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Today's Daf Yomi

September 16, 2020 | כ״ז באלול תש״פ

Masechet Eruvin is sponsored by Adina and Eric Hagege in honor of our parents, Rabbi Dov and Elayne Greenstone and Roger and Ketty Hagege who raised children, grandchildren and great grandchildren committed to Torah learning.

Eruvin 38

Today’s daf is sponsored in honor of Ann Goldhirsch on her birthday. Happy birthday to our #1 Daf Yomi learner! Love, Barry, Aaron and Ezra. And by Yael in honor of her sister Shifra on her birthday.

What happens regarding an eruv techum when Shabbat and Yom Tov fall out right next to each other? Can one make a separate eruv in two different directions – each for a different day – as we can say they are each a separate day of sanctity? Or can we only make an eruv in the same place for both days as we treat them as one sanctity – or at least we should be stringent just in case it is considered one sanctity? The rabbis and Rabbi Eliezer disagree on this issue. The gemara brings some sources that bring a back and forth discussion between the two. How does the issue of preparing on Yom Tov for Shabbat come into play here? The gemara quotes the Tosefta in which there are three approaches to the question. However, based on a statement of Rav, the gemara changes the version that was quoted in the Tosefta.

אי אתה מודה שמא יבקע הנוד ונמצא שותה טבלים למפרע אמר להן לכשיבקע:

don’t you at least concede that we must be concerned that perhaps the leather flask will burst, and retroactively this person would have been drinking tevel? Rabbi Meir said to them: When it bursts, I will consider the matter, but now I am not concerned about this possibility.

מתני׳ רבי אליעזר אומר יום טוב הסמוך לשבת בין מלפניה ובין מלאחריה מערב אדם שני עירובין ואומר עירובי בראשון למזרח ובשני למערב בראשון למערב ובשני למזרח עירובי בראשון ובשני כבני עירי עירובי בשני ובראשון כבני עירי

MISHNA: Rabbi Eliezer says: With regard to a Festival adjacent to Shabbat, whether before it, on a Friday, or after it, on a Sunday, a person may establish two eiruvin of Shabbat borders [teḥumin] and say as follows: My eiruv on the first day shall be to the east, and on the second day to the west. Alternatively, one may say: On the first day it shall be to the west and on the second day to the east. Similarly, one may say: My eiruv shall apply on the first day, but on the second day I shall be like the rest of the inhabitants of my town, or: My eiruv shall apply on the second day, but on the first day I shall be like the rest of the inhabitants of my town.

וחכמים אומרים או מערב לרוח אחת או אינו מערב כל עיקר או מערב לשני ימים או אינו מערב כל עיקר

And the Rabbis disagree and say that such a split is impossible. Rather, he either establishes an eiruv in one direction for both days, or he establishes no eiruv at all; either he establishes an eiruv for the two days, or he establishes no eiruv at all.

כיצד יעשה מוליכו בראשון ומחשיך עליו ונוטלו ובא לו בשני מחשיך עליו ואוכלו ובא לו ונמצא משתכר בהליכתו ומשתכר בעירובו

What does one do to establish an eiruv that will be valid for both the Festival and Shabbat? He or his agent brings the eiruv to the location that he wishes to establish as his residence on the eve of the first day, and he stays there with it until nightfall, the time when the eiruv establishes that location as his residence for the Festival, and then he takes it with him and goes away,so that it will not become lost before the following evening, in which case he would not have an eiruv for the second day. On the eve of the second day, he takes it back to the same place as the day before, and he stays there with it until nightfall, thereby establishing his residence for Shabbat, and then he may eat the eiruv and go away, if he so desires. Consequently, he benefits in that he is permitted to walk in the direction that he desires, and he benefits in that he is permitted to eat his eiruv.

נאכל בראשון עירובו לראשון ואין עירובו לשני

However, if the eiruv was eaten on the first day, his eiruv is effective for the first day, and his eiruv is not effective for the second day.

אמר (להן) רבי אליעזר מודים אתם לי שהן שתי קדושות:

Rabbi Eliezer said to them: If so, you agree with me that Shabbat and a Festival constitute two distinct sanctities, as if not, the eiruv that went into effect during the twilight period on the eve of the first day should have remained in effect for both days, even if it was eaten during the first day. This being the case, you should also agree with me that one can make two separate eiruvin for the two days in two different directions.

גמ׳ לרוח אחת מאי ניהו לשני ימים לשני ימים מאי ניהו לרוח אחת היינו קמייתא

GEMARA: The Gemara raises a difficulty with regard to the wording employed by the Rabbis: First, the Rabbis state that one may establish an eiruv in one direction. What does this mean? He must establish an eiruv in that direction for two days. Then they state that he may establish an eiruv for two days. What does this mean? He must establish an eiruv for the two days in one direction. If so, this is exactly the same as the first clause.

