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Daf Yomi

September 7, 2020 | 讬状讞 讘讗诇讜诇 转砖状驻

Masechet Eruvin is sponsored by Adina and Eric Hagege in honor of our parents, Rabbi Dov and Elayne Greenstone and Roger and Ketty Hagege who raised children, grandchildren and great grandchildren committed to Torah learning.

Eruvin 29

Today鈥檚 daf is dedicated by Judi Felber in memory of her father, Hershel-Tzvi Shlomo Haim ben Pesach v鈥橠ina Sara z”l on his third yahrzeit. And by Leah Ackner in honor of her son Zev Yehuda Loring becoming a Bar Mitzvah. 鈥淭oday I learn the daf in your honor and in honor of our past year of learning together to prepare for…鈥 And by Candace聽 Plotsker-Herman in honor of her mother Elaine Riff, Ilana Leah bat Esther and Meir on her 95th birthday! 鈥淪he is a creative, lifelong learner who has inspired me to pursue and embrace serious, challenging Torah learning. I look forward to attending live, rather than zoom, shiurim with her soon.鈥

With what food items can one make/not make an eruv? Can one use raw beets? Apples? Onions? What is the requite amount needed for an eruv? The amount is for eating at two meals but that amount is determined differently if it is food that accompanies other main foods, like a dip for bread, or if it is eaten on its own. Since the gemara discusses food, statements are made regarding nutritional value of foods including what is healthy for various ailments and what contains toxins and could cause death? The gemara also relates to other laws regarding food like impurity of foods, what liquids can disqualify a mikveh, what is the minimum amount to give to each poor person for maaser ani.

讛讛讜讗 讘讘砖讬诇 讜诇讗 讘砖讬诇


The Gemara answers: That is referring to a beet that was only partially cooked, which is dangerous.


讗讬讻讗 讚讗诪专讬 讗诪专 专讘 讛诪谞讜谞讗 讗讬谉 诪注专讘讬谉 讘转专讚讬谉 讞讬讬谉 讚讗诪专 专讘 讞住讚讗 住讬诇拽讗 讞讬讬讗 拽讟讬诇 讙讘专讗 讞讬讬讗 讜讛讗 拽讗 讞讝讬谞谉 讚拽讗 讗讻诇讬 讜诇讗 诪讬讬转讬 讛转诐 讘讘砖讬诇 讜诇讗 讘砖讬诇


There are some who say that Rav Hamnuna said: One may not establish an eiruv with raw beets, as Rav 岣sda said: Raw beet kills a healthy person. The Gemara asks: Don鈥檛 we see people eating it and they do not die? The Gemara answers: There, it is referring to a beet that was only partially cooked, which is dangerous.


讗诪专 专讘 讞住讚讗 转讘砖讬诇 砖诇 转专讚讬谉 讬驻讛 诇诇讘 讜讟讜讘 诇注讬谞讬诐 讜讻诇 砖讻谉 诇讘谞讬 诪注讬讬诐 讗诪专 讗讘讬讬 讜讛讜讗 讚讬转讬讘 讗讘讬 转驻讬 讜注讘讬讚 转讜讱 转讜讱


Rav 岣sda said: A cooked dish of beets is beneficial for the heart, good for the eyes, and all the more so beneficial for the intestines. Abaye said: That is specifically when the dish sits on the stove and makes a tukh tukh sound, i.e., it is cooked thoroughly enough to produce a boiling sound.


讗诪专 专讘讗 讛专讬谞讬 讻讘谉 注讝讗讬 讘砖讜拽讬 讟讘专讬讗 讗诪专 诇讬讛 讛讛讜讗 诪专讘谞谉 诇专讘讗 转驻讜讞讬诐 讘讻诪讛 讗诪专 诇讬讛 讜讻讬 诪注专讘讬谉 讘转驻讜讞讬诐


Rava once said when he was in an especially good mood: Behold, I am like the intellectually sharp ben Azzai, who would regularly expound in the markets of Tiberias. I, too, am ready to answer any question posed to me. One of the Sages said to Rava: How many apples are needed to establish an eiruv? Rava said to him: Does one establish an eiruv with apples?


讜诇讗 讜讛转谞谉 讻诇 讛讗讜讻诇讬谉 诪爪讟专驻讬谉 诇驻住讜诇 讗转 讛讙讜讜讬讛 讘讞爪讬 驻专住 讜讘诪讝讜谉 砖转讬 住注讜讚讜转 诇注讬专讜讘 讜讻讘讬爪讛 诇讟诪讗 讟讜诪讗转 讗讜讻诇讬诐


The other Sage responded: And is it not permissible to establish an eiruv with them? Didn鈥檛 we learn in a mishna: All foods combine to disqualify the body of a priest who eats half of a half-loaf of ritually impure food, and to complete the measure of food required for two meals for the purpose of an eiruv, and to complete the measure of an egg-bulk required for a food to be able to contract the ritual impurity of foods? An apple is a kind of food, so it should be included in the items that may be used to establish an eiruv.


讜讛讗讬 诪讗讬 转讬讜讘转讗 讗讬诇讬诪讗 诪砖讜诐 讚拽转谞讬 讻诇 讛讗讜讻诇讬谉 讜讛谞讬 讘谞讬 讗讻讬诇讛 谞讬谞讛讜 讜讛讗诪专 专讘讬 讬讜讞谞谉 讗讬谉 诇诪讚讬谉 诪谉 讛讻诇诇讜转 讜讗驻讬诇讜 讘诪拽讜诐 砖谞讗诪专 讘讜 讞讜抓


The Gemara asks: And what is the refutation? If you say it is because it was taught using the term all foods, and these apples are fit for eating, how can an objection be raised from such a general term? Didn鈥檛 Rabbi Yo岣nan already say: One may not learn from general statements using the word all, even in a place where it says except, since no rule exhausts all cases?


讗诇讗 诪砖讜诐 讚拽转谞讬 讜讘诪讝讜谉 砖转讬 住注讜讚讜转 诇注讬专讜讘 讜讻讘讬爪讛 诇讟诪讗 讟讜诪讗转 讗讜讻诇讬谉 讜讛谞讬 谞诪讬 讘谞讬 讟诪讜讬讬 讟讜诪讗转 讗讜讻诇讬谉 谞讬谞讛讜


Rather, it is because it taught: And all foods combine to complete the measure of food required for two meals for the purpose of an eiruv, and to complete the measure of an egg-bulk to contract the ritual impurity of foods; and these apples are also susceptible to the ritual impurity of foods. Therefore, there is clear proof that the mishna is referring to apples as well.


讜讻诪讛 讗诪专 专讘 谞讞诪谉 转驻讜讞讬诐 讘拽讘


Having established that an eiruv may be established with apples, the Gemara returns to the question raised above: How many apples are needed to establish an eiruv? Rav Na岣an said: The minimum measure of apples that must be used for an eiruv is a kav.


诪讬转讬讘讬 专讘讬 砖诪注讜谉 讘谉 讗诇注讝专 讗讜诪专 注讜讻诇讗 转讘诇讬谉 讜诇讬讟专讗 讬专拽 讜注砖专讛 讗讙讜讝讬谉 讜讞诪砖讛 讗驻专住拽讬谉 讜砖谞讬 专诪讜谞讬诐 讜讗转专讜讙 讗讞讚 讜讗诪专 讙讜专住拽 讘专 讚专讬 诪砖诪讬讛 讚专讘 诪谞砖讬讗 讘专 砖讙讜讘诇讬 诪砖诪讬讛 讚专讘 讜讻谉 诇注讬专讜讘 讜讛谞讬 谞诪讬 诇讬讛讜讜 讻讬 讗驻专住拽讬谉


The Gemara raises an objection from a baraita: Rabbi Shimon ben Elazar says: When distributing poor man鈥檚 tithe, one must give each individual poor person at least an ukla, an eighth of a log, of spices, a liter of vegetables, ten nuts, five peaches, two pomegranates, or one citron, as these are worthy amounts for distribution. And Gursak bar Darei said in the name of Rav Menashya bar Sheguvlei, who said in the name of Rav: And similarly, this is the halakha with regard to an eiruv. Now, it can be asked: These apples should also be like peaches, as they are similar in size, and it should be enough to use five apples for an eiruv.


讛谞讬 讞砖讬讘讬 讜讛谞讬 诇讗 讞砖讬讘讬


The Gemara answers that there is a distinction between them: These peaches are important, and therefore five of them are a significant amount, but these apples are not important, and therefore one must use the larger measure of a kav.


