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Today's Daf Yomi

April 13, 2018 | 讻状讞 讘谞讬住谉 转砖注状讞

  • This month's learning is sponsored by Joanna Rom and Steven Goldberg in loving memory of Steve's mother Shirley "Nana" Goldberg (Sura Tema bat Chaim v'Hanka)

Horayot 13

Study Guide Horayot 13

Horayot ends with a series of lists of precedence – what sacrifices take precedence over others? Which people take聽precedence over others? What is the best type of leader to head the Beit Midrash? Interestingly enough, the last question of the masachet is answered with a teiku聽– no answer is given!

驻专 讻讛谉 诪砖讜讞 讜驻专 注讚讛 讻讜壮 诪谞讗 讛谞讬 诪讬诇讬 讚转谞讜 专讘谞谉 讜砖专祝 讗讜转讜 讻讗砖专 砖专祝 讗转 讛驻专 讛专讗砖讜谉 诪讛 转诇诪讜讚 诇讜诪专 讛专讗砖讜谉 砖讬讛讗 专讗砖讜谉 拽讜讚诐 诇驻专 讛注讚讛 讘讻诇 诪注砖讬讜

搂 The mishna teaches: If the bull of the anointed priest and the bull of the congregation, which are brought for absence of awareness of the matter, are pending, the bull of the anointed priest precedes the bull of the congregation in all its actions. The Gemara asks: From where are these matters derived? It is as the Sages taught: 鈥淎nd he shall burn it as he burned the first bull鈥 (Leviticus 4:21). Why must the verse state 鈥渢he first鈥? The verse could simply state that he shall burn it as he burned the bull. It is in order to establish that the first offering precedes the bull of the congregation in all its actions.

转谞讜 专讘谞谉 驻专 讻讛谉 诪砖讬讞 讜驻专 讛注讚讛 注讜诪讚讬诐 驻专 讻讛谉 诪砖讬讞 拽讜讚诐 诇驻专 讛注讚讛 讘讻诇 诪注砖讬讜 讛讜讗讬诇 讜诪砖讬讞 诪讻驻专 讜注讚讛 诪转讻驻专转 讚讬谉 讛讜讗 砖讬拽讚讬诐 讛诪讻驻专 诇诪转讻驻专 讜讻谉 讛讜讗 讗讜诪专 讜讻驻专 讘注讚讜 讜讘注讚 讘讬转讜 讜讘注讚 讻诇 拽讛诇 讬砖专讗诇

The Sages taught in a baraita: If the bull of the anointed priest and the bull of the congregation are pending, the bull of the anointed priest precedes the bull of the congregation in all its actions. Since the anointed priest atones for the entire Jewish people, and the congregation gains atonement, it is logical that the one who atones will precede the one who gains atonement. And so the verse states: 鈥淎nd he shall atone for himself, and for his household, and for all the congregation of Israel鈥 (Leviticus 16:17).

驻专 讛注诇诐 讚讘专 砖诇 爪讘讜专 拽讜讚诐 诇驻专 砖诇 注讘讜讚讛 讝专讛 诪讗讬 讟注诪讗 讛讗讬 讞讟讗转 讜讛讗讬 注讜诇讛 讜转谞讬讗 讜讛拽专讬讘 讗转 讗砖专 诇讞讟讗转 专讗砖讜谞讛 诪讛 转诇诪讜讚 诇讜诪专 讗诐 诇诇诪讚 砖转讛讗 讞讟讗转 专讗砖讜谞讛 讛专讬 讻讘专 谞讗诪专 讜讗转 讛砖谞讬 讬注砖讛 注讜诇讛 讻诪砖驻讟 讗诇讗 讝讛 讘谞讛 讗讘 砖讬讛讜 讻诇 讞讟讗讜转 拽讜讚诪讜转 诇注讜诇讜转 讛讘讗讬诐 注诪讛诐 讜拽讬讬诪讗 诇谉 讚讗驻讬诇讜 讞讟讗转 讛注讜祝 拽讜讚诪转 诇注讜诇转 讘讛诪讛

