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Today's Daf Yomi

October 3, 2020 | ט״ו בתשרי תשפ״א

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Eruvin 55

The gemara discusses what is considered part of the city and what is not considered part of the city regarding from where we would measure the techum. Straight lines are drawn from parts that protrude and if the shape of the inhabited part of the city is not square (i.e. round, rainbow-shaped, etc.) from where do we measure the 2,000 cubits?

והיינו דאמר אבדימי בר חמא בר דוסא מאי דכתיב לא בשמים היא ולא מעבר לים היא לא בשמים היא שאם בשמים היא אתה צריך לעלות אחריה ואם מעבר לים היא אתה צריך לעבור אחריה

And this idea, that one must exert great effort to retain one’s Torah knowledge, is in accordance with what Avdimi bar Ḥama bar Dosa said: What is the meaning of that which is written: “It is not in heaven…nor is it beyond the sea” (Deuteronomy 30:12–13)? “It is not in heaven” indicates that if it were in heaven, you would have to ascend after it, and if it were beyond the sea, you would have to cross after it, as one must expend whatever effort is necessary in order to study Torah.

רבא אמר לא בשמים היא לא תמצא במי שמגביה דעתו עליה כשמים ולא תמצא במי שמרחיב דעתו עליה כים

Expounding the verse differently, Rava said: “It is not in heaven” means that Torah is not to be found in someone who raises his mind over it, like the heavens, i.e., he thinks his mind is above the Torah and he does not need a teacher; nor is it to be found in someone who expands his mind over it, like the sea, i.e., he thinks he knows everything there is to know about the topic he has learned.

רבי יוחנן אמר לא בשמים היא לא תמצא בגסי רוח ולא מעבר לים היא לא תמצא לא בסחרנים ולא בתגרים:

Rabbi Yoḥanan said: “It is not in heaven” means that Torah is not to be found in the haughty, those who raise their self-image as though they were in heaven. “Nor is it beyond the sea” means that it is not to be found among merchants or traders who are constantly traveling and do not have the time to study Torah properly.

תנו רבנן כיצד מעברין את הערים ארוכה כמות שהיא עגולה עושין לה זויות מרובעת אין עושין לה זויות היתה רחבה מצד אחד וקצרה מצד אחר רואין אותה כאילו היא שוה

After the lengthy aggadic digression, the Gemara returns to the topic of the mishna, extending the outskirts of a city. The Sages taught in the Tosefta: How does one extend the boundaries of cities? If the city is long, in the shape of a rectangle, the Shabbat limit is measured from the boundary as it is. If the city is round, one creates simulated corners for it, rendering it square, and the Shabbat limit is measured from there. If it is square, one does not create additional corners for it. If the city was wide on one side and narrow on the other side, one regards it as though the two sides were of equal length, adding to the narrow side to form a square.

היה בית אחד יוצא כמין פגום או שני בתים יוצאין כמין שני פגומין רואין אותן כאילו חוט מתוח עליהן ומודד ממנו ולהלן אלפים אמה היתה עשויה כמין קשת או כמין גאם רואין אותה כאילו היא מלאה בתים וחצירות ומודד ממנו ולהלן אלפים אמה

If one house in a row of dwellings was protruding like a turret, or if two houses were protruding like two turrets, one regards them as though a cord is stretched over their outer edge along the length of the city, and one measures two thousand cubits beginning from there. If the city was shaped like a bow or like the Greek letter gamma, one regards it as though the interior space were full of houses and courtyards, and one measures two thousand cubits beginning from there.

אמר מר ארוכה כמות שהיא פשיטא לא צריכא דאריכא וקטינא מהו דתימא ליתן לה פותיא אאורכה קא משמע לן

The Gemara proceeds to analyze the Tosefta. The Master said: If the city is long, the Shabbat limit is measured from the boundary as it is. The Gemara expresses surprise: That is obvious. The Gemara explains: It was necessary to teach this halakha only with regard to a case where the city is long and narrow. Lest you say: Let us give its breadth the dimension of its length and regard the city as if it were square, it teaches us that we do not do so.

מרובעת אין עושין לה זויות פשיטא לא צריכא דמרבעא ולא מרבעא בריבוע עולם מהו דתימא לירבעא בריבוע עולם קא משמע לן

The Tosefta stated: If the city is square, one does not create additional corners for it. Once again the Gemara asks: That is obvious. The Gemara answers: It was necessary to teach this halakha only with regard to a case where the shape of the city is square but that square is not aligned with the four directions of the world, i.e., north, south, east, and west. Lest you say: Let us align the square with the four directions of the world, it teaches us that this is not done.

היה בית אחד יוצא כמין פגום או שני בתים יוצאין כמין שני פגומין השתא בית אחד אמרת שני בתים מיבעיא

The Tosefta also stated: If one house in a row of dwellings was protruding like a turret, or if two houses were protruding like two turrets, one regards them as though a cord is stretched over their outer edge along the length of the city, and one measures two thousand cubits beginning from there. The Gemara asks: Now, if with regard to one house, you said to extend the city’s boundaries, with regard to two houses, is it necessary to say so?

