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Today's Daf Yomi

October 6, 2020 | י״ח בתשרי תשפ״א

Masechet Eruvin is sponsored by Adina and Eric Hagege in honor of our parents, Rabbi Dov and Elayne Greenstone and Roger and Ketty Hagege who raised children, grandchildren and great grandchildren committed to Torah learning.

Eruvin 58

How does one measure the 2,000 cubits if the terrain is not flat? When does one span the space and one does one pierce it? What is the difference between them? From where do we derive that 50-cubit ropes are used? Why can’t they be shorter or longer? What material are the ropes? For the red heifer and the Sotah, ropes were needed – of what material for each? How do we span a space? What if a canyon curves and spanning is not possible? Or if there is a wall? Why is a wall different than a fence? Rav Yehuda says in the name of Shmuel that piercing is only allowed if a plumb line doesn’t drop straight down. If it does drop straight down, one would measure just the floor of the canyon. Is there a limit to the depth by which one can measure by spanning? If so, what is that limit? Rava limits spanning to a hill that has a slope of 10 handbreadths for 4 cubits, but if it is less of a slope, one measures the slope itself as if it were the ground. However, Rav Huna brings a different version of this statement that was said by Rava. How does one pierce? Piercing is only used for techumim and not for measuring in a case of a beheaded heifer, egla arufa, or a refuge city because they are from the Torah. The measuring should be done by an expert. If one measure unevenly –  we accept the wider measurement. Similarly, we accept testimony of a slave or maidservant regarding where the border is because the laws are rabbinic, one can be lenient.

ובלבד שלא יצא חוץ לתחום

provided he does not thereby go out beyond the city’s Shabbat limit, as those watching the surveyor might mistakenly think the limit extends to that point.

אם אינו יכול להבליעו בזו אמר רבי דוסתאי בר ינאי משום רבי מאיר שמעתי שמקדרין בהרים:

If, due to the width of the canyon or hill, he cannot span it, with regard to this situation Rabbi Dostai bar Yannai said in the name of Rabbi Meir: I heard that one may pierce hills. In other words, one measures the distance as if there were a hole from one side of the hill to the other, so that in effect, he measures only the horizontal distance and ignores the differences in elevation.

גמ׳ מנא הני מילי אמר רב יהודה אמר רב דאמר קרא ארך החצר מאה באמה ורוחב חמשים בחמשים אמרה תורה בחבל של חמשים אמה מדוד

GEMARA: The Gemara asks: From where are these matters, that the Shabbat limit must be measured with a rope fifty cubits long, derived? Rav Yehuda said that Rav said: They are derived from that which the verse states: “The length of the courtyard shall be one hundred cubits, and the breadth fifty by fifty” (Exodus 27:18). The Torah states: Measure with a rope of fifty cubits, i.e., the length and breadth of the courtyard must be measured “by fifty,” with a rope fifty cubits long.

האי מיבעי ליה ליטול חמשים ולסבב חמשים

The Gemara asks: This repetitive usage of the word fifty is necessary to teach us something else, namely, that the area of a courtyard is equivalent to a square the size of the Tabernacle’s courtyard. To this end, the Torah states: Take a square of fifty cubits by fifty cubits, and surround it with the remaining fifty cubits in order to form a square, each side of which is just over seventy cubits long.

אם כן לימא קרא חמשים חמשים מאי חמשים בחמשים שמעת מינה תרתי:

The Gemara answers: If so, let the verse state: Fifty, fifty, which would have sufficed to teach us the size and shape of a courtyard. What is the significance of the phrase: Fifty by fifty? Conclude from this that the verse comes to teach two things, both the matter of the square courtyard and that the length of the rope used to measure the Shabbat limit should be fifty cubits long.

לא פחות ולא יותר: תנא לא פחות מפני שמרבה ולא יותר מפני שממעט

We learned in the mishna: One may measure a Shabbat limit only with a rope fifty cubits long, not less and not more. It was taught in the Tosefta: No less, because a shorter rope improperly increases the Shabbat limit, as the rope is likely to be stretched. And no more, because a longer rope reduces the limit, as the rope is likely to sag due to its weight.

