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Today's Daf Yomi

February 7, 2016 | 讻状讞 讘砖讘讟 转砖注状讜

  • This month's learning is sponsored by Ron and Shira Krebs to commemorate the 73rd yahrzeit of Shira's grandfather (Yitzchak Leib Ben David Ber HaCohen v'Malka), the 1st yahrzeit of Shira's father (Gershon Pinya Ben Yitzchak Leib HaCohen v'Menucha Sara), and the bar mitzvah of their son Eytan who will be making a siyum on Mishna Shas this month.

  • This month's learning is sponsored for the refuah shleima of Naama bat Yael Esther.

Gittin 56

Stories of Kamtza and Bar Kamtza, Rabban Yochanan Ban Zakai and Vespasian who asks him 3 requests including sparing Yavneh and it’s wise men, and Titus and the destruction of the Temple.


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讗诪专 诇讬讛 诇讗 讗诪专 诇讬讛 讬讛讬讘谞讗 诇讱 讚诪讬 驻诇讙讗 讚住注讜讚转讬讱 讗诪专 诇讬讛 诇讗 讗诪专 诇讬讛 讬讛讬讘谞讗 诇讱 讚诪讬 讻讜诇讛 住注讜讚转讬讱 讗诪专 诇讬讛 诇讗 谞拽讟讬讛 讘讬讚讬讛 讜讗讜拽诪讬讛 讜讗驻拽讬讛

The host said to him: No, you must leave. Bar Kamtza said to him: I will give you money for half of the feast; just do not send me away. The host said to him: No, you must leave. Bar Kamtza then said to him: I will give you money for the entire feast; just let me stay. The host said to him: No, you must leave. Finally, the host took bar Kamtza by his hand, stood him up, and took him out.

讗诪专 讛讜讗讬诇 讜讛讜讜 讬转讘讬 专讘谞谉 讜诇讗 诪讞讜 讘讬讛 砖诪注 诪讬谞讛 拽讗 谞讬讞讗 诇讛讜 讗讬讝讬诇 讗讬讻讜诇 讘讛讜 拽讜专爪讗 讘讬 诪诇讻讗 讗讝诇 讗诪专 诇讬讛 诇拽讬住专 诪专讚讜 讘讱 讬讛讜讚讗讬 讗诪专 诇讬讛 诪讬 讬讬诪专 讗诪专 诇讬讛 砖讚专 诇讛讜 拽讜专讘谞讗 讞讝讬转 讗讬 诪拽专讘讬谉 诇讬讛

After having been cast out from the feast, bar Kamtza said to himself: Since the Sages were sitting there and did not protest the actions of the host, although they saw how he humiliated me, learn from it that they were content with what he did. I will therefore go and inform [eikhul kurtza] against them to the king. He went and said to the emperor: The Jews have rebelled against you. The emperor said to him: Who says that this is the case? Bar Kamtza said to him: Go and test them; send them an offering to be brought in honor of the government, and see whether they will sacrifice it.

讗讝诇 砖讚专 讘讬讚讬讛 注讙诇讗 转诇转讗 讘讛讚讬 讚拽讗转讬 砖讚讗 讘讬讛 诪讜诪讗 讘谞讬讘 砖驻转讬诐 讜讗诪专讬 诇讛 讘讚讜拽讬谉 砖讘注讬谉 讚讜讻转讗 讚诇讚讬讚谉 讛讜讛 诪讜诪讗 讜诇讚讬讚讛讜 诇讗讜 诪讜诪讗 讛讜讗

The emperor went and sent with him a choice three-year-old calf. While bar Kamtza was coming with the calf to the Temple, he made a blemish on the calf鈥檚 upper lip. And some say he made the blemish on its eyelids, a place where according to us, i.e., halakha, it is a blemish, but according to them, gentile rules for their offerings, it is not a blemish. Therefore, when bar Kamtza brought the animal to the Temple, the priests would not sacrifice it on the altar since it was blemished, but they also could not explain this satisfactorily to the gentile authorities, who did not consider it to be blemished.

住讘讜专 专讘谞谉 诇拽专讜讘讬讛 诪砖讜诐 砖诇讜诐 诪诇讻讜转 讗诪专 诇讛讜 专讘讬 讝讻专讬讛 讘谉 讗讘拽讜诇住 讬讗诪专讜 讘注诇讬 诪讜诪讬谉 拽专讬讘讬谉 诇讙讘讬 诪讝讘讞 住讘讜专 诇诪讬拽讟诇讬讛 讚诇讗 诇讬讝讬诇 讜诇讬诪讗 讗诪专 诇讛讜 专讘讬 讝讻专讬讛 讬讗诪专讜 诪讟讬诇 诪讜诐 讘拽讚砖讬诐 讬讛专讙

The blemish notwithstanding, the Sages thought to sacrifice the animal as an offering due to the imperative to maintain peace with the government. Rabbi Zekharya ben Avkolas said to them: If the priests do that, people will say that blemished animals may be sacrificed as offerings on the altar. The Sages said: If we do not sacrifice it, then we must prevent bar Kamtza from reporting this to the emperor. The Sages thought to kill him so that he would not go and speak against them. Rabbi Zekharya said to them: If you kill him, people will say that one who makes a blemish on sacrificial animals is to be killed. As a result, they did nothing, bar Kamtza鈥檚 slander was accepted by the authorities, and consequently the war between the Jews and the Romans began.

讗诪专 专讘讬 讬讜讞谞谉 注谞讜讜转谞讜转讜 砖诇 专讘讬 讝讻专讬讛 讘谉 讗讘拽讜诇住 讛讞专讬讘讛 讗转 讘讬转谞讜 讜砖专驻讛 讗转 讛讬讻诇谞讜 讜讛讙诇讬转谞讜 诪讗专爪谞讜

Rabbi Yo岣nan says: The excessive humility of Rabbi Zekharya ben Avkolas destroyed our Temple, burned our Sanctuary, and exiled us from our land.

砖讚专 注诇讜讬讬讛讜 诇谞讬专讜谉 拽讬住专 讻讬 拽讗转讬 砖讚讗 讙讬专讗 诇诪讝专讞 讗转讗 谞驻诇 讘讬专讜砖诇讬诐 诇诪注专讘 讗转讗 谞驻诇 讘讬专讜砖诇讬诐 诇讗专讘注 专讜讞讜转 讛砖诪讬诐 讗转讗 谞驻诇 讘讬专讜砖诇讬诐

The Roman authorities then sent Nero Caesar against the Jews. When he came to Jerusalem, he wished to test his fate. He shot an arrow to the east and the arrow came and fell in Jerusalem. He then shot another arrow to the west and it also fell in Jerusalem. He shot an arrow in all four directions of the heavens, and each time the arrow fell in Jerusalem.

讗诪专 诇讬讛 诇讬谞讜拽讗 驻住讜拽 诇讬 驻住讜拽讬讱 讗诪专 诇讬讛 讜谞转转讬 讗转 谞拽诪转讬 讘讗讚讜诐 讘讬讚 注诪讬 讬砖专讗诇 讜讙讜壮 讗诪专 拽讜讚砖讗 讘专讬讱 讛讜讗 讘注讬 诇讞专讜讘讬 讘讬转讬讛 讜讘注讬 诇讻驻讜专讬 讬讚讬讛 讘讛讛讜讗 讙讘专讗 注专拽 讜讗讝诇 讜讗讬讙讬讬专 讜谞驻拽 诪讬谞讬讛 专讘讬 诪讗讬专

Nero then conducted another test: He said to a child: Tell me a verse that you learned today. He said to him as follows: 鈥淎nd I will lay My vengeance upon Edom by the hand of My people Israel鈥 (Ezekiel 25:14). Nero said: The Holy One, Blessed be He, wishes to destroy His Temple, and He wishes to wipe his hands with that man, i.e., with me. The Romans are associated with Edom, the descendants of Esau. If I continue on this mission, I will eventually be punished for having served as God鈥檚 agent to bring about the destruction. So he fled and became a convert, and ultimately Rabbi Meir descended from him.

砖讚专讬讛 注讬诇讜讬讬讛讜 诇讗住驻住讬讬谞讜住 拽讬住专 讗转讗 爪专 注诇讛 转诇转 砖谞讬 讛讜讜 讘讛 讛谞讛讜 转诇转讗 注转讬专讬 谞拽讚讬诪讜谉 讘谉 讙讜专讬讜谉 讜讘谉 讻诇讘讗 砖讘讜注 讜讘谉 爪讬爪讬转 讛讻住转 谞拽讚讬诪讜谉 讘谉 讙讜专讬讜谉 砖谞拽讚讛 诇讜 讞诪讛 讘注讘讜专讜 讘谉 讻诇讘讗 砖讘讜注 砖讻诇 讛谞讻谞住 诇讘讬转讜 讻砖讛讜讗 专注讘 讻讻诇讘 讬讜爪讗 讻砖讛讜讗 砖讘注 讘谉 爪讬爪讬转 讛讻住转 砖讛讬转讛 爪讬爪转讜 谞讙专专转 注诇 讙讘讬 讻住转讜转 讗讬讻讗 讚讗诪专讬 砖讛讬转讛 讻住转讜 诪讜讟诇转 讘讬谉 讙讚讜诇讬 专讜诪讬

The Roman authorities then sent Vespasian Caesar against the Jews. He came and laid siege to Jerusalem for three years. There were at that time in Jerusalem these three wealthy people: Nakdimon ben Guryon, ben Kalba Savua, and ben Tzitzit HaKesat. The Gemara explains their names: Nakdimon ben Guryon was called by that name because the sun shined [nakad] on his behalf, as it is related elsewhere (see Ta鈥檃nit 19b) that the sun once continued to shine in order to prevent him from suffering a substantial loss. Ben Kalba Savua was called this because anyone who entered his house when he was hungry as a dog [kelev] would leave satiated [save鈥檃]. Ben Tzitzit HaKesat was referred to by that name because his ritual fringes [tzitzit] dragged along on blankets [keset], meaning that he would not walk in the street with his feet on the ground, but rather they would place blankets beneath him. There are those who say that his seat [kiseh] was found among the nobles of Rome, meaning that he would sit among them.

讞讚 讗诪专 诇讛讜 讗谞讗 讝讬讬谞讗 诇讛讜 讘讞讬讟讬 讜砖注专讬 讜讞讚 讗诪专 诇讛讜 讘讚讞诪专讗 讜讘讚诪诇讞讗 讜诪砖讞讗 讜讞讚 讗诪专 诇讛讜 讘讚爪讬讘讬 讜砖讘讞讜 专讘谞谉 诇讚爪讬讘讬 讚专讘 讞住讚讗 讻诇 讗拽诇讬讚讬 讛讜讛 诪住专 诇砖诪注讬讛 讘专 诪讚爪讬讘讬 讚讗诪专 专讘 讞住讚讗 讗讻诇讘讗 讚讞讬讟讬 讘注讬 砖讬转讬谉 讗讻诇讘讬 讚爪讬讘讬 讛讜讛 诇讛讜 诇诪讬讝谉 注砖专讬诐 讜讞讚 砖转讗

These three wealthy people offered their assistance. One of them said to the leaders of the city: I will feed the residents with wheat and barley. And one of them said to leaders of the city: I will provide the residents with wine, salt, and oil. And one of them said to the leaders of the city: I will supply the residents with wood. The Gemara comments: And the Sages gave special praise to he who gave the wood, since this was an especially expensive gift. As Rav 岣sda would give all of the keys [aklidei] to his servant, except for the key to his shed for storing wood, which he deemed the most important of them all. As Rav 岣sda said: One storehouse [akhleva] of wheat requires sixty storehouses of wood for cooking and baking fuel. These three wealthy men had between them enough commodities to sustain the besieged for twenty-one years.