讗诪专 专讘 讬讜住祝 砖专讗 诇讬讛 诪专讬讛 诇专讘 诪谞砖讬讗 讘专 砖讙讜讘诇讬 讗谞讗 讗诪专讬转讗 谞讬讛诇讬讛 讗诪转谞讬转讬谉 讜讛讜讗 讗诪专讛 讗讘专讬讬转讗 讚转谞谉 讗讬谉 驻讜讞转讬谉 诇注谞讬 讘讙讜专谉 诪讞爪讬 拽讘 讞讟讬谉 讜拽讘 砖注讜专讬谉 专讘讬 诪讗讬专 讗讜诪专 讞爪讬 拽讘 砖注讜专讬谉 讜拽讘 讜讞爪讬 讻讜住诪讬谉 讜拽讘 讙专讜讙专讜转 讗讜 诪谞讛 讚讘讬诇讛 专讘讬 注拽讬讘讗 讗讜诪专 驻专住 讜讞爪讬 诇讜讙 讬讬谉 专讘讬 注拽讬讘讗 讗讜诪专 专讘讬注讬转 讜专讘讬注讬转 砖诪谉 专讘讬 注拽讬讘讗 讗讜诪专 砖诪讬谞讬转 讜砖讗专 讻诇 讛驻讬专讜转 讗诪专 讗讘讗 砖讗讜诇 讻讚讬 砖讬诪讻专诐 讜讬拽讞 讘讛谉 诪讝讜谉 砖转讬 住注讜讚讜转 讜讗诪专 专讘 讜讻谉 诇注讬专讜讘


Rav Yosef said: May his Master, God, forgive Rav Menashya bar Sheguvlei, for he erred and caused others to err. I stated before him a ruling in the name of Rav concerning a mishna, and he stated it concerning the baraita, which led to the error. As we learned in a mishna: One may not give a pauper receiving poor man鈥檚 tithe at the threshing floor less than half a kav of wheat or less than a kav of barley. Rabbi Meir says: He must be given at least half a kav of barley. Similarly, he must be given no less than a kav and a half of spelt, a kav of dried figs, or a maneh of pressed figs. Rabbi Akiva says: Not a maneh, but half a maneh. He must be given at least half a log of wine. Rabbi Akiva says: Half that amount, a quarter log. And similarly, he must be given a quarter log of oil. Rabbi Akiva says: Half that amount, an eighth of a log. And with regard to all other fruit, Abba Shaul said: He must be given enough to sell them and buy food that suffices for two meals with the proceeds of their sale. And with regard to this mishna, Rav said: And similarly, this is the halakha with regard to an eiruv.


讜诪讗讬 讗讜诇诪讬讛 讚讛讗讬 诪讛讱 讗讬诇讬诪讗 诪砖讜诐 讚拽讗 转谞讬 讘讛讱 转讘诇讬谉 讜转讘诇讬谉 诇讗讜 讘谞讬 讗讻讬诇讛 谞讬谞讛讜 讗讟讜 讛讻讗 诪讬 诇讗 拽转谞讬 讞讟讬谉 讜砖注讜专讬谉 讜诇讗讜 讘谞讬 讗讻讬诇讛 谞讬谞讛讜


The Gemara poses a question with regard to Rav Yosef鈥檚 harsh reaction to Rav Menashya bar Sheguvlei鈥檚 statement: What is the strength of this over that? The mishna and baraita seem to share the same content, so why should Rav鈥檚 ruling be more applicable to one than the other? If you say it is because the halakha with regard to spices was also taught in this baraita, and spices are not fit for eating on their own but only when added as a flavoring to other foods, and therefore Rav could not have been referring to the baraita when he said that the same law applies to an eiruv; wasn鈥檛 the halakha with regard to wheat and barley taught here in the mishna, and they too are not immediately fit for eating until they are processed further.


讗诇讗 诪砖讜诐 讚拽转谞讬 讞爪讬 诇讜讙 讬讬谉 讜讗诪专 专讘 诪注专讘讬谉 讘砖转讬 专讘讬注讬讜转 砖诇 讬讬谉 诪讚讘注讬谞谉 讻讜诇讬 讛讗讬 砖诪注 诪讬谞讛 讻讬 讗诪专 专讘 讜讻谉 诇注讬专讜讘 讗讛讗 诪转谞讬转讬谉 拽讗诪专 砖诪注 诪讬谞讛


Rather, it is because it was taught in the mishna that one must give half a log of wine. And Rav said: One may establish an eiruv with two-quarters of a log of wine, which is equal to half a log. Since we require so much wine, learn from here that when Rav said: And similarly, this is the halakha with regard to an eiruv, he said it about this mishna and the measures mentioned therein. The Gemara concludes: Indeed, conclude from this that this is the proper understanding of Rav鈥檚 statement.


讗诪专 诪专 讜讘诪讝讜谉 砖转讬 住注讜讚讜转 诇注讬专讜讘 住讘专 专讘 讬讜住祝 诇诪讬诪专 注讚 讚讗讬讻讗 住注讜讚讛 诪讛讗讬 讜住注讜讚讛 诪讛讗讬 讗诪专 诇讬讛 专讘讛 讗驻讬诇讜 诇诪讞爪讛 诇砖诇讬砖 讜诇专讘讬注


The Gemara further examines the mishna cited earlier. The Master said: And all foods combine to complete the measure of food required for two meals for the purpose of an eiruv. Rav Yosef thought to say that an eiruv may not be established unless there is a complete meal of this kind of food and a complete meal of that kind of food, meaning that an eiruv may only be established if each meal consists of a single type of food. Rabba said to him: An eiruv may be established with the amount of food required for two meals even if each type of food made up only half, a third, or a quarter of a meal.


讙讜驻讗 讗诪专 专讘 诪注专讘讬谉 讘砖转讬 专讘讬注讬讜转 砖诇 讬讬谉 讜诪讬 讘注讬谞谉 讻讜诇讬 讛讗讬 讜讛转谞讬讗 专讘讬 砖诪注讜谉 讘谉 讗诇注讝专 讗讜诪专 讬讬谉 讻讚讬 诇讗讻讜诇 讘讜 讞讜诪抓 讻讚讬 诇讟讘诇 讘讜 讝讬转讬诐 讜讘爪诇讬诐 讻讚讬 诇讗讻讜诇 讘讛谉 砖转讬 住注讜讚讜转


The Gemara now examines Rav鈥檚 statement itself, which was cited in the course of the previous discussion. Rav said: One may establish an eiruv with two-quarters of a log of wine. The following question may be raised: Do we really need so much? Wasn鈥檛 it taught in a baraita that Rabbi Shimon ben Elazar says: The minimal amount of wine required for an eiruv is enough to eat bread with it, i.e., enough to soak the bread in to enable one to eat it? Additionally, the minimal amount of vinegar that may be used to establish an eiruv is enough to dip the food in it, and the minimal amount of olives and onions is enough to eat them together with the bread. All of these quantities are calculated on the basis of two meals. This baraita clearly indicates that an eiruv may be established with much less than two-quarters of a log of wine.


讛转诐 讘讞诪专讗 诪讘砖诇讗


The Gemara answers: There, the baraita is referring to cooked wine, which is very strong, and therefore even a small amount suffices.


讗诪专 诪专 讞讜诪抓 讻讚讬 诇讟讘诇 讘讜 讗诪专 专讘 讙讬讚诇 讗诪专 专讘 讻讚讬 诇讟讘诇 讘讜 诪讝讜谉 砖转讬 住注讜讚讜转 砖诇 讬专拽 讗讬讻讗 讚讗诪专讬 讗诪专 专讘 讙讬讚诇 讗诪专 专讘 讬专拽 讛谞讗讻诇 讘砖转讬 住注讜讚讜转


The Master said in the baraita that the minimal amount of vinegar that may be used for an eiruv is enough to dip food in it. Rav Giddel said that Rav said: Enough to dip in it the food of two meals consisting of vegetables. Some say that Rav Giddel said that Rav said: Enough to dip in it the vegetables that are eaten in two ordinary meals, which is less than the amount consumed in two meals consisting entirely of vegetables.


