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Today's Daf Yomi

August 19, 2020 | כ״ט באב תש״פ

Masechet Eruvin is sponsored by Adina and Eric Hagege in honor of our parents, Rabbi Dov and Elayne Greenstone and Roger and Ketty Hagege who raised children, grandchildren and great grandchildren committed to Torah learning.

Eruvin 10

Today’s daf is sponsored by Rebecca Schwarzmer In memory of Toby Schwarzmer, Toibe Gittel bat Moshe Tzvi Hirsch z”l. Her love of Torah was evident in the way she lived her life, her career as an educator, her welcoming kiruv and her loving compassion. I was a granddaughter, not just by marriage, but in her heart. And by Onnie and Andy Schiffmiller in memory of Andy’s father, Tzvi ben Moshe Zeev and Frieda z”l.

The gemara brings a question from a braita regarding the mishna about the small and large courtyards that put the measurements of each at 10 and 11 cubits. If that number was given, that would raise a question against the opinion that a post viewed from the outside but not the inside would work. The gemara explains why this would not work with that approach. In any case the gemara holds by that approach that it would work as a post even if not noticeable to the people inside the alley. In the mishna, it was stated that if the entrance to the alley is wider than 10, one needs to make the entrance smaller. Just as Rabbi Yehuda disagrees regarding the maximum height, does he disagree about this. If so, what is his limit? Can it be derived from laws about the barriers made around wells that are limited to 13 and a third? According to tanna kama, how does one fix a 20 cubit opening – is it enough to put up a beam in the center or is a proper a wall needed that juts into the alley by 4 cubits or goes along the opening of the alley to make the area smaller? Rav Yehuda gave an example of a 15 cubit space – one can add a wall of 3 and leave 2 cubits open at the end. This works because if the standing part is greater than the opening, we view it as if it were a solid wall. The gemara tries to make assumptions about how this principle would work if there were two beams together that covered a together greater amount of space than one opening – would that work? Can one assume it wouldn’t since Rav Yehuda didn’t bring that case? Several details regarding this principle are attempted to be derived from here but in the end are rejected. The gemara brings the case of a leather toilet cover regarding impurity as the hole is included in the measurement. Rav Dimi and Ravin debate the exact size of the solid sides and of the hole – do they debate in what cases two solid parts can override something empty as discussed above in the alley?

 

רבי היא דאמר בעינן שני פסין דתניא חצר ניתרת בפס אחד רבי אומר בשני פסין

The Gemara answers: This mishna is in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi, who said that in order to permit carrying in a courtyard that was breached, we require two upright boards, one on either side of the breach. As it was taught in a baraita: If a courtyard was breached and opens into the public domain, and the width of the breach does not exceed ten cubits, it becomes permitted to carry there, even with only one upright board remaining on one side of the breach. Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi says: It is permitted only with two upright boards remaining, one on each side of the breach.

האי מאי אי אמרת בשלמא נראה מבחוץ ושוה מבפנים אינו נידון משום לחי ורבי סבר לה כרבי יוסי ודרבי זירא ודרבינא ליתא משום הכי קטנה בעשר וגדולה באחת עשרה משום דרבי סבר לה כרבי יוסי

The Gemara rejects this entire explanation: What is this comparison? Granted, if you say that the legal status of a side post that is visible from the outside but appears to be even with the wall from the inside is not considered like that of a side post; and that Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi holds in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Yosei that a side post or an upright board in a courtyard must be at least three handbreadths wide; and that the explanations of the mishna offered earlier by Rabbi Zeira and Ravina are not accepted; that is why there is significance to the fact that the small courtyard is ten cubits wide and the large one is eleven cubits wide. It is due to the fact that Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi holds in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Yosei. Since Rabbi Yosei holds that a side post must be three handbreadths wide, we require that the two upright boards together measure six handbreadths, i.e., one cubit, which is the minimal difference in size between the two courtyards.

אלא אי אמרת נראה מבחוץ ושוה מבפנים נידון משום לחי ודרבי זירא ודרבינא איתא ורבי לא סבר לה כרבי יוסי גדולה באחת עשרה למה לי

However, if you say that the legal status of a side post that is visible from the outside but appears to be even with the wall from the inside is considered like that of a side post; and that Rabbi Zeira’s and Ravina’s explanations are accepted as halakha; and that Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi does not hold in accordance with the opinion Rabbi Yosei, why do I need to explain that the large courtyard measures eleven cubits?

ממה נפשך אי למשרייה לגדולה קאתי בעשר ושני טפחים סגיא ואי למיסרה לקטנה קאתי לאשמועינן דמפלגי טובא

Whichever way you look at it, there is a difficulty: If the baraita is coming to permit one to carry in the large courtyard, then a width of ten cubits and two handbreadths suffices. These two handbreadths can be considered the upright boards that render the courtyard fit for one to carry within it. And if it is coming to teach a novel halakha according to Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi and prohibit one to carry in the small courtyard, it should teach us a case where the walls of the two courtyards are much farther removed from each other, rather than a case where they are only one cubit apart. Therefore, the second explanation cannot be accepted.