讛讜讜 讘讛讜 讛谞讛讜 讘专讬讜谞讬 讗诪专讜 诇讛讜 专讘谞谉 谞讬驻讜拽 讜谞注讘讬讚 砖诇诪讗 讘讛讚讬讬讛讜 诇讗 砖讘拽讬谞讛讜 讗诪专讜 诇讛讜 谞讬驻讜拽 讜谞注讘讬讚 拽专讘讗 讘讛讚讬讬讛讜 讗诪专讜 诇讛讜 专讘谞谉 诇讗 诪住转讬讬注讗 诪讬诇转讗 拽诪讜 拽诇谞讛讜 诇讛谞讛讜 讗诪讘专讬 讚讞讬讟讬 讜砖注专讬 讜讛讜讛 讻驻谞讗

There were certain zealots among the people of Jerusalem. The Sages said to them: Let us go out and make peace with the Romans. But the zealots did not allow them to do this. The zealots said to the Sages: Let us go out and engage in battle against the Romans. But the Sages said to them: You will not be successful. It would be better for you to wait until the siege is broken. In order to force the residents of the city to engage in battle, the zealots arose and burned down these storehouses [ambarei] of wheat and barley, and there was a general famine.

诪专转讗 讘转 讘讬讬转讜住 注转讬专转讗 讚讬专讜砖诇讬诐 讛讜讬讗 砖讚专转讛 诇砖诇讜讞讛 讜讗诪专讛 诇讬讛 讝讬诇 讗讬讬转讬 诇讬 住诪讬讚讗 讗讚讗讝诇 讗讬讝讚讘谉 讗转讗 讗诪专 诇讛 住诪讬讚讗 诇讬讻讗 讞讬讜专转讗 讗讬讻讗 讗诪专讛 诇讬讛 讝讬诇 讗讬讬转讬 诇讬 讗讚讗讝诇 讗讬讝讚讘谉 讗转讗 讜讗诪专 诇讛 讞讬讜专转讗 诇讬讻讗 讙讜砖拽专讗 讗讬讻讗 讗诪专讛 诇讬讛 讝讬诇 讗讬讬转讬 诇讬 讗讚讗讝诇 讗讝讚讘谉 讗转讗 讜讗诪专 诇讛 讙讜砖拽专讗 诇讬讻讗 拽讬诪讞讗 讚砖注专讬 讗讬讻讗 讗诪专讛 诇讬讛 讝讬诇 讗讬讬转讬 诇讬 讗讚讗讝诇 讗讬讝讚讘谉

With regard to this famine it is related that Marta bat Baitos was one of the wealthy women of Jerusalem. She sent out her agent and said to him: Go bring me fine flour [semida]. By the time he went, the fine flour was already sold. He came and said to her: There is no fine flour, but there is ordinary flour. She said to him: Go then and bring me ordinary flour. By the time he went, the ordinary flour was also sold. He came and said to her: There is no ordinary flour, but there is coarse flour [gushkera]. She said to him: Go then and bring me coarse flour. By the time he went, the coarse flour was already sold. He came and said to her: There is no coarse flour, but there is barley flour. She said to him: Go then and bring me barley flour. But once again, by the time he went, the barley flour was also sold.

讛讜讛 砖诇讬驻讗 诪住讗谞讗 讗诪专讛 讗讬驻讜拽 讜讗讞讝讬 讗讬 诪砖讻讞谞讗 诪讬讚讬 诇诪讬讻诇 讗讬转讬讘 诇讛 驻专转讗 讘讻专注讗 讜诪转讛

She had just removed her shoes, but she said: I will go out myself and see if I can find something to eat. She stepped on some dung, which stuck to her foot, and, overcome by disgust, she died.

拽专讬 注诇讛 专讘谉 讬讜讞谞谉 讘谉 讝讻讗讬 讛专讻讛 讘讱 讜讛注谞讜讙讛 讗砖专 诇讗 谞住转讛 讻祝 专讙诇讛 讗讬讻讗 讚讗诪专讬 讙专讜讙专讜转 讚专讘讬 爪讚讜拽 讗讻诇讛 讜讗讬转谞讬住讗 讜诪转讛 讚专讘讬 爪讚讜拽 讬转讬讘 讗专讘注讬谉 砖谞讬谉 讘转注谞讬转讗 讚诇讗 诇讬讞专讘 讬专讜砖诇讬诐 讻讬 讛讜讛 讗讻讬诇 诪讬讚讬 讛讜讛 诪讬转讞讝讬 诪讗讘专讗讬 讜讻讬 讛讜讛 讘专讬讗 诪讬讬转讬 诇讬讛 讙专讜讙专讜转 诪讬讬抓 诪讬讬讛讜 讜砖讚讬 诇讛讜

Rabban Yo岣nan ben Zakkai read concerning her a verse found in the section of the Torah listing the curses that will befall Israel: 鈥淭he tender and delicate woman among you who would not adventure to set the sole of her foot upon the ground鈥 (Deuteronomy 28:56). There are those who say that she did not step on dung, but rather she ate a fig of Rabbi Tzadok, and became disgusted and died. What are these figs? Rabbi Tzadok observed fasts for forty years, praying that Jerusalem would not be destroyed. He became so emaciated from fasting that when he would eat something it was visible from the outside of his body. And when he would eat after a fast they would bring him figs and he would suck out their liquid and cast the rest away. It was one such fig that Marta bat Baitos found and that caused her death.

讻讬 讛讜讛 拽讗 谞讬讞讗 谞驻砖讛 讗驻讬拽转讛 诇讻诇 讚讛讘讗 讜讻住驻讗 砖讚讬转讬讛 讘砖讜拽讗 讗诪专讛 讛讗讬 诇诪讗讬 诪讬讘注讬 诇讬 讜讛讬讬谞讜 讚讻转讬讘 讻住驻诐 讘讞讜爪讜转 讬砖诇讬讻讜

It is further related that as she was dying, she took out all of her gold and silver and threw it in the marketplace. She said: Why do I need this? And this is as it is written: 鈥淭hey shall cast their silver in the streets and their gold shall be as an impure thing; their silver and their gold shall not be able to deliver them in the day of the wrath of the Lord; they shall not satisfy their souls, neither fill their bowels鈥 (Ezekiel 7:19).

讗讘讗 住拽专讗 专讬砖 讘专讬讜谞讬 讚讬专讜砖诇讬诐 讘专 讗讞转讬讛 讚专讘谉 讬讜讞谞谉 讘谉 讝讻讗讬 讛讜讛 砖诇讞 诇讬讛 转讗 讘爪讬谞注讗 诇讙讘讗讬 讗转讗 讗诪专 诇讬讛 注讚 讗讬诪转 注讘讚讬转讜 讛讻讬 讜拽讟诇讬转讜 诇讬讛 诇注诇诪讗 讘讻驻谞讗 讗诪专 诇讬讛 诪讗讬 讗讬注讘讬讚 讚讗讬 讗诪讬谞讗 诇讛讜 诪讬讚讬 拽讟诇讜 诇讬 讗诪专 诇讬讛 讞讝讬 诇讬 转拽谞转讗 诇讚讬讚讬 讚讗讬驻讜拽 讗驻砖专 讚讛讜讬 讛爪诇讛 驻讜专转讗

搂 The Gemara relates: Abba Sikkara was the leader of the zealots [biryonei] of Jerusalem and the son of the sister of Rabban Yo岣nan ben Zakkai. Rabban Yo岣nan ben Zakkai sent a message to him: Come to me in secret. He came, and Rabban Yo岣nan ben Zakkai said to him: Until when will you do this and kill everyone through starvation? Abba Sikkara said to him: What can I do, for if I say something to them they will kill me. Rabban Yo岣nan ben Zakkai said to him: Show me a method so that I will be able to leave the city, and it is possible that through this there will be some small salvation.

讗诪专 诇讬讛 谞拽讜讟 谞驻砖讱 讘拽爪讬专讬 讜诇讬转讬 讻讜诇讬 注诇诪讗 讜诇讬砖讬讬诇讜 讘讱 讜讗讬讬转讬 诪讬讚讬 住专讬讗 讜讗讙谞讬 讙讘讱 讜诇讬诪专讜 讚谞讞 谞驻砖讱 讜诇讬注讬讬诇讜 讘讱 转诇诪讬讚讱 讜诇讗 诇讬注讜诇 讘讱 讗讬谞讬砖 讗讞专讬谞讗 讚诇讗 诇专讙砖谉 讘讱 讚拽诇讬诇 讗转 讚讗讬谞讛讜 讬讚注讬 讚讞讬讬讗 拽诇讬诇 诪诪讬转讗

Abba Sikkara said to him: This is what you should do: Pretend to be sick, and have everyone come and ask about your welfare, so that word will spread about your ailing condition. Afterward bring something putrid and place it near you, so that people will say that you have died and are decomposing. And then, have your students enter to bring you to burial, and let no one else come in so that the zealots not notice that you are still light. As the zealots know that a living person is lighter than a dead person.

注讘讬讚 讛讻讬 谞讻谞住 讘讜 专讘讬 讗诇讬注讝专 诪爪讚 讗讞讚 讜专讘讬 讬讛讜砖注 诪爪讚 讗讞专 讻讬 诪讟讜 诇驻讬转讞讗 讘注讜 诇诪讚拽专讬讛 讗诪专 诇讛讜 讬讗诪专讜 专讘谉 讚拽专讜 讘注讜 诇诪讚讞驻讬讛 讗诪专 诇讛讜 讬讗诪专讜 专讘谉 讚讞驻讜 驻转讞讜 诇讬讛 讘讘讗 谞驻拽

Rabban Yo岣nan ben Zakkai did this. Rabbi Eliezer entered from one side and Rabbi Yehoshua from the other side to take him out. When they arrived at the entrance of the city on the inside, the guards, who were of the faction of the zealots, wanted to pierce him with their swords in order to ascertain that he was actually dead, as was the common practice. Abba Sikkara said to them: The Romans will say that they pierce even their teacher. The guards then wanted at least to push him to see whether he was still alive, in which case he would cry out on account of the pushing. Abba Sikkara said to them: They will say that they push even their teacher. The guards then opened the gate and he was taken out.

