want to explore more about the Daf?

See insights from our partners, contributors and community of women learners

learn daf yomi one week at a time with tamara spitz

Chagigah: 2-6- Daf Yomi One Week at a Time

Masechet Chagiga discusses the mitzvah of Aliya L鈥橰egel, going up to the Temple in Jerusalem during the 3 festivals of...
WhatsApp Image 2022-02-09 at 09.02.04

Introduction to Chagigah

https://youtu.be/74Te41XwXKI  
talking talmud_square

Chagigah 4: To Be Seen by God

A halakhic discussion and an aggadic discussion. First, a study of why those who are excluded from the mitzvah of...
talking talmud_square

Chagigah 3: Radical Empathy

On the list of people who are not obligated in the mitzvah of Re'eiah is the "deaf" person, a category...

Chagigah 3 – Shabbat February 12

The William Davidson Talmud | Powered by Sefaria

Chagigah 3 – Shabbat February 12

讞讬讬讘 讘砖诪讞讛 讜讗转 砖讗讬谞讜 诇讗 砖讜诪注 讜诇讗 诪讚讘专 讜砖讜讟讛 讜拽讟谉 驻讟讜专讬谉 讗祝 诪谉 讛砖诪讞讛 讛讜讗讬诇 讜驻讟讜专讬谉 诪讻诇 诪爪讜转 讛讗诪讜专讜转 讘转讜专讛 诪讗讬 砖谞讗 诇注谞讬谉 专讗讬讛 讚驻讟讬专讬 讜诪讗讬 砖谞讗 诇注谞讬谉 砖诪讞讛 讚诪讞讬讬讘讬

they are obligated in rejoicing. And one who does not hear and does not speak, an imbecile, and a minor are all exempt even from rejoicing, since they are exempt from all the mitzvot mentioned in the Torah. The Gemara asks: What is different with regard to the mitzva of appearance, that a deaf person and a mute are exempt from this mitzva? And what is different with regard to the mitzva of rejoicing, that they are obligated?

诇注谞讬谉 专讗讬讛 讙诪专 专讗讬讛 专讗讬讛 诪讛拽讛诇 讚讻转讬讘 讛拽讛诇 讗转 讛注诐 讛讗谞砖讬诐 讜讛谞砖讬诐 讜讛讟祝 讜讻转讬讘 讘讘讗 讻诇 讬砖专讗诇 诇专讗讜转

The Gemara explains: With regard to their exemption from the obligation of appearance, the tanna derives this halakha by means of a verbal analogy between the term appearance stated with regard to the mitzva of appearance at the Temple on the pilgrim Festival and the term appearance stated with regard to the mitzva of assembly, i.e., the obligation to assemble in the Temple on Sukkot in the year following the Sabbatical Year. As it is written, with regard to the mitzva of assembly: 鈥淎ssemble the people, the men and the women and the little ones鈥 (Deuteronomy聽31:12), and it is written in that context: 鈥淲hen all of Israel come to appear鈥 (Deuteronomy聽31:11). Just as a deaf person and a mute are not obligated to attend the assembly, they are likewise exempt from appearing in the Temple on the Festivals.

讜讛转诐 诪谞诇谉 讚讻转讬讘 诇诪注谉 讬砖诪注讜 讜诇诪注谉 讬诇诪讚讜 讜转谞讬讗 诇诪注谉 讬砖诪注讜 驻专讟 诇诪讚讘专 讜讗讬谞讜 砖讜诪注 讜诇诪注谉 讬诇诪讚讜 驻专讟 诇砖讜诪注 讜讗讬谞讜 诪讚讘专

The Gemara asks: And there, with regard to the mitzva of assembly, from where do we derive that a deaf person and a mute are exempt? As it is written there: 鈥淭hat they may hear, and that they may learn鈥 (Deuteronomy 31:12), and it is taught in a baraita that the phrase 鈥渢hat they may hear鈥 excludes one who speaks but does not hear; and the phrase 鈥渁nd that they may learn鈥 excludes one who hears but does not speak, as he is unable to learn.