讗诪专 诪专 讝讬转讬诐 讜讘爪诇讬诐 讻讚讬 诇讗讻讜诇 讘讛谉 诪讝讜谉 砖转讬 住注讜讚讜转 讜讘讘爪诇讬诐 诪讬 诪注专讘讬谉 讜讛转谞讬讗 讗诪专 专讘讬 砖诪注讜谉 讘谉 讗诇注讝专 驻注诐 讗讞转 砖讘转 专讘讬 诪讗讬专 讘注专讚讬住拽讗 讜讘讗 讗讚诐 讗讞讚 诇驻谞讬讜 讗诪专 诇讜 专讘讬 注讬专讘转讬 讘讘爪诇讬诐 诇讟讬讘注讬谉 讜讛讜砖讬讘讜 专讘讬 诪讗讬专 讘讗专讘注 讗诪讜转 砖诇讜


The Master also said that the minimum measure of olives and onions that may be used for an eiruv is enough to eat them with the food of two meals. The Gemara asks: May one establish an eiruv with onions? Wasn鈥檛 it taught in a baraita that Rabbi Shimon ben Elazar said: Rabbi Meir once spent Shabbat in the town of Ardiska, and a certain person came before him and said to him: Rabbi, I made an eiruv of Shabbat borders [eiruv te岣min] with onions, so that I might walk to the town of Tiv鈥檌n. Ardiska was located between the man鈥檚 eiruv and his destination of Tiv鈥檌n, which was beyond his Shabbat limit as measured from his hometown. And Rabbi Meir made him remain within his four cubits. He forbade him to leave his four cubits, as he held that an eiruv made with onions is not an eiruv, and therefore the person had left his Shabbat limit without an eiruv te岣min.


诇讗 拽砖讬讗 讛讗 讘注诇讬诐 讛讗 讘讗讬诪讛讜转 讚转谞讬讗 讗讻诇 讘爪诇 讜讛砖讻讬诐 讜诪转 讗讬谉 讗讜诪专讬谉 诪诪讛 诪转 讜讗诪专 砖诪讜讗诇 诇讗 砖谞讜 讗诇讗 讘注诇讬诐 讗讘诇 讘讗讬诪讛讜转 诇讬转 诇谉 讘讛 讜讘注诇讬谉 谞诪讬 诇讗 讗诪专谉 讗诇讗


The Gemara answers: This is not difficult. This ruling, which states that onions may not be used for an eiruv, is referring to onion leaves, which are harmful; whereas that ruling, which states that onions may be used for an eiruv, is referring to onion bulbs, which are edible. As it was taught in a baraita: If one ate an onion and died early the next morning, we need not ask from what he died, as his death was certainly caused by the onion. And Shmuel said: They only taught this with regard to the leaves; but with regard to onion bulbs, we have no problem with it. And even with regard to the leaves, we only stated this concern


讚诇讗 讗讘爪讬诇 讝讬专转讗 讗讘诇 讗讘爪讬诇 讝讬专转讗 诇讬转 诇谉 讘讛


in a case where the bulb has not grown to the size of a span, the distance between the thumb and the little finger of a hand that is spread apart, because at that stage the leaves are very toxic; however, if it has grown to the size of a span, we have no problem with it.


讗诪专 专讘 驻驻讗 诇讗 讗诪专谉 讗诇讗 讚诇讗 讗讬砖转讬 砖讬讻专讗 讗讘诇 讗讬砖转讬 砖讬讻专讗 诇讬转 诇谉 讘讛


Rav Pappa said: We only stated this concern about eating onion leaves in a case where one did not drink beer afterward; however, if he drank beer afterward, we have no problem with it.


转谞讜 专讘谞谉 诇讗 讬讗讻诇 讗讚诐 讘爪诇 诪驻谞讬 谞讞砖 砖讘讜 讜诪注砖讛 讘专讘讬 讞谞讬谞讗 砖讗讻诇 讞爪讬 讘爪诇 讜讞爪讬 谞讞砖 砖讘讜 讜讞诇讛 讜谞讟讛 诇诪讜转 讜讘拽砖讜 讞讘讬专讬讜 专讞诪讬诐 注诇讬讜 讜讞讬讛 诪驻谞讬 砖讛砖注讛 爪专讬讻讛 诇讜:


The Sages taught in a baraita: A person should not eat onion because of the toxins in it. There was an incident with Rabbi 岣nina, who ate half an onion and half of its toxins, and he fell deathly ill, and his colleagues prayed for mercy for him, and he survived. He was rescued only because the time needed him, as his generation was in need of his teaching, but otherwise he would not have recovered.


讗诪专 专讘讬 讝讬专讗 讗诪专 砖诪讜讗诇 砖讻专 诪注专讘讬谉 讘讜 讜驻讜住诇 讗转 讛诪拽讜讛 讘砖诇砖转 诇讜讙讬谉 诪转拽讬祝 诇讛 专讘 讻讛谞讗 驻砖讬讟讗 讜讻讬 诪讛 讘讬谉 讝讛 诇诪讬 爪讘注 讚转谞谉 专讘讬 讬讜住讬 讗讜诪专 诪讬 爪讘注 驻讜住诇讬谉 讗转 讛诪拽讜讛 讘砖诇砖转 诇讜讙讬谉 讗诪专讬 讛转诐 诪讬讗 讚爪讘注讗 诪讬拽专讬 讛讻讗 砖讬讻专讗 讗讬拽专讬


Rabbi Zeira said that Shmuel said: One may establish an eiruv with beer, and it invalidates a ritual bath with a measure of three log, similar to drawn water. Rav Kahana strongly objects to this: This is obvious, for what is the difference between this and dye-water? As we learned in a mishna that Rabbi Yosei says: Dye-water invalidates a ritual bath with a measure of three log, like regular drawn water. They said: There is a difference between the two cases, as there, the liquid is called dye-water; here, it is called beer. Therefore, it might have been possible to argue that beer is not considered like water at all, in which case it would only invalidate a ritual bath if it changed the color of the water, and so Shmuel鈥檚 novel teaching was necessary.


讜讘讻诪讛 诪注专讘讬谉 住讘专 专讘 讗讞讗 讘专讬讛 讚专讘 讬讜住祝 拽诪讬讛 讚专讘 讬讜住祝 诇诪讬诪专 讘转专讬谉 专讘注讬 砖讻专讗 讻讚转谞谉 讛诪讜爪讬讗 讬讬谉 讻讚讬 诪讝讬讙转 讛讻讜住 讜转谞讬 注诇讛 讻讚讬 诪讝讬讙转 讻讜住 讬驻讛 诪讗讬 讻讜住 讬驻讛 讻讜住 砖诇 讘专讻讛 讜讗诪专 专讘 谞讞诪谉 讗诪专 专讘讛 讘专 讗讘讜讛 讻讜住 砖诇 讘专讻讛 爪专讬讱 砖讬讛讗 讘讜 专讜讘注 专讘讬注讬转 讻讚讬 砖讬诪讝讙谞讜 讜讬注诪讜讚 注诇 专讘讬注讬转 讜讻讚专讘讗 讚讗诪专 专讘讗 讻诇 讞诪专讗 讚诇讗 讚专讬 注诇 讞讚 转诇转 诪讬讗 诇讗讜 讞诪专讗 讛讜讗


The Gemara asks: And how much beer is needed to establish an eiruv? Rav A岣, son of Rav Yosef, thought to say before Rav Yosef as follows: Two-quarters of a log of beer. Rav A岣鈥檚 reasoning is now spelled out in detail. As we learned in a mishna: If one carries out wine on Shabbat from a private domain to a public domain, he is liable if he carries out enough wine for diluting a cup, i.e., enough undiluted wine to fill a cup after it has been diluted with water. And a baraita was taught about this mishna: Enough wine for diluting a fine cup. They inquired: What is meant by a fine cup? They answered: A cup of blessing. And Rav Na岣an said that Rabba bar Avuh said: A cup of blessing must contain a quarter of a quarter-log of wine, so that after one dilutes the wine with water, it amounts to a full quarter-log. And this measure is in accordance with the statement of Rava with regard to the strength of wine, as Rava said: Any wine that is not strong enough to require that it be diluted with three parts water to one part wine is not proper wine.


讜拽转谞讬 住讬驻讗 讜砖讗专 讻诇 讛诪砖拽讬谉 讘专讘讬注讬转 讜讻诇 讛砖讜驻讻讬谉 讘专讘讬注讬转 诪讚讛转诐 注诇 讞讚 讗专讘注 讛讻讗 谞诪讬 注诇 讞讚 讗专讘注


And we learned in the latter clause of the aforementioned mishna: And one is liable for carrying out all other liquids, and similarly all waste water, in the measure of a quarter-log. Now, Rav A岣 argues as follows: Since there, with respect to liability for carrying on Shabbat, the ratio is one to four, as one is liable for carrying out a quarter of a quarter-log of wine, and one is only liable for carrying out other liquids if one carries out a quarter-log; here, too, with respect to making an eiruv, the ratio of one to four should be maintained. Therefore, since Rav said that two-quarters of a log of wine are required for an eiruv, the minimum amount of beer one may use should be two full log.