讻讬 诪讟讗 诇讛转诐 讗诪专 砖诇诪讗 注诇讱 诪诇讻讗 砖诇诪讗 注诇讱 诪诇讻讗 讗诪专 诇讬讛 诪讬讞讬讬讘转 转专讬 拽讟诇讗 讞讚讗 讚诇讗讜 诪诇讻讗 讗谞讗 讜拽讗 拽专讬转 诇讬 诪诇讻讗 讜转讜 讗讬 诪诇讻讗 讗谞讗 注讚 讛讗讬讚谞讗 讗诪讗讬 诇讗 讗转讬转 诇讙讘讗讬 讗诪专 诇讬讛 讚拽讗诪专转 诇讗讜 诪诇讻讗 讗谞讗

When Rabban Yo岣nan ben Zakkai reached there, i.e., the Roman camp, he said: Greetings to you, the king; greetings to you, the king. Vespasian said to him: You are liable for two death penalties, one because I am not a king and yet you call me king, and furthermore, if I am a king, why didn鈥檛 you come to me until now? Rabban Yo岣nan ben Zakkai said to him: As for what you said about yourself: I am not a king,

讗讬讘专讗 诪诇讻讗 讗转 讚讗讬 诇讗讜 诪诇讻讗 讗转 诇讗 诪讬诪住专讗 讬专讜砖诇讬诐 讘讬讚讱 讚讻转讬讘 讜讛诇讘谞讜谉 讘讗讚讬专 讬驻讜诇 讜讗讬谉 讗讚讬专 讗诇讗 诪诇讱 讚讻转讬讘 讜讛讬讛 讗讚讬专讜 诪诪谞讜 讜讙讜壮 讜讗讬谉 诇讘谞讜谉 讗诇讗 讘讬转 讛诪拽讚砖 砖谞讗诪专 讛讛专 讛讟讜讘 讛讝讛 讜讛诇讘谞讜谉 讜讚拽讗诪专转 讗讬 诪诇讻讗 讗谞讗 讗诪讗讬 诇讗 拽讗转讬转 诇讙讘讗讬 注讚 讛讗讬讚谞讗 讘专讬讜谞讬 讚讗讬转 讘谉 诇讗 砖讘拽讬谞谉

in truth, you are a king, if not now, then in the future. As if you are not a king, Jerusalem will not be handed over into your hand, as it is written: 鈥淎nd the Lebanon shall fall by a mighty one鈥 (Isaiah 10:34). And 鈥渕ighty one鈥 means only a king, as it is written: 鈥淎nd their mighty one shall be of themselves, and their ruler shall proceed from the midst of them鈥 (Jeremiah 30:21), indicating that 鈥渕ighty one鈥 parallels 鈥渞uler.鈥 And 鈥淟ebanon鈥 means only the Temple, as it is stated: 鈥淭hat good mountain and the Lebanon鈥 (Deuteronomy 3:25). And as for what you said with your second comment: If I am a king why didn鈥檛 you come to me until now, there are zealots among us who did not allow us to do this.

讗诪专 诇讬讛 讗讬诇讜 讞讘讬转 砖诇 讚讘砖 讜讚专拽讜谉 讻专讜讱 注诇讬讛 诇讗 讛讬讜 砖讜讘专讬谉 讗转 讛讞讘讬转 讘砖讘讬诇 讚专拽讜谉 讗讬砖转讬拽 拽专讬 注诇讬讛 专讘 讬讜住祝 讜讗讬转讬诪讗 专讘讬 注拽讬讘讗 诪砖讬讘 讞讻诪讬诐 讗讞讜专 讜讚注转诐 讬住讻诇 讗讬讘注讬 诇讬讛 诇诪讬诪专 诇讬讛 砖拽诇讬谞谉 爪讘转讗 讜砖拽诇讬谞谉 诇讬讛 诇讚专拽讜谉 讜拽讟诇讬谞谉 诇讬讛 讜讞讘讬转讗 砖讘拽讬谞谉 诇讛

Understanding that Rabban Yo岣nan ben Zakkai was prepared to ask him not to destroy the Temple, Vespasian said to him: If there is a barrel of honey and a snake [derakon] is wrapped around it, wouldn鈥檛 they break the barrel in order to kill the snake? In similar fashion, I am forced to destroy the city of Jerusalem in order to kill the zealots barricaded within it. Rabban Yo岣nan ben Zakkai was silent and did not answer. In light of this, Rav Yosef later read the following verse about him, and some say that it was Rabbi Akiva who applied the verse to Rabban Yo岣nan ben Zakkai: 鈥淚 am the Lord鈥Who turns wise men backward and makes their knowledge foolish鈥 (Isaiah 44:25). As Rabban Yo岣nan ben Zakkai should have said the following to Vespasian in response: In such a case, we take tongs, remove the snake, and kill it, and in this way we leave the barrel intact. So too, you should kill the rebels and leave the city as it is.

讗讚讛讻讬 讗转讬 驻专讬住转拽讗 注诇讬讛 诪专讜诪讬 讗诪专 诇讬讛 拽讜诐 讚诪讬转 诇讬讛 拽讬住专 讜讗诪专讬 讛谞讛讜 讞砖讬讘讬 讚专讜诪讬 诇讗讜转讬讘讱 讘专讬砖讗 讛讜讛 住讬讬诐 讞讚 诪住讗谞讬 讘注讗 诇诪住讬讬诪讗 诇讗讞专讬谞讗 诇讗 注讬讬诇 讘注讗 诇诪砖诇驻讗 诇讗讬讚讱 诇讗 谞驻拽 讗诪专 诪讗讬 讛讗讬

In the meantime, as they were talking, a messenger [feristaka] arrived from Rome, and said to him: Rise, for the emperor has died, and the noblemen of Rome plan to appoint you as their leader and make you the next emperor. At that time Vespasian was wearing only one shoe, and when he tried to put on the other one, it would not go on his foot. He then tried to remove the other shoe that he was already wearing, but it would not come off. He said: What is this?

讗诪专 诇讬讛 诇讗 转爪讟注专 砖诪讜注讛 讟讜讘讛 讗转讬讗 诇讱 讚讻转讬讘 砖诪讜注讛 讟讜讘讛 转讚砖谉 注爪诐 讗诇讗 诪讗讬 转拽谞转讬讛 诇讬转讬 讗讬谞讬砖 讚诇讗 诪讬转讘讗 讚注转讱 诪讬谞讬讛 讜诇讞诇讬祝 拽诪讱 讚讻转讬讘 讜专讜讞 谞讻讗讛 转讬讘砖 讙专诐 注讘讚 讛讻讬 注讬讬诇 讗诪专 诇讬讛 讜诪讗讞专 讚讞讻诪讬转讜 讻讜诇讬 讛讗讬 注讚 讛讗讬讚谞讗 讗诪讗讬 诇讗 讗转讬转讜 诇讙讘讗讬 讗诪专 诇讬讛 讜诇讗 讗诪专讬 诇讱 讗诪专 诇讬讛 讗谞讗 谞诪讬 讗诪专讬 诇讱

Rabban Yo岣nan ben Zakkai said to him: Be not distressed or troubled, for good tidings have reached you, as it is written: 鈥淕ood tidings make the bone fat鈥 (Proverbs 15:30), and your feet have grown fatter out of joy and satisfaction. Vespasian said to him: But what is the remedy? What must I do in order to put on my shoe? Rabban Yo岣nan ben Zakkai said to him: Have someone with whom you are displeased come and pass before you, as it is written: 鈥淎 broken spirit dries the bones鈥 (Proverbs 17:22). He did this, and his shoe went on his foot. Vespasian said to him: Since you are so wise, why didn鈥檛 you come to see me until now? Rabban Yo岣nan ben Zakkai said to him: But didn鈥檛 I already tell you? Vespasian said to him: I also told you what I had to say.

讗诪专 诇讬讛 诪讬讝诇 讗讝讬诇谞讗 讜讗讬谞砖 讗讞专讬谞讗 诪砖讚专谞讗 讗诇讗 讘注讬 诪讬谞讗讬 诪讬讚讬 讚讗转谉 诇讱 讗诪专 诇讬讛 转谉 诇讬 讬讘谞讛 讜讞讻诪讬讛 讜砖讜砖讬诇转讗 讚专讘谉 讙诪诇讬讗诇 讜讗住讜讜转讗 讚诪住讬讬谉 诇讬讛 诇专讘讬 爪讚讜拽 拽专讬 注诇讬讛 专讘 讬讜住祝 讜讗讬转讬诪讗 专讘讬 注拽讬讘讗 诪砖讬讘 讞讻诪讬诐 讗讞讜专 讜讚注转诐 讬住讻诇 讗讬讘注讬 诇诪讬诪专 诇讬讛 诇砖讘拽讬谞讛讜 讛讚讗 讝讬诪谞讗

Vespasian then said to Rabban Yo岣nan ben Zakkai: I will be going to Rome to accept my new position, and I will send someone else in my place to continue besieging the city and waging war against it. But before I leave, ask something of me that I can give you. Rabban Yo岣nan ben Zakkai said to him: Give me Yavne and its Sages and do not destroy it, and spare the dynasty of Rabban Gamliel and do not kill them as if they were rebels, and lastly give me doctors to heal Rabbi Tzadok. Rav Yosef read the following verse about him, and some say that it was Rabbi Akiva who applied the verse to Rabban Yo岣nan ben Zakkai: 鈥淚 am the Lord鈥Who turns wise men backward and makes their knowledge foolish鈥 (Isaiah 44:25), as he should have said to him to leave the Jews alone this time.

讜讛讜讗 住讘专 讚诇诪讗 讻讜诇讬 讛讗讬 诇讗 注讘讬讚 讜讛爪诇讛 驻讜专转讗 谞诪讬 诇讗 讛讜讬

And why didn鈥檛 Rabban Yo岣nan ben Zakkai make this request? He maintained that Vespasian might not do that much for him, and there would not be even a small amount of salvation. Therefore, he made only a modest request, in the hope that he would receive at least that much.

讗住讜讜转讗 讚诪住讬讬谉 诇讬讛 诇专讘讬 爪讚讜拽 诪讗讬 讛讬讗 讬讜诪讗 拽诪讗 讗砖拽讬讜讛 诪讬讗 讚驻讗专讬 诇诪讞专 诪讬讗 讚住讬驻讜拽讗 诇诪讞专 诪讬讗 讚拽讬诪讞讗 注讚 讚专讜讜讞 诪讬注讬讛 驻讜专转讗 驻讜专转讗

The Gemara asks: What was he requesting when he asked for doctors to heal Rabbi Tzadok? How did they heal him? The first day they gave him water to drink that contained bran [parei]. The next day they gave him water containing flour mixed with bran [sipuka]. The following day they gave him water containing flour. In this way they slowly restored his ability to eat, allowing his stomach to broaden little by little.

讗讝诇 砖讚专讬讛 诇讟讬讟讜住 讜讗诪专 讗讬 讗诇讛讬诪讜 爪讜专 讞住讬讜 讘讜 讝讛 讟讬讟讜住 讛专砖注 砖讞讬专祝 讜讙讬讚祝 讻诇驻讬 诪注诇讛

搂 Vespasian went back to Rome and sent Titus in his place. The Gemara cites a verse that was expounded as referring to Titus: 鈥淎nd he shall say: Where is their God, their rock in whom they trusted?鈥 (Deuteronomy 32:37). This is the wicked Titus, who insulted and blasphemed God on High.

诪讛 注砖讛 转驻砖 讝讜谞讛 讘讬讚讜 讜谞讻谞住 诇讘讬转 拽讚砖讬 讛拽讚砖讬诐 讜讛爪讬注 住驻专 转讜专讛 讜注讘专 注诇讬讛 注讘讬专讛 讜谞讟诇 住讬讬祝 讜讙讬讚专 讗转 讛驻专讜讻转 讜谞注砖讛 谞住 讜讛讬讛 讚诐 诪讘爪讘抓 讜讬讜爪讗 讜讻住讘讜专 讛专讙 讗转 注爪诪讜 砖谞讗诪专 砖讗讙讜 爪讜专专讬讱 讘拽专讘 诪讜注讚讬讱 砖诪讜 讗讜转讜转诐 讗讜转讜转

What did Titus do when he conquered the Temple? He took a prostitute with his hand, and entered the Holy of Holies with her. He then spread out a Torah scroll underneath him and committed a sin, i.e., engaged in sexual intercourse, on it. Afterward he took a sword and cut into the curtain separating between the Sanctuary and the Holy of Holies. And a miracle was performed and blood spurted forth. Seeing the blood, he mistakenly thought that he had killed himself. Here, the term himself is a euphemism for God. Titus saw blood issuing forth from the curtain in God鈥檚 meeting place, the Temple, and he took it as a sign that he had succeeded in killing God Himself. As it is stated: 鈥淵our enemies roar in the midst of Your meeting place; they have set up their own signs for signs鈥 (Psalms 74:4).