The baraita continues: A bull for an unwitting communal sin precedes a bull for idol worship. What is the reason for this halakha? This, i.e., the bull for an unwitting communal sin, is a sin-offering, and that, i.e., the bull for idol worship, is a burnt-offering, and it is taught in a baraita: 鈥淎nd he shall sacrifice that which is for the sin-offering first鈥 (Leviticus 5:8); why must the verse state this? If it is to teach that the sinoffering will be first, it is already stated: 鈥淎nd the second he shall prepare as a burnt-offering according to the ordinance鈥 (Leviticus 5:10). Rather, this established a paradigm from which all similar cases may be derived, teaching that all sin-offerings precede the burnt-offerings that accompany them, and we maintain that even bird sin-offerings precede animal burnt-offerings.

驻专 注讘讜讚讛 讝专讛 拽讜讚诐 诇砖注讬专 注讘讜讚讛 讝专讛 讗诪讗讬 讛讗讬 讞讟讗转 讜讛讗讬 注讜诇讛 讗诪专讬 讘诪注专讘讗 诪砖诪讬讛 讚专讘讗 讘专 诪专讬 讞讟讗转 注讘讜讚讛 讝专讛 讞住讬专讗 讗诇祝 诇讞讟转 讻转讬讘 专讘讗 讗诪专 讻诪砖驻讟 讻转讬讘 讘讬讛

A bull for idol worship brought by the entire congregation precedes a goat for idol worship brought by the entire congregation. The Gemara asks: Why is this so; this, i.e., the goat is a sin-offering, and that, i.e., the bull is a burnt-offering? In the West, Eretz Yisrael, they say in the name of Rava bar Mari: In the verse: 鈥淚f it is performed unwittingly by the congregation, being hidden from their eyes, the entire congregation shall bring one young bull for a burnt-offering, for a pleasing aroma to the Lord, with its meal-offering, and its libation, according to the ordinance, and one goat as a sin-offering [le岣ttat]鈥 (Numbers 15:24), the sin-offering for idol worship is lacking an alef, i.e., le岣ttat鈥 is written without an alef. This indicates that not all the halakhot of sin-offerings apply to it. Rava said: 鈥淎ccording to the ordinance鈥 is written concerning it, indicating that the service must be performed in accordance with the order stated in the verse, i.e., the bull is sacrificed before the goat.

砖注讬专 注讘讜讚讛 讝专讛 拽讜讚诐 诇砖注讬专 谞砖讬讗 诪讗讬 讟注诪讗 讛讗讬 爪讘讜专 讜讛讗讬 讬讞讬讚 砖注讬专 谞砖讬讗 拽讜讚诐 诇砖注讬专转 讬讞讬讚 诪讗讬 讟注诪讗 讛讗讬 诪诇讱 讜讛讗讬 讛讚讬讜讟

The goat for idol worship of the congregation precedes the goat of the king. What is the reason for this? The reason is that this goat is brought by the general public and that goat is brought by an individual, and the communal precedes the individual even if that individual is the king. The male goat of the king precedes the female goat of the individual. What is the reason for this? This male goat is brought by a king, and that female goat is brought by a commoner.

砖注讬专转 讬讞讬讚 拽讜讚诪转 诇讻讘砖转 讬讞讬讚 讜讛讗 转谞讬讗 讻讘砖转 讬讞讬讚 拽讜讚诪转 诇砖注讬专转 讬讞讬讚 讗诪专 讗讘讬讬 转谞讗讬 讛讬讗 诪专 住讘专 砖注讬专讛 注讚讬驻讗 砖讻谉 谞转专讘转讛 讗爪诇 注讘讜讚讛 讝专讛 讘讬讞讬讚 讜诪专 住讘专 讻讘砖讛 注讚讬驻讗 砖讻谉 谞转专讘转讛 讘讗诇讬讛

The female goat of an individual brought as a standard sin-offering precedes the ewe of an individual brought as a standard sin-offering. The Gemara asks: But isn鈥檛 it taught in a baraita: The ewe of an individual precedes the female goat of an individual? Abaye said: It is a dispute between tanna鈥檌m. One Sage holds that a female goat is preferable and takes precedence, as it has an increased applicability in that it is brought for idol worship by an individual, in which case one must bring a female goat, not a female sheep. And one Sage holds that the ewe is preferable and takes precedence, as it has more sacrificial portions than a female goat, as its tail is also included, which indicates that it is a preferable offering.