לא צריכא משתי רוחות מהו דתימא מרוח אחת אמרינן משתי רוחות לא אמרינן קא משמע לן

The Gemara answers: It was necessary to teach this halakha only with regard to a case where the two houses were protruding on two different sides of the city. Lest you say: When a house protrudes from one side, we say that the city is extended even due to a single house, but if houses protrude from two sides we do not say so; therefore, it teaches us to regard the city as though it is extended on both sides.

היתה עשויה כמין קשת או כמין גאם רואין אותה כאילו היא מלאה בתים וחצירות ומודד ממנה ולהלן אלפים אמה אמר רב הונא עיר העשויה כקשת אם יש בין שני ראשיה פחות מארבעת אלפים אמה מודדין לה מן היתר ואם לאו מודדין לה מן הקשת

The Tosefta stated: If the city was shaped like a bow or like the Greek letter gamma, one regards it as if the interior space were full of houses and courtyards, and one measures two thousand cubits beginning from there. Rav Huna said: With regard to a city that is shaped like a bow, the following distinction applies: If there are less than four thousand cubits between the two ends of the bow, so that the Shabbat limits measured from the two ends of the city overlap, the interior space of the bow is regarded as if it were filled with houses, and one measures the Shabbat limit of the city from the imaginary bowstring stretched between the two ends of the bow. But if that is not the case, and the distance between the two ends of the bow is four thousand cubits or more, one measures the Shabbat limit from the bow itself.

ומי אמר רב הונא הכי והאמר רב הונא חומת העיר שנפרצה במאה וארבעים ואחת ושליש

The Gemara asks: Did Rav Huna actually say that the distance between two sections of a single city that renders them separate entities is four thousand cubits? Didn’t Rav Huna say: With regard to the wall of a city that was breached, even if there is a gap between two sections of the city, the city is still considered a single entity if the breach is no more than 141⅓ cubits? However, if the breach is wider, the two sections are considered separate entities. Apparently, a distance of 141⅓ cubits suffices to separate between two sections of a city and to render them separate entities.

אמר רבה בר עולא לא קשיא כאן ברוח אחת כאן משתי רוחות

Rabba bar Ulla said: That is not difficult. Here, where Rav Huna speaks of four thousand cubits, he is referring to a case where the gap is on only one side, as the other side, the bow, is inhabited; but there, where he speaks of 141⅓ cubits, he is referring to a case where the breach is from two sides, which truly renders the city two separate entities.

ומאי קא משמע לן דנותנין קרפף לזו וקרפף לזו הא אמרה רב הונא חדא זימנא דתנן

The Gemara asks: If so, what is Rav Huna teaching us in the case of the breached city wall, that one allocates a karpef, an area measuring slightly more than seventy cubits, to this section of the city and a karpef to that section of the city? Didn’t Rav Huna already say this on one occasion? As we learned in a mishna:

נותנין קרפף לעיר דברי רבי מאיר וחכמים אומרים לא אמרו קרפף אלא בין שתי עיירות

One allocates a karpef to every city, i.e., an area of slightly more than seventy cubits is added to the boundary of a city and the Shabbat limit is measured from there; this is the statement of Rabbi Meir. And the Sages say: They spoke of the measure of a karpef only with regard to the space between two adjacent cities, i.e., if adjacent cities are separated by a shorter distance than that, they are considered one city.

ואיתמר רב הונא אמר קרפף לזו וקרפף לזו וחייא בר רב אמר אין נותנין אלא קרפף אחד לשניהם

And it was stated that the amora’im disputed this issue. Rav Huna said: A karpef is added to this city and another karpef is added to that city, so that as long as the cities are not separated by a distance of slightly more than 141 cubits, they are considered one entity. And Ḥiyya bar Rav said: One allocates only one karpef to the two of them. Accordingly, Rav Huna has already stated that the measure of a karpef is added to both cities in determining whether they are close enough to be considered a single entity.

צריכא דאי אשמעינן הכא משום דהוה ליה צד היתר מעיקרא אבל התם אימא לא

The Gemara answers: It is necessary for Rav Huna to state this halakha in both instances, as, had he taught it to us only here, in the case of the breached wall, one might have said that a karpef is allocated to each city only in that case because it had an aspect of permissibility from the outset, namely, the two sections originally formed one city. But there, with regard to the two cities, say that this is not the case and the two cities are only considered as one if they are separated by less than the measure of a single karpef.

ואי אשמעינן התם משום דדחיקא תשמישתייהו אבל הכא דלא דחיקא תשמישתייהו אימא לא צריכא

And had he taught it to us only there, with regard to the two cities, one might have said that only in that case is a karpef allocated to each city because one karpef would be too cramped for the use of both cities. But here, in the case of the breached wall, where one karpef would not be too cramped for the use of both sections, as the vacant space is inside the city, in an area that had not been used in this fashion before the wall was breached, say that this is not the case and a single karpef is sufficient. Therefore, it was necessary to state this halakha in both cases.