讗讘讗 讞谞谉 讗讜诪专 诪讬 讻诪讜讱 讞住讬谉 讬讛 诪讬 讻诪讜讱 讞住讬谉 讜拽砖讛 砖讗转讛 砖讜诪注 谞讬讗讜爪讜 讜讙讬讚讜驻讜 砖诇 讗讜转讜 专砖注 讜砖讜转拽 讚讘讬 专讘讬 讬砖诪注讗诇 转谞讗 诪讬 讻诪讻讛 讘讗诇讬诐 讛壮 诪讬 讻诪讜讻讛 讘讗诇诪讬诐

Abba 岣nan says: The verse states: 鈥淲ho is strong like You, O Lord?鈥 (Psalms 89:9). Who is strong and indurate like You, as You hear the abuse and the blasphemy of that wicked man and remain silent. Similarly, the school of Rabbi Yishmael taught that the verse: 鈥淲ho is like You, O Lord, among the gods [elim]鈥 (Exodus 15:11), should be read as: Who is like You among the mute [ilmim], for You conduct Yourself like a mute and remain silent in the face of Your blasphemers.

诪讛 注砖讛 谞讟诇 讗转 讛驻专讜讻转 讜注砖讗讜 讻诪讬谉 讙专讙讜转谞讬 讜讛讘讬讗 讻诇 讻诇讬诐 砖讘诪拽讚砖 讜讛谞讬讞谉 讘讛谉 讜讛讜砖讬讘谉 讘住驻讬谞讛 诇讬诇讱 诇讛砖转讘讞 讘注讬专讜 砖谞讗诪专 讜讘讻谉 专讗讬转讬 专砖注讬诐 拽讘讜专讬诐 讜讘讗讜 讜诪诪拽讜诐 拽讚讜砖 讬讛诇讻讜 讜讬砖转讻讞讜 讘注讬专 讗砖专 讻谉 注砖讜 讗诇 转讬拽专讬 拽讘讜专讬诐 讗诇讗 拽讘讜爪讬诐 讗诇 转讬拽专讬 讜讬砖转讻讞讜 讗诇讗 讜讬砖转讘讞讜

What else did Titus do? He took the curtain and formed it like a large basket, and brought all of the sacred vessels of the Temple and placed them in it. And he put them on a ship to go and be praised in his city that he had conquered Jerusalem, as it is stated: 鈥淎nd so I saw the wicked buried, and come to their rest; but those that had done right were gone from the holy place, and were forgotten in the city; this also is vanity鈥 (Ecclesiastes 8:10). Do not read the word as 鈥渂uried [kevurim].鈥 Rather, read it as collected [kevutzim]. And do not read the word as 鈥渁nd were forgotten [veyishtake岣].鈥 Rather, read it as: And they were praised [veyishtabe岣]. According to this interpretation, the verse speaks of those who will gather and collect items 鈥渇rom the holy place,鈥 the Temple, and be praised in their city about what they had done.

讗讬讻讗 讚讗诪专讬 拽讘讜专讬诐 诪诪砖 讚讗驻讬诇讜 诪讬诇讬 讚诪讟诪专谉 讗讬讙诇讬讬讗 诇讛讜谉

There are those who say that the verse is to be read as written, as it is referring to items that were actually buried. This is because even items that had been buried were revealed to them, i.e., Titus and his soldiers, as they found all of the sacred vessels.

注诪讚 注诇讬讜 谞讞砖讜诇 砖讘讬诐 诇讟讜讘注讜 讗诪专 讻诪讚讜诪讛 讗谞讬 砖讗诇讛讬讛诐 砖诇 讗诇讜 讗讬谉 讙讘讜专转讜 讗诇讗 讘诪讬诐 讘讗 驻专注讛 讟讘注讜 讘诪讬诐 讘讗 住讬住专讗 讟讘注讜 讘诪讬诐 讗祝 讛讜讗 注讜诪讚 注诇讬 诇讟讜讘注谞讬 讘诪讬诐 讗诐 讙讘讜专 讛讜讗 讬注诇讛 诇讬讘砖讛 讜讬注砖讛 注诪讬 诪诇讞诪讛 讬爪转讛 讘转 拽讜诇 讜讗诪专讛 诇讜 专砖注 讘谉 专砖注 讘谉 讘谞讜 砖诇 注砖讜 讛专砖注 讘专讬讛 拽诇讛 讬砖 诇讬 讘注讜诇诪讬 讜讬转讜砖 砖诪讛

It is further related about Titus that he was once traveling at sea and a wave rose up against him and threatened to drown him. Titus said: It seems to me that their God, the God of Israel, has power only in water. Pharaoh rose against them and He drowned him in water. Sisera rose against them and He drowned him in water. Here too, He has risen up against me to drown me in water. If He is really mighty, let Him go up on dry land and there wage war against me. A Divine Voice issued forth and said to him: Wicked one, son of a wicked one, grandson of Esau the wicked, for you are among his descendants and act just like him, I have a lowly creature in My world and it is called a gnat.

讗诪讗讬 拽专讬 诇讛 讘专讬讛 拽诇讛 讚诪注诇谞讗 讗讬转 诇讛 讜诪驻拽谞讗 诇讬转 诇讛

The Gemara interjects: Why is it called a lowly creature? It is called this because it has an entrance for taking in food, but it does not have an exit for excretion.

注诇讛 诇讬讘砖讛 讜转注砖讛 注诪讛 诪诇讞诪讛 注诇讛 诇讬讘砖讛 讘讗 讬转讜砖 讜谞讻谞住 讘讞讜讟诪讜 讜谞拽专 讘诪讜讞讜 砖讘注 砖谞讬诐 讬讜诪讗 讞讚 讛讜讛 拽讗 讞诇讬祝 讗讘讘讗 讚讘讬 谞驻讞讗 砖诪注 拽诇 讗专讝驻转讗 讗讬砖转讬拽 讗诪专 讗讬讻讗 转拽谞转讗 讻诇 讬讜诪讗 诪讬讬转讜 谞驻讞讗 讜诪讞讜 拽诪讬讛 诇讙讜讬 讬讛讬讘 诇讬讛 讗专讘注 讝讜讝讬 讬砖专讗诇 讗诪专 诇讬讛 诪讬住转讬讬讱 讚拽讗 讞讝讬转 讘住谞讗讱 注讚 转诇转讬谉 讬讜诪讬谉 注讘讚 讛讻讬 诪讻讗谉 讜讗讬诇讱 讻讬讜谉 讚讚砖 讚砖

The Gemara resumes its story about Titus. The Divine Voice continued: Go up on dry land and make war with it. He went up on dry land, and a gnat came, entered his nostril, and picked at his brain for seven years. Titus suffered greatly from this until one day he passed by the gate of a blacksmith鈥檚 shop. The gnat heard the sound of a hammer and was silent and still. Titus said: I see that there is a remedy for my pain. Every day they would bring a blacksmith who hammered before him. He would give four dinars as payment to a gentile blacksmith, and to a Jew he would simply say: It is enough for you that you see your enemy in so much pain. He did this for thirty days and it was effective until then. From that point forward, since the gnat became accustomed to the hammering, it became accustomed to it, and once again it began to pick away at Titus鈥檚 brain.

转谞讬讗 讗诪专 专讘讬 驻谞讞住 讘谉 注专讜讘讗 讗谞讬 讛讬讬转讬 讘讬谉 讙讚讜诇讬 专讜诪讬 讜讻砖诪转 驻爪注讜 讗转 诪讜讞讜 讜诪爪讗讜 讘讜 讻爪驻讜专 讚专讜专 诪砖拽诇 砖谞讬 住诇注讬诐 讘诪转谞讬转讗 转谞讗 讻讙讜讝诇 讘谉 砖谞讛 诪砖拽诇 砖谞讬 诇讬讟专讬谉

It is taught in a baraita that Rabbi Pine岣s ben Arova said: I was at that time among the noblemen of Rome, and when Titus died they split open his head and found that the gnat had grown to the size of a sparrow weighing two sela. It was taught in another baraita: It was like a one-year-old pigeon weighing two litra.

讗诪专 讗讘讬讬 谞拽讟讬谞谉 驻讬讜 砖诇 谞讞讜砖转 讜爪驻讜专谞讬讜 砖诇 讘专讝诇 讻讬 讛讜讛 拽讗 诪讬讬转 讗诪专 诇讛讜 诇讬拽诇讬讜讛 诇讛讛讜讗 讙讘专讗 讜诇讘讚专讬 诇拽讬讟诪讬讛 讗砖讘 讬诪讬 讚诇讗 诇砖讻讞讬讛 讗诇讛讗 讚讬讛讜讚讗讬 讜诇讜拽诪讬讛 讘讚讬谞讗

Abaye said: We have a tradition that its mouth was made of copper and its claws were fashioned of iron. When Titus was dying, he said to his attendants: Burn that man, i.e., me, and scatter his ashes across the seven seas, so that the God of the Jews should not find me and stand me for judgment.

讗讜谞拽诇讜住 讘专 拽诇讜谞讬拽讜住 讘专 讗讞转讬讛 讚讟讬讟讜住 讛讜讛 讘注讬 诇讗讬讙讬讜专讬 讗讝诇 讗住拽讬讛 诇讟讬讟讜住 讘谞讙讬讚讗 讗诪专 诇讬讛 诪讗谉 讞砖讬讘 讘讛讛讜讗 注诇诪讗 讗诪专 诇讬讛 讬砖专讗诇 诪讛讜 诇讗讬讚讘讜拽讬 讘讛讜 讗诪专 诇讬讛 诪讬诇讬讬讛讜 谞驻讬砖讬谉 讜诇讗 诪爪讬转 诇拽讬讜诪讬谞讛讜 讝讬诇 讗讬讙专讬 讘讛讜 讘讛讛讜讗 注诇诪讗 讜讛讜讬转 专讬砖讗 讚讻转讬讘 讛讬讜 爪专讬讛 诇专讗砖 讜讙讜壮 讻诇 讛诪讬爪专 诇讬砖专讗诇 谞注砖讛 专讗砖 讗诪专 诇讬讛 讚讬谞讬讛 讚讛讛讜讗 讙讘专讗 讘诪讗讬 讗诪专 诇讬讛

搂 The Gemara relates: Onkelos bar Kalonikos, the son of Titus鈥檚 sister, wanted to convert to Judaism. He went and raised Titus from the grave through necromancy, and said to him: Who is most important in that world where you are now? Titus said to him: The Jewish people. Onkelos asked him: Should I then attach myself to them here in this world? Titus said to him: Their commandments are numerous, and you will not be able to fulfill them. It is best that you do as follows: Go out and battle against them in that world, and you will become the chief, as it is written: 鈥淗er adversaries [tzareha] have become the chief鈥 (Lamentations 1:5), which means: Anyone who distresses [meitzer] Israel will become the chief. Onkelos said to him: What is the punishment of that man, a euphemism for Titus himself, in the next world? Titus said to him:

  • This month's learning is sponsored by Ron and Shira Krebs to commemorate the 73rd yahrzeit of Shira's grandfather (Yitzchak Leib Ben David Ber HaCohen v'Malka), the 1st yahrzeit of Shira's father (Gershon Pinya Ben Yitzchak Leib HaCohen v'Menucha Sara), and the bar mitzvah of their son Eytan who will be making a siyum on Mishna Shas this month.

