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Today's Daf Yomi

October 13, 2020 | כ״ה בתשרי תשפ״א

Masechet Eruvin is sponsored by Adina and Eric Hagege in honor of our parents, Rabbi Dov and Elayne Greenstone and Roger and Ketty Hagege who raised children, grandchildren and great grandchildren committed to Torah learning.

Eruvin 65

Is one exempt from prayer, or prayer with the proper intent if one is drunk? Is one who is drunk liable for one’s actions in general? Can one get punished for a sin committed while intoxicated? Does it depend on how intoxicated one is? One needs to have intent when praying or issuing a ruling and therefore one should make sure to be focused, and in a good mood, etc. Wine can have both positive and negative effects on people. One’s true character is revealed through one’s cup (drinking wine), one’s pocket (business dealings) and one’s anger. Some say: also one’s laughter. If a Jew and gentile are living in an inner courtyard and a Jew by himself in the outer courtyard, is the outer courtyard considered like one Jew living with a non-Jew or two, meaning would he need to rent the space from the gentile or not? What about the reverse case – a Jew on the inside and a Jew and gentile in the outer courtyard. What if the gentile rents the space and is not there, can one rent from the landlord? If the gentile is not there before Shabbat but shows up on Shabbat, can one arrange the “rental” from the gentile on Shabbat in order to permit carrying?

יכול אני לפטור את כל העולם כולו מן הדין מיום שחרב בית המקדש ועד עכשיו שנאמר לכן שמעי נא זאת ענייה ושכורת ולא מיין

I can make an argument that exempts the entire world from judgment, from the day that the Temple was destroyed until now. As it is stated: “Therefore, hear now this, you afflicted and drunken, but not from wine” (Isaiah 51:21), which teaches that in the wake of the destruction of the Temple, all Jews are considered intoxicated and are not responsible for any sins they commit.

מיתיבי שיכור מקחו מקח וממכרו ממכר עבר עבירה שיש בה מיתה ממיתין אותו מלקות מלקין אותו כללו של דבר הרי הוא כפיקח לכל דבריו אלא שפטור מן התפלה

The Gemara raises an objection to this argument from the following baraita: With regard to one who is intoxicated, his acquisition is a binding acquisition; that is, he cannot retract the transaction when he is sober, and similarly, his sale is a binding sale. Moreover, if he committed a transgression for which he is liable to receive the death penalty, he is executed; and if the offense is punishable by lashes, he is flogged. The principle is that he is like a sober person in all matters, except that he is exempt from prayer. Therefore, even if the people of Israel are considered drunk, they are nonetheless responsible for their actions.

מאי יכולני לפטור דקאמר נמי מדין תפלה

The Gemara answers that even Rabbi Elazar ben Azarya did not mean that they should be exempt from liability for all their sins. Rather, what is the meaning of his statement: I can exempt? He, too, meant that he could exempt them from the judgment of prayer, i.e., Jews cannot be held liable for praying without the proper intentions.

אמר רבי חנינא לא שנו אלא שלא הגיע לשכרותו של לוט אבל הגיע לשכרותו של לוט פטור מכולם:

Rabbi Ḥanina said: They taught that an intoxicated person is responsible for all his actions only in a case where he did not reach the state of intoxication of Lot; however, if he reached the state of intoxication of Lot, so that he is altogether unaware of his actions, he is exempt from all liability.

אמר רבי חנינא כל המפיק מגן בשעת גאוה סוגרין וחותמין צרות בעדו שנאמר גאוה אפיקי מגנים סגור חותם צר

Rabbi Ḥanina said: Whoever passes a shield over himself at a time of arrogance, i.e., whoever suppresses his evil inclination as though it were covered with a shield when he is arrogant, e.g., when he is intoxicated or the like (Rabbeinu Ḥananel), troubles will be closed and sealed from him, as it is stated: “The channels of [afikei] his scales are his pride, closed together as with a tight [tzar] seal” (Job 41:7). The verse is interpreted homiletically: When at a time of arrogance a person passes a shield [mapik] over his evil inclination, his troubles [tzarot] will be closed and sealed before him.

מאי משמע דהאי אפיק לישנא דעבורי הוא דכתיב אחי בגדו כמו נחל כאפיק נחלים יעבורו

The Gemara poses a question: From where may it be inferred that the meaning of this word afik is a formulation denoting passing [aborei]? The Gemara answers: As it is written: “My brothers have dealt deceitfully like a wadi, like the channel [afik] of brooks that pass by [ya’avoru]” (Job 6:15). This implies that the term afik is synonymous with the verb ya’avoru, which refers to something that travels and passes by.

רבי יוחנן אמר כל שאינו מפיק אתמר

Rabbi Yoḥanan said: This is not the correct interpretation; rather, it was stated that whoever does not cover, but draws out [mapik] a shield at a time of arrogance, troubles will be closed and sealed from him. In other words, a person must draw his weapons and shield in order to fight his evil inclination when it tries to overpower him (Rabbeinu Ḥananel).

מאי משמע דהאי מפיק לישנא דגלויי הוא דכתיב ויראו אפיקי מים ויגלו מוסדות תבל

The Gemara poses a question: From where may it be inferred that this word mapik is a formulation denoting revealing? The Gemara answers: As it is written: “The channels of [afikei] waters were seen, and the foundations of the world were laid bare” (Psalms 18:16).

מכדי קראי משמע בין למר ובין למר מאי בינייהו איכא בינייהו דרב ששת דרב ששת מסר שינתיה לשמעיה מר אית ליה דרב ששת ומר לית ליה דרב ששת

The Gemara asks: Now, since the verses may be interpreted both in accordance with the opinion of this Master and in accordance with the opinion of the other Master, what is the practical difference between them? The Gemara answers: The practical difference between them is with regard to the following practice of Rav Sheshet, as Rav Sheshet gave the responsibility for monitoring his sleep to his attendant, instructing the attendant to wake him when the time for prayer arrived. One Sage, Rabbi Ḥanina, is of the opinion that the practice of Rav Sheshet is correct, as Rabbi Ḥanina maintains that if one is in great need of sleep, it is better to nap for a while and then wake up with renewed vigor. And one Sage, Rabbi Yoḥanan, is not of the opinion that the practice of Rav Sheshet is correct. He holds that a person must marshal his strength and pray, rather than succumb to the need for sleep.