אלא לאו שמע מינה נראה מבחוץ ושוה מבפנים אינו נידון משום לחי שמע מינה

Rather, can we not conclude from the baraita that a side post that is visible from the outside but appears to be even with the wall from the inside is not considered to have the legal status of a side post? The Gemara concludes: Indeed, conclude from this.

אמר רב יוסף לא שמיע לי הא שמעתתא

Rav Yosef said: I did not hear this halakha of Rabba bar Rav Huna from my teachers. Rav Yosef had become ill and forgotten his learning, which is why he could not recall the halakha that a side post that is visible from the outside is considered to have the legal status of a side post.

אמר ליה אביי את אמרת ניהלן ואהא אמרת ניהלן דאמר רמי בר אבא אמר רב הונא לחי המושך עם דפנו של מבוי פחות מארבע אמות נידון משום לחי ומשתמש עם חודו הפנימי ארבע אמות נידון משום מבוי ואסור להשתמש בכולו

His student Abaye said to him: You yourself told us this halakha, and it was with regard to this that you told it to us. As Rami bar Abba said that Rav Huna said: With regard to a side post that extends along the wall of an alleyway and beyond, in which case it appears from the inside to be a continuation of the wall but due to its narrow width it is clearly visible as a side post from the outside, if that side post is less than four cubits long it is considered to have the legal status of a side post. And one may use the alleyway up to the inner edge of the side post. However, if the side post itself extends four cubits, the alleyway has no side post and it is considered to have the legal status of an alleyway, and it is prohibited to utilize the entire alleyway.

ואת אמרת לן עלה שמע מינה תלת שמע מינה בין לחיין אסור ושמע מינה משך מבוי בארבע ושמע מינה נראה מבחוץ ושוה מבפנים נידון משום לחי

And you said to us about this: Learn from this statement three halakhot with regard to eiruvin. Learn from it that in the area between the side posts it is prohibited to carry, as Rav Huna rules that one may use the alleyway only up to the inner edge of the side post. And learn from it that the minimal length of an alleyway is four cubits. And learn from it that a side post that is visible from the outside but appears to be even with the wall of the alleyway from the inside is considered to have the legal status of a side post.

והלכתא נראה מבחוץ ושוה מבפנים נידון משום לחי תיובתא והלכתא

The Gemara concludes: The halakha is that a side post that is visible from the outside but appears to be even with the wall from the inside is considered to have the legal status of a side post. The Gemara asks: It is possible that there is a conclusive refutation of this opinion, and it is also the halakha? This opinion was refuted earlier. Can the halakha then be decided in accordance with it?

אין משום דתני רבי חייא כוותיה:

The Gemara answers: Yes, it can because Rabbi Ḥiyya taught a baraita in accordance with it. Although the deductive analysis of the statements of other tanna’im led to different conclusions, the halakha relies on Rabbi Ḥiyya’s explicit statement.

והרחב מעשר ימעט: אמר אביי תנא והרחב מעשר ימעט רבי יהודה אומר אינו צריך למעט ועד כמה

The opening mishna states: If the entrance to an alleyway is wider than ten cubits, one must diminish its width. Abaye said that a Sage taught in the Tosefta: If the entrance to an alleyway is wider than ten cubits, one must diminish its width. Rabbi Yehuda says: He need not diminish it. The question arises: Until what width does Rabbi Yehuda still permit carrying in the alleyway?

סבר רב אחי קמיה דרב יוסף למימר עד שלש עשרה אמה ושליש וקל וחומר מפסי ביראות

Initially, Rav Aḥai thought to say before Rav Yosef: Up to thirteen and a third cubits. And he derived this figure through an a fortiori argument from upright boards surrounding a well. Rabbi Yehuda maintains that if one placed upright boards up to thirteen and a third cubits apart from one another, he may consider the partitioned area around the well as a private domain and therefore carry within it.

ומה פסי ביראות שהתרתה בהן פרוץ מרובה על העומד לא התרתה בהן יותר משלש עשרה אמה ושליש מבוי שלא התרתה בו פרוץ מרובה על העומד אינו דין שלא תתיר בו יותר משלש עשרה אמה ושליש

Rav Aḥai explains: Just as in the case of upright boards surrounding a well, where you permitted carrying, even though the boards form a partition where the breached segment is greater than the standing segment, you did not permit carrying within them if the gap between the boards is more than thirteen and a third cubits wide; in the case of an alleyway, where you did not permit carrying if the breached segment of its walls is greater than the standing segment, is it not right that you will not permit carrying within it if there is a gap more than thirteen and a third cubits wide?

והיא הנותנת פסי ביראות שהתרתה בהן פרוץ מרובה על העומד לא תתיר בהן יותר משלש עשרה אמה ושליש מבוי שלא התרתה בו פרוץ מרובה על העומד תתיר בו יותר משלש עשרה אמות ושליש

But that reasoning provides support for a contrary conclusion as well. Just as in the case of upright boards surrounding a well, where you permitted carrying within them, even though the boards form a partition where the breached segment is greater than the standing segment, you will not extend the leniency and permit carrying within them, when the gap between the boards is more than thirteen and a third cubits; in an alleyway, where you were stringent and did not permit carrying when the breached segment is greater than the standing segment, in a case where most of the walls are standing, you will certainly permit carrying, even when the gap is more than thirteen and a third cubits.