讜诇讗 讛讬讗 讛转诐 讛讜讗 讚讘爪讬专 诪讛讻讬 诇讗 讞砖讬讘 讗讘诇 讛讻讗 诇讗 讚注讘讬讚讬 讗讬谞砖讬 讚砖转讜 讻住讗 讘爪驻专讗 讜讻住讗 讘驻谞讬讗 讜住诪讻讬 注讬诇讜讬讛讜


The Gemara rejects this argument: And this is not so. There, with regard to carrying on Shabbat, we require four times as much beer as wine because less than that amount, i.e., less than a quarter-log of beer, is insignificant. However, here, with regard to establishing an eiruv, this is not relevant, as it is common for people to drink a cup of beer in the morning and a cup of beer in the evening, and they rely on them as their meals, as beer is satisfying even in such quantities. Therefore, we should require only two-quarters of a log of beer for an eiruv.


转诪专讬诐 讘讻诪讛 讗诪专 专讘 讬讜住祝 转诪专讬诐 讘拽讘 讗诪专 专讘 讬讜住祝 诪谞讗 讗诪讬谞讗 诇讛 讚转谞讬讗 讗讻诇 讙专讜讙专讜转 讜砖讬诇诐 转诪专讬诐 转讘讜讗 注诇讬讜 讘专讻讛


The Gemara asks: How many dates are needed to establish an eiruv? Rav Yosef said: The minimal amount of dates one may use is a kav. Rav Yosef said: From where do I say this halakha? As it was taught in a baraita: If one inadvertently ate dried figs of teruma, and paid dates in compensation, may a blessing come upon him.


讛讬讻讬 讚诪讬 讗讬诇讬诪讗 诇驻讬 讚诪讬诐 讚讗讻诇 诪讬谞讬讛 讘讝讜讝讗 讜拽讗 诪砖诇诐 诇讬讛 讘讝讜讝讗 诪讗讬 转讘讗 注诇讬讜 讘专讻讛 讘讝讜讝讗 讗讻诇 讘讝讜讝讗 拽讗 诪砖诇诐 讗诇讗 诇讗讜 诇驻讬 诪讚讛 讚讗讻诇 诪讬谞讬讛 讙专讬讜讗 讚讙专讜讙专讜转 讚砖讜讬讗 讝讜讝讗 讜拽讗 诪砖诇诐 诇讬讛 讙专讬讜讗 讚转诪专讬诐 讚砖讜讬 讗专讘注讛 讜拽转谞讬 转讘讗 注诇讬讜 讘专讻讛 讗诇诪讗 转诪专讬诐 注讚讬驻讬


The Gemara proceeds to clarify this ruling: What are the circumstances of this case? If you say that one paid according to the value of the figs he ate, e.g., he ate a zuz worth of figs and he paid a zuz worth of dates, what is the reason it says: May a blessing come upon him? He ate a zuz and paid a zuz. Rather, is it not that he paid in accordance with the measure of the figs eaten, e.g., that he ate a se鈥檃 of dried figs worth one zuz, and he paid a se鈥檃 of dates worth four zuz. And it says: May a blessing come upon him. Apparently, dates are superior to dried figs. Accordingly, since we learned above that one may establish an eiruv with a kav of dried figs, a kav of dates should certainly suffice for the purpose of an eiruv.


讗诪专 诇讬讛 讗讘讬讬 诇注讜诇诐 讚讗讻诇 诪讬谞讬讛 讘讝讜讝讗 讜拽讗 诪砖诇诐 讘讝讜讝讗 讜诪讗讬 转讘讗 注诇讬讜 讘专讻讛 讚讗讻诇 诪讬谞讬讛 诪讬讚讬 讚诇讗 拽驻讬抓 注诇讬讛 讝讘讬谞讗 讜拽讗 诪砖诇诐 诇讬讛 诪讬讚讬 讚拽驻讬抓 注诇讬讛 讝讘讬谞讗


Abaye said to Rav Yosef: No proof can be brought from here. It can be argued that he actually ate a zuz worth of figs and he paid a zuz worth of dates. And what is the reason it says: May a blessing come upon him? For he ate something that buyers are not eager to buy, and he paid him something that buyers are eager to buy. Even though they are equal in value, the priest benefits, for it is easier for him to sell dates than to sell dried figs.


砖转讬转讗 讗诪专 专讘 讗讞讗 讘专 驻谞讞住 转专讬 砖专讙讜砖讬 讻讬住讗谞讬 讗诪专 讗讘讬讬 转专讬 讘讜谞讬 讚驻讜诪讘讚讬转讗


With regard to shetita, a dish made of roasted flour and honey, Rav A岣 bar Pine岣s said: Two large spoonfuls are needed for an eiruv. With regard to kisanei, a type of roasted grain, Abaye said: Two Pumbeditan bunei, the name of a particular of measurement.


讗诪专 讗讘讬讬 讗诪专讛 诇讬 讗诐 讛谞讬 讻住讗谞讬 诪注诇讜 诇诇讬讘讗 讜诪讘讟诇讬 诪讞砖讘转讗


Having mentioned roasted grain, the Gemara tangentially relates that Abaye said: Mother, actually his foster mother, told me: These roasted grains are good for the heart and drive away worrisome thoughts.


讜讗诪专 讗讘讬讬 讗诪专讛 诇讬 讗诐 讛讗讬 诪讗谉 讚讗讬转 诇讬讛 讞讜诇砖讗 讚诇讬讘讗 诇讬讬转讬 讘讬砖专讗 讚讗讟诪讗 讬诪讬谞讗 讚讚讬讻专讗 讜诇讬讬转讬 讻讘讜讬讬 讚专注讬转讗 讚谞讬住谉 讜讗讬 诇讬讻讗 讻讘讜讬讬 讚专注讬转讗 诇讬讬转讬 住讜讙讬讬谞讬 讚注专讘转讗 讜谞讬讻讘讘讬讛 讜谞讬讻讜诇 讜谞砖转讬 讘转专讬讛 讞诪专讗 诪专拽讗:


And Abaye said: Mother told me about another remedy. One who suffers from weakness of the heart should go and bring the meat of the right thigh of a ram, and also bring the dung of grazing cattle from the month of Nisan, and if there is no cattle dung he should bring willow twigs, and then roast the meat on a fire made with the dung or twigs, and eat it, and drink afterward some diluted wine. This will improve his condition.


讗诪专 专讘 讬讛讜讚讛 讗诪专 砖诪讜讗诇 讻诇 砖讛讜讗 诇讬驻转谉 讻讚讬 诇讗讻讜诇 讘讜 讻诇 砖讗讬谞讜 诇讬驻转谉 讻讚讬 诇讗讻讜诇 讛讬诪谞讜 讘砖专 讞讬 讻讚讬 诇讗讻讜诇 讛讬诪谞讜 讘砖专 爪诇讬 专讘讛 讗诪专 讻讚讬 诇讗讻讜诇 讘讜 讜专讘 讬讜住祝 讗诪专 讻讚讬 诇讗讻讜诇 讛讬诪谞讜


Returning to the matter of quantities of food required for an eiruv, Rav Yehuda said that Shmuel said: The minimum quantity for anything that serves as a relish is enough to eat two meals with it, i.e., enough to serve as a relish for the bread eaten in two meals. And with regard to anything that is not a relish, but rather is a food in its own right, one must use enough to eat two meals of it. The minimum quantity of raw meat is enough to eat two meals of it. Roasted meat is the subject of a dispute: Rabba said: Enough to eat the bread of two meals with it. That is to say, roasted meat is not a food in itself, but rather it serves as relish for other foods. And Rav Yosef said: Enough to eat two meals of it, as it is a food in its own right.