הכי קאמרי ליה רבנן לרבי אליעזר אי אתה מודה שאין מערבין ליום אחד חציו לצפון וחציו לדרום אמר להן אבל כשם שאין מערבין ליום אחד חציו לדרום וחציו לצפון כך אין מערבין לשני ימים יום אחד למזרח ויום אחד למערב

The Gemara explains: This is what the Rabbis said to Rabbi Eliezer: Don’t you concede that in the case of one day, one may not establish an eiruv for half the day to the north and for half of it to the south? Rabbi Eliezer said to them: Indeed, I agree. They then said to him: Just as one may not establish an eiruv for one day, half the day to the north and half the day to the south, so too, one may not establish an eiruv for two consecutive days of sanctity, one day to the east and one day to the west.

ורבי אליעזר התם קדושה אחת הכא שתי קדושות

And how does Rabbi Eliezer respond? He holds as follows: There, one day constitutes one sanctity, and it is impossible to impossible to divide the day such that the eiruv applies to one direction for one half of the day and to another direction for the other half of the day. Here, where Shabbat and a Festival fall out on consecutive days, they are two separate sanctities, and therefore one can establish separate eiruvin for the two days.

אמר להן רבי אליעזר אי אתם מודים שאם עירב ברגליו ביום ראשון מערב ברגליו ביום שני נאכל עירובו ביום ראשון אין יוצא עליו ביום שני

Rabbi Eliezer said to the Rabbis: Don’t you concede that if one established an eiruv with his feet by actually going to the place where he desires to establish an eiruv on the eve of the first day and remaining there during the twilight period, as opposed to depositing food there beforehand, he nonetheless must establish another eiruv with his feet on the eve of the second day, and one eiruv does not suffice; similarly, if his eiruv was eaten on the first day, he may not rely on it and go out beyond the limit permitted to the rest of the inhabitants of his town on the second day?

אמרו לו אבל הא לאיי שתי קדושות הן ורבנן ספוקי מספקא להו והכא לחומרא והכא לחומרא

The Rabbis said to him: Indeed, that is correct. Rabbi Eliezer then said to them: Then isn’t it correct that they are two distinct sanctities, and therefore one should be permitted to establish two separate eiruvin for the two days? And how do the Rabbis respond? They are in doubt about this issue, and therefore their ruling here is stringent and prohibits establishing separate eiruvin for the two days in different directions, in case the two days are considered a single sanctity; and their ruling here is stringent and they require a separate eiruv for each day, in case the two days are considered distinct sanctities.

אמרו לו לרבי אליעזר אי אתה מודה שאין מערבין בתחילה מיום טוב לשבת אמר להן אבל הא לאיי קדושה אחת היא

The Rabbis said to Rabbi Eliezer: Don’t you concede that one may not establish an eiruv initially on a Festival for Shabbat, i.e., if a Festival occurs on a Friday and one forgot to establish an eiruv on the eve of the Festival, he may not establish an eiruv for Shabbat on the Festival itself? Rabbi Eliezer said to them: Indeed, that is correct. They said to him: Then isn’t it correct that the two days constitute one sanctity?

ורבי אליעזר התם משום הכנה

The Gemara responds that Rabbi Eliezer holds that there, the halakha is so not because the two days constitute a single sanctity, but due to the prohibition of preparation on a Festival for Shabbat, which includes establishing an eiruv.

תנו רבנן עירב ברגליו ביום ראשון מערב ברגליו ביום שני נאכל עירובו ביום ראשון אין יוצא עליו ביום שני דברי רבי

The Sages taught in a baraita: If one established an eiruv with his feet by going to the place he wished to establish as his residence on the eve of the first day and remaining there during the twilight period, he must nevertheless establish another eiruv with his feet on the eve of the second day. Similarly, if he had established an eiruv by depositing food in the place he wished to establish as his residence, and his eiruv was eaten on the first day, he may not rely on it and go out beyond the limit permitted to the rest of the inhabitants of the town on the second day. This is the statement of Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi.

רבי יהודה אומר

Rabbi Yehuda says:

הרי זה חמר גמל

This person is in the position of both a donkey driver, who must prod the animal from behind, and a camel driver, who must lead the animal from the front, i.e., he is pulled in two opposing directions. Since we are unsure whether the two days constitute one sanctity or two, he must act stringently as though the eiruv established for the first day is both effective and not effective for the second day, i.e., he must restrict his Shabbat movement to those areas where he would be permitted to go in both cases.

רבן שמעון בן גמליאל ורבי ישמעאל בנו של רבי יוחנן בן ברוקה אומרים עירב ברגליו בראשון אין מערב ברגליו בשני נאכל עירובו ביום ראשון יוצא עליו בשני

Rabban Shimon ben Gamliel and Rabbi Yishmael, son of Rabbi Yoḥanan ben Beroka, say: If he established an eiruv with his feet on the eve of the first day, he need not establish an eiruv with his feet on the eve of the second day, as his eiruv remains effective for the second day as well. Similarly, if he had made an eiruv by depositing food in the place where he wished to establish his residence, and his eiruv was eaten on the first day, he may still rely on it and go out beyond the limit permitted to the rest of the inhabitants of the town on the second day, as the two days constitute one sanctity; from the outset, the eiruv acquired his place of rest for both days.