注讜诪专 拽讜讚诐 诇讻讘砖 讛讘讗 注诪讜 砖转讬 讛诇讞诐 拽讜讚诪讬诐 诇讻讘砖讬诐 讛讘讗讬诐 注诪讛诐 讝讛 讛讻诇诇 讚讘专 讛讘讗 讘讙讬谉 诇讬讜诐 拽讜讚诐 诇讚讘专 讛讘讗 讘讙讬谉 诇讞诐

The omer offering precedes the lamb that accompanies it; the two loaves, i.e., the public offering on Shavuot of two loaves of bread from the new wheat, precede the sheep that accompany them. This is the principle: A matter that comes due to a mitzva of the day precedes a matter that comes due to the bread. The omer and two loaves are meal-offerings brought due to the day. The accompanying sheep are brought due to the meal-offerings.

诪转谞讬壮 讛讗讬砖 拽讜讚诐 诇讗砖讛 诇讛讞讬讜转 讜诇讛砖讘 讗讘讚讛 讜讛讗砖讛 拽讜讚诪转 诇讗讬砖 诇讻住讜转 讜诇讛讜爪讬讗 诪讘讬转 讛砖讘讬 讘讝诪谉 砖砖谞讬讛诐 注讜诪讚讬诐 讘拽诇拽诇讛 讛讗讬砖 拽讜讚诐 诇讗砖讛

MISHNA: The man precedes the woman when there is uncertainty with regard to which of them to rescue or to return a lost item to first. And the woman precedes the man with regard to which of them to provide with a garment first, because her humiliation is great, or to release from captivity first, due to the concern that she will be raped. When they are both subject to degradation, i.e., there is also concern that the man will be raped in captivity, the release of the man precedes the release of the woman.

讙诪壮 转谞讜 专讘谞谉 讛讬讛 讛讜讗 讜讗讘讬讜 讜专讘讜 讘砖讘讬 讛讜讗 拽讜讚诐 诇专讘讜 讜专讘讜 拽讜讚诐 诇讗讘讬讜 讗诪讜 拽讜讚诪转 诇讻讜诇诐

GEMARA: Apropos precedence, the Sages taught in a baraita: If one and his father and his teacher were in captivity, his release precedes his teacher鈥檚 because one鈥檚 own life takes precedence, and his teacher鈥檚 release precedes his father鈥檚 release. His mother鈥檚 release precedes the release of all of them.

讞讻诐 拽讜讚诐 诇诪诇讱 讬砖专讗诇 讞讻诐 砖诪转 讗讬谉 诇谞讜 讻讬讜爪讗 讘讜 诪诇讱 讬砖专讗诇 砖诪转 讻诇 讬砖专讗诇 专讗讜讬诐 诇诪诇讻讜转

A Torah scholar precedes the king of Israel, because in the case of a Sage who dies, we have no one like him, but in the case of a king of Israel who dies, all of Israel are fit for royalty.

诪诇讱 拽讜讚诐 诇讻讛谉 讙讚讜诇 砖谞讗诪专 讜讬讗诪专 讛诪诇讱 (讗诇讬讛诐) [诇讛诐] 拽讞讜 注诪讻诐 (讗讜 诪注讘讚讬) [讗转 注讘讚讬] 讗讚谞讬讻诐 讜讙讜壮

A king precedes a High Priest, as it is stated: 鈥淎nd the king said unto them: Take with you the servants of your lord鈥 (I聽Kings 1:33). King David was referring to himself as lord when speaking to Zadok the priest.