讗诪专 专讘 讬讜住祝 诪谞讗 讗诪讬谞讗 诇讛 讚讛谞讬 驻专住讗讬 讗讻诇讬 讟讘讛拽讬 讘诇讗 谞讛诪讗 讗诪专 诇讬讛 讗讘讬讬 讜驻专住讗讬 讛讜讜 专讜讘讗 讚注诇诪讗 讜讛转谞谉 讘讙讚讬 注谞讬讬诐 诇注谞讬讬诐 讘讙讚讬 注砖讬专讬诐 诇注砖讬专讬诐


Rav Yosef said: From where do I say this halakha? For these Persians eat pieces of roasted meat [tabahakki] without bread, which shows that meat itself is a food. Abaye said to him: But are the Persians a majority of the world? The halakha follows the customary practice of most of the world and not that of particular locales. Didn鈥檛 we learn the following in a baraita? Clothing of the poor, i.e., pieces of cloth measuring three by three fingerbreadths, contracts impurity when in the possession of any poor people because poor people attach importance even to scraps of cloth of such small size. Clothing of the wealthy measuring at least three by three handbreadths contracts impurity in all cases, whether or not it is owned by the wealthy.


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Food types and portions for 注专讜讘 转讞讜诪讬谉 Continued

Eruvin Daf 29 Continuing the discussion regarding what foods you can make an 注专讜讘 转讞讜诪讬谉 with. Portion sizes and food...

Eruvin 29

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Eruvin 29

讛讛讜讗 讘讘砖讬诇 讜诇讗 讘砖讬诇


The Gemara answers: That is referring to a beet that was only partially cooked, which is dangerous.


讗讬讻讗 讚讗诪专讬 讗诪专 专讘 讛诪谞讜谞讗 讗讬谉 诪注专讘讬谉 讘转专讚讬谉 讞讬讬谉 讚讗诪专 专讘 讞住讚讗 住讬诇拽讗 讞讬讬讗 拽讟讬诇 讙讘专讗 讞讬讬讗 讜讛讗 拽讗 讞讝讬谞谉 讚拽讗 讗讻诇讬 讜诇讗 诪讬讬转讬 讛转诐 讘讘砖讬诇 讜诇讗 讘砖讬诇


There are some who say that Rav Hamnuna said: One may not establish an eiruv with raw beets, as Rav 岣sda said: Raw beet kills a healthy person. The Gemara asks: Don鈥檛 we see people eating it and they do not die? The Gemara answers: There, it is referring to a beet that was only partially cooked, which is dangerous.


讗诪专 专讘 讞住讚讗 转讘砖讬诇 砖诇 转专讚讬谉 讬驻讛 诇诇讘 讜讟讜讘 诇注讬谞讬诐 讜讻诇 砖讻谉 诇讘谞讬 诪注讬讬诐 讗诪专 讗讘讬讬 讜讛讜讗 讚讬转讬讘 讗讘讬 转驻讬 讜注讘讬讚 转讜讱 转讜讱


Rav 岣sda said: A cooked dish of beets is beneficial for the heart, good for the eyes, and all the more so beneficial for the intestines. Abaye said: That is specifically when the dish sits on the stove and makes a tukh tukh sound, i.e., it is cooked thoroughly enough to produce a boiling sound.


讗诪专 专讘讗 讛专讬谞讬 讻讘谉 注讝讗讬 讘砖讜拽讬 讟讘专讬讗 讗诪专 诇讬讛 讛讛讜讗 诪专讘谞谉 诇专讘讗 转驻讜讞讬诐 讘讻诪讛 讗诪专 诇讬讛 讜讻讬 诪注专讘讬谉 讘转驻讜讞讬诐


Rava once said when he was in an especially good mood: Behold, I am like the intellectually sharp ben Azzai, who would regularly expound in the markets of Tiberias. I, too, am ready to answer any question posed to me. One of the Sages said to Rava: How many apples are needed to establish an eiruv? Rava said to him: Does one establish an eiruv with apples?


讜诇讗 讜讛转谞谉 讻诇 讛讗讜讻诇讬谉 诪爪讟专驻讬谉 诇驻住讜诇 讗转 讛讙讜讜讬讛 讘讞爪讬 驻专住 讜讘诪讝讜谉 砖转讬 住注讜讚讜转 诇注讬专讜讘 讜讻讘讬爪讛 诇讟诪讗 讟讜诪讗转 讗讜讻诇讬诐


The other Sage responded: And is it not permissible to establish an eiruv with them? Didn鈥檛 we learn in a mishna: All foods combine to disqualify the body of a priest who eats half of a half-loaf of ritually impure food, and to complete the measure of food required for two meals for the purpose of an eiruv, and to complete the measure of an egg-bulk required for a food to be able to contract the ritual impurity of foods? An apple is a kind of food, so it should be included in the items that may be used to establish an eiruv.


讜讛讗讬 诪讗讬 转讬讜讘转讗 讗讬诇讬诪讗 诪砖讜诐 讚拽转谞讬 讻诇 讛讗讜讻诇讬谉 讜讛谞讬 讘谞讬 讗讻讬诇讛 谞讬谞讛讜 讜讛讗诪专 专讘讬 讬讜讞谞谉 讗讬谉 诇诪讚讬谉 诪谉 讛讻诇诇讜转 讜讗驻讬诇讜 讘诪拽讜诐 砖谞讗诪专 讘讜 讞讜抓


The Gemara asks: And what is the refutation? If you say it is because it was taught using the term all foods, and these apples are fit for eating, how can an objection be raised from such a general term? Didn鈥檛 Rabbi Yo岣nan already say: One may not learn from general statements using the word all, even in a place where it says except, since no rule exhausts all cases?


讗诇讗 诪砖讜诐 讚拽转谞讬 讜讘诪讝讜谉 砖转讬 住注讜讚讜转 诇注讬专讜讘 讜讻讘讬爪讛 诇讟诪讗 讟讜诪讗转 讗讜讻诇讬谉 讜讛谞讬 谞诪讬 讘谞讬 讟诪讜讬讬 讟讜诪讗转 讗讜讻诇讬谉 谞讬谞讛讜


Rather, it is because it taught: And all foods combine to complete the measure of food required for two meals for the purpose of an eiruv, and to complete the measure of an egg-bulk to contract the ritual impurity of foods; and these apples are also susceptible to the ritual impurity of foods. Therefore, there is clear proof that the mishna is referring to apples as well.


讜讻诪讛 讗诪专 专讘 谞讞诪谉 转驻讜讞讬诐 讘拽讘


Having established that an eiruv may be established with apples, the Gemara returns to the question raised above: How many apples are needed to establish an eiruv? Rav Na岣an said: The minimum measure of apples that must be used for an eiruv is a kav.


诪讬转讬讘讬 专讘讬 砖诪注讜谉 讘谉 讗诇注讝专 讗讜诪专 注讜讻诇讗 转讘诇讬谉 讜诇讬讟专讗 讬专拽 讜注砖专讛 讗讙讜讝讬谉 讜讞诪砖讛 讗驻专住拽讬谉 讜砖谞讬 专诪讜谞讬诐 讜讗转专讜讙 讗讞讚 讜讗诪专 讙讜专住拽 讘专 讚专讬 诪砖诪讬讛 讚专讘 诪谞砖讬讗 讘专 砖讙讜讘诇讬 诪砖诪讬讛 讚专讘 讜讻谉 诇注讬专讜讘 讜讛谞讬 谞诪讬 诇讬讛讜讜 讻讬 讗驻专住拽讬谉


The Gemara raises an objection from a baraita: Rabbi Shimon ben Elazar says: When distributing poor man鈥檚 tithe, one must give each individual poor person at least an ukla, an eighth of a log, of spices, a liter of vegetables, ten nuts, five peaches, two pomegranates, or one citron, as these are worthy amounts for distribution. And Gursak bar Darei said in the name of Rav Menashya bar Sheguvlei, who said in the name of Rav: And similarly, this is the halakha with regard to an eiruv. Now, it can be asked: These apples should also be like peaches, as they are similar in size, and it should be enough to use five apples for an eiruv.


讛谞讬 讞砖讬讘讬 讜讛谞讬 诇讗 讞砖讬讘讬


The Gemara answers that there is a distinction between them: These peaches are important, and therefore five of them are a significant amount, but these apples are not important, and therefore one must use the larger measure of a kav.