אמר רב הלכה כארבעה זקנים הללו ואליבא דרבי אליעזר דאמר שתי קדושות הן ואלו הן ארבעה זקנים רבן שמעון בן גמליאל ורבי ישמעאל ברבי יוחנן בן ברוקה ורבי אליעזר ברבי שמעון ורבי יוסי בר יהודה סתימתאה ואיכא דאמרי חד מינייהו רבי אלעזר ומפיק רבי יוסי בר יהודה סתימתאה

Rav said: The halakha is in accordance with the opinion of these four Elders and in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Eliezer, who said: When Shabbat and a Festival occur on consecutive days, they constitute two distinct sanctities. And these are the four Elders: Rabban Shimon ben Gamliel; Rabbi Yishmael, son of Rabbi Yoḥanan ben Beroka; Rabbi Eliezer, son of Rabbi Shimon; and Rabbi Yosei bar Yehuda, the one whose opinions were often recorded as unattributed mishnayot. And there are those who say: One of them is Rabbi Elazar, and remove from the list Rabbi Yosei bar Yehuda, the one whose statements were often recorded as unattributed mishnayot.

והא רבן שמעון בן גמליאל ורבי ישמעאל בר רבי יוחנן בן ברוקה איפכא שמעינן להו איפוך

The Gemara raises a difficulty: Didn’t we hear that Rabban Shimon ben Gamliel and Rabbi Yishmael, son of Rabbi Yoḥanan ben Beroka, maintain the opposite opinion in the baraita cited above, namely that the two days constitute a single sanctity? The Gemara answers: Reverse the attributions in the baraita.

אי הכי היינו רבי אימא וכן אמר רבן שמעון בן גמליאל וכו׳

The Gemara asks: If so, this is exactly what Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi said. What is their dispute? The Gemara answers: Say that there is no disagreement between them, and the baraita should read as follows: And so too, Rabban Shimon ben Gamliel said that he agrees with what was stated above.

וליחשוב נמי רבי רבי תני לה ולא סבר לה

The Gemara now asks: Let us also count Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi among these Elders, as he too holds that the two days are distinct sanctities. The Gemara answers: Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi taught this opinion, and he himself did not hold it to be correct. He transmitted a ruling that he received from his teachers, but his own opinion was otherwise.

רבנן נמי תנו לה ולא סברי לה רב גמרא גמיר לה

The Gemara raises a difficulty: If so, let us also say that the Rabbis, Rabban Shimon ben Gamliel, and Rabbi Yishmael also taught this law, and they themselves did not hold it to be correct. What proof is there that this represents their own opinions? The Gemara answers: Rav did not rely on the wording of these sources; rather, he learned by way of a definite tradition that these four Elders maintained this position.

כי נח נפשיה דרב הונא עייל רב חסדא למירמא דרב אדרב מי אמר רב הלכה כארבעה זקנים ואליבא דרבי אליעזר דאמר שתי קדושות הן

The Gemara relates that when Rav Huna, Rav’s preeminent student, passed away, Rav Ḥisda entered the study hall to raise a contradiction between one statement of Rav and another statement of Rav: Did Rav actually say: The halakha is in accordance with the opinion of the four Elders and in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Eliezer, who said that when Shabbat and a Festival fall out on consecutive days, they constitute two distinct sanctities?

והא איתמר שבת ויום טוב רב אמר נולדה בזה אסורה בזה

Wasn’t it stated that with regard to a case where Shabbat and a Festival occur on consecutive days, Rav said: An egg that was laid on one is prohibited on the other, just as an egg that was laid on a Festival day is prohibited on that same day? This statement indicates that the two days constitute a single sanctity. How, then, can he say here that the halakha is in accordance with the opinion that they are two distinct sanctities?

אמר רבה התם משום הכנה

Rabba said that a distinction may be drawn between the cases: There, the egg is prohibited on the second day not because the two days constitute a single sanctity but because of the prohibition against preparation, i.e., because it is prohibited to prepare things on a Festival for Shabbat or on Shabbat for a Festival.

דתניא והיה ביום הששי והכינו חול מכין לשבת וחול מכין ליום טוב ואין יום טוב מכין לשבת ואין שבת מכינה ליום טוב

As it was taught in a baraita: The verse that states: “And it shall come to pass, on the sixth day, when they shall prepare that which they bring in” (Exodus 16:5), indicates as follows: On an ordinary weekday one may prepare what is needed for Shabbat, and similarly, on an ordinary weekday one may prepare what is needed for a Festival. However, on a Festival one may not prepare for Shabbat, and on Shabbat one may not prepare for a Festival. Therefore, an egg that was laid on a Festival is prohibited on Shabbat not because they constitute a single sanctity, but because it is prohibited to prepare on one sanctified day for another.