אמר רב חייא בר אשי אמר רב כל שאין דעתו מיושבת עליו אל יתפלל משום שנאמר בצר אל יורה רבי חנינא ביומא דרתח לא מצלי אמר בצר אל יורה כתיב מר עוקבא ביומא דשותא לא הוה נפיק לבי דינא

Rav Ḥiyya bar Ashi said that Rav said: Anyone whose mind is unsettled should not pray, as it is stated: When distressed, one should not issue decisions. The Gemara relates that Rabbi Ḥanina, on a day that he was angry, would not pray, as he said that it is written: When distressed, one should not issue decisions. The Gemara similarly relates that Mar Ukva, on a day of a south wind, would not venture out to the court, for this hot and harsh wind would disturb his usual clarity of mind.

אמר רב נחמן בר יצחק הלכתא בעיא צילותא כיומא דאסתנא אמר אביי אי אמרה לי אם קריב כותחא לא תנאי

Rav Naḥman bar Yitzḥak said: The study of halakha requires clarity, as on a day when a north wind blows and clears the skies. Abaye said similarly that if my stepmother says to me: Bring me a dish of kutaḥ, I can no longer study Torah in my usual fashion, as even a simple task such as this troubles me and distracts me from my Torah study.

אמר רבא אי קרצתן כינה לא תנאי מר בריה דרבינא עבדה ליה אמיה שבעה מני לשבעה יומי

Similarly, Rava said: If I am bitten by a louse, I can no longer learn in my usual manner. The Gemara relates that the mother of Mar, son of Ravina, would prepare seven garments for him for the seven days of the week, so that he would not be bitten by the lice found in old clothes (Rabbeinu Ḥananel).

אמר רב יהודה לא איברי ליליא אלא לשינתא אמר רבי שמעון בן לקיש לא איברי סיהרא אלא לגירסא אמרי ליה לרבי זירא מחדדן שמעתך אמר להו דיממי נינהו

Rav Yehuda said: Night was created only for sleep. Rabbi Shimon ben Lakish said: The moon was created only for Torah study by its light. When people said to Rabbi Zeira: Your teachings are exceedingly sharp, he said to them: They were formulated during the daytime hours. This teaches that Torah study during the day is most beneficial to clarity of the mind.

אמרה ליה ברתיה דרב חסדא לרב חסדא לא בעי מר מינם פורתא אמר לה השתא אתו יומי דאריכי וקטיני ונינום טובא

Rav Ḥisda’s daughter said to her father, Rav Ḥisda, who would spend his nights in study: Doesn’t the Master wish to sleep a little? He said to her: Days that are long in quantity but short in the opportunity to study Torah and perform mitzvot will soon arrive, and we will sleep a lot. After I die, there will be more than enough time for sleep.

אמר רב נחמן בר יצחק אנן פועלי דיממי אנן רב אחא בר יעקב יזיף ופרע

Rav Naḥman bar Yitzḥak said: We, Torah scholars, are day workers, as our study is performed primarily during the day. The Gemara relates that Rav Aḥa bar Ya’akov would borrow and repay, i.e., if for some reason he neglected to study during the day, he would use the night hours to compensate for the missed time.

אמר רבי אלעזר הבא מן הדרך אל יתפלל שלשה ימים שנאמר ואקבצם אל הנהר הבא אל אחוא ונחנה שם ימים שלשה ואבינה בעם וגו׳

Rabbi Elazar said: One who returns home from a journey should not pray for three days while recovering from the hardship of being on the road, as it is stated: “And I gathered them together at the river that runs to Aḥava, and we encamped there for three days, and I inspected the people” (Ezra 8:15), after which it is stated: “Then I proclaimed a fast there, at the river of Aḥava, that we might afflict ourselves before our God, to seek of Him a safe journey for us” (Ezra 8:21), which teaches that they rested three days before praying.

אבוה דשמואל כי אתי באורחא לא מצלי תלתא יומי שמואל לא מצלי בביתא דאית ביה שיכרא רב פפא לא מצלי בביתא דאית ביה הרסנא

The Gemara relates that Shmuel’s father, when he would return home from his journey, would not pray for three days, as he would have to rest from his journey. Shmuel himself would not pray in a house that contained an alcoholic beverage, as the scent of the alcohol would disturb his concentration during prayer. Similarly, Rav Pappa would not pray in a house that contained small fried fish, due to their smell.

אמר רבי חנינא כל המתפתה ביינו יש בו מדעת קונו שנאמר וירח ה׳ את ריח הניחוח וגו׳

Rabbi Ḥanina said: Whoever is appeased by his wine, i.e., whoever becomes more relaxed after drinking, has in him an element of the mind-set of his Creator, who acted in a similar fashion, as it is stated: “And the Lord smelled the sweet savor, and the Lord said in His heart, I will not again curse the ground any more for man’s sake” (Genesis 8:21). As it were, God acted more favorably toward His creatures after He was appeased with the smell of the burnt offerings. Smell can be as potent as drinking or eating itself.

אמר רבי חייא כל המתיישב ביינו יש בו דעת שבעים זקנים יין ניתן בשבעים אותיות וסוד ניתן בשבעים אותיות נכנס יין יצא סוד

Rabbi Ḥiyya said: Anyone who remains settled of mind after drinking wine, and does not become intoxicated, has an element of the mind-set of seventy Elders. The allusion is: Wine [yayin spelled yod, yod, nun] was given in seventy letters, as the numerological value of the letters comprising the word is seventy, as yod equals ten and nun equals fifty. Similarly, the word secret [sod spelled samekh, vav, dalet] was given in seventy letters, as samekh equals sixty, vav equals six, and dalet equals four. Typically, when wine entered the body, a secret emerged. Whoever does not reveal secrets when he drinks is clearly blessed with a firm mind, like that of seventy Elders.