讗诪专 专讘 讬讜住祝 砖专讗 诇讬讛 诪专讬讛 诇专讘 诪谞砖讬讗 讘专 砖讙讜讘诇讬 讗谞讗 讗诪专讬转讗 谞讬讛诇讬讛 讗诪转谞讬转讬谉 讜讛讜讗 讗诪专讛 讗讘专讬讬转讗 讚转谞谉 讗讬谉 驻讜讞转讬谉 诇注谞讬 讘讙讜专谉 诪讞爪讬 拽讘 讞讟讬谉 讜拽讘 砖注讜专讬谉 专讘讬 诪讗讬专 讗讜诪专 讞爪讬 拽讘 砖注讜专讬谉 讜拽讘 讜讞爪讬 讻讜住诪讬谉 讜拽讘 讙专讜讙专讜转 讗讜 诪谞讛 讚讘讬诇讛 专讘讬 注拽讬讘讗 讗讜诪专 驻专住 讜讞爪讬 诇讜讙 讬讬谉 专讘讬 注拽讬讘讗 讗讜诪专 专讘讬注讬转 讜专讘讬注讬转 砖诪谉 专讘讬 注拽讬讘讗 讗讜诪专 砖诪讬谞讬转 讜砖讗专 讻诇 讛驻讬专讜转 讗诪专 讗讘讗 砖讗讜诇 讻讚讬 砖讬诪讻专诐 讜讬拽讞 讘讛谉 诪讝讜谉 砖转讬 住注讜讚讜转 讜讗诪专 专讘 讜讻谉 诇注讬专讜讘


Rav Yosef said: May his Master, God, forgive Rav Menashya bar Sheguvlei, for he erred and caused others to err. I stated before him a ruling in the name of Rav concerning a mishna, and he stated it concerning the baraita, which led to the error. As we learned in a mishna: One may not give a pauper receiving poor man鈥檚 tithe at the threshing floor less than half a kav of wheat or less than a kav of barley. Rabbi Meir says: He must be given at least half a kav of barley. Similarly, he must be given no less than a kav and a half of spelt, a kav of dried figs, or a maneh of pressed figs. Rabbi Akiva says: Not a maneh, but half a maneh. He must be given at least half a log of wine. Rabbi Akiva says: Half that amount, a quarter log. And similarly, he must be given a quarter log of oil. Rabbi Akiva says: Half that amount, an eighth of a log. And with regard to all other fruit, Abba Shaul said: He must be given enough to sell them and buy food that suffices for two meals with the proceeds of their sale. And with regard to this mishna, Rav said: And similarly, this is the halakha with regard to an eiruv.


讜诪讗讬 讗讜诇诪讬讛 讚讛讗讬 诪讛讱 讗讬诇讬诪讗 诪砖讜诐 讚拽讗 转谞讬 讘讛讱 转讘诇讬谉 讜转讘诇讬谉 诇讗讜 讘谞讬 讗讻讬诇讛 谞讬谞讛讜 讗讟讜 讛讻讗 诪讬 诇讗 拽转谞讬 讞讟讬谉 讜砖注讜专讬谉 讜诇讗讜 讘谞讬 讗讻讬诇讛 谞讬谞讛讜


The Gemara poses a question with regard to Rav Yosef鈥檚 harsh reaction to Rav Menashya bar Sheguvlei鈥檚 statement: What is the strength of this over that? The mishna and baraita seem to share the same content, so why should Rav鈥檚 ruling be more applicable to one than the other? If you say it is because the halakha with regard to spices was also taught in this baraita, and spices are not fit for eating on their own but only when added as a flavoring to other foods, and therefore Rav could not have been referring to the baraita when he said that the same law applies to an eiruv; wasn鈥檛 the halakha with regard to wheat and barley taught here in the mishna, and they too are not immediately fit for eating until they are processed further.


讗诇讗 诪砖讜诐 讚拽转谞讬 讞爪讬 诇讜讙 讬讬谉 讜讗诪专 专讘 诪注专讘讬谉 讘砖转讬 专讘讬注讬讜转 砖诇 讬讬谉 诪讚讘注讬谞谉 讻讜诇讬 讛讗讬 砖诪注 诪讬谞讛 讻讬 讗诪专 专讘 讜讻谉 诇注讬专讜讘 讗讛讗 诪转谞讬转讬谉 拽讗诪专 砖诪注 诪讬谞讛


Rather, it is because it was taught in the mishna that one must give half a log of wine. And Rav said: One may establish an eiruv with two-quarters of a log of wine, which is equal to half a log. Since we require so much wine, learn from here that when Rav said: And similarly, this is the halakha with regard to an eiruv, he said it about this mishna and the measures mentioned therein. The Gemara concludes: Indeed, conclude from this that this is the proper understanding of Rav鈥檚 statement.


讗诪专 诪专 讜讘诪讝讜谉 砖转讬 住注讜讚讜转 诇注讬专讜讘 住讘专 专讘 讬讜住祝 诇诪讬诪专 注讚 讚讗讬讻讗 住注讜讚讛 诪讛讗讬 讜住注讜讚讛 诪讛讗讬 讗诪专 诇讬讛 专讘讛 讗驻讬诇讜 诇诪讞爪讛 诇砖诇讬砖 讜诇专讘讬注


The Gemara further examines the mishna cited earlier. The Master said: And all foods combine to complete the measure of food required for two meals for the purpose of an eiruv. Rav Yosef thought to say that an eiruv may not be established unless there is a complete meal of this kind of food and a complete meal of that kind of food, meaning that an eiruv may only be established if each meal consists of a single type of food. Rabba said to him: An eiruv may be established with the amount of food required for two meals even if each type of food made up only half, a third, or a quarter of a meal.


讙讜驻讗 讗诪专 专讘 诪注专讘讬谉 讘砖转讬 专讘讬注讬讜转 砖诇 讬讬谉 讜诪讬 讘注讬谞谉 讻讜诇讬 讛讗讬 讜讛转谞讬讗 专讘讬 砖诪注讜谉 讘谉 讗诇注讝专 讗讜诪专 讬讬谉 讻讚讬 诇讗讻讜诇 讘讜 讞讜诪抓 讻讚讬 诇讟讘诇 讘讜 讝讬转讬诐 讜讘爪诇讬诐 讻讚讬 诇讗讻讜诇 讘讛谉 砖转讬 住注讜讚讜转


The Gemara now examines Rav鈥檚 statement itself, which was cited in the course of the previous discussion. Rav said: One may establish an eiruv with two-quarters of a log of wine. The following question may be raised: Do we really need so much? Wasn鈥檛 it taught in a baraita that Rabbi Shimon ben Elazar says: The minimal amount of wine required for an eiruv is enough to eat bread with it, i.e., enough to soak the bread in to enable one to eat it? Additionally, the minimal amount of vinegar that may be used to establish an eiruv is enough to dip the food in it, and the minimal amount of olives and onions is enough to eat them together with the bread. All of these quantities are calculated on the basis of two meals. This baraita clearly indicates that an eiruv may be established with much less than two-quarters of a log of wine.


讛转诐 讘讞诪专讗 诪讘砖诇讗


The Gemara answers: There, the baraita is referring to cooked wine, which is very strong, and therefore even a small amount suffices.


讗诪专 诪专 讞讜诪抓 讻讚讬 诇讟讘诇 讘讜 讗诪专 专讘 讙讬讚诇 讗诪专 专讘 讻讚讬 诇讟讘诇 讘讜 诪讝讜谉 砖转讬 住注讜讚讜转 砖诇 讬专拽 讗讬讻讗 讚讗诪专讬 讗诪专 专讘 讙讬讚诇 讗诪专 专讘 讬专拽 讛谞讗讻诇 讘砖转讬 住注讜讚讜转


The Master said in the baraita that the minimal amount of vinegar that may be used for an eiruv is enough to dip food in it. Rav Giddel said that Rav said: Enough to dip in it the food of two meals consisting of vegetables. Some say that Rav Giddel said that Rav said: Enough to dip in it the vegetables that are eaten in two ordinary meals, which is less than the amount consumed in two meals consisting entirely of vegetables.


讗诪专 诪专 讝讬转讬诐 讜讘爪诇讬诐 讻讚讬 诇讗讻讜诇 讘讛谉 诪讝讜谉 砖转讬 住注讜讚讜转 讜讘讘爪诇讬诐 诪讬 诪注专讘讬谉 讜讛转谞讬讗 讗诪专 专讘讬 砖诪注讜谉 讘谉 讗诇注讝专 驻注诐 讗讞转 砖讘转 专讘讬 诪讗讬专 讘注专讚讬住拽讗 讜讘讗 讗讚诐 讗讞讚 诇驻谞讬讜 讗诪专 诇讜 专讘讬 注讬专讘转讬 讘讘爪诇讬诐 诇讟讬讘注讬谉 讜讛讜砖讬讘讜 专讘讬 诪讗讬专 讘讗专讘注 讗诪讜转 砖诇讜


The Master also said that the minimum measure of olives and onions that may be used for an eiruv is enough to eat them with the food of two meals. The Gemara asks: May one establish an eiruv with onions? Wasn鈥檛 it taught in a baraita that Rabbi Shimon ben Elazar said: Rabbi Meir once spent Shabbat in the town of Ardiska, and a certain person came before him and said to him: Rabbi, I made an eiruv of Shabbat borders [eiruv te岣min] with onions, so that I might walk to the town of Tiv鈥檌n. Ardiska was located between the man鈥檚 eiruv and his destination of Tiv鈥檌n, which was beyond his Shabbat limit as measured from his hometown. And Rabbi Meir made him remain within his four cubits. He forbade him to leave his four cubits, as he held that an eiruv made with onions is not an eiruv, and therefore the person had left his Shabbat limit without an eiruv te岣min.