אמר ליה אביי אלא הא דתנן כיצד הוא עושה מוליכו בראשון ומחשיך עליו ונוטלו ובא לו בשני מחשיך עליו ואוכלו ובא לו הא קא מכין מיום טוב לשבת

Abaye said to him: But what about that which we learned in the mishna: What does he do if a Festival occurs on Friday, and he wishes to establish an eiruv that will be valid for the Festival and Shabbat? He or his agent takes the eiruv to the spot that he wishes to establish as his residence on the eve of the first day, and he stays there with it until nightfall, and then he takes it with him and goes away. On the eve of the second day, i.e., on Friday afternoon, he or his agent takes the eiruv back to the same place and stays there with it until nightfall, and then he may eat the eiruv and go away, if he so desires. Isn’t he preparing on a Festival for Shabbat? According to Rabba, this should be considered a prohibited act of preparation.

אמר ליה רבה מי סברת סוף היום קונה עירוב תחלת היום קונה עירוב ושבת מכינה לעצמה

Rabba said to him: Do you think that the eiruv acquires one’s residence at the end of the day, i.e., at the last moment of Shabbat eve, which in this case is a Festival, so that this would involve prohibited preparation? The eiruv acquires his residence at the beginning of the day, i.e., at the first moment of Shabbat, which means that no preparations were made for Shabbat on the Festival, and on Shabbat one may prepare for Shabbat itself.

אלא מעתה יערבו בלגין

Abaye asked: But if that is so, one should be able to establish an eiruv with flasks of wine that were filled from a barrel of first-tithe that was still tevel with respect to teruma of the tithe, and with regard to which one said: Let this wine in the flask be teruma of the tithe for the wine in the barrel only after nightfall. If you say that an eiruv acquires one’s residence at the beginning of the day, why was it determined that one may not establish an eiruv with such wine?

בעינן סעודה הראויה מבעוד יום וליכא

The Gemara answers: In that case the eiruv is not valid for a different reason: We require a meal that is fit to be eaten while it is still day, and there is none, as the wine in the flask remains tevel and therefore unfit for drinking until nightfall.

אלא הא דתנן רבי אליעזר אומר יום טוב הסמוך לשבת בין מלפניה ובין מלאחריה מערב אדם שני עירובין הא בעינן סעודה הראויה מבעוד יום וליכא

Abaye asked further: But what about that which we learned in a mishna: Rabbi Eliezer says: If a Festival is adjacent to Shabbat, whether before it or after it, a person may establish two eiruvin. Why are these eiruvin valid? Don’t we require a meal that is fit to be eaten while it is still day, and there is none? Since one established his eiruv in one direction for the first day, he can only travel within a two-thousand-cubit radius of that location. Therefore, if he established his eiruv for the second day in the opposite direction, he cannot access that eiruv during the first day.

מי סברת דמנח ליה בסוף אלפים אמה לכאן ובסוף אלפים אמה לכאן לא דמנח ליה בסוף אלף אמה לכאן ובסוף אלף אמה לכאן

The Gemara responds: Do you think that we are dealing with a case where he placed one eiruv in the furthest possible spot at the end of two thousand cubits in this direction, and he placed the other eiruv in the furthest possible spot at the end of two thousand cubits in that direction, and he is therefore unable to go from one to the other on one day? No, the case is that he placed one eiruv at the end of one thousand cubits in the this direction, and he placed the other eiruv at the end of one thousand cubits in that direction, so that even after acquiring his residence on one side of the town by means of the first eiruv, he can still go to the spot where he left the other eiruv for the second day.

אלא הא דאמר רב יהודה עירב ברגליו יום ראשון מערב ברגליו יום שני עירב בפת ביום ראשון מערב בפת ביום שני הא קא מכין מיום טוב לשבת

Abaye raised yet another difficulty: But what about that which Rav Yehuda said: If one established an eiruv with his feet for the first day, he may establish an eiruv with his feet for the second day; and if he established an eiruv with bread on the first day, he may establish an eiruv with bread on the second day? Isn’t he preparing from a Festival to Shabbat?

אמר ליה מי סברת דאזיל ואמר מידי דאזיל ושתיק ויתיב

Rabba said to him: Do you think that one must go and say something at the site of the eiruv, therefore performing an act of preparation? He goes, and is silent, and sits there, and he automatically acquires his residence without having to say or do anything. This does not fall into the category of prohibited preparation.

כמאן כרבי יוחנן בן נורי דאמר חפצי הפקר קונין שביתה

Abaye asked: In accordance with whose opinion do you say that nothing must be said when establishing an eiruv teḥumin? It is in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Yoḥanan ben Nuri, who said: A sleeping person acquires a Shabbat residence in the spot where he is sleeping. Even though he is comparable to ownerless property, ownerless property itself acquires a Shabbat residence and has its own Shabbat boundary, and there is no need for a person to establish a residence for it in a particular spot.

אפילו תימא רבנן עד כאן לא פליגי רבנן עליה דרבי יוחנן בן נורי אלא בישן דלא מצי אמר אבל בניעור דאי בעי למימר מצי אמר אף על גב דלא אמר כמאן דאמר דמי

Rabba replied: Even if you say that my statement is in accordance with the opinion of the Rabbis, the Rabbis disagree with Rabbi Yoḥanan ben Nuri only with regard to a sleeping person, who cannot say anything, as he is asleep. Consequently, he cannot acquire a Shabbat residence. However, with regard to one who is awake, since if he wanted to speak he could speak, even though he did not say that he is acquiring his Shabbat residence, he is considered as one who did say that statement.