诇诪讬诪专讗 讚讻讬 诇讗 诪砖转注讬 诇讗 讙诪专 讜讛讗 讛谞讛讜 转专讬 讗讬诇诪讬 讚讛讜讜 讘砖讘讘讜转讬讛 讚专讘讬 讘谞讬 讘专转讬讛 讚专讘讬 讬讜讞谞谉 讘谉 讙讜讚讙讚讗 讜讗诪专讬 诇讛 讘谞讬 讗讞转讬讛 讚专讘讬 讬讜讞谞谉 讚讻诇 讗讬诪转 讚讛讜讛 注讬讬诇 专讘讬 诇讘讬 诪讚专砖讗 讛讜讜 注讬讬诇讬 讜讬转讘讬 拽诪讬讬讛讜 讜诪谞讬讬讚讬 讘专讬砖讬讬讛讜 讜诪专讞砖讬谉 砖驻讜讜转讬讬讛讜

The Gemara asks: Is that to say that one who is not able to speak is not able to learn? But consider the following incident. There were two mute people who were in the neighborhood of Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi. They were the sons of the daughter of Rabbi Yo岣nan ben Gudgeda, and some say that they were the sons of the sister of Rabbi Yo岣nan ben Gudgeda. Whenever Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi would enter the study hall they would also enter and sit before the Sages, and they would nod their heads as if they understood and move their lips.

讜讘注讬 专讘讬 专讞诪讬 注诇讬讬讛讜 讜讗讬转住讜 讜讗砖转讻讞 讚讛讜讜 讙诪讬专讬 讛诇讻转讗 讜住驻专讗 讜住驻专讬 讜讻讜诇讛 转诇诪讜讚讗

And Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi prayed for God to have mercy upon them, and they were healed. And it was discovered that they had learned and were proficient in halakha, i.e., Mishna; Sifra, the halakhic midrash on Leviticus; Sifrei, the halakhic midrash on Numbers and Deuteronomy; and the entire Talmud. This shows that those who cannot speak are able to learn.

讗诪专 诪专 讝讜讟专讗 拽专讬 讘讬讛 诇诪注谉 讬诇诪讚讜 专讘 讗砖讬 讗诪专 讜讚讗讬 诇诪注谉 讬诇诪讚讜 讛讜讗 讚讗讬 住诇拽讗 讚注转讱 诇诪注谉 讬诇诪讚讜 讜讻讬讜谉 讚诇讗 诪砖转注讬 诇讗 讙诪专 讜讻讬讜谉 讚诇讗 砖诪注 诇讗 讙诪专

Mar Zutra said that one should read into the verse: That they may teach [yelamdu], instead of: 鈥淭hat they may learn [yilmedu]鈥 (Deuteronomy 31:12). Even if a mute person is able to learn he cannot teach others. Rav Ashi said that the verse is certainly to be read: That they may teach. As, if it enters your mind that one should read: 鈥淭hat they may learn,鈥 as it is written, and you will explain that since he is not able to speak he is not able to learn, and similarly the reason for the exemption of a deaf person is that since he is not able to hear he is not able to learn, you will have erred. According to this interpretation, it is clear from the context that a deaf person is exempted by the phrase: 鈥淭hat they may hear,鈥 not merely due to his lack of hearing but because his inability to hear prevents him from learning.

讛讗讬 诪诇诪注谉 讬砖诪注讜 谞驻拽讗 讗诇讗 讜讚讗讬 诇诪注谉 讬诇诪讚讜 讛讜讗

However, this is incorrect, for if so, this exemption of a mute could also be derived from: 鈥淭hat they may hear,鈥 as the verse has already taught the basic principle that anyone who cannot learn is not obligated in the mitzva of assembly. Rather, the verse is certainly to be read as: 鈥淭hat they may teach,鈥 which indicates that although a mute is able to learn himself, and therefore he is not exempted by the previous verse, he is nevertheless exempt because he is unable to teach others.

讗诪专 专讘讬 转谞讞讜诐 讞专砖 讘讗讝谞讜 讗讞转 驻讟讜专 诪谉 讛专讗讬讛 砖谞讗诪专 讘讗讝谞讬讛诐

Rabbi Tan岣m said: One who is deaf in one ear is exempt from the mitzva of appearance in the Temple, as it is stated with regard to the mitzva of assembly: 鈥淲hen all Israel comes to appear before the Lord your God in the place that He shall choose, you shall read this law before all Israel in their ears鈥 (Deuteronomy聽31:11). This verse indicates that the obligation of assembly applies only to those who can hear with both ears. Since the two mitzvot are connected by verbal analogy, as explained above, this halakha applies to the mitzva of appearance as well.