אי נמי לאידך גיסא פסי ביראות דאקילת בהו חד קולא אקיל בהו קולא אחרינא מבוי כלל כלל לא

Alternatively, one may argue to the contrary. One should be more stringent in the case of an alleyway. In the case of upright boards surrounding a well, with regard to which you were lenient and issued one leniency, be lenient and issue another leniency and maintain that a gap of up to thirteen and a third cubits still be considered an entrance. However, in the case of an alleyway, you should not be lenient at all. Therefore, there is no way to determine Rabbi Yehuda’s opinion with regard to the width of an alleyway entrance.

תני לוי מבוי שהוא רחב עשרים אמה נועץ קנה באמצעיתו ודיו הוא תני לה והוא אמר לה דאין הלכה כאותה משנה איכא דאמרי אמר שמואל משמיה דלוי אין הלכה כאותה משנה

Levi taught a baraita with regard to reducing the width of an alleyway in order to render it fit for one to carry within it. If an alleyway is twenty cubits wide, one may stick a reed in the center of its entrance and that is sufficient to create two separate alleyways, each ten cubits wide. He taught this baraita, and he said about it that the halakha is not in accordance with that teaching, as the insertion of a reed is not effective in reducing the width. Some say that Shmuel said in the name of Levi: The halakha is not in accordance with that teaching.

אלא היכי עביד אמר שמואל משמיה דלוי

The Gemara asks: Rather, how should one act in order to render an alleyway of that sort fit for one to carry within it? Shmuel said in the name of Levi:

עושה פס גבוה עשרה במשך ארבע אמות ומעמידו לארכו של מבוי

One prepares a board ten handbreadths high with a length of four cubits and stands it lengthwise down the middle of the alleyway, and thereby forms two small alleyways at the entrance to the alleyway, neither of which is more than ten cubits wide.

אי נמי כדרב יהודה דאמר רב יהודה מבוי שהוא רחב חמש עשרה אמה מרחיק שתי אמות ועושה פס שלש אמות

Alternatively, one can act in accordance with the opinion of Rav Yehuda, as Rav Yehuda said: If an alleyway is fifteen cubits wide, how does one reduce its width? He distances himself two cubits from one of the walls of the alleyway and prepares a board three cubits wide, thereby leaving an opening of only ten cubits.

ואמאי יעשה פס אמה ומחצה וירחיק שתי אמות ויעשה פס אמה ומחצה שמע מינה עומד מרובה על הפרוץ משתי רוחות לא הוי עומד

The Gemara asks: And why must one reduce the width in this manner? One could also prepare a board a cubit and a half wide, and distance himself two cubits, and then prepare another board a cubit and a half wide, leaving the alleyway with an opening of only ten cubits. Apparently, one may conclude from the fact that Rav Yehuda did not suggest this possibility that if the standing segment of a wall is greater than the breached segment only when one combines the standing segments from two directions, i.e., both sides of the breach, it is not considered as though the standing segment were greater.

לעולם אימא לך הוי עומד ושאני הכא דאתי אוירא דהאי גיסא ואוירא דהאי גיסא ומבטל ליה

The Gemara rejects this: Actually, I would say to you that ordinarily it is considered as standing even when one must combine the standing segments on the two sides of the breach. However, it is different here, as the air, i.e., the two cubit opening, of this one side of the far board and the air, i.e., the ten cubit opening, of this other side of the board come together and negate it. Therefore, in this case, the board that is farther from the wall cannot serve to close off the alleyway.

ויעשה פס אמה וירחיק אמה ויעשה פס אמה וירחיק אמה ויעשה פס אמה שמע מינה עומד כפרוץ אסור

The Gemara suggests: And one could instead prepare a board one cubit wide and distance himself one cubit, and prepare another board of a cubit and distance himself one cubit, and prepare a third board of one cubit, thus ensuring that the open space is not greater than the standing segment on both sides. Apparently, since Rav Yehuda did not suggest this possibility, one may conclude from this that if the standing segment of a wall is equal to the breached segment, carrying in the alleyway is prohibited.

לעולם אימא לך מותר ושאני הכא דאתא אוירא דהאי גיסא ודהאי גיסא ומבטל ליה

The Gemara rejects this assumption: Actually, I would say to you that ordinarily carrying is permitted in that case. But here it is different, since the air, the opening, on this side of the board and the air, the opening, on that side of the board come together and negate the effectiveness of the board.

וירחיק אמה ויעשה פס אמה ומחצה וירחיק אמה ויעשה פס אמה ומחצה

The Gemara suggests: And one could distance himself one cubit from the wall, and prepare a board of a cubit and a half, and distance himself another cubit, and prepare another board of a cubit and a half. In this manner, one could diminish the width of the entrance of the alleyway to ten cubits.

אין הכי נמי וכולי האי לא אטרחוה רבנן

The Gemara answers: Yes, it is indeed so; this would work equally as well. But the Sages did not burden him this much, requiring him to prepare two boards where one suffices.