אמר רבי חנין לא נברא יין אלא לנחם אבלים ולשלם שכר לרשעים שנאמר תנו שכר לאובד וגו׳

Rabbi Ḥanin said: Wine was created only in order to comfort mourners in their distress, and to reward the wicked in this world so they will have no reward left in the World-to-Come, as it is stated: “Give strong drink to him that is ready to perish, and wine to the bitter of soul. Let him drink, and forget his poverty, and remember his misery no more” (Proverbs 31:6). “Him that is ready to perish” refers to the wicked, who will perish from the world, while “the bitter of soul” denotes mourners.

אמר רבי חנין בר פפא כל שאין יין נשפך בתוך ביתו כמים אינו בכלל ברכה שנאמר וברך את לחמך ואת מימיך מה לחם שניקח בכסף מעשר אף מים שניקח בכסף מעשר ומאי ניהו יין וקא קרי ליה מים

Rabbi Ḥanin bar Pappa said: Anyone in whose house wine does not flow like water is not yet included in the Torah’s blessing, as it is stated: “And He shall bless your bread and your water” (Exodus 23:25). The water mentioned in this verse actually refers to wine, as learned in the following manner: Just as bread is something that may be purchased with second-tithe money, i.e., one is permitted to buy bread with money used to redeem second-tithe, so too the word water in the verse is referring to a liquid that may be purchased with second-tithe money. And what is that? It is wine, as one may buy wine with second-tithe money, but one may not buy water; and nevertheless the verse calls it “water.”

אי נשפך בביתו כמים איכא ברכה ואי לא לא

This teaches that if wine flows in a person’s house like water, there is a blessing, but if not, there is no blessing.

אמר רבי אילעאי בשלשה דברים אדם ניכר בכוסו ובכיסו ובכעסו ואמרי ליה אף בשחקו:

Rabbi Elai said: In three matters a person’s true character is ascertained; in his cup, i.e., his behavior when he drinks; in his pocket, i.e., his conduct in his financial dealings with other people; and in his anger. And some say: A person also reveals his real nature in his laughter.

אמר רב יהודה אמר רב ישראל וגוי בפנימית וישראל בחיצונה בא מעשה לפני רבי ואסר ולפני רבי חייא ואסר

The Gemara returns to the topic of eiruvin: Rav Yehuda said that Rav said: It once happened that there were two courtyards, one within the other, with a Jew and a gentile living in the inner courtyard, while a single Jew lived in the outer one. The case came before Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi for a decision as to whether carrying in the outer courtyard could be permitted without renting from the gentile, and he prohibited it. The case then came before Rabbi Ḥiyya, and he too prohibited it.

יתוב רבה ורב יוסף בשילהי פירקיה דרב ששת ויתיב רב ששת וקאמר כמאן אמרה רב לשמעתיה כרבי מאיר כרכיש רבה רישיה

Rabba and Rav Yosef were sitting at the end of Rav Sheshet’s lecture, and Rav Sheshet sat and said: In accordance with whose opinion did Rav say this ruling of his, with regard to the residents of two courtyards? It was in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Meir, who maintains that a gentile renders it prohibited for even a single Jew who resides with him to carry in the courtyard, and therefore it is necessary for the Jew to rent from him. Rabba nodded his head in agreement with this explanation.

אמר רב יוסף תרי גברי רברבי כרבנן ליטעו בהאי מילתא אי כרבי מאיר למה לי ישראל בחיצונה

Rav Yosef said: Would two great men like these Sages, Rabba and Rav Sheshet, err in such a matter? If this ruling is in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Meir, why do I need to state that there is a Jew in the outer courtyard? According to Rabbi Meir, even a single Jew who resides with a gentile may not carry in his courtyard, whether or not another Jew is present.

וכי תימא מעשה שהיה כך היה והא בעו מיניה מרב פנימי במקומו מהו ואמר להן מותר

And even if you say that indeed this is the halakha, that the Jew in the outer courtyard is of no consequence, and that he is only mentioned because the incident that took place, took place in this way, and those who came to ask the question provided all the details without knowing whether they were relevant, this is still difficult. Wasn’t a dilemma raised before Rav himself with regard to this very issue: What is the halakha governing a Jew living in the inner courtyard with regard to his own place? Can he carry in the inner courtyard? And he said to them: It is permitted for him to carry there. Therefore, according to Rav, a gentile does not render it prohibited for a single Jew to carry, which is actually contrary to Rabbi Meir’s opinion.

ואלא מאי כרבי אליעזר בן יעקב האמר עד שיהו שני ישראלים אוסרין זה על זה

The Gemara raises a difficulty: Rather, what else can you say? Can you say that he ruled in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Eliezer ben Ya’akov? Didn’t Rabbi Eliezer ben Ya’akov say: The gentile does not render it prohibited to carry unless there are two Jews living in the same courtyard who themselves render it prohibited for one another to carry without an eiruv? In this case they do not render it prohibited for each other to carry without an eiruv, as they do not live in the same courtyard.

אלא כרבי עקיבא דאמר רגל המותרת במקומה אוסרת שלא במקומה

Rather, you might say that he ruled in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Akiva, who said: The foot of one who is permitted in his own place nonetheless renders it prohibited not in its own place. The Jew in the inner courtyard is permitted to carry in his own courtyard. However, in order to leave his courtyard, he passes through the outer one, in which it is prohibited for him to carry. Therefore, he renders it prohibited for the resident of the outer courtyard as well.

למה לי גוי אפילו ישראל נמי

But if that is the case, the following difficulty arises: According to this opinion, why do I need a gentile in the inner courtyard? The single Jew living in the inner courtyard would also suffice to render it prohibited for the resident of the outer courtyard to carry in his own courtyard, even if no gentiles were present at all.

אמר רב הונא בריה דרב יהושע לעולם כרבי אליעזר בן יעקב וכרבי עקיבא והכא במאי עסקינן כגון שעירבו וטעמא דאיכא גוי דאסיר אבל ליכא גוי לא אסיר

Rav Huna, son of Rav Yehoshua, said that Rav’s ruling should be understood as follows: Actually, Rav ruled in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Eliezer ben Ya’akov with regard to a gentile, and in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Akiva with regard to a foot that renders it prohibited to carry. And with what we are dealing here? This is a case where the two Jews established an eiruv with one another. And the reason that Rav prohibited carrying in the outer courtyard is that there is a gentile who renders it prohibited to carry, but if there is no gentile, it is not prohibited, as the Jews established an eiruv with one another, and therefore they are permitted to carry.