讻讛谉 讙讚讜诇 拽讜讚诐 诇谞讘讬讗 砖谞讗诪专 讜诪砖讞 讗转讜 砖诐 爪讚讜拽 讛讻讛谉 讜谞转谉 讛谞讘讬讗 讛拽讚讬诐 爪讚讜拽 诇谞转谉 讜讗讜诪专 砖诪注 谞讗 讬讛讜砖注 讛讻讛谉 讛讙讚讜诇 讗转讛 讜专注讬讱 讜讙讜壮 讬讻讜诇 讛讚讬讜讟讜转 讛讬讜 转诇诪讜讚 诇讜诪专 讻讬 讗谞砖讬 诪讜驻转 讛诪讛 讜讗讬谉 诪讜驻转 讗诇讗 谞讘讬讗 砖谞讗诪专 讜谞转谉 讗诇讬讱 讗讜转 讗讜 诪讜驻转

A High Priest precedes a prophet, as it is stated: 鈥淎nd let Zadok the priest and Nathan the prophet anoint him there鈥 (I聽Kings 1:34); Zadok is written before Natan. And similarly, the prophet says: 鈥淗ear now, Joshua the High Priest, you and your colleagues who sit before you, for they are men that are a sign; for behold, I will bring forth My servant Zemah鈥 (Zechariah 3:8). One might have thought that these colleagues were laymen. Therefore, the verse states: 鈥淔or they are men that are a sign,鈥 and 鈥渟ign鈥 means nothing other than a prophet, as it is stated: 鈥淎nd he gives you a sign or a wonder鈥 (Deuteronomy 13:2).

诪砖讜讞 讘砖诪谉 讛诪砖讞讛 拽讜讚诐 诇诪专讜讘讛 讘讙讚讬诐 诪专讜讘讛 讘讙讚讬诐 拽讜讚诐 诇诪砖讬讞 砖注讘专 诪讞诪转 拽专讬讜 诪砖讬讞 砖注讘专 诪讞诪转 拽专讬讜 拽讜讚诐 诇注讘专 诪讞诪转 诪讜诪讜 注讘专 诪讞诪转 诪讜诪讜 拽讜讚诐 诇诪砖讜讞 诪诇讞诪讛 诪砖讜讞 诪诇讞诪讛 拽讜讚诐 诇住讙谉

A High Priest anointed with anointing oil precedes a priest consecrated by donning multiple garments. A High Priest consecrated by donning multiple garments precedes an anointed High Priest who stepped down, even if he did so due to his seminal emission. An anointed High Priest who stepped down due to his seminal emission precedes an anointed High Priest who stepped down due to his blemish. An anointed High Priest who stepped down due to his blemish precedes a priest anointed for war. A priest anointed for war precedes a deputy High Priest, who replaces the High Priest when he is unable to serve in the Temple.

住讙谉 拽讜讚诐 诇讗诪专讻诇 诪讗讬 讗诪专讻诇 讗诪专 专讘 讞住讚讗 讗诪专 讻讜诇讗 讗诪专讻诇 拽讜讚诐 诇讙讝讘专 讙讝讘专 拽讜讚诐 诇专讗砖 诪砖诪专 专讗砖 诪砖诪专 拽讜讚诐 诇专讗砖 讘讬转 讗讘 专讗砖 讘讬转 讗讘 拽讜讚诐 诇讻讛谉 讛讚讬讜讟

The baraita concludes: A deputy High Priest precedes the overseer [la鈥檃markal], one of the seven appointed officials in the Temple. The Gemara asks: What is the meaning of amarkal? Rav 岣sda said: Amarkal is an acronym for amar kulla, meaning: He says it all. The overseer of the Temple has the final word in matters concerning the administration of the Temple. The overseer precedes the Temple treasurer. The treasurer precedes the head of the priestly watch that would serve in the Temple for a period of one week at a time. The head of the priestly watch precedes the head of the patrilineal family. Each patrilineal family performed the Temple service for one day during the week of its priestly watch. The head of the patrilineal family precedes an ordinary priest.