  • This month's learning is sponsored for the refuah shleima of Naama bat Yael Esther.

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Gittin 56

The William Davidson Talmud | Powered by Sefaria

Gittin 56

讗诪专 诇讬讛 诇讗 讗诪专 诇讬讛 讬讛讬讘谞讗 诇讱 讚诪讬 驻诇讙讗 讚住注讜讚转讬讱 讗诪专 诇讬讛 诇讗 讗诪专 诇讬讛 讬讛讬讘谞讗 诇讱 讚诪讬 讻讜诇讛 住注讜讚转讬讱 讗诪专 诇讬讛 诇讗 谞拽讟讬讛 讘讬讚讬讛 讜讗讜拽诪讬讛 讜讗驻拽讬讛

The host said to him: No, you must leave. Bar Kamtza said to him: I will give you money for half of the feast; just do not send me away. The host said to him: No, you must leave. Bar Kamtza then said to him: I will give you money for the entire feast; just let me stay. The host said to him: No, you must leave. Finally, the host took bar Kamtza by his hand, stood him up, and took him out.

讗诪专 讛讜讗讬诇 讜讛讜讜 讬转讘讬 专讘谞谉 讜诇讗 诪讞讜 讘讬讛 砖诪注 诪讬谞讛 拽讗 谞讬讞讗 诇讛讜 讗讬讝讬诇 讗讬讻讜诇 讘讛讜 拽讜专爪讗 讘讬 诪诇讻讗 讗讝诇 讗诪专 诇讬讛 诇拽讬住专 诪专讚讜 讘讱 讬讛讜讚讗讬 讗诪专 诇讬讛 诪讬 讬讬诪专 讗诪专 诇讬讛 砖讚专 诇讛讜 拽讜专讘谞讗 讞讝讬转 讗讬 诪拽专讘讬谉 诇讬讛

After having been cast out from the feast, bar Kamtza said to himself: Since the Sages were sitting there and did not protest the actions of the host, although they saw how he humiliated me, learn from it that they were content with what he did. I will therefore go and inform [eikhul kurtza] against them to the king. He went and said to the emperor: The Jews have rebelled against you. The emperor said to him: Who says that this is the case? Bar Kamtza said to him: Go and test them; send them an offering to be brought in honor of the government, and see whether they will sacrifice it.

讗讝诇 砖讚专 讘讬讚讬讛 注讙诇讗 转诇转讗 讘讛讚讬 讚拽讗转讬 砖讚讗 讘讬讛 诪讜诪讗 讘谞讬讘 砖驻转讬诐 讜讗诪专讬 诇讛 讘讚讜拽讬谉 砖讘注讬谉 讚讜讻转讗 讚诇讚讬讚谉 讛讜讛 诪讜诪讗 讜诇讚讬讚讛讜 诇讗讜 诪讜诪讗 讛讜讗

The emperor went and sent with him a choice three-year-old calf. While bar Kamtza was coming with the calf to the Temple, he made a blemish on the calf鈥檚 upper lip. And some say he made the blemish on its eyelids, a place where according to us, i.e., halakha, it is a blemish, but according to them, gentile rules for their offerings, it is not a blemish. Therefore, when bar Kamtza brought the animal to the Temple, the priests would not sacrifice it on the altar since it was blemished, but they also could not explain this satisfactorily to the gentile authorities, who did not consider it to be blemished.

住讘讜专 专讘谞谉 诇拽专讜讘讬讛 诪砖讜诐 砖诇讜诐 诪诇讻讜转 讗诪专 诇讛讜 专讘讬 讝讻专讬讛 讘谉 讗讘拽讜诇住 讬讗诪专讜 讘注诇讬 诪讜诪讬谉 拽专讬讘讬谉 诇讙讘讬 诪讝讘讞 住讘讜专 诇诪讬拽讟诇讬讛 讚诇讗 诇讬讝讬诇 讜诇讬诪讗 讗诪专 诇讛讜 专讘讬 讝讻专讬讛 讬讗诪专讜 诪讟讬诇 诪讜诐 讘拽讚砖讬诐 讬讛专讙

The blemish notwithstanding, the Sages thought to sacrifice the animal as an offering due to the imperative to maintain peace with the government. Rabbi Zekharya ben Avkolas said to them: If the priests do that, people will say that blemished animals may be sacrificed as offerings on the altar. The Sages said: If we do not sacrifice it, then we must prevent bar Kamtza from reporting this to the emperor. The Sages thought to kill him so that he would not go and speak against them. Rabbi Zekharya said to them: If you kill him, people will say that one who makes a blemish on sacrificial animals is to be killed. As a result, they did nothing, bar Kamtza鈥檚 slander was accepted by the authorities, and consequently the war between the Jews and the Romans began.

讗诪专 专讘讬 讬讜讞谞谉 注谞讜讜转谞讜转讜 砖诇 专讘讬 讝讻专讬讛 讘谉 讗讘拽讜诇住 讛讞专讬讘讛 讗转 讘讬转谞讜 讜砖专驻讛 讗转 讛讬讻诇谞讜 讜讛讙诇讬转谞讜 诪讗专爪谞讜

Rabbi Yo岣nan says: The excessive humility of Rabbi Zekharya ben Avkolas destroyed our Temple, burned our Sanctuary, and exiled us from our land.

砖讚专 注诇讜讬讬讛讜 诇谞讬专讜谉 拽讬住专 讻讬 拽讗转讬 砖讚讗 讙讬专讗 诇诪讝专讞 讗转讗 谞驻诇 讘讬专讜砖诇讬诐 诇诪注专讘 讗转讗 谞驻诇 讘讬专讜砖诇讬诐 诇讗专讘注 专讜讞讜转 讛砖诪讬诐 讗转讗 谞驻诇 讘讬专讜砖诇讬诐

The Roman authorities then sent Nero Caesar against the Jews. When he came to Jerusalem, he wished to test his fate. He shot an arrow to the east and the arrow came and fell in Jerusalem. He then shot another arrow to the west and it also fell in Jerusalem. He shot an arrow in all four directions of the heavens, and each time the arrow fell in Jerusalem.

讗诪专 诇讬讛 诇讬谞讜拽讗 驻住讜拽 诇讬 驻住讜拽讬讱 讗诪专 诇讬讛 讜谞转转讬 讗转 谞拽诪转讬 讘讗讚讜诐 讘讬讚 注诪讬 讬砖专讗诇 讜讙讜壮 讗诪专 拽讜讚砖讗 讘专讬讱 讛讜讗 讘注讬 诇讞专讜讘讬 讘讬转讬讛 讜讘注讬 诇讻驻讜专讬 讬讚讬讛 讘讛讛讜讗 讙讘专讗 注专拽 讜讗讝诇 讜讗讬讙讬讬专 讜谞驻拽 诪讬谞讬讛 专讘讬 诪讗讬专

Nero then conducted another test: He said to a child: Tell me a verse that you learned today. He said to him as follows: 鈥淎nd I will lay My vengeance upon Edom by the hand of My people Israel鈥 (Ezekiel 25:14). Nero said: The Holy One, Blessed be He, wishes to destroy His Temple, and He wishes to wipe his hands with that man, i.e., with me. The Romans are associated with Edom, the descendants of Esau. If I continue on this mission, I will eventually be punished for having served as God鈥檚 agent to bring about the destruction. So he fled and became a convert, and ultimately Rabbi Meir descended from him.

砖讚专讬讛 注讬诇讜讬讬讛讜 诇讗住驻住讬讬谞讜住 拽讬住专 讗转讗 爪专 注诇讛 转诇转 砖谞讬 讛讜讜 讘讛 讛谞讛讜 转诇转讗 注转讬专讬 谞拽讚讬诪讜谉 讘谉 讙讜专讬讜谉 讜讘谉 讻诇讘讗 砖讘讜注 讜讘谉 爪讬爪讬转 讛讻住转 谞拽讚讬诪讜谉 讘谉 讙讜专讬讜谉 砖谞拽讚讛 诇讜 讞诪讛 讘注讘讜专讜 讘谉 讻诇讘讗 砖讘讜注 砖讻诇 讛谞讻谞住 诇讘讬转讜 讻砖讛讜讗 专注讘 讻讻诇讘 讬讜爪讗 讻砖讛讜讗 砖讘注 讘谉 爪讬爪讬转 讛讻住转 砖讛讬转讛 爪讬爪转讜 谞讙专专转 注诇 讙讘讬 讻住转讜转 讗讬讻讗 讚讗诪专讬 砖讛讬转讛 讻住转讜 诪讜讟诇转 讘讬谉 讙讚讜诇讬 专讜诪讬

The Roman authorities then sent Vespasian Caesar against the Jews. He came and laid siege to Jerusalem for three years. There were at that time in Jerusalem these three wealthy people: Nakdimon ben Guryon, ben Kalba Savua, and ben Tzitzit HaKesat. The Gemara explains their names: Nakdimon ben Guryon was called by that name because the sun shined [nakad] on his behalf, as it is related elsewhere (see Ta鈥檃nit 19b) that the sun once continued to shine in order to prevent him from suffering a substantial loss. Ben Kalba Savua was called this because anyone who entered his house when he was hungry as a dog [kelev] would leave satiated [save鈥檃]. Ben Tzitzit HaKesat was referred to by that name because his ritual fringes [tzitzit] dragged along on blankets [keset], meaning that he would not walk in the street with his feet on the ground, but rather they would place blankets beneath him. There are those who say that his seat [kiseh] was found among the nobles of Rome, meaning that he would sit among them.

讞讚 讗诪专 诇讛讜 讗谞讗 讝讬讬谞讗 诇讛讜 讘讞讬讟讬 讜砖注专讬 讜讞讚 讗诪专 诇讛讜 讘讚讞诪专讗 讜讘讚诪诇讞讗 讜诪砖讞讗 讜讞讚 讗诪专 诇讛讜 讘讚爪讬讘讬 讜砖讘讞讜 专讘谞谉 诇讚爪讬讘讬 讚专讘 讞住讚讗 讻诇 讗拽诇讬讚讬 讛讜讛 诪住专 诇砖诪注讬讛 讘专 诪讚爪讬讘讬 讚讗诪专 专讘 讞住讚讗 讗讻诇讘讗 讚讞讬讟讬 讘注讬 砖讬转讬谉 讗讻诇讘讬 讚爪讬讘讬 讛讜讛 诇讛讜 诇诪讬讝谉 注砖专讬诐 讜讞讚 砖转讗

These three wealthy people offered their assistance. One of them said to the leaders of the city: I will feed the residents with wheat and barley. And one of them said to leaders of the city: I will provide the residents with wine, salt, and oil. And one of them said to the leaders of the city: I will supply the residents with wood. The Gemara comments: And the Sages gave special praise to he who gave the wood, since this was an especially expensive gift. As Rav 岣sda would give all of the keys [aklidei] to his servant, except for the key to his shed for storing wood, which he deemed the most important of them all. As Rav 岣sda said: One storehouse [akhleva] of wheat requires sixty storehouses of wood for cooking and baking fuel. These three wealthy men had between them enough commodities to sustain the besieged for twenty-one years.