אמר ליה רבה בר רב חנין לאביי אי הוה שמיע ליה למר הא דתניא לא יהלך אדם לסוף שדהו לידע מה היא צריכה כיוצא בו

Rabba bar Rav Ḥanin said to Abaye: If the Master, Rabba, had heard that which was taught in the following baraita: A person may not walk to the end of his field on Shabbat to determine what work and repair it requires, which will be done after Shabbat. Similarly,

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Eruvin 38

אי אתה מודה שמא יבקע הנוד ונמצא שותה טבלים למפרע אמר להן לכשיבקע:

don’t you at least concede that we must be concerned that perhaps the leather flask will burst, and retroactively this person would have been drinking tevel? Rabbi Meir said to them: When it bursts, I will consider the matter, but now I am not concerned about this possibility.

מתני׳ רבי אליעזר אומר יום טוב הסמוך לשבת בין מלפניה ובין מלאחריה מערב אדם שני עירובין ואומר עירובי בראשון למזרח ובשני למערב בראשון למערב ובשני למזרח עירובי בראשון ובשני כבני עירי עירובי בשני ובראשון כבני עירי

MISHNA: Rabbi Eliezer says: With regard to a Festival adjacent to Shabbat, whether before it, on a Friday, or after it, on a Sunday, a person may establish two eiruvin of Shabbat borders [teḥumin] and say as follows: My eiruv on the first day shall be to the east, and on the second day to the west. Alternatively, one may say: On the first day it shall be to the west and on the second day to the east. Similarly, one may say: My eiruv shall apply on the first day, but on the second day I shall be like the rest of the inhabitants of my town, or: My eiruv shall apply on the second day, but on the first day I shall be like the rest of the inhabitants of my town.

וחכמים אומרים או מערב לרוח אחת או אינו מערב כל עיקר או מערב לשני ימים או אינו מערב כל עיקר

And the Rabbis disagree and say that such a split is impossible. Rather, he either establishes an eiruv in one direction for both days, or he establishes no eiruv at all; either he establishes an eiruv for the two days, or he establishes no eiruv at all.

כיצד יעשה מוליכו בראשון ומחשיך עליו ונוטלו ובא לו בשני מחשיך עליו ואוכלו ובא לו ונמצא משתכר בהליכתו ומשתכר בעירובו

What does one do to establish an eiruv that will be valid for both the Festival and Shabbat? He or his agent brings the eiruv to the location that he wishes to establish as his residence on the eve of the first day, and he stays there with it until nightfall, the time when the eiruv establishes that location as his residence for the Festival, and then he takes it with him and goes away,so that it will not become lost before the following evening, in which case he would not have an eiruv for the second day. On the eve of the second day, he takes it back to the same place as the day before, and he stays there with it until nightfall, thereby establishing his residence for Shabbat, and then he may eat the eiruv and go away, if he so desires. Consequently, he benefits in that he is permitted to walk in the direction that he desires, and he benefits in that he is permitted to eat his eiruv.

נאכל בראשון עירובו לראשון ואין עירובו לשני

However, if the eiruv was eaten on the first day, his eiruv is effective for the first day, and his eiruv is not effective for the second day.

אמר (להן) רבי אליעזר מודים אתם לי שהן שתי קדושות:

Rabbi Eliezer said to them: If so, you agree with me that Shabbat and a Festival constitute two distinct sanctities, as if not, the eiruv that went into effect during the twilight period on the eve of the first day should have remained in effect for both days, even if it was eaten during the first day. This being the case, you should also agree with me that one can make two separate eiruvin for the two days in two different directions.

גמ׳ לרוח אחת מאי ניהו לשני ימים לשני ימים מאי ניהו לרוח אחת היינו קמייתא

GEMARA: The Gemara raises a difficulty with regard to the wording employed by the Rabbis: First, the Rabbis state that one may establish an eiruv in one direction. What does this mean? He must establish an eiruv in that direction for two days. Then they state that he may establish an eiruv for two days. What does this mean? He must establish an eiruv for the two days in one direction. If so, this is exactly the same as the first clause.

הכי קאמרי ליה רבנן לרבי אליעזר אי אתה מודה שאין מערבין ליום אחד חציו לצפון וחציו לדרום אמר להן אבל כשם שאין מערבין ליום אחד חציו לדרום וחציו לצפון כך אין מערבין לשני ימים יום אחד למזרח ויום אחד למערב

The Gemara explains: This is what the Rabbis said to Rabbi Eliezer: Don’t you concede that in the case of one day, one may not establish an eiruv for half the day to the north and for half of it to the south? Rabbi Eliezer said to them: Indeed, I agree. They then said to him: Just as one may not establish an eiruv for one day, half the day to the north and half the day to the south, so too, one may not establish an eiruv for two consecutive days of sanctity, one day to the east and one day to the west.