讜讛讗讬 讘讗讝谞讬讛诐 诪讘注讬 诇讬讛 讘讗讝谞讬讛诐 讚讻讜诇讛讜 讬砖专讗诇 讛讛讜讗 诪谞讙讚 讻诇 讬砖专讗诇 谞驻拽讗 讗讬 诪谞讙讚 讻诇 讬砖专讗诇 讛讜讛 讗诪讬谞讗 讗祝 注诇 讙讘 讚诇讗 砖诪注讬 讻转讘 专讞诪谞讗 讘讗讝谞讬讛诐 讜讛讜讗 讚砖诪注讬

The Gemara asks: But this phrase: 鈥淚n their ears,鈥 is necessary to teach that the reading of the Torah at the assembly must enter the ears of the entire Jewish people. Consequently, it cannot serve as the source of the halakha concerning one who is deaf in one ear. The Gemara answers: That halakha, that the reading of the Torah must be heard by the entire Jewish people, is derived from the phrase: 鈥淏efore all Israel鈥 (Deuteronomy聽31:11). The Gemara asks: If that halakha were derived from: 鈥淏efore all Israel,鈥 I would say that the mitzva applies even though they cannot hear; therefore, the Merciful One writes: 鈥淚n their ears,鈥 and that indicates that they must be able to hear. If so, this phrase is not available for deriving the halakha of someone who is deaf in one ear.

讛讛讜讗 诪诇诪注谉 讬砖诪注讜 谞驻拽讗

The Gemara answers: That halakha, that the people must hear, is derived from: 鈥淭hat they may hear鈥 (Deuteronomy聽31:12). Therefore, the phrase: 鈥淚n their ears,鈥 is not required for that purpose. Rather, it teaches that only those who can hear with both ears are obligated in the mitzva of assembly, and by extension, in the mitzva of appearance as well.

讗诪专 专讘讬 转谞讞讜诐 讞讬讙专 讘专讙诇讜 讗讞转 驻讟讜专 诪谉 讛专讗讬讛 砖谞讗诪专 专讙诇讬诐

Rabbi Tan岣m said: One who is lame in one leg is exempt from the mitzva of appearance, as it is stated: 鈥淭hree times [regalim] shall you keep a feast for Me in the year鈥 (Exodus 23:14).Since the term for feet is raglayim, it can be inferred from here that the obligation to ascend involves the use of both of one鈥檚 legs.

讜讛讗 专讙诇讬诐 诪讘注讬 诇讬讛 驻专讟 诇讘注诇讬 拽讘讬谉 讛讛讜讗 诪驻注诪讬诐 谞驻拽讗 讚转谞讬讗 驻注诪讬诐 讗讬谉 驻注诪讬诐 讗诇讗 专讙诇讬诐 讜讻谉 讛讜讗 讗讜诪专 转专诪住谞讛 专讙诇 专讙诇讬 注谞讬 驻注诪讬 讚诇讬诐 讜讗讜诪专 诪讛 讬驻讜 驻注诪讬讱 讘谞注诇讬诐 讘转 谞讚讬讘

The Gemara asks: But the term regalim鈥 is necessary to exclude people with artificial legs. Although these people are capable of walking, as they do not have two natural legs they are exempt from ascending to the Temple. The Gemara responds: That halakha is derived from: 鈥淭hree occasions [pe鈥檃mim] in the year all your males will appear before the Lord God鈥 (Exodus聽23:17). The term pe鈥檃mim can also mean legs, as it is taught in a baraita, with regard to the term pe鈥檃mim鈥: Pe鈥檃mim means nothing other than legs. And so it says: 鈥淭he foot shall tread it down, even the feet of the poor and the steps [pa鈥檃mei] of the needy鈥 (Isaiah 26:6), and it says: 鈥淗ow beautiful are your feet [fe鈥檃mayikh] in sandals, daughter of the prince鈥 (Song of Songs 7:2).

讚专砖 专讘讗 诪讗讬 讚讻转讬讘 诪讛 讬驻讜 驻注诪讬讱 讘谞注诇讬诐 讘转 谞讚讬讘 讻诪讛 谞讗讬谉 专讙诇讬讛谉 砖诇 讬砖专讗诇 讘砖注讛 砖注讜诇讬谉 诇专讙诇 讘转 谞讚讬讘 讘转讜 砖诇 讗讘专讛诐 讗讘讬谞讜 砖谞拽专讗 谞讚讬讘 砖谞讗诪专 谞讚讬讘讬 注诪讬诐 谞讗住驻讜 注诐 讗诇讛讬 讗讘专讛诐 讗诇讛讬 讗讘专讛诐 讜诇讗 讗诇讛讬 讬爪讞拽 讜讬注拽讘 讗诇讗 讗诇讛讬 讗讘专讛诐 砖讛讬讛 转讞讬诇讛 诇讙专讬诐