אמר רבי אסי אין מודדין אלא בחבל של אפסקימא מאי אפסקימא אמר רבי אבא נרגילא מאי נרגילא אמר רבי יעקב דיקלא דחד נברא איכא דאמרי מאי אפסקימא רבי אבא אמר נרגילא רבי יעקב אמר דיקלא דחד נברא

Rabbi Asi said: One may measure only with a rope of afsakima. The Gemara asks: What is afsakima? Rabbi Abba said: It is the nargila plant. This name was also not widely known, and therefore the Gemara asks: What is nargila? Rabbi Ya’akov said: A palm tree that has only one fibrous vine wrapped around it. Some say a different version of the previous discussion, according to which the Gemara asked: What is afsakima? Rabbi Abba said: It is the nargila plant. Rabbi Ya’akov disagreed and said: It is a palm tree with one fibrous vine.

תניא אמר רבי יהושע בן חנניא אין לך שיפה למדידה יותר משלשלאות של ברזל אבל מה נעשה שהרי אמרה תורה ובידו חבל מדה

It was taught in a baraita that Rabbi Yehoshua ben Ḥananya said: You have nothing better for measuring than iron chains, as they do not stretch. But what shall we do, as the Torah states: “I lifted up my eyes again and looked, and behold a man with a measuring rope in his hand” (Zechariah 2:5), from which it is derived that measurements must be made with a rope.

והכתיב וביד האיש קנה המדה ההוא לתרעי

The Gemara asks: Isn’t it also written: “And in the man’s hand a measuring reed of six cubits long, of one cubit and a handbreadth each” (Ezekiel 40:5), which indicates that reeds may also be used for measuring? The Gemara answers: That is used for measuring gates, which are too narrow to be measured with lengthy ropes.

תני רב יוסף שלשה חבלים הם של מגג של נצר ושל פשתן

Rav Yosef taught that there are three kinds of rope, each required by halakha for a different purpose: A rope of magag, a kind of bulrush reed; a rope of netzer, made from fibrous palm vines; and a rope of flax.

של מגג לפרה דתנן כפתוה בחבל המגג ונתנוה על גב מערכתה של נצרים לסוטה דתנן ואחר כך מביא חבל המצרי וקושרו למעלה מדדיה של פשתן למדידה:

They are used for the following purposes: A rope of magag is utilized for the burning of the red heifer, as we learned in a mishna: They would bind the heifer with a rope of magag and place it on its woodpile, where it would be burned after it was slaughtered. A rope of netzer was required for a sota, a woman suspected of adultery, as we learned in a mishna: Before the sota is compelled to drink the bitter waters, her clothes are torn. And after that a priest brings a mitzri rope, i.e., a rope made of reeds [netzarim], and binds it above her breasts, so that her garments will not fall. A rope of flax is used for measuring.

היה מודד והגיע: מדתני חוזר למידתו מכלל דאם אינו יכול להבליעו הולך למקום שיכול להבליעו ומבליעו וצופה כנגד מידתו וחוזר

It was stated in the mishna: If he was measuring the limit and he reached a canyon or a fence, he spans the area as if it were completely flat and then resumes his measurement. The Gemara comments: From the fact that it taught that he resumes his measurement, it may be derived by inference that if he cannot span it because it is too wide, he goes to a place where it is narrower so that he can span it. And he spans it, and he then looks for the spot at the same distance that is aligned with his original measurement, and he resumes his measurement from there.

תנינא להא דתנו רבנן היה מודד והגיע המידה לגיא אם יכול להבליעו בחבל של חמשים אמה מבליעו ואם לאו הולך למקום שיכול להבליעו ומבליעו וצופה וחוזר למידתו

The Gemara comments that we have indeed learned this, as the Sages taught the following baraita: In the case of one who was measuring the Shabbat limit and the measurement reached a canyon, if he can span the canyon with a rope of fifty cubits, i.e., if the canyon is less than fifty cubits wide, he spans it. And if not, i.e., if the valley is more than fifty cubits wide, he goes to a place where it is narrower so that he can span it, and he spans it, and he then looks for the spot at the same distance that aligns with his original measurement, and he resumes his measurement from there.