וליחוש דלמא שביק פיתחא רבה ועייל בפיתחא זוטא אמר רב אדא בר מתנה חזקה אין אדם מניח פתח גדול ונכנס בפתח קטן

The Gemara raises a new issue: But let us be concerned lest one abandon use of the larger entrance, which is ten cubits wide, and begin to enter the alleyway through the smaller entrance, which has a width of two cubits. This would negate the larger opening’s status as an entrance and render the alleyway unfit for one to carry within it, as it would no longer have an entrance with a side post. Rav Adda bar Mattana said: The presumption is that a person does not abandon a larger entrance and enter instead through a smaller entrance.

ומאי שנא מדרבי אמי ודרבי אסי

The Gemara raises a difficulty: And in what way is this different from the opinion of Rabbi Ami and Rabbi Asi, who maintain that in the case of an alleyway that is breached on its side wall close to its entrance, if the breach is large enough for one to enter through it, carrying in the alleyway is prohibited? There, too, such a breach should not be problematic, as a person does not abandon a larger entrance to enter through a smaller one.

התם קא ממעט בהילוכא הכא לא קא ממעט בהילוכא

The Gemara answers: There, in the case of Rabbi Ami and Rabbi Asi, the smaller entrance reduces his walking distance. If one approaches the alleyway from the side, the smaller entrance provides a shortcut, and therefore one might enter through it as well. However, here, in the case of the two entrances one two cubits and one ten cubits, it does not reduce his walking distance, as both openings are situated at the front of the alleyway.

תנן התם עור העסלא וחלל שלו מצטרפין בטפח

The Gemara returns to the issue of the standing segment that is greater than the breached segment. We learned in the Tosefta there, in tractate Kelim: The leather covering of a stool [asla] and its hole join together to complete a handbreadth with regard to ritual impurity imparted by a tent over a corpse. Any person, vessel, or food that is beneath a covering that is at least a handbreadth in size together with a portion of a corpse of at least an olive-bulk becomes ritually impure with impurity imparted by a corpse. The baraita teaches that the leather covering of a stool and its hole combine to complete the measure of a handbreadth.

מאי עור העסלא אמר רבה בר בר חנה אמר רבי יוחנן עור כיסוי של בית הכסא

The Gemara asks: What is the leather covering of a stool referred to in the Tosefta? Rabba bar bar Ḥana said that Rav Yoḥanan said: The leather covering of a bathroom.

וכמה כי אתא רב דימי אמר אצבעיים מכאן ואצבעיים מכאן ואצבעיים ריוח באמצע כי אתא רבין אמר אצבע ומחצה מכאן ואצבע ומחצה מכאן ואצבע ריוח באמצע

The Gemara asks: And how large can the hole be and still combine with the leather covering to complete the handbreadth? When Rav Dimi came from Eretz Yisrael to Babylonia, he said: Two fingers of leather from here, on one side, and two fingers of leather from here, on the other side, and a space of two fingers for the hole in the middle. However, when Ravin came from Eretz Yisrael to Babylonia, he said: A finger and a half of leather from here, and a finger and a half on the leather from here, and a space of a single finger for the hole in the middle.

אמר ליה אביי לרב דימי מי פליגיתו אמר ליה לא הא ברברבתא הא בזוטרתא ולא פליגין

Abaye said to Rav Dimi: Do the two of you, yourself and Ravin, disagree in principle? Rav Dimi said to him: No, rather this, Ravin’s statement, is referring to the large finger, i.e., the thumb, and this, my own statement, is referring to the small finger, the pinkie, and we do not disagree. Both were describing one handbreadth, which equals the width of four thumbs or six pinkies.

אמר ליה לאיי פליגיתו ובעומד מרובה על הפרוץ משתי רוחות פליגיתו לדידך הוי עומד משתי רוחות לרבין מרוח אחת הוי עומד משתי רוחות לא הוי עומד

Abaye said to him: This is not so [la’ei]. You disagree, and you disagree with regard to the halakha in a case where the standing segment of a wall is greater than the breached segment only when one combines the standing segments from two directions, i.e., both sides of the breached segment. According to you, this wall is considered as standing, even when one must combine the standing segments from two directions. According to Ravin, if the standing segment on one side of the breach is greater, the wall is considered as standing; however, if the standing segment is greater only after combining the standing segments from the two directions, it is not considered as standing.

דאי סלקא דעתך לא פליגיתו לרבין הכי איבעי ליה למימר אצבע ושליש מכאן ואצבע ושליש מכאן ואצבע ושליש ריוח באמצע

Abaye continues: For if it should enter your mind to say that you do not disagree, but simply refer to the same measures by different names, to express his opinion, Ravin should have said as follows: A finger and a third of leather from here, and a finger and a third of leather from here, and a space of a finger and a third for the hole in the middle. In this case, there would still be a handbreadth in total, but each side of leather alone would not be larger than the space in the middle. The fact that Ravin presented a case where the hole in the middle is smaller than the width of the leather on either side indicates that his dispute with Rav Dimi is a fundamental one.

ואלא מאי פליגינן לדידי הכי איבעי לי למימר אצבע ושני שלישים מכאן ואצבע ושני שלישים מכאן ואצבעיים ושני שלישים ריוח באמצע

Rav Dimi responds: Rather, what do you wish to say, that we disagree? If so, to express the opinion attributed to me, I should have said as follows: A finger and two thirds of leather from here, and a finger and two thirds of leather from here, and a space of two fingers and two thirds in the middle. This would provide a more striking case where, despite the fact that the breach is much greater than the standing segments on either of its sides, the two standing segments combine together so that the standing segments are considered greater than the breached segment.