With regard to the aforementioned verse, Rava taught: What is the meaning of that which is written: 鈥淗ow beautiful are your feet in sandals, daughter of the prince [nadiv]鈥? How pleasant are the feet [raglehen] of the Jewish people when they ascend to Jerusalem on the pilgrimage Festival [regel]. 鈥淒aughter of the prince鈥: this is referring to the daughter of Abraham our father who is called a prince, as it is stated: 鈥淭he princes of the peoples are gathered together, the people of the God of Abraham鈥 (Psalms 47:10). The Gemara asks: Is God only 鈥渢he God of Abraham,鈥 and not the God of Isaac and Jacob? Rather, the verse mentions 鈥渢he God of Abraham,鈥 as he was the first of the converts. Abraham was the first prince, as all converts who follow in his path are called 鈥渢he princes of the peoples.鈥

讗诪专 专讘 讻讛谞讗 讚专砖 专讘 谞转谉 讘专 诪谞讬讜诪讬 诪砖讜诐 专讘讬 转谞讞讜诐 诪讗讬 讚讻转讬讘 讜讛讘讜专 专拽 讗讬谉 讘讜 诪讬诐 诪诪砖诪注 砖谞讗诪专 讜讛讘讜专 专拽 讗讬谞讬 讬讜讚注 砖讗讬谉 讘讜 诪讬诐 讗诇讗 诪讬诐 讗讬谉 讘讜 讗讘诇 谞讞砖讬诐 讜注拽专讘讬诐 讬砖 讘讜

The Gemara cites another statement of Rabbi Tan岣m. Rav Kahana said that Rabbi Natan bar Manyumi taught in the name of Rabbi Tan岣m: What is the meaning of that which is written with regard to Joseph: 鈥淎nd they took him, and cast him into the pit; and the pit was empty, there was no water in it鈥 (Genesis 37:24). By inference from that which is stated: 鈥淎nd the pit was empty,鈥 don鈥檛 I know that there was no water in it? Rather, this teaches that there was no water in it, but there were snakes and scorpions in it.

转谞讜 专讘谞谉 诪注砖讛 讘专讘讬 讬讜讞谞谉 讘谉 讘专讜拽讛 讜专讘讬 讗诇注讝专 讘谉 讞住诪讗 砖讛诇讻讜 诇讛拽讘讬诇 驻谞讬 专讘讬 讬讛讜砖注 讘驻拽讬注讬谉 讗诪专 诇讛诐 诪讛 讞讬讚讜砖 讛讬讛 讘讘讬转 讛诪讚专砖 讛讬讜诐 讗诪专讜 诇讜 转诇诪讬讚讬讱 讗谞讜 讜诪讬诪讬讱 讗谞讜 砖讜转讬谉 讗诪专 诇讛诐 讗祝 注诇 驻讬 讻谉 讗讬 讗驻砖专 诇讘讬转 讛诪讚专砖 讘诇讗 讞讬讚讜砖

The Sages taught: There was an incident involving Rabbi Yo岣nan ben Beroka and Rabbi Elazar ben 岣sma, when they went to greet Rabbi Yehoshua in Peki鈥檌n. Rabbi Yehoshua said to them: What novel idea was taught today in the study hall? They said to him: We are your students and we drink from your water, i.e., all of our Torah knowledge comes from you, and therefore how can we tell you something you have not already learned? He said to them: Even so, there cannot be a study hall without a novelty.

砖讘转 砖诇 诪讬 讛讬转讛 砖讘转 砖诇 专讘讬 讗诇注讝专 讘谉 注讝专讬讛 讛讬转讛 讜讘诪讛 讛讬转讛 讛讙讚讛 讛讬讜诐 讗诪专讜 诇讜 讘驻专砖转 讛拽讛诇 讜诪讛 讚专砖 讘讛

He asked them: Whose week was it, i.e. who was the lecturer this week? They said to him: It was Rabbi Elazar ben Azarya鈥檚 week. He inquired: And on what subject was the lecture today? They said to him: He spoke about the portion of the mitzva of assembly. Rabbi Yehoshua persisted: And what verse did he interpret homiletically with regard to this mitzva?