אם היה גיא מעוקם מקדיר ועולה מקדיר ויורד הגיע לכותל אין אומרים יקוב הכותל אלא אומדו והולך לו

The baraita continues: If the canyon was curved so that it surrounds the city on more than one side, and it cannot be spanned on the side where he wishes to measure the limit, he pierces and ascends, pierces and descends, thereby measuring the canyon’s width bit by bit. If he reached a wall, we do not say that he should pierce the wall so that it can be precisely measured; rather, he estimates its width and then leaves and continues on.

והא אנן תנן מבליעו וחוזר למידתו התם ניחא תשמישתא הכא לא ניחא תשמישתא

The Gemara asks: Didn’t we learn in the mishna: If he reached a canyon or fence, he spans it and then resumes his measurement? Why is a precise measurement required there, whereas in the case of a wall, an estimate is sufficient? The Gemara explains: There, in the mishna, we are dealing with a place whose use is convenient, i.e., where the slope is relatively gentle so that the area can be crossed. Therefore, the area must actually be measured. However, here, in the baraita, the wall’s use is not convenient. Since one cannot walk through the wall, an estimate of its width is sufficient.

אמר רב יהודה אמר שמואל לא שנו אלא שאין חוט המשקולת יורד כנגדו

Rav Yehuda said that Shmuel said: They taught the method of piercing only where a plumb line does not drop straight down, i.e., where the canyon has a slope.

אבל חוט המשקולת יורד כנגדו מודדו מדידה יפה

However, if a plumb line drops straight down, i.e., if the canyon wall is very steep, he measures the width of the canyon properly at the bottom of the canyon, without taking its walls into account.

וכמה עומקו של גיא אמר רב יוסף אלפים

The Gemara asks: And what is the depth of a canyon that may be spanned if it is not more than fifty cubits wide? Rav Yosef said: Up to two thousand cubits; but if it is deeper than that, the slope must be measured as well.

איתיביה אביי עמוק מאה ורוחב חמשים מבליעו ואם לאו אין מבליעו הוא דאמר כאחרים דתניא אחרים אומרים אפילו עמוק אלפים ורוחב חמשים מבליעו

Abaye raised an objection from the following baraita: If a canyon is up to one hundred cubits deep and up to fifty cubits wide, one may span it; and if not, one may not span it. How could Rav Yosef say that the canyon may be spanned if its depth is less than two thousand cubits? The Gemara answers: He stated his opinion in accordance with the opinion of Aḥerim; as it was taught in a baraita: Aḥerim say: Even if the canyon is two thousand cubits deep and fifty cubits wide, one may span it.

איכא דאמרי אמר רב יוסף אפילו יתר מאלפים כמאן דלא כתנא קמא ולא כאחרים

The Gemara cites an alternate version of the previous discussion. Some say that Rav Yosef said: Even if the canyon is more than two thousand cubits deep, it may be spanned. The Gemara asks: In accordance with whose opinion did Rav Yosef say this? It is not in accordance with the opinion of the first tanna, and it is not in accordance with the opinion of the Aḥerim.

התם שאין חוט המשקולת יורד כנגדו הכא בחוט המשקולת יורד כנגדו

The Gemara answers: There, where the tanna’im disagree about the depth of a canyon that may be spanned, they refer to a case where a plumb line does not drop straight down and therefore there is reason to measure the slope. Here, however, where Rav Yosef says that the canyon may be spanned even if it is more than two thousand cubits deep, he is referring to a case where a plumb line drops straight down.

וכי אין חוט המשקולת יורד כנגדו עד כמה אמר אבימי ארבע וכן תני רמי בר יחזקאל ארבע:

The Gemara asks: And where a plumb line does not drop straight down, how much must it extend from the top of the canyon in order for the wall of the canyon to be considered a slope rather than a vertical wall? Avimi said: Four cubits. If the bed of the canyon lies four cubits beyond the top edge of the canyon, the wall is sloped and must be included in the measurement. And similarly, Rami bar Ezekiel taught, based upon a baraita, that the maximum run is four cubits.