וכמה הוי בין יתר לקשת רבה בר רב הונא אמר אלפים אמה רבא בריה דרבה בר רב הונא אמר אפילו יתר מאלפים אמה

The Gemara asks: And how much distance may there be between the imaginary bowstring and the center of the bow in a city that is shaped like a bow? Rabba bar Rav Huna said: Two thousand cubits. Rava, son of Rabba bar Rav Huna, said: Even more than two thousand cubits.

אמר אביי כוותיה דרבא בריה דרבה בר רב הונא מסתברא דאי בעי הדר אתי דרך בתים:

Abaye said: It stands to reason in accordance with the opinion of Rava, son of Rabba bar Rav Huna, as if one wants, he can return and go anywhere within the bow by way of the houses. Since one can always walk to the end of the city, and from there he is permitted to walk down the line of the imaginary bowstring, he should also be permitted to walk from the middle of the bow to the bowstring, even if the distance is more than two thousand cubits.

היו שם גדודיות גבוהות עשרה טפחים כו׳: מאי גדודיות אמר רב יהודה שלש מחיצות שאין עליהן תקרה

We learned in the mishna: If there were remnants of walls ten handbreadths high on the outskirts of a city, they are considered part of the city, and the Shabbat limit is measured from them. The Gemara asks: What are these remnants? Rav Yehuda said: Three partitions that do not have a roof over them, which are considered part of the city despite the fact that they do not comprise a proper house.

איבעיא להו שתי מחיצות ויש עליהן תקרה מהו תא שמע אלו שמתעברין עמה נפש שיש בה ארבע אמות על ארבע אמות והגשר והקבר שיש בהן בית דירה ובית הכנסת שיש בה בית דירה לחזן ובית עבודה זרה שיש בה בית דירה לכומרים והאורוות והאוצרות שבשדות ויש בהן בית דירה והבורגנין שבתוכה והבית שבים הרי אלו מתעברין עמה

The dilemma was raised before the Sages: In the case of two partitions that have a roof over them, what is the halakha? Is this structure also treated like a house? Come and hear a proof from the Tosefta: These are the structures that are included in the city’s extension: A monument [nefesh] over a grave that is four cubits by four cubits; and a bridge or a grave in which there is a residence; and a synagogue in which there is a residence for the sexton or synagogue attendant, and which is used not only for prayer services at specific times; and an idolatrous temple in which there is a residence for the priests; and similarly, horse stables and storehouses in the fields in which there is a residence; and small watchtowers in the fields; and similarly, a house on an island in the sea or lake, which is located within seventy cubits of the city; all of these structures are included in the city’s boundaries.

ואלו שאין מתעברין עמה נפש שנפרצה משתי רוחותיה אילך ואילך והגשר והקבר שאין להן בית דירה ובית הכנסת שאין לה בית דירה לחזן ובית עבודה זרה שאין לה בית דירה לכומרים והאורוות והאוצרות שבשדות שאין להן בית דירה ובור ושיח ומערה וגדר ושובך שבתוכה והבית שבספינה אין אלו מתעברין עמה

And these structures are not included in the boundaries of a city: A tomb that was breached on both sides, from here to there, i.e., from one side all the way to the other; and similarly, a bridge and a grave that do not have a residence; and a synagogue that does not have a residence for the sexton; and an idolatrous temple that does not have a residence for the priests; and similarly, stables and storehouses in fields that do not have a residence, and therefore are not used for human habitation; and a cistern, and an elongated water ditch, and a cave, i.e., a covered cistern, and a wall, and a dovecote in the field; and similarly, a house on a boat that is not permanently located within seventy cubits of the city; all of these structures are not included in the city’s boundaries.

קתני מיהת נפש שנפרצה משתי רוחותיה אילך ואילך מאי לאו דאיכא תקרה לא דליכא תקרה

In any case, it was taught that a tomb that was breached on both sides, from here to there, is not included in the city’s boundaries. What, is this not referring to a case where there is a roof on the tomb, and the two remaining walls are not included in the city’s boundaries even though they have a roof? The Gemara answers: No, the Tosefta is referring to a case where there is no roof on the tomb.

בית שבים למאי חזי אמר רב פפא בית שעשוי לפנות בו כלים שבספינה

The Gemara asks: A house on an island in the sea, what is it suitable for if it is not actually part of the inhabited area? Rav Pappa said: It is referring to a house used to move a ship’s utensils into it for storage.

ומערה אין מתעברת עמה והתני רבי חייא מערה מתעברת עמה אמר אביי כשיש בנין על פיה

The Gemara raises another question with regard to the Tosefta: And is a cave on the outskirts of a city really not included in its extension? Didn’t Rabbi Ḥiyya teach in a baraita: A cave is included in its extension? Abaye said: That statement applies when there is a structure built at its entrance, which is treated like a house on the outskirts of the city.

ותיפוק ליה משום בנין גופיה לא צריכא להשלים

The Gemara asks: If there is a structure at the entrance to the cave, why is the cave mentioned? Let him derive the halakha that it is treated like a house because of the structure itself. The Gemara answers: No, it is necessary only in a case where the cave serves to complete the structure, i.e., where the area of the structure and cave combined are only four by four cubits, which is the minimum size of a house.