讛拽讛诇 讗转 讛注诐 讛讗谞砖讬诐 讜讛谞砖讬诐 讜讛讟祝 讗诐 讗谞砖讬诐 讘讗讬诐 诇诇诪讜讚 谞砖讬诐 讘讗讜转 诇砖诪讜注 讟祝 诇诪讛 讘讗讬谉 讻讚讬 诇讬转谉 砖讻专 诇诪讘讬讗讬讛谉 讗诪专 诇讛诐 诪专讙诇讬转 讟讜讘讛 讛讬转讛 讘讬讚讻诐 讜讘拽砖转诐 诇讗讘讚讛 诪诪谞讬

They said to him that Rabbi Elazar ben Azarya interpreted the following verse: 鈥淎ssemble the people, the men and the women and the little ones鈥 (Deuteronomy 31:12). This verse is puzzling: If men come to learn, and women, who might not understand, come at least to hear, why do the little ones come? They come in order for God to give a reward to those who bring them, i.e., God credits those who bring their children to the assembly. Rabbi Yehoshua said to them: This good pearl of wisdom was in your hands, and you tried to conceal it from me?

讜注讜讚 讚专砖 讗转 讛壮 讛讗诪专转 讛讬讜诐 讜讛壮 讛讗诪讬专讱 讛讬讜诐

Upon seeing that Rabbi Yehoshua was pleased to hear this idea, Rabbi Yo岣nan ben Beroka and Rabbi Elazar ben 岣sma said to him: Additionally, Rabbi Elazar interpreted the following verses homiletically: 鈥淵ou have affirmed, this day, that the Lord is your God, and that you will walk in His ways and keep His statutes, His mitzvot, and His ordinances, and listen to His voice. And the Lord has affirmed you, this day, to be His treasure, asHe promised you, and that you should keep all His mitzvot鈥 (Deuteronomy 26:17鈥18).

讗诪专 诇讛诐 讛拽讚讜砖 讘专讜讱 讛讜讗 诇讬砖专讗诇 讗转诐 注砖讬转讜谞讬 讞讟讬讘讛 讗讞转 讘注讜诇诐 讜讗谞讬 讗注砖讛 讗转讻诐 讞讟讬讘讛 讗讞转 讘注讜诇诐 讗转诐 注砖讬转讜谞讬 讞讟讬讘讛 讗讞转 讘注讜诇诐 讚讻转讬讘 砖诪注 讬砖专讗诇 讛壮 讗诇讛讬谞讜 讛壮 讗讞讚 讜讗谞讬 讗注砖讛 讗转讻诐 讞讟讬讘讛 讗讞转 讘注讜诇诐 砖谞讗诪专

Rabbi Elazar explained: The Holy One, Blessed be He, said to the Jewish people: You have made Me a single entity聽in the world, as you singled Me out as separate and unique. And therefore I will make you a single entity in the world, as you will be a treasured nation, chosen by God. You have made Me a single entity in the world, as it is written: 鈥淗ear, O Israel, the Lord our God, the Lord is One鈥 (Deuteronomy 6:4). And therefore I will make you a single entity in the world, as it is stated:

讜诪讬 讻注诪讱 讬砖专讗诇 讙讜讬 讗讞讚 讘讗专抓

鈥淎nd who is like Your people, Israel, one nation in the land?鈥 (I聽Chronicles 17:21).

讜讗祝 讛讜讗 驻转讞 讜讚专砖 讚讘专讬 讞讻诪讬诐 讻讚专讘谞讜转 讜讻诪砖诪专讜转 谞讟讜注讬诐 讘注诇讬 讗住驻讜转 谞转谞讜 诪专讜注讛 讗讞讚 诇诪讛 谞诪砖诇讜 讚讘专讬 转讜专讛 诇讚专讘谉 诇讜诪专 诇讱 诪讛 讚专讘谉 讝讛 诪讻讜讬谉 讗转 讛驻专讛 诇转诇诪讬讛 诇讛讜爪讬讗 讞讬讬诐 诇注讜诇诐 讗祝 讚讘专讬 转讜专讛 诪讻讜讜谞讬谉 讗转 诇讜诪讚讬讛谉 诪讚专讻讬 诪讬转讛 诇讚专讻讬 讞讬讬诐 讗讬 诪讛 讚专讘谉 讝讛 诪讟诇讟诇 讗祝 讚讘专讬 转讜专讛 诪讟诇讟诇讬谉 转诇诪讜讚 诇讜诪专 诪砖诪专讜转

The Gemara adds: And Rabbi Elazar ben Azarya also commenced his lecture and taught: It is written: 鈥淭he words of the wise are as goads, and as nails well fastened are those that are composed in collections; they are given from one shepherd鈥 (Ecclesiastes 12:11). Why are matters of Torah compared to a goad? To tell you that just as this goad directs the cow to her furrow to bring forth sustenance for life to the world, so too the words of Torah direct those who study them from the paths of death to the paths of life. The Gemara asks: If so, derive the following from that same analogy: Just as this goad is movable and not rigid, so too matters of Torah are movable in accordance with circumstance and are not permanent. Therefore, the verse states: 鈥淣ails,鈥 which are permanent.