讛讜讜 讘讛讜 讛谞讛讜 讘专讬讜谞讬 讗诪专讜 诇讛讜 专讘谞谉 谞讬驻讜拽 讜谞注讘讬讚 砖诇诪讗 讘讛讚讬讬讛讜 诇讗 砖讘拽讬谞讛讜 讗诪专讜 诇讛讜 谞讬驻讜拽 讜谞注讘讬讚 拽专讘讗 讘讛讚讬讬讛讜 讗诪专讜 诇讛讜 专讘谞谉 诇讗 诪住转讬讬注讗 诪讬诇转讗 拽诪讜 拽诇谞讛讜 诇讛谞讛讜 讗诪讘专讬 讚讞讬讟讬 讜砖注专讬 讜讛讜讛 讻驻谞讗

There were certain zealots among the people of Jerusalem. The Sages said to them: Let us go out and make peace with the Romans. But the zealots did not allow them to do this. The zealots said to the Sages: Let us go out and engage in battle against the Romans. But the Sages said to them: You will not be successful. It would be better for you to wait until the siege is broken. In order to force the residents of the city to engage in battle, the zealots arose and burned down these storehouses [ambarei] of wheat and barley, and there was a general famine.

诪专转讗 讘转 讘讬讬转讜住 注转讬专转讗 讚讬专讜砖诇讬诐 讛讜讬讗 砖讚专转讛 诇砖诇讜讞讛 讜讗诪专讛 诇讬讛 讝讬诇 讗讬讬转讬 诇讬 住诪讬讚讗 讗讚讗讝诇 讗讬讝讚讘谉 讗转讗 讗诪专 诇讛 住诪讬讚讗 诇讬讻讗 讞讬讜专转讗 讗讬讻讗 讗诪专讛 诇讬讛 讝讬诇 讗讬讬转讬 诇讬 讗讚讗讝诇 讗讬讝讚讘谉 讗转讗 讜讗诪专 诇讛 讞讬讜专转讗 诇讬讻讗 讙讜砖拽专讗 讗讬讻讗 讗诪专讛 诇讬讛 讝讬诇 讗讬讬转讬 诇讬 讗讚讗讝诇 讗讝讚讘谉 讗转讗 讜讗诪专 诇讛 讙讜砖拽专讗 诇讬讻讗 拽讬诪讞讗 讚砖注专讬 讗讬讻讗 讗诪专讛 诇讬讛 讝讬诇 讗讬讬转讬 诇讬 讗讚讗讝诇 讗讬讝讚讘谉

With regard to this famine it is related that Marta bat Baitos was one of the wealthy women of Jerusalem. She sent out her agent and said to him: Go bring me fine flour [semida]. By the time he went, the fine flour was already sold. He came and said to her: There is no fine flour, but there is ordinary flour. She said to him: Go then and bring me ordinary flour. By the time he went, the ordinary flour was also sold. He came and said to her: There is no ordinary flour, but there is coarse flour [gushkera]. She said to him: Go then and bring me coarse flour. By the time he went, the coarse flour was already sold. He came and said to her: There is no coarse flour, but there is barley flour. She said to him: Go then and bring me barley flour. But once again, by the time he went, the barley flour was also sold.

讛讜讛 砖诇讬驻讗 诪住讗谞讗 讗诪专讛 讗讬驻讜拽 讜讗讞讝讬 讗讬 诪砖讻讞谞讗 诪讬讚讬 诇诪讬讻诇 讗讬转讬讘 诇讛 驻专转讗 讘讻专注讗 讜诪转讛

She had just removed her shoes, but she said: I will go out myself and see if I can find something to eat. She stepped on some dung, which stuck to her foot, and, overcome by disgust, she died.

拽专讬 注诇讛 专讘谉 讬讜讞谞谉 讘谉 讝讻讗讬 讛专讻讛 讘讱 讜讛注谞讜讙讛 讗砖专 诇讗 谞住转讛 讻祝 专讙诇讛 讗讬讻讗 讚讗诪专讬 讙专讜讙专讜转 讚专讘讬 爪讚讜拽 讗讻诇讛 讜讗讬转谞讬住讗 讜诪转讛 讚专讘讬 爪讚讜拽 讬转讬讘 讗专讘注讬谉 砖谞讬谉 讘转注谞讬转讗 讚诇讗 诇讬讞专讘 讬专讜砖诇讬诐 讻讬 讛讜讛 讗讻讬诇 诪讬讚讬 讛讜讛 诪讬转讞讝讬 诪讗讘专讗讬 讜讻讬 讛讜讛 讘专讬讗 诪讬讬转讬 诇讬讛 讙专讜讙专讜转 诪讬讬抓 诪讬讬讛讜 讜砖讚讬 诇讛讜

Rabban Yo岣nan ben Zakkai read concerning her a verse found in the section of the Torah listing the curses that will befall Israel: 鈥淭he tender and delicate woman among you who would not adventure to set the sole of her foot upon the ground鈥 (Deuteronomy 28:56). There are those who say that she did not step on dung, but rather she ate a fig of Rabbi Tzadok, and became disgusted and died. What are these figs? Rabbi Tzadok observed fasts for forty years, praying that Jerusalem would not be destroyed. He became so emaciated from fasting that when he would eat something it was visible from the outside of his body. And when he would eat after a fast they would bring him figs and he would suck out their liquid and cast the rest away. It was one such fig that Marta bat Baitos found and that caused her death.

讻讬 讛讜讛 拽讗 谞讬讞讗 谞驻砖讛 讗驻讬拽转讛 诇讻诇 讚讛讘讗 讜讻住驻讗 砖讚讬转讬讛 讘砖讜拽讗 讗诪专讛 讛讗讬 诇诪讗讬 诪讬讘注讬 诇讬 讜讛讬讬谞讜 讚讻转讬讘 讻住驻诐 讘讞讜爪讜转 讬砖诇讬讻讜

It is further related that as she was dying, she took out all of her gold and silver and threw it in the marketplace. She said: Why do I need this? And this is as it is written: 鈥淭hey shall cast their silver in the streets and their gold shall be as an impure thing; their silver and their gold shall not be able to deliver them in the day of the wrath of the Lord; they shall not satisfy their souls, neither fill their bowels鈥 (Ezekiel 7:19).

讗讘讗 住拽专讗 专讬砖 讘专讬讜谞讬 讚讬专讜砖诇讬诐 讘专 讗讞转讬讛 讚专讘谉 讬讜讞谞谉 讘谉 讝讻讗讬 讛讜讛 砖诇讞 诇讬讛 转讗 讘爪讬谞注讗 诇讙讘讗讬 讗转讗 讗诪专 诇讬讛 注讚 讗讬诪转 注讘讚讬转讜 讛讻讬 讜拽讟诇讬转讜 诇讬讛 诇注诇诪讗 讘讻驻谞讗 讗诪专 诇讬讛 诪讗讬 讗讬注讘讬讚 讚讗讬 讗诪讬谞讗 诇讛讜 诪讬讚讬 拽讟诇讜 诇讬 讗诪专 诇讬讛 讞讝讬 诇讬 转拽谞转讗 诇讚讬讚讬 讚讗讬驻讜拽 讗驻砖专 讚讛讜讬 讛爪诇讛 驻讜专转讗

搂 The Gemara relates: Abba Sikkara was the leader of the zealots [biryonei] of Jerusalem and the son of the sister of Rabban Yo岣nan ben Zakkai. Rabban Yo岣nan ben Zakkai sent a message to him: Come to me in secret. He came, and Rabban Yo岣nan ben Zakkai said to him: Until when will you do this and kill everyone through starvation? Abba Sikkara said to him: What can I do, for if I say something to them they will kill me. Rabban Yo岣nan ben Zakkai said to him: Show me a method so that I will be able to leave the city, and it is possible that through this there will be some small salvation.

讗诪专 诇讬讛 谞拽讜讟 谞驻砖讱 讘拽爪讬专讬 讜诇讬转讬 讻讜诇讬 注诇诪讗 讜诇讬砖讬讬诇讜 讘讱 讜讗讬讬转讬 诪讬讚讬 住专讬讗 讜讗讙谞讬 讙讘讱 讜诇讬诪专讜 讚谞讞 谞驻砖讱 讜诇讬注讬讬诇讜 讘讱 转诇诪讬讚讱 讜诇讗 诇讬注讜诇 讘讱 讗讬谞讬砖 讗讞专讬谞讗 讚诇讗 诇专讙砖谉 讘讱 讚拽诇讬诇 讗转 讚讗讬谞讛讜 讬讚注讬 讚讞讬讬讗 拽诇讬诇 诪诪讬转讗

Abba Sikkara said to him: This is what you should do: Pretend to be sick, and have everyone come and ask about your welfare, so that word will spread about your ailing condition. Afterward bring something putrid and place it near you, so that people will say that you have died and are decomposing. And then, have your students enter to bring you to burial, and let no one else come in so that the zealots not notice that you are still light. As the zealots know that a living person is lighter than a dead person.

注讘讬讚 讛讻讬 谞讻谞住 讘讜 专讘讬 讗诇讬注讝专 诪爪讚 讗讞讚 讜专讘讬 讬讛讜砖注 诪爪讚 讗讞专 讻讬 诪讟讜 诇驻讬转讞讗 讘注讜 诇诪讚拽专讬讛 讗诪专 诇讛讜 讬讗诪专讜 专讘谉 讚拽专讜 讘注讜 诇诪讚讞驻讬讛 讗诪专 诇讛讜 讬讗诪专讜 专讘谉 讚讞驻讜 驻转讞讜 诇讬讛 讘讘讗 谞驻拽

Rabban Yo岣nan ben Zakkai did this. Rabbi Eliezer entered from one side and Rabbi Yehoshua from the other side to take him out. When they arrived at the entrance of the city on the inside, the guards, who were of the faction of the zealots, wanted to pierce him with their swords in order to ascertain that he was actually dead, as was the common practice. Abba Sikkara said to them: The Romans will say that they pierce even their teacher. The guards then wanted at least to push him to see whether he was still alive, in which case he would cry out on account of the pushing. Abba Sikkara said to them: They will say that they push even their teacher. The guards then opened the gate and he was taken out.