אלא אי איכא למימר דפלגינן בפרוץ כעומד פלגינן:

Rather, if there is room to say that we disagree, our dispute relates to a different point, and we argue in the case where the breached segment is exactly equal to the standing segment on each side. According to Ravin, it is considered breached; while according to Rav Dimi, it is considered standing.

אם יש לו צורת הפתח אף על פי שרחב מעשר אינו צריך למעט: אשכחן צורת הפתח דמהניא ברחבו ואמלתרא דמהניא בגבהו

The Gemara returns to the mishna: If the entrance to the alleyway has an opening in the form of a doorway, then, even if it is wider than ten cubits, one need not diminish its width. The Gemara comments: We find that an opening in the form of a doorway is effective to permit carrying in an alleyway with regard to its width, i.e., when its entrance is more than ten cubits wide, and that a cornice is effective with regard to its height, i.e., when it is more than twenty cubits high.

Masechet Eruvin is sponsored by Adina and Eric Hagege in honor of our parents, Rabbi Dov and Elayne Greenstone and Roger and Ketty Hagege who raised children, grandchildren and great grandchildren committed to Torah learning.

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Eruvin 10

רבי היא דאמר בעינן שני פסין דתניא חצר ניתרת בפס אחד רבי אומר בשני פסין

The Gemara answers: This mishna is in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi, who said that in order to permit carrying in a courtyard that was breached, we require two upright boards, one on either side of the breach. As it was taught in a baraita: If a courtyard was breached and opens into the public domain, and the width of the breach does not exceed ten cubits, it becomes permitted to carry there, even with only one upright board remaining on one side of the breach. Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi says: It is permitted only with two upright boards remaining, one on each side of the breach.

האי מאי אי אמרת בשלמא נראה מבחוץ ושוה מבפנים אינו נידון משום לחי ורבי סבר לה כרבי יוסי ודרבי זירא ודרבינא ליתא משום הכי קטנה בעשר וגדולה באחת עשרה משום דרבי סבר לה כרבי יוסי

The Gemara rejects this entire explanation: What is this comparison? Granted, if you say that the legal status of a side post that is visible from the outside but appears to be even with the wall from the inside is not considered like that of a side post; and that Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi holds in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Yosei that a side post or an upright board in a courtyard must be at least three handbreadths wide; and that the explanations of the mishna offered earlier by Rabbi Zeira and Ravina are not accepted; that is why there is significance to the fact that the small courtyard is ten cubits wide and the large one is eleven cubits wide. It is due to the fact that Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi holds in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Yosei. Since Rabbi Yosei holds that a side post must be three handbreadths wide, we require that the two upright boards together measure six handbreadths, i.e., one cubit, which is the minimal difference in size between the two courtyards.

אלא אי אמרת נראה מבחוץ ושוה מבפנים נידון משום לחי ודרבי זירא ודרבינא איתא ורבי לא סבר לה כרבי יוסי גדולה באחת עשרה למה לי

However, if you say that the legal status of a side post that is visible from the outside but appears to be even with the wall from the inside is considered like that of a side post; and that Rabbi Zeira’s and Ravina’s explanations are accepted as halakha; and that Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi does not hold in accordance with the opinion Rabbi Yosei, why do I need to explain that the large courtyard measures eleven cubits?

ממה נפשך אי למשרייה לגדולה קאתי בעשר ושני טפחים סגיא ואי למיסרה לקטנה קאתי לאשמועינן דמפלגי טובא

Whichever way you look at it, there is a difficulty: If the baraita is coming to permit one to carry in the large courtyard, then a width of ten cubits and two handbreadths suffices. These two handbreadths can be considered the upright boards that render the courtyard fit for one to carry within it. And if it is coming to teach a novel halakha according to Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi and prohibit one to carry in the small courtyard, it should teach us a case where the walls of the two courtyards are much farther removed from each other, rather than a case where they are only one cubit apart. Therefore, the second explanation cannot be accepted.

אלא לאו שמע מינה נראה מבחוץ ושוה מבפנים אינו נידון משום לחי שמע מינה

Rather, can we not conclude from the baraita that a side post that is visible from the outside but appears to be even with the wall from the inside is not considered to have the legal status of a side post? The Gemara concludes: Indeed, conclude from this.

אמר רב יוסף לא שמיע לי הא שמעתתא

Rav Yosef said: I did not hear this halakha of Rabba bar Rav Huna from my teachers. Rav Yosef had become ill and forgotten his learning, which is why he could not recall the halakha that a side post that is visible from the outside is considered to have the legal status of a side post.

אמר ליה אביי את אמרת ניהלן ואהא אמרת ניהלן דאמר רמי בר אבא אמר רב הונא לחי המושך עם דפנו של מבוי פחות מארבע אמות נידון משום לחי ומשתמש עם חודו הפנימי ארבע אמות נידון משום מבוי ואסור להשתמש בכולו

His student Abaye said to him: You yourself told us this halakha, and it was with regard to this that you told it to us. As Rami bar Abba said that Rav Huna said: With regard to a side post that extends along the wall of an alleyway and beyond, in which case it appears from the inside to be a continuation of the wall but due to its narrow width it is clearly visible as a side post from the outside, if that side post is less than four cubits long it is considered to have the legal status of a side post. And one may use the alleyway up to the inner edge of the side post. However, if the side post itself extends four cubits, the alleyway has no side post and it is considered to have the legal status of an alleyway, and it is prohibited to utilize the entire alleyway.