ורבי אליעזר התם קדושה אחת הכא שתי קדושות

And how does Rabbi Eliezer respond? He holds as follows: There, one day constitutes one sanctity, and it is impossible to impossible to divide the day such that the eiruv applies to one direction for one half of the day and to another direction for the other half of the day. Here, where Shabbat and a Festival fall out on consecutive days, they are two separate sanctities, and therefore one can establish separate eiruvin for the two days.

אמר להן רבי אליעזר אי אתם מודים שאם עירב ברגליו ביום ראשון מערב ברגליו ביום שני נאכל עירובו ביום ראשון אין יוצא עליו ביום שני

Rabbi Eliezer said to the Rabbis: Don’t you concede that if one established an eiruv with his feet by actually going to the place where he desires to establish an eiruv on the eve of the first day and remaining there during the twilight period, as opposed to depositing food there beforehand, he nonetheless must establish another eiruv with his feet on the eve of the second day, and one eiruv does not suffice; similarly, if his eiruv was eaten on the first day, he may not rely on it and go out beyond the limit permitted to the rest of the inhabitants of his town on the second day?

אמרו לו אבל הא לאיי שתי קדושות הן ורבנן ספוקי מספקא להו והכא לחומרא והכא לחומרא

The Rabbis said to him: Indeed, that is correct. Rabbi Eliezer then said to them: Then isn’t it correct that they are two distinct sanctities, and therefore one should be permitted to establish two separate eiruvin for the two days? And how do the Rabbis respond? They are in doubt about this issue, and therefore their ruling here is stringent and prohibits establishing separate eiruvin for the two days in different directions, in case the two days are considered a single sanctity; and their ruling here is stringent and they require a separate eiruv for each day, in case the two days are considered distinct sanctities.

אמרו לו לרבי אליעזר אי אתה מודה שאין מערבין בתחילה מיום טוב לשבת אמר להן אבל הא לאיי קדושה אחת היא

The Rabbis said to Rabbi Eliezer: Don’t you concede that one may not establish an eiruv initially on a Festival for Shabbat, i.e., if a Festival occurs on a Friday and one forgot to establish an eiruv on the eve of the Festival, he may not establish an eiruv for Shabbat on the Festival itself? Rabbi Eliezer said to them: Indeed, that is correct. They said to him: Then isn’t it correct that the two days constitute one sanctity?

ורבי אליעזר התם משום הכנה

The Gemara responds that Rabbi Eliezer holds that there, the halakha is so not because the two days constitute a single sanctity, but due to the prohibition of preparation on a Festival for Shabbat, which includes establishing an eiruv.

תנו רבנן עירב ברגליו ביום ראשון מערב ברגליו ביום שני נאכל עירובו ביום ראשון אין יוצא עליו ביום שני דברי רבי

The Sages taught in a baraita: If one established an eiruv with his feet by going to the place he wished to establish as his residence on the eve of the first day and remaining there during the twilight period, he must nevertheless establish another eiruv with his feet on the eve of the second day. Similarly, if he had established an eiruv by depositing food in the place he wished to establish as his residence, and his eiruv was eaten on the first day, he may not rely on it and go out beyond the limit permitted to the rest of the inhabitants of the town on the second day. This is the statement of Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi.

רבי יהודה אומר

Rabbi Yehuda says:

הרי זה חמר גמל

This person is in the position of both a donkey driver, who must prod the animal from behind, and a camel driver, who must lead the animal from the front, i.e., he is pulled in two opposing directions. Since we are unsure whether the two days constitute one sanctity or two, he must act stringently as though the eiruv established for the first day is both effective and not effective for the second day, i.e., he must restrict his Shabbat movement to those areas where he would be permitted to go in both cases.

רבן שמעון בן גמליאל ורבי ישמעאל בנו של רבי יוחנן בן ברוקה אומרים עירב ברגליו בראשון אין מערב ברגליו בשני נאכל עירובו ביום ראשון יוצא עליו בשני

Rabban Shimon ben Gamliel and Rabbi Yishmael, son of Rabbi Yoḥanan ben Beroka, say: If he established an eiruv with his feet on the eve of the first day, he need not establish an eiruv with his feet on the eve of the second day, as his eiruv remains effective for the second day as well. Similarly, if he had made an eiruv by depositing food in the place where he wished to establish his residence, and his eiruv was eaten on the first day, he may still rely on it and go out beyond the limit permitted to the rest of the inhabitants of the town on the second day, as the two days constitute one sanctity; from the outset, the eiruv acquired his place of rest for both days.

אמר רב הלכה כארבעה זקנים הללו ואליבא דרבי אליעזר דאמר שתי קדושות הן ואלו הן ארבעה זקנים רבן שמעון בן גמליאל ורבי ישמעאל ברבי יוחנן בן ברוקה ורבי אליעזר ברבי שמעון ורבי יוסי בר יהודה סתימתאה ואיכא דאמרי חד מינייהו רבי אלעזר ומפיק רבי יוסי בר יהודה סתימתאה

Rav said: The halakha is in accordance with the opinion of these four Elders and in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Eliezer, who said: When Shabbat and a Festival occur on consecutive days, they constitute two distinct sanctities. And these are the four Elders: Rabban Shimon ben Gamliel; Rabbi Yishmael, son of Rabbi Yoḥanan ben Beroka; Rabbi Eliezer, son of Rabbi Shimon; and Rabbi Yosei bar Yehuda, the one whose opinions were often recorded as unattributed mishnayot. And there are those who say: One of them is Rabbi Elazar, and remove from the list Rabbi Yosei bar Yehuda, the one whose statements were often recorded as unattributed mishnayot.