הגיע להר מבליעו וחוזר למידתו: אמר רבא לא שנו אלא בהר המתלקט עשרה מתוך ארבע אבל בהר המתלקט עשרה מתוך חמש מודדו מדידה יפה

We learned in the mishna: If he reached a hill, he does not measure its height, but rather he spans the hill as if it were not there and then resumes his measurement. Rava said: They taught this halakha only with regard to a hill that has an incline of ten handbreadths within a run of four cubits. However, with regard to a gentler hill, e.g., one that has an incline of ten handbreadths within five cubits, one must measure the hill properly, i.e., he must include the slope itself in his measurement.

רב הונא בריה דרב נתן מתני לקולא אמר רבא לא שנו אלא בהר המתלקט עשרה מתוך חמש אבל בהר המתלקט עשרה מתוך ארבע אומדו והולך לו:

The Gemara notes that Rav Huna, son of Rav Natan, teaches a lenient formulation of this halakha: Rava said that they only taught this halakha with regard to a hill that has an incline of ten handbreadths within a run of five cubits. However, with regard to a steeper hill that has an incline of ten handbreadths within four cubits, one need not take any precise measurements; instead, he estimates the length of the hill, and then leaves and continues measuring from the other side.

ובלבד שלא יצא חוץ לתחום: מאי טעמא אמר רב כהנא גזירה שמא יאמרו מדת תחומין באה לכאן:

We learned in the mishna that one may measure a canyon or hill located within the Shabbat limit, provided that one does not go out beyond the limit. The Gemara asks: What is the reason for this restriction? Rav Kahana said: It is a decree, lest people say: The measurement of the Shabbat limit comes to here. Since people know that he set out to measure the Shabbat limit, if they see him measuring in a certain spot they will assume that the area is included in the Shabbat limit.

אם אינו יכול להבליעו: תנו רבנן כיצד מקדרין תחתון כנגד לבו עליון כנגד מרגלותיו אמר אביי נקיטינן אין מקדרין אלא בחבל של ארבע אמות

We learned in the mishna: If, due to the width of the canyon or hill, one cannot span it, he may pierce it. The Sages taught a baraita which explains this procedure: How does one figuratively pierce a hill? Two people hold the two ends of a measuring rope. The one who is lower down on the hill holds the rope at the level of his heart while the one who is higher holds it at the level of his feet, and they proceed to measure in this fashion. Abaye said: Based on tradition, we hold that one may pierce only with a rope of four cubits.

אמר רב נחמן אמר רבה בר אבוה (נקיטינן) אין מקדרין לא בעגלה ערופה ולא בערי מקלט מפני שהן של תורה:

Rav Naḥman said that Rabba bar Avuh said: Based on tradition, we hold that one may not pierce when measuring distances for the rite of the beheaded heifer. This rite is practiced when a murder victim is found, and it is not known who killed him. Judges measure the distance from the location of the corpse to the nearest town, in order to determine which town must perform the rite (Deuteronomy 21). Similarly, one may not pierce when measuring distances with regard to cities of refuge, in order to determine the boundaries within which an accidental murderer is protected from the blood redeemer (Numbers 32). Because these measurements are from the Torah, indirect methods of measurement are insufficient. The area must be measured as though it were flat.

מתני׳ אין מודדין אלא מן המומחה ריבה למקום אחד ומיעט למקום אחר שומעין למקום שריבה ריבה לאחד ומיעט לאחד שומעין למרובה

MISHNA: One may measure the Shabbat limit only with an expert surveyor. If it is discovered that the surveyor extended the limit in one place and reduced it in another place, so that the line marking the Shabbat limit is not straight, one accepts the measurement of the place where he extended the limit and straightens the limit accordingly. Similarly, if the surveyor extended the limit for one and reduced it for another, one accepts the extended measurement.