ואת אמרת לן עלה שמע מינה תלת שמע מינה בין לחיין אסור ושמע מינה משך מבוי בארבע ושמע מינה נראה מבחוץ ושוה מבפנים נידון משום לחי

And you said to us about this: Learn from this statement three halakhot with regard to eiruvin. Learn from it that in the area between the side posts it is prohibited to carry, as Rav Huna rules that one may use the alleyway only up to the inner edge of the side post. And learn from it that the minimal length of an alleyway is four cubits. And learn from it that a side post that is visible from the outside but appears to be even with the wall of the alleyway from the inside is considered to have the legal status of a side post.

והלכתא נראה מבחוץ ושוה מבפנים נידון משום לחי תיובתא והלכתא

The Gemara concludes: The halakha is that a side post that is visible from the outside but appears to be even with the wall from the inside is considered to have the legal status of a side post. The Gemara asks: It is possible that there is a conclusive refutation of this opinion, and it is also the halakha? This opinion was refuted earlier. Can the halakha then be decided in accordance with it?

אין משום דתני רבי חייא כוותיה:

The Gemara answers: Yes, it can because Rabbi Ḥiyya taught a baraita in accordance with it. Although the deductive analysis of the statements of other tanna’im led to different conclusions, the halakha relies on Rabbi Ḥiyya’s explicit statement.

והרחב מעשר ימעט: אמר אביי תנא והרחב מעשר ימעט רבי יהודה אומר אינו צריך למעט ועד כמה

The opening mishna states: If the entrance to an alleyway is wider than ten cubits, one must diminish its width. Abaye said that a Sage taught in the Tosefta: If the entrance to an alleyway is wider than ten cubits, one must diminish its width. Rabbi Yehuda says: He need not diminish it. The question arises: Until what width does Rabbi Yehuda still permit carrying in the alleyway?

סבר רב אחי קמיה דרב יוסף למימר עד שלש עשרה אמה ושליש וקל וחומר מפסי ביראות

Initially, Rav Aḥai thought to say before Rav Yosef: Up to thirteen and a third cubits. And he derived this figure through an a fortiori argument from upright boards surrounding a well. Rabbi Yehuda maintains that if one placed upright boards up to thirteen and a third cubits apart from one another, he may consider the partitioned area around the well as a private domain and therefore carry within it.

ומה פסי ביראות שהתרתה בהן פרוץ מרובה על העומד לא התרתה בהן יותר משלש עשרה אמה ושליש מבוי שלא התרתה בו פרוץ מרובה על העומד אינו דין שלא תתיר בו יותר משלש עשרה אמה ושליש

Rav Aḥai explains: Just as in the case of upright boards surrounding a well, where you permitted carrying, even though the boards form a partition where the breached segment is greater than the standing segment, you did not permit carrying within them if the gap between the boards is more than thirteen and a third cubits wide; in the case of an alleyway, where you did not permit carrying if the breached segment of its walls is greater than the standing segment, is it not right that you will not permit carrying within it if there is a gap more than thirteen and a third cubits wide?

והיא הנותנת פסי ביראות שהתרתה בהן פרוץ מרובה על העומד לא תתיר בהן יותר משלש עשרה אמה ושליש מבוי שלא התרתה בו פרוץ מרובה על העומד תתיר בו יותר משלש עשרה אמות ושליש

But that reasoning provides support for a contrary conclusion as well. Just as in the case of upright boards surrounding a well, where you permitted carrying within them, even though the boards form a partition where the breached segment is greater than the standing segment, you will not extend the leniency and permit carrying within them, when the gap between the boards is more than thirteen and a third cubits; in an alleyway, where you were stringent and did not permit carrying when the breached segment is greater than the standing segment, in a case where most of the walls are standing, you will certainly permit carrying, even when the gap is more than thirteen and a third cubits.

אי נמי לאידך גיסא פסי ביראות דאקילת בהו חד קולא אקיל בהו קולא אחרינא מבוי כלל כלל לא

Alternatively, one may argue to the contrary. One should be more stringent in the case of an alleyway. In the case of upright boards surrounding a well, with regard to which you were lenient and issued one leniency, be lenient and issue another leniency and maintain that a gap of up to thirteen and a third cubits still be considered an entrance. However, in the case of an alleyway, you should not be lenient at all. Therefore, there is no way to determine Rabbi Yehuda’s opinion with regard to the width of an alleyway entrance.

תני לוי מבוי שהוא רחב עשרים אמה נועץ קנה באמצעיתו ודיו הוא תני לה והוא אמר לה דאין הלכה כאותה משנה איכא דאמרי אמר שמואל משמיה דלוי אין הלכה כאותה משנה

Levi taught a baraita with regard to reducing the width of an alleyway in order to render it fit for one to carry within it. If an alleyway is twenty cubits wide, one may stick a reed in the center of its entrance and that is sufficient to create two separate alleyways, each ten cubits wide. He taught this baraita, and he said about it that the halakha is not in accordance with that teaching, as the insertion of a reed is not effective in reducing the width. Some say that Shmuel said in the name of Levi: The halakha is not in accordance with that teaching.