בעא מיניה רבי אליעזר מרב ישראל וגוי בחיצונה וישראל בפנימית מהו התם טעמא משום דשכיח דדייר דמירתת גוי וסבר השתא אתי ישראל ואמר לי ישראל דהוה גבך היכא

The Gemara relates that Rabbi Eliezer raised a dilemma before Rav as follows: If a Jew and a gentile live together in the outer courtyard, and a Jew lives alone in the inner one, what is the halakha? May they carry in the outer courtyard without renting from the gentile? One could argue as follows: There, in the case where the Jew and the gentile share the inner courtyard, the reason the Sages prohibited carrying is because it is common for a Jew and a gentile to live together in such a fashion. Ordinarily a single Jew would not live together in the same courtyard as a gentile, for fear that the gentile might kill him. However, here, the Jew living in the inner courtyard believes that the gentile would be afraid to kill him, as the gentile thinks to himself: Now, were I to kill my neighbor, the Jew living in the outer courtyard might come and say to me: The Jew who used to live by you, where is he? The gentile would not be able to offer as an excuse that the Jew left, for the other Jew from outer courtyard would know whether or not he passed through his courtyard. Therefore, since that living arrangement is common, the decree applies, and the gentile’s residence in the courtyard renders it prohibited to carry there.

אבל הכא אמינא ליה נפק אזל ליה

However, here, where the gentile lives in the outer courtyard, he is not afraid of killing his Jewish neighbor, as he says to himself: If the other Jew comes to question me, I will say to him: He went out and went on his way; I do not know where he went. In this case, the gentile would not be concerned that the Jew from the inner courtyard might question his story. Since it is uncommon for a Jew and a gentile to live together in such a fashion, the Sages did not issue a decree that the gentile’s residence renders the courtyard prohibited for carrying.

או דילמא הכא נמי מירתת דסבר השתא אתי ישראל וחזי לי

Or perhaps one would say that here, too, the gentile would be afraid to kill his Jewish neighbor, as he thinks to himself: Now, were I to kill my neighbor, the Jew living in the inner courtyard might come at any moment and see me in the act of killing his friend. Since the gentile does not know when the resident of the inner courtyard will pass through the outer courtyard, there is a chance his crime might be witnessed. In that case, it would not be uncommon for a Jew and a gentile to live together in such a fashion, and the Sages’ decree that the gentile’s residence renders carrying prohibited would apply.

אמר ליה תן לחכם ויחכם עוד

Rav said to Rabbi Eliezer the following verse: “Give to a wise man, and he will be yet wiser” (Proverbs 9:9), i.e., it is proper to be stringent even in such a case. Consequently, carrying is prohibited in the outer courtyard unless the Jews rent from the gentile.

ריש לקיש ותלמידי דרבי חנינא איקלעו לההוא פונדק ולא הוה שוכר והוה משכיר

The Gemara relates that Reish Lakish and the students of Rabbi Ḥanina happened to come on Shabbat to a certain inn that had at least three permanent residents, two Jews and a gentile who rented their quarters from the gentile innkeeper. Although the gentile tenant was not present on that Shabbat, the gentile landlord was present. Concerned that the gentile tenant might return during Shabbat and render it prohibited for them to carry, Rabbi Ḥanina’s students wondered whether the gentile landlord can rent out the gentile’s room again for the purpose of an eiruv.

אמרו מהו למיגר מיניה כל היכא דלא מצי מסליק ליה לא תיבעי לך דלא אגרינא כי תיבעו היכא דמצי מסליק ליה

They said: What is the halakha with regard to renting from him? The Gemara clarifies: Anywhere that the landlord cannot remove the tenant, you need not raise the dilemma, for they clearly cannot rent it from him. If the landlord is unable to expel the tenant, the residence temporarily belongs completely to the tenant, and only he can rent it out. Where you need to raise the dilemma is with regard to a situation where he can remove him.

מאי כיון דמצי מסליק אגרינא או דילמא השתא מיהא הא לא סלקיה

What is the halakha? Does one say that since the landlord can remove the tenant, they can rent the residence from him, as the landlord retains a measure of control over it, and therefore he can rent it out again for the purpose of an eiruv? Or perhaps now, in any case he has not actually removed him, which means the residence is still entirely under the tenant’s jurisdiction?

אמר להן ריש לקיש נשכור ולכשנגיע אצל רבותינו שבדרום נשאל להן אתו שיילו לרבי אפס אמר להן יפה עשיתם ששכרתם

Reish Lakish said to them: Let us rent it now, as the principle is that one may act leniently in a case of doubt involving a rabbinic prohibition, and when we arrive at our Sages in the South we shall ask them whether we acted properly. Later they came and asked Rabbi Afes, who said to them: You acted well when you rented it from the landlord.

רבי חנינא בר יוסף ורבי חייא בר אבא ורבי אסי איקלעו לההוא פונדק דאתא גוי מרי דפונדק בשבתא אמרו מהו למיגר מיניה שוכר כמערב דמי מה מערב מבעוד יום אף שוכר מבעוד יום

The Gemara relates a similar incident: Rabbi Ḥanina bar Yosef and Rabbi Ḥiyya bar Abba and Rabbi Asi happened to come to a certain inn, and the gentile innkeeper, who was absent when Shabbat began, came on Shabbat. They said: What is the halakha with regard to renting from him now? The Gemara explains the two sides of the question: Is renting from a gentile like making an eiruv? If so, just as one who establishes an eiruv may do so only while it is still day, so too, one who rents a gentile’s property must do so while it is still day.

או דילמא שוכר כמבטל רשות דמי מה מבטל רשות ואפילו בשבת אף שוכר ואפילו בשבת

Or perhaps one who rents from a gentile is like one who renounces rights to his domain; just as one who renounces rights to his domain may do so even on Shabbat itself, so too, one who rents a gentile’s property may do so even on Shabbat. In that case, they would be able to rent from the gentile in exchange for something of value, even on Shabbat itself.