ואפילו עבד אפילו שפחה נאמנין לומר עד כאן תחום שבת שלא אמרו חכמים את הדבר להחמיר אלא להקל:

And furthermore, even a gentile slave and even a gentile maidservant, whose testimonies are generally considered unreliable, are trustworthy to say: The Shabbat limit extended until here; as the Sages did not state the matter, the laws of Shabbat limits, to be stringent, but rather to be lenient. The prohibition to walk more than two thousand cubits is rabbinic in origin and is therefore interpreted leniently.

Masechet Eruvin is sponsored by Adina and Eric Hagege in honor of our parents, Rabbi Dov and Elayne Greenstone and Roger and Ketty Hagege who raised children, grandchildren and great grandchildren committed to Torah learning.

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Eruvin 52-58 – Daf Yomi: One Week at a Time

This week we will complete the fourth chapter of Masechet Eruvin and begin the fifth.  We will learn about extending...

Eruvin 58

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Eruvin 58

ובלבד שלא יצא חוץ לתחום

provided he does not thereby go out beyond the city’s Shabbat limit, as those watching the surveyor might mistakenly think the limit extends to that point.

אם אינו יכול להבליעו בזו אמר רבי דוסתאי בר ינאי משום רבי מאיר שמעתי שמקדרין בהרים:

If, due to the width of the canyon or hill, he cannot span it, with regard to this situation Rabbi Dostai bar Yannai said in the name of Rabbi Meir: I heard that one may pierce hills. In other words, one measures the distance as if there were a hole from one side of the hill to the other, so that in effect, he measures only the horizontal distance and ignores the differences in elevation.

גמ׳ מנא הני מילי אמר רב יהודה אמר רב דאמר קרא ארך החצר מאה באמה ורוחב חמשים בחמשים אמרה תורה בחבל של חמשים אמה מדוד

GEMARA: The Gemara asks: From where are these matters, that the Shabbat limit must be measured with a rope fifty cubits long, derived? Rav Yehuda said that Rav said: They are derived from that which the verse states: “The length of the courtyard shall be one hundred cubits, and the breadth fifty by fifty” (Exodus 27:18). The Torah states: Measure with a rope of fifty cubits, i.e., the length and breadth of the courtyard must be measured “by fifty,” with a rope fifty cubits long.

האי מיבעי ליה ליטול חמשים ולסבב חמשים

The Gemara asks: This repetitive usage of the word fifty is necessary to teach us something else, namely, that the area of a courtyard is equivalent to a square the size of the Tabernacle’s courtyard. To this end, the Torah states: Take a square of fifty cubits by fifty cubits, and surround it with the remaining fifty cubits in order to form a square, each side of which is just over seventy cubits long.

אם כן לימא קרא חמשים חמשים מאי חמשים בחמשים שמעת מינה תרתי:

The Gemara answers: If so, let the verse state: Fifty, fifty, which would have sufficed to teach us the size and shape of a courtyard. What is the significance of the phrase: Fifty by fifty? Conclude from this that the verse comes to teach two things, both the matter of the square courtyard and that the length of the rope used to measure the Shabbat limit should be fifty cubits long.

לא פחות ולא יותר: תנא לא פחות מפני שמרבה ולא יותר מפני שממעט

We learned in the mishna: One may measure a Shabbat limit only with a rope fifty cubits long, not less and not more. It was taught in the Tosefta: No less, because a shorter rope improperly increases the Shabbat limit, as the rope is likely to be stretched. And no more, because a longer rope reduces the limit, as the rope is likely to sag due to its weight.

אמר רבי אסי אין מודדין אלא בחבל של אפסקימא מאי אפסקימא אמר רבי אבא נרגילא מאי נרגילא אמר רבי יעקב דיקלא דחד נברא איכא דאמרי מאי אפסקימא רבי אבא אמר נרגילא רבי יעקב אמר דיקלא דחד נברא

Rabbi Asi said: One may measure only with a rope of afsakima. The Gemara asks: What is afsakima? Rabbi Abba said: It is the nargila plant. This name was also not widely known, and therefore the Gemara asks: What is nargila? Rabbi Ya’akov said: A palm tree that has only one fibrous vine wrapped around it. Some say a different version of the previous discussion, according to which the Gemara asked: What is afsakima? Rabbi Abba said: It is the nargila plant. Rabbi Ya’akov disagreed and said: It is a palm tree with one fibrous vine.