אמר רב הונא יושבי צריפין אין מודדין להן אלא מפתח בתיהן

The discussion with regard to measuring Shabbat limits has been referring to a properly built city. Rav Huna said: Those who dwell in huts, i.e., in thatched hovels of straw and willow branches, are not considered inhabitants of a city. Therefore, one measures the Shabbat limit for them only from the entrance to their homes; the huts are not combined together and considered a city.

מתיב רב חסדא ויחנו על הירדן מבית הישימות ואמר רבה בר בר חנה (אמר רבי יוחנן) לדידי חזי לי ההוא אתרא והוי תלתא פרסי על תלתא פרסי

Rav Ḥisda raised an objection: The Torah states with regard to the Jewish people in the desert: “And they pitched by the Jordan, from Beit-HaYeshimot to Avel-Shittim in the plains of Moab” (Numbers 33:49), and Rabba bar bar Ḥana said that Rabbi Yoḥanan said: I myself saw that place, and it is three parasangs [parsa], the equivalent of twelve mil, by three parasangs.

ותניא כשהן נפנין אין נפנין לא לפניהם ולא לצדיהן אלא לאחריהן

And it was taught in a baraita: When they would defecate in the wilderness, they would not defecate in front of themselves, i.e., in front of the camp, and not to their sides, due to respect for the Divine Presence; rather, they would do so behind the camp. This indicates that even on Shabbat, when people needed to defecate, they would walk the entire length of the camp, which was considerably longer than two thousand cubits, which equals one mil. It is apparent that the encampment of the Jewish people was considered to be a city despite the fact that it was composed of tents alone. How, then, did Rav Huna say that those who live in huts are not considered city dwellers?

אמר ליה רבא דגלי מדבר קאמרת כיון דכתיב בהו על פי ה׳ יחנו ועל פי ה׳ יסעו כמאן דקביע להו דמי

Rava said to him: The banners of the desert, you say? Are you citing a proof from the practice of the Jewish people as they traveled through the desert according to their tribal banners? Since it is written with regard to them: “According to the commandment of the Lord they remained encamped, and according to the commandment of the Lord they journeyed” (Numbers 9:20), it was considered as though it were a permanent residence for them. A camp that is established in accordance with the word of God is regarded as a permanent settlement.

אמר רב חיננא בר רב כהנא אמר רב אשי אם יש שם שלש חצירות של שני בתים הוקבעו

Rav Ḥinnana bar Rav Kahana said that Rav Ashi said: If there are three courtyards of two properly built houses among a settlement of huts, they have been established as a permanent settlement, and the Shabbat limit is measured from the edge of the settlement.

אמר רב יהודה אמר רב יושבי צריפין והולכי מדברות חייהן אינן חיים ונשיהן ובניהן אינן שלהן

On the topic of people who dwell in huts, Rav Yehuda said that Rav said: Those who dwell in huts, such as shepherds who pass from one place to another and stay in a single location for only a brief period, and desert travelers, their lives are not lives, i.e., they lead extremely difficult lives, and their wives and children are not always their own, as will be explained below.

תניא נמי הכי אליעזר איש ביריא אומר יושבי צריפין כיושבי קברים ועל בנותיהם הוא אומר ארור שוכב עם כל בהמה

That was also taught in the following baraita: Eliezer of Biriyya says: Those who dwell in huts are like those who dwell in graves. And with regard to one who marries their daughters, the verse says: “Cursed be he who sleeps with any manner of beast” (Deuteronomy 27:21).

מאי טעמא עולא אמר שאין להן מרחצאות ורבי יוחנן אמר מפני שמרגישין זה לזה בטבילה

The Gemara asks: What is the reason for this harsh statement with regard to the daughters of those who dwell in huts or travel in deserts? Ulla said: They do not have bathhouses, and therefore the men have to walk a significant distance in order to bathe. There is concern that while they are away their wives commit adultery, and that consequently their children are not really their own. And Rabbi Yoḥanan said: Because they sense when one another immerses. Similarly to the men, the women must walk a significant distance in order to immerse in a ritual bath. Since the settlement is very small and everyone knows when the women go to immerse, it is possible for an unscrupulous man to use this information to engage in adulterous relations with them by following them and taking advantage of the fact that they are alone.

מאי בינייהו איכא בינייהו נהרא דסמיך לביתא

The Gemara asks: What is the practical difference between the explanations of Ulla and Rabbi Yoḥanan? The Gemara explains: There is a practical difference between them in a case where there is a river that is adjacent to the house, and it is suitable for immersion but not for bathing. Consequently, the women would not have to go far to immerse themselves, but the men would still have to walk a significant distance in order to bathe.