讗讬讘注讬讗 诇讛讜 诇注谞讬谉 讟讜诪讗讛 住讙谉 讜诪砖讜讞 诪诇讞诪讛 讗讬讝讛 诪讛诐 拽讜讚诐

A dilemma was raised before the Sages: With regard to the matter of ritual impurity, when there is a corpse with no one to bury it [met mitzva], which even a priest and a nazirite are commanded to bury, and the deputy High Priest and the priest anointed for war are available to bury it, which of them precedes the other and becomes impure?

讗诪专 诪专 讝讜讟专讗 讘专讬讛 讚专讘 谞讞诪谉 转讗 砖诪注 讚转谞讬讗 住讙谉 讜诪砖讜讞 诪诇讞诪讛 砖讛讬讜 诪讛诇讻讬诐 讘讚专讱 讜驻讙注 讘讛诐 诪转 诪爪讜讛 诪讜讟讘 砖讬讟诪讗 诪砖讜讞 诪诇讞诪讛 讜讗诇 讬讟诪讗 住讙谉 砖讗诐 讬讗专注 讘讜 驻住讜诇 讘讻讛谉 讙讚讜诇 谞讻谞住 讛住讙谉 讜诪砖诪砖 转讞转讬讜 讜讛转谞讬讗 诪砖讜讞 诪诇讞诪讛 拽讜讚诐 诇住讙谉 讗诪专 专讘讬谞讗 讻讬 转谞讬讗 讛讛讬讗 诇讛讞讬讜转讜

Mar Zutra, son of Rav Na岣an, said: Come and hear a resolution, as it is taught in a baraita: In the case of a deputy High Priest and a priest anointed for war who were walking along the path and they encountered a met mitzva and one of them must bury him and become ritually impure, it is preferable that the priest anointed for war will become ritually impure and the deputy High Priest will not become ritually impure. The reason is that if disqualification befalls the High Priest, the deputy enters and performs the Temple service in his stead. Therefore, one must ensure to every possible extent that the deputy High Priest remain ritually pure. The Gemara asks: But isn鈥檛 it taught in a baraita: A priest anointed for war precedes a deputy High Priest? Ravina said: When that baraita is taught, it is not with regard to ritual impurity; rather, it is taught with regard to rescuing him, as the standing of the priest anointed for war is higher than that of the deputy High Priest.

诪转谞讬壮 讻讛谉 拽讜讚诐 诇诇讜讬 诇讜讬 诇讬砖专讗诇 讬砖专讗诇 诇诪诪讝专 讜诪诪讝专 诇谞转讬谉 讜谞转讬谉 诇讙专 讜讙专 诇注讘讚 诪砖讜讞专专 讗讬诪转讬 讘讝诪谉 砖讻讜诇诐 砖讜讬诐 讗讘诇 讗诐 讛讬讛 诪诪讝专 转诇诪讬讚 讞讻诐 讜讻讛谉 讙讚讜诇 注诐 讛讗专抓 诪诪讝专 转诇诪讬讚 讞讻诐 拽讜讚诐 诇讻讛谉 讙讚讜诇 注诐 讛讗专抓

MISHNA: A priest precedes a Levite. A Levite precedes an Israelite. An Israelite precedes a son born from an incestuous or adulterous relationship [mamzer], and a mamzer precedes a Gibeonite, and a Gibeonite precedes a convert, and a convert precedes an emancipated slave. When do these halakhot of precedence take effect? In circumstances when they are all equal in terms of wisdom. But if there were a mamzer who is a Torah scholar and a High Priest who is an ignoramus, a mamzer who is a Torah scholar precedes a High Priest who is an ignoramus, as Torah wisdom surpasses all else.