רבי חנינא בר יוסף אמר נשכור ורבי אסי אמר לא נשכור אמר להו רבי חייא בר אבא נסמוך על דברי זקן ונשכור אתו שיילו ליה לרבי יוחנן אמר להן

Rabbi Ḥanina bar Yosef said: Let us rent, while Rabbi Asi said: Let us not rent. Rabbi Ḥiyya bar Abba said to them: Let us rely now on the words of the Elder, Rabbi Ḥanina bar Yosef, and rent. Later they came and asked Rabbi Yoḥanan about the matter, and he said to them:

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Eruvin 65: Night Was Created for Sleep

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Eruvin 65

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Eruvin 65

יכול אני לפטור את כל העולם כולו מן הדין מיום שחרב בית המקדש ועד עכשיו שנאמר לכן שמעי נא זאת ענייה ושכורת ולא מיין

I can make an argument that exempts the entire world from judgment, from the day that the Temple was destroyed until now. As it is stated: “Therefore, hear now this, you afflicted and drunken, but not from wine” (Isaiah 51:21), which teaches that in the wake of the destruction of the Temple, all Jews are considered intoxicated and are not responsible for any sins they commit.

מיתיבי שיכור מקחו מקח וממכרו ממכר עבר עבירה שיש בה מיתה ממיתין אותו מלקות מלקין אותו כללו של דבר הרי הוא כפיקח לכל דבריו אלא שפטור מן התפלה

The Gemara raises an objection to this argument from the following baraita: With regard to one who is intoxicated, his acquisition is a binding acquisition; that is, he cannot retract the transaction when he is sober, and similarly, his sale is a binding sale. Moreover, if he committed a transgression for which he is liable to receive the death penalty, he is executed; and if the offense is punishable by lashes, he is flogged. The principle is that he is like a sober person in all matters, except that he is exempt from prayer. Therefore, even if the people of Israel are considered drunk, they are nonetheless responsible for their actions.

מאי יכולני לפטור דקאמר נמי מדין תפלה

The Gemara answers that even Rabbi Elazar ben Azarya did not mean that they should be exempt from liability for all their sins. Rather, what is the meaning of his statement: I can exempt? He, too, meant that he could exempt them from the judgment of prayer, i.e., Jews cannot be held liable for praying without the proper intentions.

אמר רבי חנינא לא שנו אלא שלא הגיע לשכרותו של לוט אבל הגיע לשכרותו של לוט פטור מכולם:

Rabbi Ḥanina said: They taught that an intoxicated person is responsible for all his actions only in a case where he did not reach the state of intoxication of Lot; however, if he reached the state of intoxication of Lot, so that he is altogether unaware of his actions, he is exempt from all liability.

אמר רבי חנינא כל המפיק מגן בשעת גאוה סוגרין וחותמין צרות בעדו שנאמר גאוה אפיקי מגנים סגור חותם צר

Rabbi Ḥanina said: Whoever passes a shield over himself at a time of arrogance, i.e., whoever suppresses his evil inclination as though it were covered with a shield when he is arrogant, e.g., when he is intoxicated or the like (Rabbeinu Ḥananel), troubles will be closed and sealed from him, as it is stated: “The channels of [afikei] his scales are his pride, closed together as with a tight [tzar] seal” (Job 41:7). The verse is interpreted homiletically: When at a time of arrogance a person passes a shield [mapik] over his evil inclination, his troubles [tzarot] will be closed and sealed before him.

מאי משמע דהאי אפיק לישנא דעבורי הוא דכתיב אחי בגדו כמו נחל כאפיק נחלים יעבורו

The Gemara poses a question: From where may it be inferred that the meaning of this word afik is a formulation denoting passing [aborei]? The Gemara answers: As it is written: “My brothers have dealt deceitfully like a wadi, like the channel [afik] of brooks that pass by [ya’avoru]” (Job 6:15). This implies that the term afik is synonymous with the verb ya’avoru, which refers to something that travels and passes by.

רבי יוחנן אמר כל שאינו מפיק אתמר

Rabbi Yoḥanan said: This is not the correct interpretation; rather, it was stated that whoever does not cover, but draws out [mapik] a shield at a time of arrogance, troubles will be closed and sealed from him. In other words, a person must draw his weapons and shield in order to fight his evil inclination when it tries to overpower him (Rabbeinu Ḥananel).

מאי משמע דהאי מפיק לישנא דגלויי הוא דכתיב ויראו אפיקי מים ויגלו מוסדות תבל

The Gemara poses a question: From where may it be inferred that this word mapik is a formulation denoting revealing? The Gemara answers: As it is written: “The channels of [afikei] waters were seen, and the foundations of the world were laid bare” (Psalms 18:16).

מכדי קראי משמע בין למר ובין למר מאי בינייהו איכא בינייהו דרב ששת דרב ששת מסר שינתיה לשמעיה מר אית ליה דרב ששת ומר לית ליה דרב ששת

The Gemara asks: Now, since the verses may be interpreted both in accordance with the opinion of this Master and in accordance with the opinion of the other Master, what is the practical difference between them? The Gemara answers: The practical difference between them is with regard to the following practice of Rav Sheshet, as Rav Sheshet gave the responsibility for monitoring his sleep to his attendant, instructing the attendant to wake him when the time for prayer arrived. One Sage, Rabbi Ḥanina, is of the opinion that the practice of Rav Sheshet is correct, as Rabbi Ḥanina maintains that if one is in great need of sleep, it is better to nap for a while and then wake up with renewed vigor. And one Sage, Rabbi Yoḥanan, is not of the opinion that the practice of Rav Sheshet is correct. He holds that a person must marshal his strength and pray, rather than succumb to the need for sleep.

אמר רב חייא בר אשי אמר רב כל שאין דעתו מיושבת עליו אל יתפלל משום שנאמר בצר אל יורה רבי חנינא ביומא דרתח לא מצלי אמר בצר אל יורה כתיב מר עוקבא ביומא דשותא לא הוה נפיק לבי דינא

Rav Ḥiyya bar Ashi said that Rav said: Anyone whose mind is unsettled should not pray, as it is stated: When distressed, one should not issue decisions. The Gemara relates that Rabbi Ḥanina, on a day that he was angry, would not pray, as he said that it is written: When distressed, one should not issue decisions. The Gemara similarly relates that Mar Ukva, on a day of a south wind, would not venture out to the court, for this hot and harsh wind would disturb his usual clarity of mind.