讗讬 诪讛 诪住诪专 讝讛 讞住专 讜诇讗 讬转专 讗祝 讚讘专讬 转讜专讛 讞住讬专讬谉 讜诇讗 讬转讬专讬谉 转诇诪讜讚 诇讜诪专 谞讟讜注讬诐 诪讛 谞讟讬注讛 讝讜 驻专讛 讜专讘讛 讗祝 讚讘专讬 转讜专讛 驻专讬谉 讜专讘讬谉 讘注诇讬 讗住驻讜转 讗诇讜 转诇诪讬讚讬 讞讻诪讬诐 砖讬讜砖讘讬谉 讗住讜驻讜转 讗住讜驻讜转 讜注讜住拽讬谉 讘转讜专讛 讛诇诇讜 诪讟诪讗讬谉 讜讛诇诇讜 诪讟讛专讬谉 讛诇诇讜 讗讜住专讬谉 讜讛诇诇讜 诪转讬专讬谉 讛诇诇讜 驻讜住诇讬谉 讜讛诇诇讜 诪讻砖讬专讬谉

The Gemara further asks: If so, one can explain as follows: Just as this nail is diminished in size and does not expand, as it wastes away over time, so too matters of Torah are gradually diminished and do not expand. Therefore, the verse states: 鈥淲ell fastened [netuim].鈥 Just as this plant [neti鈥檃] flourishes and multiplies, so too matters of Torah flourish and multiply. 鈥淭hose that are composed in collections [ba鈥檃lei asufot]鈥: These are Torah scholars who sit in many groups [asupot] and engage in Torah study. There are often debates among these groups, as some of these Sages render an object or person ritually impure and these render it pure; these prohibit an action and these permit it; these deem an item invalid and these deem it valid.

砖诪讗 讬讗诪专 讗讚诐 讛讬讗讱 讗谞讬 诇诪讚 转讜专讛 诪注转讛 转诇诪讜讚 诇讜诪专 讻讜诇诐 谞转谞讜 诪专讜注讛 讗讞讚 讗诇 讗讞讚 谞转谞谉 驻专谞住 讗讞讚 讗诪专谉 诪驻讬 讗讚讜谉 讻诇 讛诪注砖讬诐 讘专讜讱 讛讜讗 讚讻转讬讘 讜讬讚讘专 讗诇讛讬诐 讗转 讻诇 讛讚讘专讬诐 讛讗诇讛

Lest a person say: Now, how can I study Torah when it contains so many different opinions? The verse states that they are all 鈥済iven from one shepherd.鈥 One God gave them; one leader, i.e., Moses, said them from the mouth of the Master of all creation, Blessed be He, as it is written: 鈥淎nd God spoke all these words鈥 (Exodus聽20:1). The plural form 鈥渨ords鈥 indicates that God transmitted all the interpretations of the Ten Commandments. Since the Sages invariably utilize the Torah itself or the statements of the prophets as the sources for their opinions, there is a certain unity to the study of Torah, despite the numerous explanations and applications.

讗祝 讗转讛 注砖讛 讗讝谞讬讱 讻讗驻专讻住转 讜拽谞讛 诇讱 诇讘 诪讘讬谉 诇砖诪讜注 讗转 讚讘专讬 诪讟诪讗讬诐 讜讗转 讚讘专讬 诪讟讛专讬诐 讗转 讚讘专讬 讗讜住专讬谉 讜讗转 讚讘专讬 诪转讬专讬谉 讗转 讚讘专讬 驻讜住诇讬谉 讜讗转 讚讘专讬 诪讻砖讬专讬谉 讘诇砖讜谉 讛讝讛 讗诪专 诇讛诐 讗讬谉 讚讜专 讬转讜诐 砖专讘讬 讗诇注讝专 讘谉 注讝专讬讛 砖专讜讬 讘转讜讻讜

So too you, the student, make your ears like a funnel and acquire for yourself an understanding heart to hear both the statements of those who render objects ritually impure and the statements of those who render them pure; the statements of those who prohibit actions and the statements of those who permit them; the statements of those who deem items invalid and the statements of those who deem them valid. When Rabbi Yehoshua heard these interpretations, he said to them in these words: No generation is considered orphaned, i.e. without a leader, if Rabbi Elazar ben Azarya dwells among it.