讙诪壮 讻讛谉 拽讜讚诐 诇诇讜讬 砖谞讗诪专 (讜讘谞讬) [讘谞讬] 注诪专诐 讗讛专谉 讜诪砖讛 讜讬讘讚诇 讗讛专谉 (诇讛拽专讬讘) [诇讛拽讚讬砖讜] 拽讚砖 (讛拽讚砖讬诐) [拽讚砖讬诐] 诇讜讬 拽讜讚诐 诇讬砖专讗诇 砖谞讗诪专 讘注转 讛讛讬讗 讛讘讚讬诇 讛壮 讗转 砖讘讟 讛诇讜讬 (诪转讜讱) 讜讙讜壮

GEMARA: A priest precedes a Levite, as it is stated: 鈥淭he sons of Amram: Aaron and Moses, and Aaron was separated that he should be sanctified as the most sacred鈥 (I聽Chronicles 23:13). A Levite precedes an Israelite, as it is stated: 鈥淎t that time the Lord separated the tribe of Levi, to bear the Ark of the Covenant of the Lord, to stand before the Lord to minister unto Him, and to bless in His name, unto this day鈥 (Deuteronomy 10:8).

讬砖专讗诇 拽讜讚诐 诇诪诪讝专 砖讝讛 诪讬讜讞住 讜讝讛 讗讬谞讜 诪讬讜讞住 诪诪讝专 拽讜讚诐 诇谞转讬谉 讝讛 讘讗 诪讟驻讛 讻砖专讛 讜讝讛 讘讗 诪讟驻讛 驻住讜诇讛 谞转讬谉 拽讜讚诐 诇讙专 讝讛 讙讚诇 注诪谞讜 讘拽讚讜砖讛 讜讝讛 诇讗 讙讚诇 注诪谞讜 讘拽讚讜砖讛 讙专 拽讜讚诐 诇注讘讚 诪砖讜讞专专 讝讛 讛讬讛 讘讻诇诇 讗专讜专 讜讝讛 诇讗 讛讬讛 讘讻诇诇 讗专讜专

An Israelite precedes a mamzer because this Israelite is of legitimate lineage and that mamzer is not of legitimate lineage and is disqualified from entering into the congregation of Israel. A mamzer precedes a Gibeonite because this mamzer comes from a fit drop of semen, i.e., from Jewish parentage, and that Gibeonite comes from an unfit drop of semen, from gentile parentage. A Gibeonite precedes a convert, as this Gibeonite grew among us in sanctity and conducted his life as a Jew, and that convert did not grow among us in sanctity. A convert precedes an emancipated Canaanite slave as this emancipated Canaanite slave was included in the category of the curse while he was enslaved, and that convert was not included in the category of the curse.

讗讬诪转讬 讘讝诪谉 砖讻讜诇谉 砖讜讬谉 讻讜壮 诪谞讗 讛谞讬 诪讬诇讬 讗诪专 专讘 讗讞讗 讘专讘讬 讞谞讬谞讗 讚讗诪专 拽专讗 讬拽专讛 讛讬讗 诪驻谞讬谞讬诐 诪讻讛谉 讙讚讜诇 砖谞讻谞住 诇驻谞讬 讜诇驻谞讬诐

The mishna teaches: When do these halakhot of precedence take effect? In circumstances when they are all equal in terms of wisdom. The Gemara asks: From where are these matters derived? Rav A岣, son of Rabbi 岣nina, said: This is derived from a verse, as the verse states: 鈥淪he is more precious than rubies [mipeninim]鈥 (Proverbs 3:15). The Torah is more precious than the High Priest who enters the innermost sanctum [lifnai velifnim], the Holy of Holies.

转谞讬讗 专讘讬 砖诪注讜谉 讘专 讬讜讞讗讬 讗讜诪专 讘讚讬谉 讛讜讗 砖讬拽讚讬诐 注讘讚 诪砖讜讞专专 诇讙专 砖讝讛 讙讚诇 注诪谞讜 讘拽讚讜砖讛 讜讝讛 诇讗 讙讚诇 注诪谞讜 讘拽讚讜砖讛 讗诇讗 讝讛 讛讬讛 讘讻诇诇 讗专讜专 讜讝讛 诇讗 讛讬讛 讘讻诇诇 讗专讜专

It is taught in a baraita that Rabbi Shimon bar Yo岣i says: By right, an emancipated Canaanite slave should have preceded a convert, because this emancipated Canaanite slave grew among us in sanctity, and that convert did not grow among us in sanctity. But the convert precedes the Canaanite slave because this Canaanite slave was in the category of the curse, and that convert was not in the category of the curse.