אלא היכי עביד אמר שמואל משמיה דלוי

The Gemara asks: Rather, how should one act in order to render an alleyway of that sort fit for one to carry within it? Shmuel said in the name of Levi:

עושה פס גבוה עשרה במשך ארבע אמות ומעמידו לארכו של מבוי

One prepares a board ten handbreadths high with a length of four cubits and stands it lengthwise down the middle of the alleyway, and thereby forms two small alleyways at the entrance to the alleyway, neither of which is more than ten cubits wide.

אי נמי כדרב יהודה דאמר רב יהודה מבוי שהוא רחב חמש עשרה אמה מרחיק שתי אמות ועושה פס שלש אמות

Alternatively, one can act in accordance with the opinion of Rav Yehuda, as Rav Yehuda said: If an alleyway is fifteen cubits wide, how does one reduce its width? He distances himself two cubits from one of the walls of the alleyway and prepares a board three cubits wide, thereby leaving an opening of only ten cubits.

ואמאי יעשה פס אמה ומחצה וירחיק שתי אמות ויעשה פס אמה ומחצה שמע מינה עומד מרובה על הפרוץ משתי רוחות לא הוי עומד

The Gemara asks: And why must one reduce the width in this manner? One could also prepare a board a cubit and a half wide, and distance himself two cubits, and then prepare another board a cubit and a half wide, leaving the alleyway with an opening of only ten cubits. Apparently, one may conclude from the fact that Rav Yehuda did not suggest this possibility that if the standing segment of a wall is greater than the breached segment only when one combines the standing segments from two directions, i.e., both sides of the breach, it is not considered as though the standing segment were greater.

לעולם אימא לך הוי עומד ושאני הכא דאתי אוירא דהאי גיסא ואוירא דהאי גיסא ומבטל ליה

The Gemara rejects this: Actually, I would say to you that ordinarily it is considered as standing even when one must combine the standing segments on the two sides of the breach. However, it is different here, as the air, i.e., the two cubit opening, of this one side of the far board and the air, i.e., the ten cubit opening, of this other side of the board come together and negate it. Therefore, in this case, the board that is farther from the wall cannot serve to close off the alleyway.

ויעשה פס אמה וירחיק אמה ויעשה פס אמה וירחיק אמה ויעשה פס אמה שמע מינה עומד כפרוץ אסור

The Gemara suggests: And one could instead prepare a board one cubit wide and distance himself one cubit, and prepare another board of a cubit and distance himself one cubit, and prepare a third board of one cubit, thus ensuring that the open space is not greater than the standing segment on both sides. Apparently, since Rav Yehuda did not suggest this possibility, one may conclude from this that if the standing segment of a wall is equal to the breached segment, carrying in the alleyway is prohibited.

לעולם אימא לך מותר ושאני הכא דאתא אוירא דהאי גיסא ודהאי גיסא ומבטל ליה

The Gemara rejects this assumption: Actually, I would say to you that ordinarily carrying is permitted in that case. But here it is different, since the air, the opening, on this side of the board and the air, the opening, on that side of the board come together and negate the effectiveness of the board.

וירחיק אמה ויעשה פס אמה ומחצה וירחיק אמה ויעשה פס אמה ומחצה

The Gemara suggests: And one could distance himself one cubit from the wall, and prepare a board of a cubit and a half, and distance himself another cubit, and prepare another board of a cubit and a half. In this manner, one could diminish the width of the entrance of the alleyway to ten cubits.

אין הכי נמי וכולי האי לא אטרחוה רבנן

The Gemara answers: Yes, it is indeed so; this would work equally as well. But the Sages did not burden him this much, requiring him to prepare two boards where one suffices.

וליחוש דלמא שביק פיתחא רבה ועייל בפיתחא זוטא אמר רב אדא בר מתנה חזקה אין אדם מניח פתח גדול ונכנס בפתח קטן

The Gemara raises a new issue: But let us be concerned lest one abandon use of the larger entrance, which is ten cubits wide, and begin to enter the alleyway through the smaller entrance, which has a width of two cubits. This would negate the larger opening’s status as an entrance and render the alleyway unfit for one to carry within it, as it would no longer have an entrance with a side post. Rav Adda bar Mattana said: The presumption is that a person does not abandon a larger entrance and enter instead through a smaller entrance.

ומאי שנא מדרבי אמי ודרבי אסי

The Gemara raises a difficulty: And in what way is this different from the opinion of Rabbi Ami and Rabbi Asi, who maintain that in the case of an alleyway that is breached on its side wall close to its entrance, if the breach is large enough for one to enter through it, carrying in the alleyway is prohibited? There, too, such a breach should not be problematic, as a person does not abandon a larger entrance to enter through a smaller one.

התם קא ממעט בהילוכא הכא לא קא ממעט בהילוכא

The Gemara answers: There, in the case of Rabbi Ami and Rabbi Asi, the smaller entrance reduces his walking distance. If one approaches the alleyway from the side, the smaller entrance provides a shortcut, and therefore one might enter through it as well. However, here, in the case of the two entrances one two cubits and one ten cubits, it does not reduce his walking distance, as both openings are situated at the front of the alleyway.