תניא אמר רבי יהושע בן חנניא אין לך שיפה למדידה יותר משלשלאות של ברזל אבל מה נעשה שהרי אמרה תורה ובידו חבל מדה

It was taught in a baraita that Rabbi Yehoshua ben Ḥananya said: You have nothing better for measuring than iron chains, as they do not stretch. But what shall we do, as the Torah states: “I lifted up my eyes again and looked, and behold a man with a measuring rope in his hand” (Zechariah 2:5), from which it is derived that measurements must be made with a rope.

והכתיב וביד האיש קנה המדה ההוא לתרעי

The Gemara asks: Isn’t it also written: “And in the man’s hand a measuring reed of six cubits long, of one cubit and a handbreadth each” (Ezekiel 40:5), which indicates that reeds may also be used for measuring? The Gemara answers: That is used for measuring gates, which are too narrow to be measured with lengthy ropes.

תני רב יוסף שלשה חבלים הם של מגג של נצר ושל פשתן

Rav Yosef taught that there are three kinds of rope, each required by halakha for a different purpose: A rope of magag, a kind of bulrush reed; a rope of netzer, made from fibrous palm vines; and a rope of flax.

של מגג לפרה דתנן כפתוה בחבל המגג ונתנוה על גב מערכתה של נצרים לסוטה דתנן ואחר כך מביא חבל המצרי וקושרו למעלה מדדיה של פשתן למדידה:

They are used for the following purposes: A rope of magag is utilized for the burning of the red heifer, as we learned in a mishna: They would bind the heifer with a rope of magag and place it on its woodpile, where it would be burned after it was slaughtered. A rope of netzer was required for a sota, a woman suspected of adultery, as we learned in a mishna: Before the sota is compelled to drink the bitter waters, her clothes are torn. And after that a priest brings a mitzri rope, i.e., a rope made of reeds [netzarim], and binds it above her breasts, so that her garments will not fall. A rope of flax is used for measuring.

היה מודד והגיע: מדתני חוזר למידתו מכלל דאם אינו יכול להבליעו הולך למקום שיכול להבליעו ומבליעו וצופה כנגד מידתו וחוזר

It was stated in the mishna: If he was measuring the limit and he reached a canyon or a fence, he spans the area as if it were completely flat and then resumes his measurement. The Gemara comments: From the fact that it taught that he resumes his measurement, it may be derived by inference that if he cannot span it because it is too wide, he goes to a place where it is narrower so that he can span it. And he spans it, and he then looks for the spot at the same distance that is aligned with his original measurement, and he resumes his measurement from there.

תנינא להא דתנו רבנן היה מודד והגיע המידה לגיא אם יכול להבליעו בחבל של חמשים אמה מבליעו ואם לאו הולך למקום שיכול להבליעו ומבליעו וצופה וחוזר למידתו

The Gemara comments that we have indeed learned this, as the Sages taught the following baraita: In the case of one who was measuring the Shabbat limit and the measurement reached a canyon, if he can span the canyon with a rope of fifty cubits, i.e., if the canyon is less than fifty cubits wide, he spans it. And if not, i.e., if the valley is more than fifty cubits wide, he goes to a place where it is narrower so that he can span it, and he spans it, and he then looks for the spot at the same distance that aligns with his original measurement, and he resumes his measurement from there.

אם היה גיא מעוקם מקדיר ועולה מקדיר ויורד הגיע לכותל אין אומרים יקוב הכותל אלא אומדו והולך לו

The baraita continues: If the canyon was curved so that it surrounds the city on more than one side, and it cannot be spanned on the side where he wishes to measure the limit, he pierces and ascends, pierces and descends, thereby measuring the canyon’s width bit by bit. If he reached a wall, we do not say that he should pierce the wall so that it can be precisely measured; rather, he estimates its width and then leaves and continues on.