אמר רב הונא כל עיר שאין בה ירק אין תלמיד חכם רשאי לדור בה למימרא דירק מעליא והתניא שלשה מרבין את הזבל וכופפין את הקומה ונוטלין אחד מחמש מאות ממאור עיניו של אדם ואלו הן

Having mentioned various places of residence, the Gemara cites what Rav Huna said: Any city that does not have vegetables, a Torah scholar is not permitted to dwell there for health reasons. The Gemara asks: Is that to say that vegetables are beneficial to a person’s health? Wasn’t it taught in a baraita: Three things increase one’s waste, bend his stature, and remove one five-hundredth of the light of a person’s eyes; and they are

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Eruvin 55

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Eruvin 55

והיינו דאמר אבדימי בר חמא בר דוסא מאי דכתיב לא בשמים היא ולא מעבר לים היא לא בשמים היא שאם בשמים היא אתה צריך לעלות אחריה ואם מעבר לים היא אתה צריך לעבור אחריה

And this idea, that one must exert great effort to retain one’s Torah knowledge, is in accordance with what Avdimi bar Ḥama bar Dosa said: What is the meaning of that which is written: “It is not in heaven…nor is it beyond the sea” (Deuteronomy 30:12–13)? “It is not in heaven” indicates that if it were in heaven, you would have to ascend after it, and if it were beyond the sea, you would have to cross after it, as one must expend whatever effort is necessary in order to study Torah.

רבא אמר לא בשמים היא לא תמצא במי שמגביה דעתו עליה כשמים ולא תמצא במי שמרחיב דעתו עליה כים

Expounding the verse differently, Rava said: “It is not in heaven” means that Torah is not to be found in someone who raises his mind over it, like the heavens, i.e., he thinks his mind is above the Torah and he does not need a teacher; nor is it to be found in someone who expands his mind over it, like the sea, i.e., he thinks he knows everything there is to know about the topic he has learned.

רבי יוחנן אמר לא בשמים היא לא תמצא בגסי רוח ולא מעבר לים היא לא תמצא לא בסחרנים ולא בתגרים:

Rabbi Yoḥanan said: “It is not in heaven” means that Torah is not to be found in the haughty, those who raise their self-image as though they were in heaven. “Nor is it beyond the sea” means that it is not to be found among merchants or traders who are constantly traveling and do not have the time to study Torah properly.

תנו רבנן כיצד מעברין את הערים ארוכה כמות שהיא עגולה עושין לה זויות מרובעת אין עושין לה זויות היתה רחבה מצד אחד וקצרה מצד אחר רואין אותה כאילו היא שוה

After the lengthy aggadic digression, the Gemara returns to the topic of the mishna, extending the outskirts of a city. The Sages taught in the Tosefta: How does one extend the boundaries of cities? If the city is long, in the shape of a rectangle, the Shabbat limit is measured from the boundary as it is. If the city is round, one creates simulated corners for it, rendering it square, and the Shabbat limit is measured from there. If it is square, one does not create additional corners for it. If the city was wide on one side and narrow on the other side, one regards it as though the two sides were of equal length, adding to the narrow side to form a square.

היה בית אחד יוצא כמין פגום או שני בתים יוצאין כמין שני פגומין רואין אותן כאילו חוט מתוח עליהן ומודד ממנו ולהלן אלפים אמה היתה עשויה כמין קשת או כמין גאם רואין אותה כאילו היא מלאה בתים וחצירות ומודד ממנו ולהלן אלפים אמה

If one house in a row of dwellings was protruding like a turret, or if two houses were protruding like two turrets, one regards them as though a cord is stretched over their outer edge along the length of the city, and one measures two thousand cubits beginning from there. If the city was shaped like a bow or like the Greek letter gamma, one regards it as though the interior space were full of houses and courtyards, and one measures two thousand cubits beginning from there.

אמר מר ארוכה כמות שהיא פשיטא לא צריכא דאריכא וקטינא מהו דתימא ליתן לה פותיא אאורכה קא משמע לן

The Gemara proceeds to analyze the Tosefta. The Master said: If the city is long, the Shabbat limit is measured from the boundary as it is. The Gemara expresses surprise: That is obvious. The Gemara explains: It was necessary to teach this halakha only with regard to a case where the city is long and narrow. Lest you say: Let us give its breadth the dimension of its length and regard the city as if it were square, it teaches us that we do not do so.

מרובעת אין עושין לה זויות פשיטא לא צריכא דמרבעא ולא מרבעא בריבוע עולם מהו דתימא לירבעא בריבוע עולם קא משמע לן

The Tosefta stated: If the city is square, one does not create additional corners for it. Once again the Gemara asks: That is obvious. The Gemara answers: It was necessary to teach this halakha only with regard to a case where the shape of the city is square but that square is not aligned with the four directions of the world, i.e., north, south, east, and west. Lest you say: Let us align the square with the four directions of the world, it teaches us that this is not done.

היה בית אחד יוצא כמין פגום או שני בתים יוצאין כמין שני פגומין השתא בית אחד אמרת שני בתים מיבעיא

The Tosefta also stated: If one house in a row of dwellings was protruding like a turret, or if two houses were protruding like two turrets, one regards them as though a cord is stretched over their outer edge along the length of the city, and one measures two thousand cubits beginning from there. The Gemara asks: Now, if with regard to one house, you said to extend the city’s boundaries, with regard to two houses, is it necessary to say so?