והא רבן שמעון בן גמליאל ורבי ישמעאל בר רבי יוחנן בן ברוקה איפכא שמעינן להו איפוך

The Gemara raises a difficulty: Didn’t we hear that Rabban Shimon ben Gamliel and Rabbi Yishmael, son of Rabbi Yoḥanan ben Beroka, maintain the opposite opinion in the baraita cited above, namely that the two days constitute a single sanctity? The Gemara answers: Reverse the attributions in the baraita.

אי הכי היינו רבי אימא וכן אמר רבן שמעון בן גמליאל וכו׳

The Gemara asks: If so, this is exactly what Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi said. What is their dispute? The Gemara answers: Say that there is no disagreement between them, and the baraita should read as follows: And so too, Rabban Shimon ben Gamliel said that he agrees with what was stated above.

וליחשוב נמי רבי רבי תני לה ולא סבר לה

The Gemara now asks: Let us also count Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi among these Elders, as he too holds that the two days are distinct sanctities. The Gemara answers: Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi taught this opinion, and he himself did not hold it to be correct. He transmitted a ruling that he received from his teachers, but his own opinion was otherwise.

רבנן נמי תנו לה ולא סברי לה רב גמרא גמיר לה

The Gemara raises a difficulty: If so, let us also say that the Rabbis, Rabban Shimon ben Gamliel, and Rabbi Yishmael also taught this law, and they themselves did not hold it to be correct. What proof is there that this represents their own opinions? The Gemara answers: Rav did not rely on the wording of these sources; rather, he learned by way of a definite tradition that these four Elders maintained this position.

כי נח נפשיה דרב הונא עייל רב חסדא למירמא דרב אדרב מי אמר רב הלכה כארבעה זקנים ואליבא דרבי אליעזר דאמר שתי קדושות הן

The Gemara relates that when Rav Huna, Rav’s preeminent student, passed away, Rav Ḥisda entered the study hall to raise a contradiction between one statement of Rav and another statement of Rav: Did Rav actually say: The halakha is in accordance with the opinion of the four Elders and in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Eliezer, who said that when Shabbat and a Festival fall out on consecutive days, they constitute two distinct sanctities?

והא איתמר שבת ויום טוב רב אמר נולדה בזה אסורה בזה

Wasn’t it stated that with regard to a case where Shabbat and a Festival occur on consecutive days, Rav said: An egg that was laid on one is prohibited on the other, just as an egg that was laid on a Festival day is prohibited on that same day? This statement indicates that the two days constitute a single sanctity. How, then, can he say here that the halakha is in accordance with the opinion that they are two distinct sanctities?

אמר רבה התם משום הכנה

Rabba said that a distinction may be drawn between the cases: There, the egg is prohibited on the second day not because the two days constitute a single sanctity but because of the prohibition against preparation, i.e., because it is prohibited to prepare things on a Festival for Shabbat or on Shabbat for a Festival.

דתניא והיה ביום הששי והכינו חול מכין לשבת וחול מכין ליום טוב ואין יום טוב מכין לשבת ואין שבת מכינה ליום טוב

As it was taught in a baraita: The verse that states: “And it shall come to pass, on the sixth day, when they shall prepare that which they bring in” (Exodus 16:5), indicates as follows: On an ordinary weekday one may prepare what is needed for Shabbat, and similarly, on an ordinary weekday one may prepare what is needed for a Festival. However, on a Festival one may not prepare for Shabbat, and on Shabbat one may not prepare for a Festival. Therefore, an egg that was laid on a Festival is prohibited on Shabbat not because they constitute a single sanctity, but because it is prohibited to prepare on one sanctified day for another.

אמר ליה אביי אלא הא דתנן כיצד הוא עושה מוליכו בראשון ומחשיך עליו ונוטלו ובא לו בשני מחשיך עליו ואוכלו ובא לו הא קא מכין מיום טוב לשבת

Abaye said to him: But what about that which we learned in the mishna: What does he do if a Festival occurs on Friday, and he wishes to establish an eiruv that will be valid for the Festival and Shabbat? He or his agent takes the eiruv to the spot that he wishes to establish as his residence on the eve of the first day, and he stays there with it until nightfall, and then he takes it with him and goes away. On the eve of the second day, i.e., on Friday afternoon, he or his agent takes the eiruv back to the same place and stays there with it until nightfall, and then he may eat the eiruv and go away, if he so desires. Isn’t he preparing on a Festival for Shabbat? According to Rabba, this should be considered a prohibited act of preparation.