והא אנן תנן מבליעו וחוזר למידתו התם ניחא תשמישתא הכא לא ניחא תשמישתא

The Gemara asks: Didn’t we learn in the mishna: If he reached a canyon or fence, he spans it and then resumes his measurement? Why is a precise measurement required there, whereas in the case of a wall, an estimate is sufficient? The Gemara explains: There, in the mishna, we are dealing with a place whose use is convenient, i.e., where the slope is relatively gentle so that the area can be crossed. Therefore, the area must actually be measured. However, here, in the baraita, the wall’s use is not convenient. Since one cannot walk through the wall, an estimate of its width is sufficient.

אמר רב יהודה אמר שמואל לא שנו אלא שאין חוט המשקולת יורד כנגדו

Rav Yehuda said that Shmuel said: They taught the method of piercing only where a plumb line does not drop straight down, i.e., where the canyon has a slope.

אבל חוט המשקולת יורד כנגדו מודדו מדידה יפה

However, if a plumb line drops straight down, i.e., if the canyon wall is very steep, he measures the width of the canyon properly at the bottom of the canyon, without taking its walls into account.

וכמה עומקו של גיא אמר רב יוסף אלפים

The Gemara asks: And what is the depth of a canyon that may be spanned if it is not more than fifty cubits wide? Rav Yosef said: Up to two thousand cubits; but if it is deeper than that, the slope must be measured as well.

איתיביה אביי עמוק מאה ורוחב חמשים מבליעו ואם לאו אין מבליעו הוא דאמר כאחרים דתניא אחרים אומרים אפילו עמוק אלפים ורוחב חמשים מבליעו

Abaye raised an objection from the following baraita: If a canyon is up to one hundred cubits deep and up to fifty cubits wide, one may span it; and if not, one may not span it. How could Rav Yosef say that the canyon may be spanned if its depth is less than two thousand cubits? The Gemara answers: He stated his opinion in accordance with the opinion of Aḥerim; as it was taught in a baraita: Aḥerim say: Even if the canyon is two thousand cubits deep and fifty cubits wide, one may span it.

איכא דאמרי אמר רב יוסף אפילו יתר מאלפים כמאן דלא כתנא קמא ולא כאחרים

The Gemara cites an alternate version of the previous discussion. Some say that Rav Yosef said: Even if the canyon is more than two thousand cubits deep, it may be spanned. The Gemara asks: In accordance with whose opinion did Rav Yosef say this? It is not in accordance with the opinion of the first tanna, and it is not in accordance with the opinion of the Aḥerim.

התם שאין חוט המשקולת יורד כנגדו הכא בחוט המשקולת יורד כנגדו

The Gemara answers: There, where the tanna’im disagree about the depth of a canyon that may be spanned, they refer to a case where a plumb line does not drop straight down and therefore there is reason to measure the slope. Here, however, where Rav Yosef says that the canyon may be spanned even if it is more than two thousand cubits deep, he is referring to a case where a plumb line drops straight down.

וכי אין חוט המשקולת יורד כנגדו עד כמה אמר אבימי ארבע וכן תני רמי בר יחזקאל ארבע:

The Gemara asks: And where a plumb line does not drop straight down, how much must it extend from the top of the canyon in order for the wall of the canyon to be considered a slope rather than a vertical wall? Avimi said: Four cubits. If the bed of the canyon lies four cubits beyond the top edge of the canyon, the wall is sloped and must be included in the measurement. And similarly, Rami bar Ezekiel taught, based upon a baraita, that the maximum run is four cubits.