אמר רב נחמן בר יצחק הלכתא בעיא צילותא כיומא דאסתנא אמר אביי אי אמרה לי אם קריב כותחא לא תנאי

Rav Naḥman bar Yitzḥak said: The study of halakha requires clarity, as on a day when a north wind blows and clears the skies. Abaye said similarly that if my stepmother says to me: Bring me a dish of kutaḥ, I can no longer study Torah in my usual fashion, as even a simple task such as this troubles me and distracts me from my Torah study.

אמר רבא אי קרצתן כינה לא תנאי מר בריה דרבינא עבדה ליה אמיה שבעה מני לשבעה יומי

Similarly, Rava said: If I am bitten by a louse, I can no longer learn in my usual manner. The Gemara relates that the mother of Mar, son of Ravina, would prepare seven garments for him for the seven days of the week, so that he would not be bitten by the lice found in old clothes (Rabbeinu Ḥananel).

אמר רב יהודה לא איברי ליליא אלא לשינתא אמר רבי שמעון בן לקיש לא איברי סיהרא אלא לגירסא אמרי ליה לרבי זירא מחדדן שמעתך אמר להו דיממי נינהו

Rav Yehuda said: Night was created only for sleep. Rabbi Shimon ben Lakish said: The moon was created only for Torah study by its light. When people said to Rabbi Zeira: Your teachings are exceedingly sharp, he said to them: They were formulated during the daytime hours. This teaches that Torah study during the day is most beneficial to clarity of the mind.

אמרה ליה ברתיה דרב חסדא לרב חסדא לא בעי מר מינם פורתא אמר לה השתא אתו יומי דאריכי וקטיני ונינום טובא

Rav Ḥisda’s daughter said to her father, Rav Ḥisda, who would spend his nights in study: Doesn’t the Master wish to sleep a little? He said to her: Days that are long in quantity but short in the opportunity to study Torah and perform mitzvot will soon arrive, and we will sleep a lot. After I die, there will be more than enough time for sleep.

אמר רב נחמן בר יצחק אנן פועלי דיממי אנן רב אחא בר יעקב יזיף ופרע

Rav Naḥman bar Yitzḥak said: We, Torah scholars, are day workers, as our study is performed primarily during the day. The Gemara relates that Rav Aḥa bar Ya’akov would borrow and repay, i.e., if for some reason he neglected to study during the day, he would use the night hours to compensate for the missed time.

אמר רבי אלעזר הבא מן הדרך אל יתפלל שלשה ימים שנאמר ואקבצם אל הנהר הבא אל אחוא ונחנה שם ימים שלשה ואבינה בעם וגו׳

Rabbi Elazar said: One who returns home from a journey should not pray for three days while recovering from the hardship of being on the road, as it is stated: “And I gathered them together at the river that runs to Aḥava, and we encamped there for three days, and I inspected the people” (Ezra 8:15), after which it is stated: “Then I proclaimed a fast there, at the river of Aḥava, that we might afflict ourselves before our God, to seek of Him a safe journey for us” (Ezra 8:21), which teaches that they rested three days before praying.

אבוה דשמואל כי אתי באורחא לא מצלי תלתא יומי שמואל לא מצלי בביתא דאית ביה שיכרא רב פפא לא מצלי בביתא דאית ביה הרסנא

The Gemara relates that Shmuel’s father, when he would return home from his journey, would not pray for three days, as he would have to rest from his journey. Shmuel himself would not pray in a house that contained an alcoholic beverage, as the scent of the alcohol would disturb his concentration during prayer. Similarly, Rav Pappa would not pray in a house that contained small fried fish, due to their smell.

אמר רבי חנינא כל המתפתה ביינו יש בו מדעת קונו שנאמר וירח ה׳ את ריח הניחוח וגו׳

Rabbi Ḥanina said: Whoever is appeased by his wine, i.e., whoever becomes more relaxed after drinking, has in him an element of the mind-set of his Creator, who acted in a similar fashion, as it is stated: “And the Lord smelled the sweet savor, and the Lord said in His heart, I will not again curse the ground any more for man’s sake” (Genesis 8:21). As it were, God acted more favorably toward His creatures after He was appeased with the smell of the burnt offerings. Smell can be as potent as drinking or eating itself.

אמר רבי חייא כל המתיישב ביינו יש בו דעת שבעים זקנים יין ניתן בשבעים אותיות וסוד ניתן בשבעים אותיות נכנס יין יצא סוד

Rabbi Ḥiyya said: Anyone who remains settled of mind after drinking wine, and does not become intoxicated, has an element of the mind-set of seventy Elders. The allusion is: Wine [yayin spelled yod, yod, nun] was given in seventy letters, as the numerological value of the letters comprising the word is seventy, as yod equals ten and nun equals fifty. Similarly, the word secret [sod spelled samekh, vav, dalet] was given in seventy letters, as samekh equals sixty, vav equals six, and dalet equals four. Typically, when wine entered the body, a secret emerged. Whoever does not reveal secrets when he drinks is clearly blessed with a firm mind, like that of seventy Elders.

אמר רבי חנין לא נברא יין אלא לנחם אבלים ולשלם שכר לרשעים שנאמר תנו שכר לאובד וגו׳

Rabbi Ḥanin said: Wine was created only in order to comfort mourners in their distress, and to reward the wicked in this world so they will have no reward left in the World-to-Come, as it is stated: “Give strong drink to him that is ready to perish, and wine to the bitter of soul. Let him drink, and forget his poverty, and remember his misery no more” (Proverbs 31:6). “Him that is ready to perish” refers to the wicked, who will perish from the world, while “the bitter of soul” denotes mourners.