讻讬 诪讟讗 诇讛转诐 讗诪专 砖诇诪讗 注诇讱 诪诇讻讗 砖诇诪讗 注诇讱 诪诇讻讗 讗诪专 诇讬讛 诪讬讞讬讬讘转 转专讬 拽讟诇讗 讞讚讗 讚诇讗讜 诪诇讻讗 讗谞讗 讜拽讗 拽专讬转 诇讬 诪诇讻讗 讜转讜 讗讬 诪诇讻讗 讗谞讗 注讚 讛讗讬讚谞讗 讗诪讗讬 诇讗 讗转讬转 诇讙讘讗讬 讗诪专 诇讬讛 讚拽讗诪专转 诇讗讜 诪诇讻讗 讗谞讗

When Rabban Yo岣nan ben Zakkai reached there, i.e., the Roman camp, he said: Greetings to you, the king; greetings to you, the king. Vespasian said to him: You are liable for two death penalties, one because I am not a king and yet you call me king, and furthermore, if I am a king, why didn鈥檛 you come to me until now? Rabban Yo岣nan ben Zakkai said to him: As for what you said about yourself: I am not a king,

讗讬讘专讗 诪诇讻讗 讗转 讚讗讬 诇讗讜 诪诇讻讗 讗转 诇讗 诪讬诪住专讗 讬专讜砖诇讬诐 讘讬讚讱 讚讻转讬讘 讜讛诇讘谞讜谉 讘讗讚讬专 讬驻讜诇 讜讗讬谉 讗讚讬专 讗诇讗 诪诇讱 讚讻转讬讘 讜讛讬讛 讗讚讬专讜 诪诪谞讜 讜讙讜壮 讜讗讬谉 诇讘谞讜谉 讗诇讗 讘讬转 讛诪拽讚砖 砖谞讗诪专 讛讛专 讛讟讜讘 讛讝讛 讜讛诇讘谞讜谉 讜讚拽讗诪专转 讗讬 诪诇讻讗 讗谞讗 讗诪讗讬 诇讗 拽讗转讬转 诇讙讘讗讬 注讚 讛讗讬讚谞讗 讘专讬讜谞讬 讚讗讬转 讘谉 诇讗 砖讘拽讬谞谉

in truth, you are a king, if not now, then in the future. As if you are not a king, Jerusalem will not be handed over into your hand, as it is written: 鈥淎nd the Lebanon shall fall by a mighty one鈥 (Isaiah 10:34). And 鈥渕ighty one鈥 means only a king, as it is written: 鈥淎nd their mighty one shall be of themselves, and their ruler shall proceed from the midst of them鈥 (Jeremiah 30:21), indicating that 鈥渕ighty one鈥 parallels 鈥渞uler.鈥 And 鈥淟ebanon鈥 means only the Temple, as it is stated: 鈥淭hat good mountain and the Lebanon鈥 (Deuteronomy 3:25). And as for what you said with your second comment: If I am a king why didn鈥檛 you come to me until now, there are zealots among us who did not allow us to do this.

讗诪专 诇讬讛 讗讬诇讜 讞讘讬转 砖诇 讚讘砖 讜讚专拽讜谉 讻专讜讱 注诇讬讛 诇讗 讛讬讜 砖讜讘专讬谉 讗转 讛讞讘讬转 讘砖讘讬诇 讚专拽讜谉 讗讬砖转讬拽 拽专讬 注诇讬讛 专讘 讬讜住祝 讜讗讬转讬诪讗 专讘讬 注拽讬讘讗 诪砖讬讘 讞讻诪讬诐 讗讞讜专 讜讚注转诐 讬住讻诇 讗讬讘注讬 诇讬讛 诇诪讬诪专 诇讬讛 砖拽诇讬谞谉 爪讘转讗 讜砖拽诇讬谞谉 诇讬讛 诇讚专拽讜谉 讜拽讟诇讬谞谉 诇讬讛 讜讞讘讬转讗 砖讘拽讬谞谉 诇讛

Understanding that Rabban Yo岣nan ben Zakkai was prepared to ask him not to destroy the Temple, Vespasian said to him: If there is a barrel of honey and a snake [derakon] is wrapped around it, wouldn鈥檛 they break the barrel in order to kill the snake? In similar fashion, I am forced to destroy the city of Jerusalem in order to kill the zealots barricaded within it. Rabban Yo岣nan ben Zakkai was silent and did not answer. In light of this, Rav Yosef later read the following verse about him, and some say that it was Rabbi Akiva who applied the verse to Rabban Yo岣nan ben Zakkai: 鈥淚 am the Lord鈥Who turns wise men backward and makes their knowledge foolish鈥 (Isaiah 44:25). As Rabban Yo岣nan ben Zakkai should have said the following to Vespasian in response: In such a case, we take tongs, remove the snake, and kill it, and in this way we leave the barrel intact. So too, you should kill the rebels and leave the city as it is.

讗讚讛讻讬 讗转讬 驻专讬住转拽讗 注诇讬讛 诪专讜诪讬 讗诪专 诇讬讛 拽讜诐 讚诪讬转 诇讬讛 拽讬住专 讜讗诪专讬 讛谞讛讜 讞砖讬讘讬 讚专讜诪讬 诇讗讜转讬讘讱 讘专讬砖讗 讛讜讛 住讬讬诐 讞讚 诪住讗谞讬 讘注讗 诇诪住讬讬诪讗 诇讗讞专讬谞讗 诇讗 注讬讬诇 讘注讗 诇诪砖诇驻讗 诇讗讬讚讱 诇讗 谞驻拽 讗诪专 诪讗讬 讛讗讬

In the meantime, as they were talking, a messenger [feristaka] arrived from Rome, and said to him: Rise, for the emperor has died, and the noblemen of Rome plan to appoint you as their leader and make you the next emperor. At that time Vespasian was wearing only one shoe, and when he tried to put on the other one, it would not go on his foot. He then tried to remove the other shoe that he was already wearing, but it would not come off. He said: What is this?

讗诪专 诇讬讛 诇讗 转爪讟注专 砖诪讜注讛 讟讜讘讛 讗转讬讗 诇讱 讚讻转讬讘 砖诪讜注讛 讟讜讘讛 转讚砖谉 注爪诐 讗诇讗 诪讗讬 转拽谞转讬讛 诇讬转讬 讗讬谞讬砖 讚诇讗 诪讬转讘讗 讚注转讱 诪讬谞讬讛 讜诇讞诇讬祝 拽诪讱 讚讻转讬讘 讜专讜讞 谞讻讗讛 转讬讘砖 讙专诐 注讘讚 讛讻讬 注讬讬诇 讗诪专 诇讬讛 讜诪讗讞专 讚讞讻诪讬转讜 讻讜诇讬 讛讗讬 注讚 讛讗讬讚谞讗 讗诪讗讬 诇讗 讗转讬转讜 诇讙讘讗讬 讗诪专 诇讬讛 讜诇讗 讗诪专讬 诇讱 讗诪专 诇讬讛 讗谞讗 谞诪讬 讗诪专讬 诇讱

Rabban Yo岣nan ben Zakkai said to him: Be not distressed or troubled, for good tidings have reached you, as it is written: 鈥淕ood tidings make the bone fat鈥 (Proverbs 15:30), and your feet have grown fatter out of joy and satisfaction. Vespasian said to him: But what is the remedy? What must I do in order to put on my shoe? Rabban Yo岣nan ben Zakkai said to him: Have someone with whom you are displeased come and pass before you, as it is written: 鈥淎 broken spirit dries the bones鈥 (Proverbs 17:22). He did this, and his shoe went on his foot. Vespasian said to him: Since you are so wise, why didn鈥檛 you come to see me until now? Rabban Yo岣nan ben Zakkai said to him: But didn鈥檛 I already tell you? Vespasian said to him: I also told you what I had to say.

讗诪专 诇讬讛 诪讬讝诇 讗讝讬诇谞讗 讜讗讬谞砖 讗讞专讬谞讗 诪砖讚专谞讗 讗诇讗 讘注讬 诪讬谞讗讬 诪讬讚讬 讚讗转谉 诇讱 讗诪专 诇讬讛 转谉 诇讬 讬讘谞讛 讜讞讻诪讬讛 讜砖讜砖讬诇转讗 讚专讘谉 讙诪诇讬讗诇 讜讗住讜讜转讗 讚诪住讬讬谉 诇讬讛 诇专讘讬 爪讚讜拽 拽专讬 注诇讬讛 专讘 讬讜住祝 讜讗讬转讬诪讗 专讘讬 注拽讬讘讗 诪砖讬讘 讞讻诪讬诐 讗讞讜专 讜讚注转诐 讬住讻诇 讗讬讘注讬 诇诪讬诪专 诇讬讛 诇砖讘拽讬谞讛讜 讛讚讗 讝讬诪谞讗

Vespasian then said to Rabban Yo岣nan ben Zakkai: I will be going to Rome to accept my new position, and I will send someone else in my place to continue besieging the city and waging war against it. But before I leave, ask something of me that I can give you. Rabban Yo岣nan ben Zakkai said to him: Give me Yavne and its Sages and do not destroy it, and spare the dynasty of Rabban Gamliel and do not kill them as if they were rebels, and lastly give me doctors to heal Rabbi Tzadok. Rav Yosef read the following verse about him, and some say that it was Rabbi Akiva who applied the verse to Rabban Yo岣nan ben Zakkai: 鈥淚 am the Lord鈥Who turns wise men backward and makes their knowledge foolish鈥 (Isaiah 44:25), as he should have said to him to leave the Jews alone this time.

讜讛讜讗 住讘专 讚诇诪讗 讻讜诇讬 讛讗讬 诇讗 注讘讬讚 讜讛爪诇讛 驻讜专转讗 谞诪讬 诇讗 讛讜讬

And why didn鈥檛 Rabban Yo岣nan ben Zakkai make this request? He maintained that Vespasian might not do that much for him, and there would not be even a small amount of salvation. Therefore, he made only a modest request, in the hope that he would receive at least that much.

讗住讜讜转讗 讚诪住讬讬谉 诇讬讛 诇专讘讬 爪讚讜拽 诪讗讬 讛讬讗 讬讜诪讗 拽诪讗 讗砖拽讬讜讛 诪讬讗 讚驻讗专讬 诇诪讞专 诪讬讗 讚住讬驻讜拽讗 诇诪讞专 诪讬讗 讚拽讬诪讞讗 注讚 讚专讜讜讞 诪讬注讬讛 驻讜专转讗 驻讜专转讗

The Gemara asks: What was he requesting when he asked for doctors to heal Rabbi Tzadok? How did they heal him? The first day they gave him water to drink that contained bran [parei]. The next day they gave him water containing flour mixed with bran [sipuka]. The following day they gave him water containing flour. In this way they slowly restored his ability to eat, allowing his stomach to broaden little by little.

讗讝诇 砖讚专讬讛 诇讟讬讟讜住 讜讗诪专 讗讬 讗诇讛讬诪讜 爪讜专 讞住讬讜 讘讜 讝讛 讟讬讟讜住 讛专砖注 砖讞讬专祝 讜讙讬讚祝 讻诇驻讬 诪注诇讛

搂 Vespasian went back to Rome and sent Titus in his place. The Gemara cites a verse that was expounded as referring to Titus: 鈥淎nd he shall say: Where is their God, their rock in whom they trusted?鈥 (Deuteronomy 32:37). This is the wicked Titus, who insulted and blasphemed God on High.

诪讛 注砖讛 转驻砖 讝讜谞讛 讘讬讚讜 讜谞讻谞住 诇讘讬转 拽讚砖讬 讛拽讚砖讬诐 讜讛爪讬注 住驻专 转讜专讛 讜注讘专 注诇讬讛 注讘讬专讛 讜谞讟诇 住讬讬祝 讜讙讬讚专 讗转 讛驻专讜讻转 讜谞注砖讛 谞住 讜讛讬讛 讚诐 诪讘爪讘抓 讜讬讜爪讗 讜讻住讘讜专 讛专讙 讗转 注爪诪讜 砖谞讗诪专 砖讗讙讜 爪讜专专讬讱 讘拽专讘 诪讜注讚讬讱 砖诪讜 讗讜转讜转诐 讗讜转讜转

What did Titus do when he conquered the Temple? He took a prostitute with his hand, and entered the Holy of Holies with her. He then spread out a Torah scroll underneath him and committed a sin, i.e., engaged in sexual intercourse, on it. Afterward he took a sword and cut into the curtain separating between the Sanctuary and the Holy of Holies. And a miracle was performed and blood spurted forth. Seeing the blood, he mistakenly thought that he had killed himself. Here, the term himself is a euphemism for God. Titus saw blood issuing forth from the curtain in God鈥檚 meeting place, the Temple, and he took it as a sign that he had succeeded in killing God Himself. As it is stated: 鈥淵our enemies roar in the midst of Your meeting place; they have set up their own signs for signs鈥 (Psalms 74:4).