תנן התם עור העסלא וחלל שלו מצטרפין בטפח

The Gemara returns to the issue of the standing segment that is greater than the breached segment. We learned in the Tosefta there, in tractate Kelim: The leather covering of a stool [asla] and its hole join together to complete a handbreadth with regard to ritual impurity imparted by a tent over a corpse. Any person, vessel, or food that is beneath a covering that is at least a handbreadth in size together with a portion of a corpse of at least an olive-bulk becomes ritually impure with impurity imparted by a corpse. The baraita teaches that the leather covering of a stool and its hole combine to complete the measure of a handbreadth.

מאי עור העסלא אמר רבה בר בר חנה אמר רבי יוחנן עור כיסוי של בית הכסא

The Gemara asks: What is the leather covering of a stool referred to in the Tosefta? Rabba bar bar Ḥana said that Rav Yoḥanan said: The leather covering of a bathroom.

וכמה כי אתא רב דימי אמר אצבעיים מכאן ואצבעיים מכאן ואצבעיים ריוח באמצע כי אתא רבין אמר אצבע ומחצה מכאן ואצבע ומחצה מכאן ואצבע ריוח באמצע

The Gemara asks: And how large can the hole be and still combine with the leather covering to complete the handbreadth? When Rav Dimi came from Eretz Yisrael to Babylonia, he said: Two fingers of leather from here, on one side, and two fingers of leather from here, on the other side, and a space of two fingers for the hole in the middle. However, when Ravin came from Eretz Yisrael to Babylonia, he said: A finger and a half of leather from here, and a finger and a half on the leather from here, and a space of a single finger for the hole in the middle.

אמר ליה אביי לרב דימי מי פליגיתו אמר ליה לא הא ברברבתא הא בזוטרתא ולא פליגין

Abaye said to Rav Dimi: Do the two of you, yourself and Ravin, disagree in principle? Rav Dimi said to him: No, rather this, Ravin’s statement, is referring to the large finger, i.e., the thumb, and this, my own statement, is referring to the small finger, the pinkie, and we do not disagree. Both were describing one handbreadth, which equals the width of four thumbs or six pinkies.

אמר ליה לאיי פליגיתו ובעומד מרובה על הפרוץ משתי רוחות פליגיתו לדידך הוי עומד משתי רוחות לרבין מרוח אחת הוי עומד משתי רוחות לא הוי עומד

Abaye said to him: This is not so [la’ei]. You disagree, and you disagree with regard to the halakha in a case where the standing segment of a wall is greater than the breached segment only when one combines the standing segments from two directions, i.e., both sides of the breached segment. According to you, this wall is considered as standing, even when one must combine the standing segments from two directions. According to Ravin, if the standing segment on one side of the breach is greater, the wall is considered as standing; however, if the standing segment is greater only after combining the standing segments from the two directions, it is not considered as standing.

דאי סלקא דעתך לא פליגיתו לרבין הכי איבעי ליה למימר אצבע ושליש מכאן ואצבע ושליש מכאן ואצבע ושליש ריוח באמצע

Abaye continues: For if it should enter your mind to say that you do not disagree, but simply refer to the same measures by different names, to express his opinion, Ravin should have said as follows: A finger and a third of leather from here, and a finger and a third of leather from here, and a space of a finger and a third for the hole in the middle. In this case, there would still be a handbreadth in total, but each side of leather alone would not be larger than the space in the middle. The fact that Ravin presented a case where the hole in the middle is smaller than the width of the leather on either side indicates that his dispute with Rav Dimi is a fundamental one.

ואלא מאי פליגינן לדידי הכי איבעי לי למימר אצבע ושני שלישים מכאן ואצבע ושני שלישים מכאן ואצבעיים ושני שלישים ריוח באמצע

Rav Dimi responds: Rather, what do you wish to say, that we disagree? If so, to express the opinion attributed to me, I should have said as follows: A finger and two thirds of leather from here, and a finger and two thirds of leather from here, and a space of two fingers and two thirds in the middle. This would provide a more striking case where, despite the fact that the breach is much greater than the standing segments on either of its sides, the two standing segments combine together so that the standing segments are considered greater than the breached segment.

אלא אי איכא למימר דפלגינן בפרוץ כעומד פלגינן:

Rather, if there is room to say that we disagree, our dispute relates to a different point, and we argue in the case where the breached segment is exactly equal to the standing segment on each side. According to Ravin, it is considered breached; while according to Rav Dimi, it is considered standing.

אם יש לו צורת הפתח אף על פי שרחב מעשר אינו צריך למעט: אשכחן צורת הפתח דמהניא ברחבו ואמלתרא דמהניא בגבהו

The Gemara returns to the mishna: If the entrance to the alleyway has an opening in the form of a doorway, then, even if it is wider than ten cubits, one need not diminish its width. The Gemara comments: We find that an opening in the form of a doorway is effective to permit carrying in an alleyway with regard to its width, i.e., when its entrance is more than ten cubits wide, and that a cornice is effective with regard to its height, i.e., when it is more than twenty cubits high.

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