砖讗诇讜 转诇诪讬讚讬讜 讗转 专讘讬 讗诇注讝专 讘专讘讬 爪讚讜拽 诪驻谞讬 诪讛 讛讻诇 专爪讬谉 诇讬砖讗 讙讬讜专转 讜讗讬谉 讛讻诇 专爪讬谉 诇讬砖讗 诪砖讜讞专专转 讗诪专 诇讛诐 讝讜 讛讬转讛 讘讻诇诇 讗专讜专 讜讝讜 诇讗 讛讬转讛 讘讻诇诇 讗专讜专 讚讘专 讗讞专 讝讜 讛讬转讛 讘讞讝拽转 砖诪讜专 讜讝讜 诇讗 讛讬转讛 讘讞讝拽转 砖诪讜专

The students of Rabbi Elazar, son of Rabbi Tzadok, asked him: For what reason does everyone, i.e., do many people, run to marry a female convert, and not everyone runs to marry an emancipated Canaanite maidservant? He said to them: This Canaanite maidservant was in the category of the curse, and that convert was not in the category of the curse. Alternatively, the reason is that this convert has the presumptive status of chastity, and that Canaanite maidservant does not have the presumptive status of chastity.

砖讗诇讜 转诇诪讬讚讬讜 讗转 专讘讬 讗诇注讝专 诪驻谞讬 诪讛 讛讻诇讘 诪讻讬专 讗转 拽讜谞讜 讜讞转讜诇 讗讬谞讜 诪讻讬专 讗转 拽讜谞讜 讗诪专 诇讛诐 讜诪讛 讛讗讜讻诇 诪诪讛 砖注讻讘专 讗讜讻诇 诪砖讻讞 讛讗讜讻诇 注讻讘专 注爪诪讜 注诇 讗讞转 讻诪讛 讜讻诪讛

The students of Rabbi Elazar asked him: For what reason does a dog recognize its master, while a cat does not recognize its master? Rabbi Elazar said to them: If it is established that with regard to one who eats from that which a mouse eats, eating that item causes him to forget, with regard to the cat, who eats the mouse itself, all the more so does eating it cause it to forget.

砖讗诇讜 转诇诪讬讚讬讜 讗转 专讘讬 讗诇讬注讝专 诪驻谞讬 诪讛 讛讻诇 诪讜砖诇讬诐 讘注讻讘专讬诐 诪驻谞讬 砖住讜专谉 专注 诪讗讬 讛讬讗 专讘讗 讗诪专 讗驻讬诇讜 讙诇讬诪讬 讙讬讬爪讬

The students of Rabbi Eliezer asked him: For what reason do all predators dominate mice and prey on them? He said to them: Because concerning mice, their inclination [shesuran] is evil. The Gemara asks: What is the indication of this? Rava said: They gnaw even at cloaks, despite the fact that cloaks do not provide nourishment for them.

专讘 驻驻讗 讗诪专 讗驻讬诇讜 砖讜驻转讗 诪专讗 讙讬讬爪讬

Rav Pappa said: They gnaw even on the handle of a hoe.