诇讗 拽砖讬讗 讛讗 讘注诇讬诐 讛讗 讘讗讬诪讛讜转 讚转谞讬讗 讗讻诇 讘爪诇 讜讛砖讻讬诐 讜诪转 讗讬谉 讗讜诪专讬谉 诪诪讛 诪转 讜讗诪专 砖诪讜讗诇 诇讗 砖谞讜 讗诇讗 讘注诇讬诐 讗讘诇 讘讗讬诪讛讜转 诇讬转 诇谉 讘讛 讜讘注诇讬谉 谞诪讬 诇讗 讗诪专谉 讗诇讗


The Gemara answers: This is not difficult. This ruling, which states that onions may not be used for an eiruv, is referring to onion leaves, which are harmful; whereas that ruling, which states that onions may be used for an eiruv, is referring to onion bulbs, which are edible. As it was taught in a baraita: If one ate an onion and died early the next morning, we need not ask from what he died, as his death was certainly caused by the onion. And Shmuel said: They only taught this with regard to the leaves; but with regard to onion bulbs, we have no problem with it. And even with regard to the leaves, we only stated this concern


讚诇讗 讗讘爪讬诇 讝讬专转讗 讗讘诇 讗讘爪讬诇 讝讬专转讗 诇讬转 诇谉 讘讛


in a case where the bulb has not grown to the size of a span, the distance between the thumb and the little finger of a hand that is spread apart, because at that stage the leaves are very toxic; however, if it has grown to the size of a span, we have no problem with it.


讗诪专 专讘 驻驻讗 诇讗 讗诪专谉 讗诇讗 讚诇讗 讗讬砖转讬 砖讬讻专讗 讗讘诇 讗讬砖转讬 砖讬讻专讗 诇讬转 诇谉 讘讛


Rav Pappa said: We only stated this concern about eating onion leaves in a case where one did not drink beer afterward; however, if he drank beer afterward, we have no problem with it.


转谞讜 专讘谞谉 诇讗 讬讗讻诇 讗讚诐 讘爪诇 诪驻谞讬 谞讞砖 砖讘讜 讜诪注砖讛 讘专讘讬 讞谞讬谞讗 砖讗讻诇 讞爪讬 讘爪诇 讜讞爪讬 谞讞砖 砖讘讜 讜讞诇讛 讜谞讟讛 诇诪讜转 讜讘拽砖讜 讞讘讬专讬讜 专讞诪讬诐 注诇讬讜 讜讞讬讛 诪驻谞讬 砖讛砖注讛 爪专讬讻讛 诇讜:


The Sages taught in a baraita: A person should not eat onion because of the toxins in it. There was an incident with Rabbi 岣nina, who ate half an onion and half of its toxins, and he fell deathly ill, and his colleagues prayed for mercy for him, and he survived. He was rescued only because the time needed him, as his generation was in need of his teaching, but otherwise he would not have recovered.


讗诪专 专讘讬 讝讬专讗 讗诪专 砖诪讜讗诇 砖讻专 诪注专讘讬谉 讘讜 讜驻讜住诇 讗转 讛诪拽讜讛 讘砖诇砖转 诇讜讙讬谉 诪转拽讬祝 诇讛 专讘 讻讛谞讗 驻砖讬讟讗 讜讻讬 诪讛 讘讬谉 讝讛 诇诪讬 爪讘注 讚转谞谉 专讘讬 讬讜住讬 讗讜诪专 诪讬 爪讘注 驻讜住诇讬谉 讗转 讛诪拽讜讛 讘砖诇砖转 诇讜讙讬谉 讗诪专讬 讛转诐 诪讬讗 讚爪讘注讗 诪讬拽专讬 讛讻讗 砖讬讻专讗 讗讬拽专讬


Rabbi Zeira said that Shmuel said: One may establish an eiruv with beer, and it invalidates a ritual bath with a measure of three log, similar to drawn water. Rav Kahana strongly objects to this: This is obvious, for what is the difference between this and dye-water? As we learned in a mishna that Rabbi Yosei says: Dye-water invalidates a ritual bath with a measure of three log, like regular drawn water. They said: There is a difference between the two cases, as there, the liquid is called dye-water; here, it is called beer. Therefore, it might have been possible to argue that beer is not considered like water at all, in which case it would only invalidate a ritual bath if it changed the color of the water, and so Shmuel鈥檚 novel teaching was necessary.


讜讘讻诪讛 诪注专讘讬谉 住讘专 专讘 讗讞讗 讘专讬讛 讚专讘 讬讜住祝 拽诪讬讛 讚专讘 讬讜住祝 诇诪讬诪专 讘转专讬谉 专讘注讬 砖讻专讗 讻讚转谞谉 讛诪讜爪讬讗 讬讬谉 讻讚讬 诪讝讬讙转 讛讻讜住 讜转谞讬 注诇讛 讻讚讬 诪讝讬讙转 讻讜住 讬驻讛 诪讗讬 讻讜住 讬驻讛 讻讜住 砖诇 讘专讻讛 讜讗诪专 专讘 谞讞诪谉 讗诪专 专讘讛 讘专 讗讘讜讛 讻讜住 砖诇 讘专讻讛 爪专讬讱 砖讬讛讗 讘讜 专讜讘注 专讘讬注讬转 讻讚讬 砖讬诪讝讙谞讜 讜讬注诪讜讚 注诇 专讘讬注讬转 讜讻讚专讘讗 讚讗诪专 专讘讗 讻诇 讞诪专讗 讚诇讗 讚专讬 注诇 讞讚 转诇转 诪讬讗 诇讗讜 讞诪专讗 讛讜讗


The Gemara asks: And how much beer is needed to establish an eiruv? Rav A岣, son of Rav Yosef, thought to say before Rav Yosef as follows: Two-quarters of a log of beer. Rav A岣鈥檚 reasoning is now spelled out in detail. As we learned in a mishna: If one carries out wine on Shabbat from a private domain to a public domain, he is liable if he carries out enough wine for diluting a cup, i.e., enough undiluted wine to fill a cup after it has been diluted with water. And a baraita was taught about this mishna: Enough wine for diluting a fine cup. They inquired: What is meant by a fine cup? They answered: A cup of blessing. And Rav Na岣an said that Rabba bar Avuh said: A cup of blessing must contain a quarter of a quarter-log of wine, so that after one dilutes the wine with water, it amounts to a full quarter-log. And this measure is in accordance with the statement of Rava with regard to the strength of wine, as Rava said: Any wine that is not strong enough to require that it be diluted with three parts water to one part wine is not proper wine.


讜拽转谞讬 住讬驻讗 讜砖讗专 讻诇 讛诪砖拽讬谉 讘专讘讬注讬转 讜讻诇 讛砖讜驻讻讬谉 讘专讘讬注讬转 诪讚讛转诐 注诇 讞讚 讗专讘注 讛讻讗 谞诪讬 注诇 讞讚 讗专讘注


And we learned in the latter clause of the aforementioned mishna: And one is liable for carrying out all other liquids, and similarly all waste water, in the measure of a quarter-log. Now, Rav A岣 argues as follows: Since there, with respect to liability for carrying on Shabbat, the ratio is one to four, as one is liable for carrying out a quarter of a quarter-log of wine, and one is only liable for carrying out other liquids if one carries out a quarter-log; here, too, with respect to making an eiruv, the ratio of one to four should be maintained. Therefore, since Rav said that two-quarters of a log of wine are required for an eiruv, the minimum amount of beer one may use should be two full log.