讜诇讬诪专讜 诇讬讛 讘讛讚讬讗 诪砖讜诐 诪注砖讛 砖讛讬讛 讚转谞讬讗 诪注砖讛 讘专讘讬 讬讜住讬 讘谉 讚讜专诪住拽讬转 砖讛诇讱 诇讛拽讘讬诇 驻谞讬 专讘讬 (讗诇注讝专) 讗诇讬注讝专 讘诇讜讚 讗诪专 诇讜 诪讛 讞讬讚讜砖 讛讬讛 讘讘讬转 讛诪讚专砖 讛讬讜诐

The Gemara asks: But Rabbi Yo岣nan ben Beroka and Rabbi Elazar ben 岣sma should have told Rabbi Yehoshua these statements of Rabbi Elazar ben Azarya directly, without delay. Why did they hesitate at first? The Gemara answers: They were hesitant due to an incident that occurred. As it is taught in a baraita: There was an incident involving Rabbi Yosei ben Durmaskit, who went to greet Rabbi Eliezer in Lod. Rabbi Elazar said to him: What novel idea was taught today in the study hall?

讗诪专 诇讬讛 谞诪谞讜 讜讙诪专讜 注诪讜谉 讜诪讜讗讘 诪注砖专讬谉 诪注砖专 注谞讬 讘砖讘讬注讬转

Rabbi Yosei ben Durmaskit said to him: The Sages assembled, counted the votes, and concluded that although the lands of Ammon and Moab on the eastern side of the Jordan River are not part of Eretz Yisrael, and therefore the halakhot of the Sabbatical Year and tithes should not apply to them, as these lands are adjacent to Eretz Yisrael, one separates the poor man鈥檚 tithe there in the Sabbatical Year. Since the Sages debated which tithes should be separated, they had to take a vote to determine the halakha in this regard.

讗诪专 诇讜 讬讜住讬 驻砖讜讟 讬讚讬讱 讜拽讘诇 注讬谞讬讱 驻砖讟 讬讚讬讜 讜拽讘诇 注讬谞讬讜 讘讻讛 专讘讬 讗诇注讝专 讜讗诪专 住讜讚 讛壮 诇讬专讗讬讜 讜讘专讬转讜 诇讛讜讚讬注诐

Rabbi Elazar said to him in anger: Yosei, extend your hands and catch your eyes, which are about to come out of their sockets. He extended his hands and caught his eyes. Rabbi Elazar wept and said the verse: 鈥淭he counsel of the Lord is with them who fear Him; and His covenant, to make them know it鈥 (Psalms聽25:14), i.e., the Sages arrived at the correct conclusion, although they were unaware of the proper rationale behind it.

讗诪专 诇讜 诇讱 讗诪讜专 诇讛诐 讗诇 转讞讜砖讜 诇诪谞讬讬谞讻诐 讻讱 诪拽讜讘诇谞讬 诪专讘谉 讬讜讞谞谉 讘谉 讝讻讗讬 砖砖诪注 诪专讘讜 讜专讘讜 诪专讘讜 讛诇讻转讗 诇诪砖讛 诪住讬谞讬 注诪讜谉 讜诪讜讗讘 诪注砖专讬谉 诪注砖专 注谞讬 讘砖讘讬注讬转 诪讛 讟注诐 讛专讘讛 讻专讻讬诐 讻讘砖讜 注讜诇讬 诪爪专讬诐 讜诇讗 讻讘砖讜诐 注讜诇讬 讘讘诇

Rabbi Elazar said to Rabbi Yosei to go and say to the Sages in the study hall: Do not be concerned with regard to your counting, that you might not have ruled properly, as you have not in fact instituted a new ordinance at all. This is the tradition that I received from Rabban Yo岣nan ben Zakkai, who heard from his teacher, and his teacher from his teacher: It is a halakha transmitted to Moses from Sinai that in Ammon and Moab one separates the poor man鈥檚 tithe in the Sabbatical Year. What is the reason? Those who ascended from Egypt conquered many cities, and those who ascended from Babylonia did not conquer them after the destruction of the First Temple.