לא צריכא משתי רוחות מהו דתימא מרוח אחת אמרינן משתי רוחות לא אמרינן קא משמע לן

The Gemara answers: It was necessary to teach this halakha only with regard to a case where the two houses were protruding on two different sides of the city. Lest you say: When a house protrudes from one side, we say that the city is extended even due to a single house, but if houses protrude from two sides we do not say so; therefore, it teaches us to regard the city as though it is extended on both sides.

היתה עשויה כמין קשת או כמין גאם רואין אותה כאילו היא מלאה בתים וחצירות ומודד ממנה ולהלן אלפים אמה אמר רב הונא עיר העשויה כקשת אם יש בין שני ראשיה פחות מארבעת אלפים אמה מודדין לה מן היתר ואם לאו מודדין לה מן הקשת

The Tosefta stated: If the city was shaped like a bow or like the Greek letter gamma, one regards it as if the interior space were full of houses and courtyards, and one measures two thousand cubits beginning from there. Rav Huna said: With regard to a city that is shaped like a bow, the following distinction applies: If there are less than four thousand cubits between the two ends of the bow, so that the Shabbat limits measured from the two ends of the city overlap, the interior space of the bow is regarded as if it were filled with houses, and one measures the Shabbat limit of the city from the imaginary bowstring stretched between the two ends of the bow. But if that is not the case, and the distance between the two ends of the bow is four thousand cubits or more, one measures the Shabbat limit from the bow itself.

ומי אמר רב הונא הכי והאמר רב הונא חומת העיר שנפרצה במאה וארבעים ואחת ושליש

The Gemara asks: Did Rav Huna actually say that the distance between two sections of a single city that renders them separate entities is four thousand cubits? Didn’t Rav Huna say: With regard to the wall of a city that was breached, even if there is a gap between two sections of the city, the city is still considered a single entity if the breach is no more than 141⅓ cubits? However, if the breach is wider, the two sections are considered separate entities. Apparently, a distance of 141⅓ cubits suffices to separate between two sections of a city and to render them separate entities.

אמר רבה בר עולא לא קשיא כאן ברוח אחת כאן משתי רוחות

Rabba bar Ulla said: That is not difficult. Here, where Rav Huna speaks of four thousand cubits, he is referring to a case where the gap is on only one side, as the other side, the bow, is inhabited; but there, where he speaks of 141⅓ cubits, he is referring to a case where the breach is from two sides, which truly renders the city two separate entities.

ומאי קא משמע לן דנותנין קרפף לזו וקרפף לזו הא אמרה רב הונא חדא זימנא דתנן

The Gemara asks: If so, what is Rav Huna teaching us in the case of the breached city wall, that one allocates a karpef, an area measuring slightly more than seventy cubits, to this section of the city and a karpef to that section of the city? Didn’t Rav Huna already say this on one occasion? As we learned in a mishna:

נותנין קרפף לעיר דברי רבי מאיר וחכמים אומרים לא אמרו קרפף אלא בין שתי עיירות

One allocates a karpef to every city, i.e., an area of slightly more than seventy cubits is added to the boundary of a city and the Shabbat limit is measured from there; this is the statement of Rabbi Meir. And the Sages say: They spoke of the measure of a karpef only with regard to the space between two adjacent cities, i.e., if adjacent cities are separated by a shorter distance than that, they are considered one city.

ואיתמר רב הונא אמר קרפף לזו וקרפף לזו וחייא בר רב אמר אין נותנין אלא קרפף אחד לשניהם

And it was stated that the amora’im disputed this issue. Rav Huna said: A karpef is added to this city and another karpef is added to that city, so that as long as the cities are not separated by a distance of slightly more than 141 cubits, they are considered one entity. And Ḥiyya bar Rav said: One allocates only one karpef to the two of them. Accordingly, Rav Huna has already stated that the measure of a karpef is added to both cities in determining whether they are close enough to be considered a single entity.

צריכא דאי אשמעינן הכא משום דהוה ליה צד היתר מעיקרא אבל התם אימא לא

The Gemara answers: It is necessary for Rav Huna to state this halakha in both instances, as, had he taught it to us only here, in the case of the breached wall, one might have said that a karpef is allocated to each city only in that case because it had an aspect of permissibility from the outset, namely, the two sections originally formed one city. But there, with regard to the two cities, say that this is not the case and the two cities are only considered as one if they are separated by less than the measure of a single karpef.

ואי אשמעינן התם משום דדחיקא תשמישתייהו אבל הכא דלא דחיקא תשמישתייהו אימא לא צריכא

And had he taught it to us only there, with regard to the two cities, one might have said that only in that case is a karpef allocated to each city because one karpef would be too cramped for the use of both cities. But here, in the case of the breached wall, where one karpef would not be too cramped for the use of both sections, as the vacant space is inside the city, in an area that had not been used in this fashion before the wall was breached, say that this is not the case and a single karpef is sufficient. Therefore, it was necessary to state this halakha in both cases.

וכמה הוי בין יתר לקשת רבה בר רב הונא אמר אלפים אמה רבא בריה דרבה בר רב הונא אמר אפילו יתר מאלפים אמה

The Gemara asks: And how much distance may there be between the imaginary bowstring and the center of the bow in a city that is shaped like a bow? Rabba bar Rav Huna said: Two thousand cubits. Rava, son of Rabba bar Rav Huna, said: Even more than two thousand cubits.