讗讘讗 讞谞谉 讗讜诪专 诪讬 讻诪讜讱 讞住讬谉 讬讛 诪讬 讻诪讜讱 讞住讬谉 讜拽砖讛 砖讗转讛 砖讜诪注 谞讬讗讜爪讜 讜讙讬讚讜驻讜 砖诇 讗讜转讜 专砖注 讜砖讜转拽 讚讘讬 专讘讬 讬砖诪注讗诇 转谞讗 诪讬 讻诪讻讛 讘讗诇讬诐 讛壮 诪讬 讻诪讜讻讛 讘讗诇诪讬诐

Abba 岣nan says: The verse states: 鈥淲ho is strong like You, O Lord?鈥 (Psalms 89:9). Who is strong and indurate like You, as You hear the abuse and the blasphemy of that wicked man and remain silent. Similarly, the school of Rabbi Yishmael taught that the verse: 鈥淲ho is like You, O Lord, among the gods [elim]鈥 (Exodus 15:11), should be read as: Who is like You among the mute [ilmim], for You conduct Yourself like a mute and remain silent in the face of Your blasphemers.

诪讛 注砖讛 谞讟诇 讗转 讛驻专讜讻转 讜注砖讗讜 讻诪讬谉 讙专讙讜转谞讬 讜讛讘讬讗 讻诇 讻诇讬诐 砖讘诪拽讚砖 讜讛谞讬讞谉 讘讛谉 讜讛讜砖讬讘谉 讘住驻讬谞讛 诇讬诇讱 诇讛砖转讘讞 讘注讬专讜 砖谞讗诪专 讜讘讻谉 专讗讬转讬 专砖注讬诐 拽讘讜专讬诐 讜讘讗讜 讜诪诪拽讜诐 拽讚讜砖 讬讛诇讻讜 讜讬砖转讻讞讜 讘注讬专 讗砖专 讻谉 注砖讜 讗诇 转讬拽专讬 拽讘讜专讬诐 讗诇讗 拽讘讜爪讬诐 讗诇 转讬拽专讬 讜讬砖转讻讞讜 讗诇讗 讜讬砖转讘讞讜

What else did Titus do? He took the curtain and formed it like a large basket, and brought all of the sacred vessels of the Temple and placed them in it. And he put them on a ship to go and be praised in his city that he had conquered Jerusalem, as it is stated: 鈥淎nd so I saw the wicked buried, and come to their rest; but those that had done right were gone from the holy place, and were forgotten in the city; this also is vanity鈥 (Ecclesiastes 8:10). Do not read the word as 鈥渂uried [kevurim].鈥 Rather, read it as collected [kevutzim]. And do not read the word as 鈥渁nd were forgotten [veyishtake岣].鈥 Rather, read it as: And they were praised [veyishtabe岣]. According to this interpretation, the verse speaks of those who will gather and collect items 鈥渇rom the holy place,鈥 the Temple, and be praised in their city about what they had done.

讗讬讻讗 讚讗诪专讬 拽讘讜专讬诐 诪诪砖 讚讗驻讬诇讜 诪讬诇讬 讚诪讟诪专谉 讗讬讙诇讬讬讗 诇讛讜谉

There are those who say that the verse is to be read as written, as it is referring to items that were actually buried. This is because even items that had been buried were revealed to them, i.e., Titus and his soldiers, as they found all of the sacred vessels.

注诪讚 注诇讬讜 谞讞砖讜诇 砖讘讬诐 诇讟讜讘注讜 讗诪专 讻诪讚讜诪讛 讗谞讬 砖讗诇讛讬讛诐 砖诇 讗诇讜 讗讬谉 讙讘讜专转讜 讗诇讗 讘诪讬诐 讘讗 驻专注讛 讟讘注讜 讘诪讬诐 讘讗 住讬住专讗 讟讘注讜 讘诪讬诐 讗祝 讛讜讗 注讜诪讚 注诇讬 诇讟讜讘注谞讬 讘诪讬诐 讗诐 讙讘讜专 讛讜讗 讬注诇讛 诇讬讘砖讛 讜讬注砖讛 注诪讬 诪诇讞诪讛 讬爪转讛 讘转 拽讜诇 讜讗诪专讛 诇讜 专砖注 讘谉 专砖注 讘谉 讘谞讜 砖诇 注砖讜 讛专砖注 讘专讬讛 拽诇讛 讬砖 诇讬 讘注讜诇诪讬 讜讬转讜砖 砖诪讛

It is further related about Titus that he was once traveling at sea and a wave rose up against him and threatened to drown him. Titus said: It seems to me that their God, the God of Israel, has power only in water. Pharaoh rose against them and He drowned him in water. Sisera rose against them and He drowned him in water. Here too, He has risen up against me to drown me in water. If He is really mighty, let Him go up on dry land and there wage war against me. A Divine Voice issued forth and said to him: Wicked one, son of a wicked one, grandson of Esau the wicked, for you are among his descendants and act just like him, I have a lowly creature in My world and it is called a gnat.

讗诪讗讬 拽专讬 诇讛 讘专讬讛 拽诇讛 讚诪注诇谞讗 讗讬转 诇讛 讜诪驻拽谞讗 诇讬转 诇讛

The Gemara interjects: Why is it called a lowly creature? It is called this because it has an entrance for taking in food, but it does not have an exit for excretion.

注诇讛 诇讬讘砖讛 讜转注砖讛 注诪讛 诪诇讞诪讛 注诇讛 诇讬讘砖讛 讘讗 讬转讜砖 讜谞讻谞住 讘讞讜讟诪讜 讜谞拽专 讘诪讜讞讜 砖讘注 砖谞讬诐 讬讜诪讗 讞讚 讛讜讛 拽讗 讞诇讬祝 讗讘讘讗 讚讘讬 谞驻讞讗 砖诪注 拽诇 讗专讝驻转讗 讗讬砖转讬拽 讗诪专 讗讬讻讗 转拽谞转讗 讻诇 讬讜诪讗 诪讬讬转讜 谞驻讞讗 讜诪讞讜 拽诪讬讛 诇讙讜讬 讬讛讬讘 诇讬讛 讗专讘注 讝讜讝讬 讬砖专讗诇 讗诪专 诇讬讛 诪讬住转讬讬讱 讚拽讗 讞讝讬转 讘住谞讗讱 注讚 转诇转讬谉 讬讜诪讬谉 注讘讚 讛讻讬 诪讻讗谉 讜讗讬诇讱 讻讬讜谉 讚讚砖 讚砖

The Gemara resumes its story about Titus. The Divine Voice continued: Go up on dry land and make war with it. He went up on dry land, and a gnat came, entered his nostril, and picked at his brain for seven years. Titus suffered greatly from this until one day he passed by the gate of a blacksmith鈥檚 shop. The gnat heard the sound of a hammer and was silent and still. Titus said: I see that there is a remedy for my pain. Every day they would bring a blacksmith who hammered before him. He would give four dinars as payment to a gentile blacksmith, and to a Jew he would simply say: It is enough for you that you see your enemy in so much pain. He did this for thirty days and it was effective until then. From that point forward, since the gnat became accustomed to the hammering, it became accustomed to it, and once again it began to pick away at Titus鈥檚 brain.

转谞讬讗 讗诪专 专讘讬 驻谞讞住 讘谉 注专讜讘讗 讗谞讬 讛讬讬转讬 讘讬谉 讙讚讜诇讬 专讜诪讬 讜讻砖诪转 驻爪注讜 讗转 诪讜讞讜 讜诪爪讗讜 讘讜 讻爪驻讜专 讚专讜专 诪砖拽诇 砖谞讬 住诇注讬诐 讘诪转谞讬转讗 转谞讗 讻讙讜讝诇 讘谉 砖谞讛 诪砖拽诇 砖谞讬 诇讬讟专讬谉

It is taught in a baraita that Rabbi Pine岣s ben Arova said: I was at that time among the noblemen of Rome, and when Titus died they split open his head and found that the gnat had grown to the size of a sparrow weighing two sela. It was taught in another baraita: It was like a one-year-old pigeon weighing two litra.

讗诪专 讗讘讬讬 谞拽讟讬谞谉 驻讬讜 砖诇 谞讞讜砖转 讜爪驻讜专谞讬讜 砖诇 讘专讝诇 讻讬 讛讜讛 拽讗 诪讬讬转 讗诪专 诇讛讜 诇讬拽诇讬讜讛 诇讛讛讜讗 讙讘专讗 讜诇讘讚专讬 诇拽讬讟诪讬讛 讗砖讘 讬诪讬 讚诇讗 诇砖讻讞讬讛 讗诇讛讗 讚讬讛讜讚讗讬 讜诇讜拽诪讬讛 讘讚讬谞讗

Abaye said: We have a tradition that its mouth was made of copper and its claws were fashioned of iron. When Titus was dying, he said to his attendants: Burn that man, i.e., me, and scatter his ashes across the seven seas, so that the God of the Jews should not find me and stand me for judgment.

讗讜谞拽诇讜住 讘专 拽诇讜谞讬拽讜住 讘专 讗讞转讬讛 讚讟讬讟讜住 讛讜讛 讘注讬 诇讗讬讙讬讜专讬 讗讝诇 讗住拽讬讛 诇讟讬讟讜住 讘谞讙讬讚讗 讗诪专 诇讬讛 诪讗谉 讞砖讬讘 讘讛讛讜讗 注诇诪讗 讗诪专 诇讬讛 讬砖专讗诇 诪讛讜 诇讗讬讚讘讜拽讬 讘讛讜 讗诪专 诇讬讛 诪讬诇讬讬讛讜 谞驻讬砖讬谉 讜诇讗 诪爪讬转 诇拽讬讜诪讬谞讛讜 讝讬诇 讗讬讙专讬 讘讛讜 讘讛讛讜讗 注诇诪讗 讜讛讜讬转 专讬砖讗 讚讻转讬讘 讛讬讜 爪专讬讛 诇专讗砖 讜讙讜壮 讻诇 讛诪讬爪专 诇讬砖专讗诇 谞注砖讛 专讗砖 讗诪专 诇讬讛 讚讬谞讬讛 讚讛讛讜讗 讙讘专讗 讘诪讗讬 讗诪专 诇讬讛

搂 The Gemara relates: Onkelos bar Kalonikos, the son of Titus鈥檚 sister, wanted to convert to Judaism. He went and raised Titus from the grave through necromancy, and said to him: Who is most important in that world where you are now? Titus said to him: The Jewish people. Onkelos asked him: Should I then attach myself to them here in this world? Titus said to him: Their commandments are numerous, and you will not be able to fulfill them. It is best that you do as follows: Go out and battle against them in that world, and you will become the chief, as it is written: 鈥淗er adversaries [tzareha] have become the chief鈥 (Lamentations 1:5), which means: Anyone who distresses [meitzer] Israel will become the chief. Onkelos said to him: What is the punishment of that man, a euphemism for Titus himself, in the next world? Titus said to him:

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