אמר רבי חנין בר פפא כל שאין יין נשפך בתוך ביתו כמים אינו בכלל ברכה שנאמר וברך את לחמך ואת מימיך מה לחם שניקח בכסף מעשר אף מים שניקח בכסף מעשר ומאי ניהו יין וקא קרי ליה מים

Rabbi Ḥanin bar Pappa said: Anyone in whose house wine does not flow like water is not yet included in the Torah’s blessing, as it is stated: “And He shall bless your bread and your water” (Exodus 23:25). The water mentioned in this verse actually refers to wine, as learned in the following manner: Just as bread is something that may be purchased with second-tithe money, i.e., one is permitted to buy bread with money used to redeem second-tithe, so too the word water in the verse is referring to a liquid that may be purchased with second-tithe money. And what is that? It is wine, as one may buy wine with second-tithe money, but one may not buy water; and nevertheless the verse calls it “water.”

אי נשפך בביתו כמים איכא ברכה ואי לא לא

This teaches that if wine flows in a person’s house like water, there is a blessing, but if not, there is no blessing.

אמר רבי אילעאי בשלשה דברים אדם ניכר בכוסו ובכיסו ובכעסו ואמרי ליה אף בשחקו:

Rabbi Elai said: In three matters a person’s true character is ascertained; in his cup, i.e., his behavior when he drinks; in his pocket, i.e., his conduct in his financial dealings with other people; and in his anger. And some say: A person also reveals his real nature in his laughter.

אמר רב יהודה אמר רב ישראל וגוי בפנימית וישראל בחיצונה בא מעשה לפני רבי ואסר ולפני רבי חייא ואסר

The Gemara returns to the topic of eiruvin: Rav Yehuda said that Rav said: It once happened that there were two courtyards, one within the other, with a Jew and a gentile living in the inner courtyard, while a single Jew lived in the outer one. The case came before Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi for a decision as to whether carrying in the outer courtyard could be permitted without renting from the gentile, and he prohibited it. The case then came before Rabbi Ḥiyya, and he too prohibited it.

יתוב רבה ורב יוסף בשילהי פירקיה דרב ששת ויתיב רב ששת וקאמר כמאן אמרה רב לשמעתיה כרבי מאיר כרכיש רבה רישיה

Rabba and Rav Yosef were sitting at the end of Rav Sheshet’s lecture, and Rav Sheshet sat and said: In accordance with whose opinion did Rav say this ruling of his, with regard to the residents of two courtyards? It was in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Meir, who maintains that a gentile renders it prohibited for even a single Jew who resides with him to carry in the courtyard, and therefore it is necessary for the Jew to rent from him. Rabba nodded his head in agreement with this explanation.

אמר רב יוסף תרי גברי רברבי כרבנן ליטעו בהאי מילתא אי כרבי מאיר למה לי ישראל בחיצונה

Rav Yosef said: Would two great men like these Sages, Rabba and Rav Sheshet, err in such a matter? If this ruling is in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Meir, why do I need to state that there is a Jew in the outer courtyard? According to Rabbi Meir, even a single Jew who resides with a gentile may not carry in his courtyard, whether or not another Jew is present.

וכי תימא מעשה שהיה כך היה והא בעו מיניה מרב פנימי במקומו מהו ואמר להן מותר

And even if you say that indeed this is the halakha, that the Jew in the outer courtyard is of no consequence, and that he is only mentioned because the incident that took place, took place in this way, and those who came to ask the question provided all the details without knowing whether they were relevant, this is still difficult. Wasn’t a dilemma raised before Rav himself with regard to this very issue: What is the halakha governing a Jew living in the inner courtyard with regard to his own place? Can he carry in the inner courtyard? And he said to them: It is permitted for him to carry there. Therefore, according to Rav, a gentile does not render it prohibited for a single Jew to carry, which is actually contrary to Rabbi Meir’s opinion.

ואלא מאי כרבי אליעזר בן יעקב האמר עד שיהו שני ישראלים אוסרין זה על זה

The Gemara raises a difficulty: Rather, what else can you say? Can you say that he ruled in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Eliezer ben Ya’akov? Didn’t Rabbi Eliezer ben Ya’akov say: The gentile does not render it prohibited to carry unless there are two Jews living in the same courtyard who themselves render it prohibited for one another to carry without an eiruv? In this case they do not render it prohibited for each other to carry without an eiruv, as they do not live in the same courtyard.

אלא כרבי עקיבא דאמר רגל המותרת במקומה אוסרת שלא במקומה

Rather, you might say that he ruled in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Akiva, who said: The foot of one who is permitted in his own place nonetheless renders it prohibited not in its own place. The Jew in the inner courtyard is permitted to carry in his own courtyard. However, in order to leave his courtyard, he passes through the outer one, in which it is prohibited for him to carry. Therefore, he renders it prohibited for the resident of the outer courtyard as well.

למה לי גוי אפילו ישראל נמי

But if that is the case, the following difficulty arises: According to this opinion, why do I need a gentile in the inner courtyard? The single Jew living in the inner courtyard would also suffice to render it prohibited for the resident of the outer courtyard to carry in his own courtyard, even if no gentiles were present at all.

אמר רב הונא בריה דרב יהושע לעולם כרבי אליעזר בן יעקב וכרבי עקיבא והכא במאי עסקינן כגון שעירבו וטעמא דאיכא גוי דאסיר אבל ליכא גוי לא אסיר

Rav Huna, son of Rav Yehoshua, said that Rav’s ruling should be understood as follows: Actually, Rav ruled in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Eliezer ben Ya’akov with regard to a gentile, and in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Akiva with regard to a foot that renders it prohibited to carry. And with what we are dealing here? This is a case where the two Jews established an eiruv with one another. And the reason that Rav prohibited carrying in the outer courtyard is that there is a gentile who renders it prohibited to carry, but if there is no gentile, it is not prohibited, as the Jews established an eiruv with one another, and therefore they are permitted to carry.