אמר אביי כוותיה דרבא בריה דרבה בר רב הונא מסתברא דאי בעי הדר אתי דרך בתים:

Abaye said: It stands to reason in accordance with the opinion of Rava, son of Rabba bar Rav Huna, as if one wants, he can return and go anywhere within the bow by way of the houses. Since one can always walk to the end of the city, and from there he is permitted to walk down the line of the imaginary bowstring, he should also be permitted to walk from the middle of the bow to the bowstring, even if the distance is more than two thousand cubits.

היו שם גדודיות גבוהות עשרה טפחים כו׳: מאי גדודיות אמר רב יהודה שלש מחיצות שאין עליהן תקרה

We learned in the mishna: If there were remnants of walls ten handbreadths high on the outskirts of a city, they are considered part of the city, and the Shabbat limit is measured from them. The Gemara asks: What are these remnants? Rav Yehuda said: Three partitions that do not have a roof over them, which are considered part of the city despite the fact that they do not comprise a proper house.

איבעיא להו שתי מחיצות ויש עליהן תקרה מהו תא שמע אלו שמתעברין עמה נפש שיש בה ארבע אמות על ארבע אמות והגשר והקבר שיש בהן בית דירה ובית הכנסת שיש בה בית דירה לחזן ובית עבודה זרה שיש בה בית דירה לכומרים והאורוות והאוצרות שבשדות ויש בהן בית דירה והבורגנין שבתוכה והבית שבים הרי אלו מתעברין עמה

The dilemma was raised before the Sages: In the case of two partitions that have a roof over them, what is the halakha? Is this structure also treated like a house? Come and hear a proof from the Tosefta: These are the structures that are included in the city’s extension: A monument [nefesh] over a grave that is four cubits by four cubits; and a bridge or a grave in which there is a residence; and a synagogue in which there is a residence for the sexton or synagogue attendant, and which is used not only for prayer services at specific times; and an idolatrous temple in which there is a residence for the priests; and similarly, horse stables and storehouses in the fields in which there is a residence; and small watchtowers in the fields; and similarly, a house on an island in the sea or lake, which is located within seventy cubits of the city; all of these structures are included in the city’s boundaries.

ואלו שאין מתעברין עמה נפש שנפרצה משתי רוחותיה אילך ואילך והגשר והקבר שאין להן בית דירה ובית הכנסת שאין לה בית דירה לחזן ובית עבודה זרה שאין לה בית דירה לכומרים והאורוות והאוצרות שבשדות שאין להן בית דירה ובור ושיח ומערה וגדר ושובך שבתוכה והבית שבספינה אין אלו מתעברין עמה

And these structures are not included in the boundaries of a city: A tomb that was breached on both sides, from here to there, i.e., from one side all the way to the other; and similarly, a bridge and a grave that do not have a residence; and a synagogue that does not have a residence for the sexton; and an idolatrous temple that does not have a residence for the priests; and similarly, stables and storehouses in fields that do not have a residence, and therefore are not used for human habitation; and a cistern, and an elongated water ditch, and a cave, i.e., a covered cistern, and a wall, and a dovecote in the field; and similarly, a house on a boat that is not permanently located within seventy cubits of the city; all of these structures are not included in the city’s boundaries.

קתני מיהת נפש שנפרצה משתי רוחותיה אילך ואילך מאי לאו דאיכא תקרה לא דליכא תקרה

In any case, it was taught that a tomb that was breached on both sides, from here to there, is not included in the city’s boundaries. What, is this not referring to a case where there is a roof on the tomb, and the two remaining walls are not included in the city’s boundaries even though they have a roof? The Gemara answers: No, the Tosefta is referring to a case where there is no roof on the tomb.

בית שבים למאי חזי אמר רב פפא בית שעשוי לפנות בו כלים שבספינה

The Gemara asks: A house on an island in the sea, what is it suitable for if it is not actually part of the inhabited area? Rav Pappa said: It is referring to a house used to move a ship’s utensils into it for storage.

ומערה אין מתעברת עמה והתני רבי חייא מערה מתעברת עמה אמר אביי כשיש בנין על פיה

The Gemara raises another question with regard to the Tosefta: And is a cave on the outskirts of a city really not included in its extension? Didn’t Rabbi Ḥiyya teach in a baraita: A cave is included in its extension? Abaye said: That statement applies when there is a structure built at its entrance, which is treated like a house on the outskirts of the city.

ותיפוק ליה משום בנין גופיה לא צריכא להשלים

The Gemara asks: If there is a structure at the entrance to the cave, why is the cave mentioned? Let him derive the halakha that it is treated like a house because of the structure itself. The Gemara answers: No, it is necessary only in a case where the cave serves to complete the structure, i.e., where the area of the structure and cave combined are only four by four cubits, which is the minimum size of a house.