讜诇讗 讛讬讗 讛转诐 讛讜讗 讚讘爪讬专 诪讛讻讬 诇讗 讞砖讬讘 讗讘诇 讛讻讗 诇讗 讚注讘讬讚讬 讗讬谞砖讬 讚砖转讜 讻住讗 讘爪驻专讗 讜讻住讗 讘驻谞讬讗 讜住诪讻讬 注讬诇讜讬讛讜


The Gemara rejects this argument: And this is not so. There, with regard to carrying on Shabbat, we require four times as much beer as wine because less than that amount, i.e., less than a quarter-log of beer, is insignificant. However, here, with regard to establishing an eiruv, this is not relevant, as it is common for people to drink a cup of beer in the morning and a cup of beer in the evening, and they rely on them as their meals, as beer is satisfying even in such quantities. Therefore, we should require only two-quarters of a log of beer for an eiruv.


转诪专讬诐 讘讻诪讛 讗诪专 专讘 讬讜住祝 转诪专讬诐 讘拽讘 讗诪专 专讘 讬讜住祝 诪谞讗 讗诪讬谞讗 诇讛 讚转谞讬讗 讗讻诇 讙专讜讙专讜转 讜砖讬诇诐 转诪专讬诐 转讘讜讗 注诇讬讜 讘专讻讛


The Gemara asks: How many dates are needed to establish an eiruv? Rav Yosef said: The minimal amount of dates one may use is a kav. Rav Yosef said: From where do I say this halakha? As it was taught in a baraita: If one inadvertently ate dried figs of teruma, and paid dates in compensation, may a blessing come upon him.


讛讬讻讬 讚诪讬 讗讬诇讬诪讗 诇驻讬 讚诪讬诐 讚讗讻诇 诪讬谞讬讛 讘讝讜讝讗 讜拽讗 诪砖诇诐 诇讬讛 讘讝讜讝讗 诪讗讬 转讘讗 注诇讬讜 讘专讻讛 讘讝讜讝讗 讗讻诇 讘讝讜讝讗 拽讗 诪砖诇诐 讗诇讗 诇讗讜 诇驻讬 诪讚讛 讚讗讻诇 诪讬谞讬讛 讙专讬讜讗 讚讙专讜讙专讜转 讚砖讜讬讗 讝讜讝讗 讜拽讗 诪砖诇诐 诇讬讛 讙专讬讜讗 讚转诪专讬诐 讚砖讜讬 讗专讘注讛 讜拽转谞讬 转讘讗 注诇讬讜 讘专讻讛 讗诇诪讗 转诪专讬诐 注讚讬驻讬


The Gemara proceeds to clarify this ruling: What are the circumstances of this case? If you say that one paid according to the value of the figs he ate, e.g., he ate a zuz worth of figs and he paid a zuz worth of dates, what is the reason it says: May a blessing come upon him? He ate a zuz and paid a zuz. Rather, is it not that he paid in accordance with the measure of the figs eaten, e.g., that he ate a se鈥檃 of dried figs worth one zuz, and he paid a se鈥檃 of dates worth four zuz. And it says: May a blessing come upon him. Apparently, dates are superior to dried figs. Accordingly, since we learned above that one may establish an eiruv with a kav of dried figs, a kav of dates should certainly suffice for the purpose of an eiruv.


讗诪专 诇讬讛 讗讘讬讬 诇注讜诇诐 讚讗讻诇 诪讬谞讬讛 讘讝讜讝讗 讜拽讗 诪砖诇诐 讘讝讜讝讗 讜诪讗讬 转讘讗 注诇讬讜 讘专讻讛 讚讗讻诇 诪讬谞讬讛 诪讬讚讬 讚诇讗 拽驻讬抓 注诇讬讛 讝讘讬谞讗 讜拽讗 诪砖诇诐 诇讬讛 诪讬讚讬 讚拽驻讬抓 注诇讬讛 讝讘讬谞讗


Abaye said to Rav Yosef: No proof can be brought from here. It can be argued that he actually ate a zuz worth of figs and he paid a zuz worth of dates. And what is the reason it says: May a blessing come upon him? For he ate something that buyers are not eager to buy, and he paid him something that buyers are eager to buy. Even though they are equal in value, the priest benefits, for it is easier for him to sell dates than to sell dried figs.


砖转讬转讗 讗诪专 专讘 讗讞讗 讘专 驻谞讞住 转专讬 砖专讙讜砖讬 讻讬住讗谞讬 讗诪专 讗讘讬讬 转专讬 讘讜谞讬 讚驻讜诪讘讚讬转讗


With regard to shetita, a dish made of roasted flour and honey, Rav A岣 bar Pine岣s said: Two large spoonfuls are needed for an eiruv. With regard to kisanei, a type of roasted grain, Abaye said: Two Pumbeditan bunei, the name of a particular of measurement.


讗诪专 讗讘讬讬 讗诪专讛 诇讬 讗诐 讛谞讬 讻住讗谞讬 诪注诇讜 诇诇讬讘讗 讜诪讘讟诇讬 诪讞砖讘转讗


Having mentioned roasted grain, the Gemara tangentially relates that Abaye said: Mother, actually his foster mother, told me: These roasted grains are good for the heart and drive away worrisome thoughts.


讜讗诪专 讗讘讬讬 讗诪专讛 诇讬 讗诐 讛讗讬 诪讗谉 讚讗讬转 诇讬讛 讞讜诇砖讗 讚诇讬讘讗 诇讬讬转讬 讘讬砖专讗 讚讗讟诪讗 讬诪讬谞讗 讚讚讬讻专讗 讜诇讬讬转讬 讻讘讜讬讬 讚专注讬转讗 讚谞讬住谉 讜讗讬 诇讬讻讗 讻讘讜讬讬 讚专注讬转讗 诇讬讬转讬 住讜讙讬讬谞讬 讚注专讘转讗 讜谞讬讻讘讘讬讛 讜谞讬讻讜诇 讜谞砖转讬 讘转专讬讛 讞诪专讗 诪专拽讗:


And Abaye said: Mother told me about another remedy. One who suffers from weakness of the heart should go and bring the meat of the right thigh of a ram, and also bring the dung of grazing cattle from the month of Nisan, and if there is no cattle dung he should bring willow twigs, and then roast the meat on a fire made with the dung or twigs, and eat it, and drink afterward some diluted wine. This will improve his condition.


讗诪专 专讘 讬讛讜讚讛 讗诪专 砖诪讜讗诇 讻诇 砖讛讜讗 诇讬驻转谉 讻讚讬 诇讗讻讜诇 讘讜 讻诇 砖讗讬谞讜 诇讬驻转谉 讻讚讬 诇讗讻讜诇 讛讬诪谞讜 讘砖专 讞讬 讻讚讬 诇讗讻讜诇 讛讬诪谞讜 讘砖专 爪诇讬 专讘讛 讗诪专 讻讚讬 诇讗讻讜诇 讘讜 讜专讘 讬讜住祝 讗诪专 讻讚讬 诇讗讻讜诇 讛讬诪谞讜


Returning to the matter of quantities of food required for an eiruv, Rav Yehuda said that Shmuel said: The minimum quantity for anything that serves as a relish is enough to eat two meals with it, i.e., enough to serve as a relish for the bread eaten in two meals. And with regard to anything that is not a relish, but rather is a food in its own right, one must use enough to eat two meals of it. The minimum quantity of raw meat is enough to eat two meals of it. Roasted meat is the subject of a dispute: Rabba said: Enough to eat the bread of two meals with it. That is to say, roasted meat is not a food in itself, but rather it serves as relish for other foods. And Rav Yosef said: Enough to eat two meals of it, as it is a food in its own right.


讗诪专 专讘 讬讜住祝 诪谞讗 讗诪讬谞讗 诇讛 讚讛谞讬 驻专住讗讬 讗讻诇讬 讟讘讛拽讬 讘诇讗 谞讛诪讗 讗诪专 诇讬讛 讗讘讬讬 讜驻专住讗讬 讛讜讜 专讜讘讗 讚注诇诪讗 讜讛转谞谉 讘讙讚讬 注谞讬讬诐 诇注谞讬讬诐 讘讙讚讬 注砖讬专讬诐 诇注砖讬专讬诐


Rav Yosef said: From where do I say this halakha? For these Persians eat pieces of roasted meat [tabahakki] without bread, which shows that meat itself is a food. Abaye said to him: But are the Persians a majority of the world? The halakha follows the customary practice of most of the world and not that of particular locales. Didn鈥檛 we learn the following in a baraita? Clothing of the poor, i.e., pieces of cloth measuring three by three fingerbreadths, contracts impurity when in the possession of any poor people because poor people attach importance even to scraps of cloth of such small size. Clothing of the wealthy measuring at least three by three handbreadths contracts impurity in all cases, whether or not it is owned by the wealthy.


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