בעא מיניה רבי אליעזר מרב ישראל וגוי בחיצונה וישראל בפנימית מהו התם טעמא משום דשכיח דדייר דמירתת גוי וסבר השתא אתי ישראל ואמר לי ישראל דהוה גבך היכא

The Gemara relates that Rabbi Eliezer raised a dilemma before Rav as follows: If a Jew and a gentile live together in the outer courtyard, and a Jew lives alone in the inner one, what is the halakha? May they carry in the outer courtyard without renting from the gentile? One could argue as follows: There, in the case where the Jew and the gentile share the inner courtyard, the reason the Sages prohibited carrying is because it is common for a Jew and a gentile to live together in such a fashion. Ordinarily a single Jew would not live together in the same courtyard as a gentile, for fear that the gentile might kill him. However, here, the Jew living in the inner courtyard believes that the gentile would be afraid to kill him, as the gentile thinks to himself: Now, were I to kill my neighbor, the Jew living in the outer courtyard might come and say to me: The Jew who used to live by you, where is he? The gentile would not be able to offer as an excuse that the Jew left, for the other Jew from outer courtyard would know whether or not he passed through his courtyard. Therefore, since that living arrangement is common, the decree applies, and the gentile’s residence in the courtyard renders it prohibited to carry there.

אבל הכא אמינא ליה נפק אזל ליה

However, here, where the gentile lives in the outer courtyard, he is not afraid of killing his Jewish neighbor, as he says to himself: If the other Jew comes to question me, I will say to him: He went out and went on his way; I do not know where he went. In this case, the gentile would not be concerned that the Jew from the inner courtyard might question his story. Since it is uncommon for a Jew and a gentile to live together in such a fashion, the Sages did not issue a decree that the gentile’s residence renders the courtyard prohibited for carrying.

או דילמא הכא נמי מירתת דסבר השתא אתי ישראל וחזי לי

Or perhaps one would say that here, too, the gentile would be afraid to kill his Jewish neighbor, as he thinks to himself: Now, were I to kill my neighbor, the Jew living in the inner courtyard might come at any moment and see me in the act of killing his friend. Since the gentile does not know when the resident of the inner courtyard will pass through the outer courtyard, there is a chance his crime might be witnessed. In that case, it would not be uncommon for a Jew and a gentile to live together in such a fashion, and the Sages’ decree that the gentile’s residence renders carrying prohibited would apply.

אמר ליה תן לחכם ויחכם עוד

Rav said to Rabbi Eliezer the following verse: “Give to a wise man, and he will be yet wiser” (Proverbs 9:9), i.e., it is proper to be stringent even in such a case. Consequently, carrying is prohibited in the outer courtyard unless the Jews rent from the gentile.

ריש לקיש ותלמידי דרבי חנינא איקלעו לההוא פונדק ולא הוה שוכר והוה משכיר

The Gemara relates that Reish Lakish and the students of Rabbi Ḥanina happened to come on Shabbat to a certain inn that had at least three permanent residents, two Jews and a gentile who rented their quarters from the gentile innkeeper. Although the gentile tenant was not present on that Shabbat, the gentile landlord was present. Concerned that the gentile tenant might return during Shabbat and render it prohibited for them to carry, Rabbi Ḥanina’s students wondered whether the gentile landlord can rent out the gentile’s room again for the purpose of an eiruv.

אמרו מהו למיגר מיניה כל היכא דלא מצי מסליק ליה לא תיבעי לך דלא אגרינא כי תיבעו היכא דמצי מסליק ליה

They said: What is the halakha with regard to renting from him? The Gemara clarifies: Anywhere that the landlord cannot remove the tenant, you need not raise the dilemma, for they clearly cannot rent it from him. If the landlord is unable to expel the tenant, the residence temporarily belongs completely to the tenant, and only he can rent it out. Where you need to raise the dilemma is with regard to a situation where he can remove him.

מאי כיון דמצי מסליק אגרינא או דילמא השתא מיהא הא לא סלקיה

What is the halakha? Does one say that since the landlord can remove the tenant, they can rent the residence from him, as the landlord retains a measure of control over it, and therefore he can rent it out again for the purpose of an eiruv? Or perhaps now, in any case he has not actually removed him, which means the residence is still entirely under the tenant’s jurisdiction?

אמר להן ריש לקיש נשכור ולכשנגיע אצל רבותינו שבדרום נשאל להן אתו שיילו לרבי אפס אמר להן יפה עשיתם ששכרתם

Reish Lakish said to them: Let us rent it now, as the principle is that one may act leniently in a case of doubt involving a rabbinic prohibition, and when we arrive at our Sages in the South we shall ask them whether we acted properly. Later they came and asked Rabbi Afes, who said to them: You acted well when you rented it from the landlord.

רבי חנינא בר יוסף ורבי חייא בר אבא ורבי אסי איקלעו לההוא פונדק דאתא גוי מרי דפונדק בשבתא אמרו מהו למיגר מיניה שוכר כמערב דמי מה מערב מבעוד יום אף שוכר מבעוד יום

The Gemara relates a similar incident: Rabbi Ḥanina bar Yosef and Rabbi Ḥiyya bar Abba and Rabbi Asi happened to come to a certain inn, and the gentile innkeeper, who was absent when Shabbat began, came on Shabbat. They said: What is the halakha with regard to renting from him now? The Gemara explains the two sides of the question: Is renting from a gentile like making an eiruv? If so, just as one who establishes an eiruv may do so only while it is still day, so too, one who rents a gentile’s property must do so while it is still day.

או דילמא שוכר כמבטל רשות דמי מה מבטל רשות ואפילו בשבת אף שוכר ואפילו בשבת

Or perhaps one who rents from a gentile is like one who renounces rights to his domain; just as one who renounces rights to his domain may do so even on Shabbat itself, so too, one who rents a gentile’s property may do so even on Shabbat. In that case, they would be able to rent from the gentile in exchange for something of value, even on Shabbat itself.

רבי חנינא בר יוסף אמר נשכור ורבי אסי אמר לא נשכור אמר להו רבי חייא בר אבא נסמוך על דברי זקן ונשכור אתו שיילו ליה לרבי יוחנן אמר להן

Rabbi Ḥanina bar Yosef said: Let us rent, while Rabbi Asi said: Let us not rent. Rabbi Ḥiyya bar Abba said to them: Let us rely now on the words of the Elder, Rabbi Ḥanina bar Yosef, and rent. Later they came and asked Rabbi Yoḥanan about the matter, and he said to them:

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