הגיע להר מבליעו וחוזר למידתו: אמר רבא לא שנו אלא בהר המתלקט עשרה מתוך ארבע אבל בהר המתלקט עשרה מתוך חמש מודדו מדידה יפה

We learned in the mishna: If he reached a hill, he does not measure its height, but rather he spans the hill as if it were not there and then resumes his measurement. Rava said: They taught this halakha only with regard to a hill that has an incline of ten handbreadths within a run of four cubits. However, with regard to a gentler hill, e.g., one that has an incline of ten handbreadths within five cubits, one must measure the hill properly, i.e., he must include the slope itself in his measurement.

רב הונא בריה דרב נתן מתני לקולא אמר רבא לא שנו אלא בהר המתלקט עשרה מתוך חמש אבל בהר המתלקט עשרה מתוך ארבע אומדו והולך לו:

The Gemara notes that Rav Huna, son of Rav Natan, teaches a lenient formulation of this halakha: Rava said that they only taught this halakha with regard to a hill that has an incline of ten handbreadths within a run of five cubits. However, with regard to a steeper hill that has an incline of ten handbreadths within four cubits, one need not take any precise measurements; instead, he estimates the length of the hill, and then leaves and continues measuring from the other side.

ובלבד שלא יצא חוץ לתחום: מאי טעמא אמר רב כהנא גזירה שמא יאמרו מדת תחומין באה לכאן:

We learned in the mishna that one may measure a canyon or hill located within the Shabbat limit, provided that one does not go out beyond the limit. The Gemara asks: What is the reason for this restriction? Rav Kahana said: It is a decree, lest people say: The measurement of the Shabbat limit comes to here. Since people know that he set out to measure the Shabbat limit, if they see him measuring in a certain spot they will assume that the area is included in the Shabbat limit.

אם אינו יכול להבליעו: תנו רבנן כיצד מקדרין תחתון כנגד לבו עליון כנגד מרגלותיו אמר אביי נקיטינן אין מקדרין אלא בחבל של ארבע אמות

We learned in the mishna: If, due to the width of the canyon or hill, one cannot span it, he may pierce it. The Sages taught a baraita which explains this procedure: How does one figuratively pierce a hill? Two people hold the two ends of a measuring rope. The one who is lower down on the hill holds the rope at the level of his heart while the one who is higher holds it at the level of his feet, and they proceed to measure in this fashion. Abaye said: Based on tradition, we hold that one may pierce only with a rope of four cubits.

אמר רב נחמן אמר רבה בר אבוה (נקיטינן) אין מקדרין לא בעגלה ערופה ולא בערי מקלט מפני שהן של תורה:

Rav Naḥman said that Rabba bar Avuh said: Based on tradition, we hold that one may not pierce when measuring distances for the rite of the beheaded heifer. This rite is practiced when a murder victim is found, and it is not known who killed him. Judges measure the distance from the location of the corpse to the nearest town, in order to determine which town must perform the rite (Deuteronomy 21). Similarly, one may not pierce when measuring distances with regard to cities of refuge, in order to determine the boundaries within which an accidental murderer is protected from the blood redeemer (Numbers 32). Because these measurements are from the Torah, indirect methods of measurement are insufficient. The area must be measured as though it were flat.

מתני׳ אין מודדין אלא מן המומחה ריבה למקום אחד ומיעט למקום אחר שומעין למקום שריבה ריבה לאחד ומיעט לאחד שומעין למרובה

MISHNA: One may measure the Shabbat limit only with an expert surveyor. If it is discovered that the surveyor extended the limit in one place and reduced it in another place, so that the line marking the Shabbat limit is not straight, one accepts the measurement of the place where he extended the limit and straightens the limit accordingly. Similarly, if the surveyor extended the limit for one and reduced it for another, one accepts the extended measurement.

ואפילו עבד אפילו שפחה נאמנין לומר עד כאן תחום שבת שלא אמרו חכמים את הדבר להחמיר אלא להקל:

And furthermore, even a gentile slave and even a gentile maidservant, whose testimonies are generally considered unreliable, are trustworthy to say: The Shabbat limit extended until here; as the Sages did not state the matter, the laws of Shabbat limits, to be stringent, but rather to be lenient. The prohibition to walk more than two thousand cubits is rabbinic in origin and is therefore interpreted leniently.

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