אמר רב הונא יושבי צריפין אין מודדין להן אלא מפתח בתיהן

The discussion with regard to measuring Shabbat limits has been referring to a properly built city. Rav Huna said: Those who dwell in huts, i.e., in thatched hovels of straw and willow branches, are not considered inhabitants of a city. Therefore, one measures the Shabbat limit for them only from the entrance to their homes; the huts are not combined together and considered a city.

מתיב רב חסדא ויחנו על הירדן מבית הישימות ואמר רבה בר בר חנה (אמר רבי יוחנן) לדידי חזי לי ההוא אתרא והוי תלתא פרסי על תלתא פרסי

Rav Ḥisda raised an objection: The Torah states with regard to the Jewish people in the desert: “And they pitched by the Jordan, from Beit-HaYeshimot to Avel-Shittim in the plains of Moab” (Numbers 33:49), and Rabba bar bar Ḥana said that Rabbi Yoḥanan said: I myself saw that place, and it is three parasangs [parsa], the equivalent of twelve mil, by three parasangs.

ותניא כשהן נפנין אין נפנין לא לפניהם ולא לצדיהן אלא לאחריהן

And it was taught in a baraita: When they would defecate in the wilderness, they would not defecate in front of themselves, i.e., in front of the camp, and not to their sides, due to respect for the Divine Presence; rather, they would do so behind the camp. This indicates that even on Shabbat, when people needed to defecate, they would walk the entire length of the camp, which was considerably longer than two thousand cubits, which equals one mil. It is apparent that the encampment of the Jewish people was considered to be a city despite the fact that it was composed of tents alone. How, then, did Rav Huna say that those who live in huts are not considered city dwellers?

אמר ליה רבא דגלי מדבר קאמרת כיון דכתיב בהו על פי ה׳ יחנו ועל פי ה׳ יסעו כמאן דקביע להו דמי

Rava said to him: The banners of the desert, you say? Are you citing a proof from the practice of the Jewish people as they traveled through the desert according to their tribal banners? Since it is written with regard to them: “According to the commandment of the Lord they remained encamped, and according to the commandment of the Lord they journeyed” (Numbers 9:20), it was considered as though it were a permanent residence for them. A camp that is established in accordance with the word of God is regarded as a permanent settlement.

אמר רב חיננא בר רב כהנא אמר רב אשי אם יש שם שלש חצירות של שני בתים הוקבעו

Rav Ḥinnana bar Rav Kahana said that Rav Ashi said: If there are three courtyards of two properly built houses among a settlement of huts, they have been established as a permanent settlement, and the Shabbat limit is measured from the edge of the settlement.

אמר רב יהודה אמר רב יושבי צריפין והולכי מדברות חייהן אינן חיים ונשיהן ובניהן אינן שלהן

On the topic of people who dwell in huts, Rav Yehuda said that Rav said: Those who dwell in huts, such as shepherds who pass from one place to another and stay in a single location for only a brief period, and desert travelers, their lives are not lives, i.e., they lead extremely difficult lives, and their wives and children are not always their own, as will be explained below.

תניא נמי הכי אליעזר איש ביריא אומר יושבי צריפין כיושבי קברים ועל בנותיהם הוא אומר ארור שוכב עם כל בהמה

That was also taught in the following baraita: Eliezer of Biriyya says: Those who dwell in huts are like those who dwell in graves. And with regard to one who marries their daughters, the verse says: “Cursed be he who sleeps with any manner of beast” (Deuteronomy 27:21).

מאי טעמא עולא אמר שאין להן מרחצאות ורבי יוחנן אמר מפני שמרגישין זה לזה בטבילה

The Gemara asks: What is the reason for this harsh statement with regard to the daughters of those who dwell in huts or travel in deserts? Ulla said: They do not have bathhouses, and therefore the men have to walk a significant distance in order to bathe. There is concern that while they are away their wives commit adultery, and that consequently their children are not really their own. And Rabbi Yoḥanan said: Because they sense when one another immerses. Similarly to the men, the women must walk a significant distance in order to immerse in a ritual bath. Since the settlement is very small and everyone knows when the women go to immerse, it is possible for an unscrupulous man to use this information to engage in adulterous relations with them by following them and taking advantage of the fact that they are alone.

מאי בינייהו איכא בינייהו נהרא דסמיך לביתא

The Gemara asks: What is the practical difference between the explanations of Ulla and Rabbi Yoḥanan? The Gemara explains: There is a practical difference between them in a case where there is a river that is adjacent to the house, and it is suitable for immersion but not for bathing. Consequently, the women would not have to go far to immerse themselves, but the men would still have to walk a significant distance in order to bathe.

אמר רב הונא כל עיר שאין בה ירק אין תלמיד חכם רשאי לדור בה למימרא דירק מעליא והתניא שלשה מרבין את הזבל וכופפין את הקומה ונוטלין אחד מחמש מאות ממאור עיניו של אדם ואלו הן

Having mentioned various places of residence, the Gemara cites what Rav Huna said: Any city that does not have vegetables, a Torah scholar is not permitted to dwell there for health reasons. The Gemara asks: Is that to say that vegetables are beneficial to a person’s health? Wasn’t it taught in a baraita: Three things increase one’s waste, bend his stature, and remove one five-hundredth of the light of a person’s eyes; and they are

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