诪驻谞讬 砖拽讚讜砖讛 专讗砖讜谞讛 拽讚砖讛 诇砖注转讛 讜诇讗 拽讚砖讛 诇注转讬讚 诇讘讗 讜讛谞讬讞讜诐 讻讚讬 砖讬住诪讻讜 注诇讬讛谉 注谞讬讬诐 讘砖讘讬注讬转

This difference is important, because the first consecration of Eretz Yisrael, by those who ascended from Egypt, caused it to be sanctified only for its time and it was not sanctified forever, as that depended on the renewed conquest of the land by the Jewish people. And those who ascended from Babylonia left those cities aside and did not consider them part of Eretz Yisrael even after Jewish settlement was renewed there. They would plow and harvest in these places in the Sabbatical Year and tithe the poor man鈥檚 tithe, so that the poor of Eretz Yisrael, who did not have sufficient income from the previous years, could rely upon that produce in the Sabbatical Year, receiving help from this tithe.

转谞讗 诇讗讞专 砖谞转讬讬砖讘讛 讚注转讜 讗诪专 讬讛讬 专爪讜谉 砖讬讞讝专讜 注讬谞讬 讬讜住讬 诇诪拽讜诪谉 讜讞讝专讜

It was taught that after Rabbi Elazar鈥檚 mind was put at ease, he said: May it be God鈥檚 will that Rabbi Yosei鈥檚 eyes should return to their place. And indeed his eyes returned. Due to this event, in which Rabbi Elazar responded harshly when his disciple related what he considered a novel idea, the students of Rabbi Yehoshua hesitated to recount what they had heard until their teacher encouraged them to do so.

转谞讜 专讘谞谉 讗讬讝讛讜 砖讜讟讛 讛讬讜爪讗 讬讞讬讚讬 讘诇讬诇讛 讜讛诇谉 讘讘讬转 讛拽讘专讜转 讜讛诪拽专注 讗转 讻住讜转讜 讗讬转诪专 专讘 讛讜谞讗 讗诪专 注讚 砖讬讛讜 讻讜诇谉 讘讘转 讗讞转 专讘讬 讬讜讞谞谉 讗诪专 讗驻讬诇讜 讘讗讞转 诪讛谉

The Sages taught: Who is considered an imbecile? One who goes out alone at night, and one who sleeps in a cemetery, and one who rends his garment. It was stated that Rav Huna said: One does not have the halakhic status of an imbecile until there are all of these signs present in him at the same time. Rabbi Yo岣nan said: He is considered an imbecile even due to the appearance of one of these signs.

讛讬讻讬 讚诪讬 讗讬 讚注讘讬讚 诇讛讜 讚专讱 砖讟讜转 讗驻讬诇讜 讘讞讚讗 谞诪讬 讗讬 讚诇讗 注讘讬讚 诇讛讜 讚专讱 砖讟讜转 讗驻讬诇讜 讻讜诇讛讜 谞诪讬 诇讗

The Gemara asks: What are the circumstances of the case under discussion? If he performs them in a deranged manner, then even the appearance of one sign should be enough to classify him as an imbecile. If he does not perform these actions in a deranged manner, but has a reason to act this way, then even if he performs all of them he should not be deemed an imbecile.

诇注讜诇诐 讚拽讗 注讘讬讚 诇讛讜 讚专讱 砖讟讜转 讜讛诇谉 讘讘讬转 讛拽讘专讜转 讗讬诪讜专 讻讚讬 砖转砖专讛 注诇讬讜 专讜讞 讟讜诪讗讛 讛讜讗 讚拽讗 注讘讬讚 讜讛讬讜爪讗 讬讞讬讚讬 讘诇讬诇讛 讗讬诪讜专 讙谞讚专讬驻住 讗讞讚讬讛 讜讛诪拽专注 讗转 讻住讜转讜 讗讬诪讜专 讘注诇 诪讞砖讘讜转 讛讜讗 讻讬讜谉 讚注讘讚讬谞讛讜 诇讻讜诇讛讜 讛讜讛 诇讛讜

The Gemara answers: Actually, the baraita is referring to one who performs these actions in a deranged manner, but each action on its own could be explained rationally. With regard to one who sleeps in the cemetery, one could say that he is doing so in order that an impure spirit should settle upon him. Although it is inappropriate to do this, as there is a reason for this behavior it is not a sign of madness. And with regard to one who goes out alone at night, one could say that perhaps a fever took hold of him and he is trying to cool himself down. And as for one who tears his garments, one could say that he is a man engaged in thought, and out of anxiety he tears his clothing unintentionally. Despite these possible explanations, since one performed all of these together they are considered

Scroll To Top