אמר ליה רבה מי סברת סוף היום קונה עירוב תחלת היום קונה עירוב ושבת מכינה לעצמה

Rabba said to him: Do you think that the eiruv acquires one’s residence at the end of the day, i.e., at the last moment of Shabbat eve, which in this case is a Festival, so that this would involve prohibited preparation? The eiruv acquires his residence at the beginning of the day, i.e., at the first moment of Shabbat, which means that no preparations were made for Shabbat on the Festival, and on Shabbat one may prepare for Shabbat itself.

אלא מעתה יערבו בלגין

Abaye asked: But if that is so, one should be able to establish an eiruv with flasks of wine that were filled from a barrel of first-tithe that was still tevel with respect to teruma of the tithe, and with regard to which one said: Let this wine in the flask be teruma of the tithe for the wine in the barrel only after nightfall. If you say that an eiruv acquires one’s residence at the beginning of the day, why was it determined that one may not establish an eiruv with such wine?

בעינן סעודה הראויה מבעוד יום וליכא

The Gemara answers: In that case the eiruv is not valid for a different reason: We require a meal that is fit to be eaten while it is still day, and there is none, as the wine in the flask remains tevel and therefore unfit for drinking until nightfall.

אלא הא דתנן רבי אליעזר אומר יום טוב הסמוך לשבת בין מלפניה ובין מלאחריה מערב אדם שני עירובין הא בעינן סעודה הראויה מבעוד יום וליכא

Abaye asked further: But what about that which we learned in a mishna: Rabbi Eliezer says: If a Festival is adjacent to Shabbat, whether before it or after it, a person may establish two eiruvin. Why are these eiruvin valid? Don’t we require a meal that is fit to be eaten while it is still day, and there is none? Since one established his eiruv in one direction for the first day, he can only travel within a two-thousand-cubit radius of that location. Therefore, if he established his eiruv for the second day in the opposite direction, he cannot access that eiruv during the first day.

מי סברת דמנח ליה בסוף אלפים אמה לכאן ובסוף אלפים אמה לכאן לא דמנח ליה בסוף אלף אמה לכאן ובסוף אלף אמה לכאן

The Gemara responds: Do you think that we are dealing with a case where he placed one eiruv in the furthest possible spot at the end of two thousand cubits in this direction, and he placed the other eiruv in the furthest possible spot at the end of two thousand cubits in that direction, and he is therefore unable to go from one to the other on one day? No, the case is that he placed one eiruv at the end of one thousand cubits in the this direction, and he placed the other eiruv at the end of one thousand cubits in that direction, so that even after acquiring his residence on one side of the town by means of the first eiruv, he can still go to the spot where he left the other eiruv for the second day.

אלא הא דאמר רב יהודה עירב ברגליו יום ראשון מערב ברגליו יום שני עירב בפת ביום ראשון מערב בפת ביום שני הא קא מכין מיום טוב לשבת

Abaye raised yet another difficulty: But what about that which Rav Yehuda said: If one established an eiruv with his feet for the first day, he may establish an eiruv with his feet for the second day; and if he established an eiruv with bread on the first day, he may establish an eiruv with bread on the second day? Isn’t he preparing from a Festival to Shabbat?

אמר ליה מי סברת דאזיל ואמר מידי דאזיל ושתיק ויתיב

Rabba said to him: Do you think that one must go and say something at the site of the eiruv, therefore performing an act of preparation? He goes, and is silent, and sits there, and he automatically acquires his residence without having to say or do anything. This does not fall into the category of prohibited preparation.

כמאן כרבי יוחנן בן נורי דאמר חפצי הפקר קונין שביתה

Abaye asked: In accordance with whose opinion do you say that nothing must be said when establishing an eiruv teḥumin? It is in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Yoḥanan ben Nuri, who said: A sleeping person acquires a Shabbat residence in the spot where he is sleeping. Even though he is comparable to ownerless property, ownerless property itself acquires a Shabbat residence and has its own Shabbat boundary, and there is no need for a person to establish a residence for it in a particular spot.

אפילו תימא רבנן עד כאן לא פליגי רבנן עליה דרבי יוחנן בן נורי אלא בישן דלא מצי אמר אבל בניעור דאי בעי למימר מצי אמר אף על גב דלא אמר כמאן דאמר דמי

Rabba replied: Even if you say that my statement is in accordance with the opinion of the Rabbis, the Rabbis disagree with Rabbi Yoḥanan ben Nuri only with regard to a sleeping person, who cannot say anything, as he is asleep. Consequently, he cannot acquire a Shabbat residence. However, with regard to one who is awake, since if he wanted to speak he could speak, even though he did not say that he is acquiring his Shabbat residence, he is considered as one who did say that statement.

אמר ליה רבה בר רב חנין לאביי אי הוה שמיע ליה למר הא דתניא לא יהלך אדם לסוף שדהו לידע מה היא צריכה כיוצא בו

Rabba bar Rav Ḥanin said to Abaye: If the Master, Rabba, had heard that which was taught in the following baraita: A person may not walk to the end of his field on Shabbat to determine what work and repair it requires, which will be done after Shabbat. Similarly,

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