转谞讜 专讘谞谉 讞诪砖讛 讚讘专讬诐 诪砖讻讞讬诐 讗转 讛转诇诪讜讚 讛讗讜讻诇 诪诪讛 砖讗讜讻诇 注讻讘专 讜诪诪讛 砖讗讜讻诇 讞转讜诇 讜讛讗讜讻诇 诇讘 砖诇 讘讛诪讛 讜讛专讙讬诇 讘讝讬转讬诐 讜讛砖讜转讛 诪讬诐 砖诇 砖讬讜专讬 专讞讬爪讛 讜讛专讜讞抓 专讙诇讬讜 讝讜 注诇 讙讘讬 讝讜 讜讬砖 讗讜诪专讬诐 讗祝 讛诪谞讬讞 讻诇讬讜 转讞转 诪专讗砖讜转讬讜 讞诪砖讛 讚讘专讬诐 诪砖讬讘讬诐 讗转 讛转诇诪讜讚 驻转 驻讞诪讬谉 讜讻诇 砖讻谉 驻讞诪讬谉 注爪诪谉 讜讛讗讜讻诇 讘讬爪讛 诪讙讜诇讙诇转 讘诇讗 诪诇讞 讜讛专讙讬诇 讘砖诪谉 讝讬转 讜讛专讙讬诇 讘讬讬谉 讜讘砖诪讬诐 讜讛砖讜转讛 诪讬诐 砖诇 砖讬讜专讬 注讬住讛 讜讬砖 讗讜诪专讬诐 讗祝 讛讟讜讘诇 讗爪讘注讜 讘诪诇讞 讜讗讜讻诇

The Sages taught in a baraita: There are five factors that cause one to forget his Torah study: One who eats from that which a mouse eats and from that which a cat eats, and one who eats the heart of an animal, and one who is accustomed to eating olives, and one who drinks water that remains from washing, and one who washes his feet with this foot atop that foot. And some say: Also one who places his garments under his head. Correspondingly, there are five factors that restore forgotten Torah study: Eating bread baked on coals and all the more so one who warms himself with the heat of the coals themselves, and one who eats a hard-boiled egg [beitza megulgelet] without salt, and one who is accustomed to eating olive oil, and one who is accustomed to drinking wine and smelling spices, and one who drinks water that remains from kneading dough. And some say: Also one who dips his finger in salt and eats it.

讛专讙讬诇 讘砖诪谉 讝讬转 诪住讬讬注 诇讬讛 诇专讘讬 讬讜讞谞谉 讚讗诪专 专讘讬 讬讜讞谞谉 讻砖诐 砖讛讝讬转 诪砖讻讞 转诇诪讜讚 砖诇 砖讘注讬诐 砖谞讛 讻讱 砖诪谉 讝讬转 诪砖讬讘 转诇诪讜讚 砖诇 砖讘注讬诐 砖谞讛

The Gemara elaborates on the baraita: One who is accustomed to eating olive oil restores forgotten Torah study. The Gemara notes: This supports the opinion of Rabbi Yo岣nan, as Rabbi Yo岣nan said: Just as eating an olive causes one to forget seventy years鈥 worth of Torah study, olive oil restores seventy years鈥 worth of Torah study.

讜讛专讙讬诇 讘讬讬谉 讜讘砖诪讬诐 诪住讬讬注 诇讬讛 诇专讘讗 讚讗诪专 专讘讗 讞诪专讗 讜专讬讞谞讬 驻拽讞讬谉

The baraita continues: And one who is accustomed to drinking wine and smelling spices restores forgotten Torah study. The Gemara notes: This supports the opinion of Rava, as Rava said: Wine and spices rendered me wise.

讜讛讟讜讘诇 讗爪讘注讜 讘诪诇讞 讗诪专 专讬砖 诇拽讬砖 讜讘讗讞转 讻转谞讗讬 专讘讬 讬讛讜讚讛 讗讜诪专 讗讞转 讜诇讗 砖转讬诐 专讘讬 讬讜住讬 讗讜诪专 砖转讬诐 讜诇讗 砖诇砖 讜住讬诪谞讬讱 拽诪讬爪讛

The baraita continues: One who dips his finger in salt and eats it restores forgotten Torah study. Reish Lakish says: And that is the case with regard to one finger. The Gemara notes: This is parallel to a dispute between tanna鈥檌m. Rabbi Yehuda says: One finger but not two. Rabbi Yosei says: Two fingers but not three. And your mnemonic for the fact that the dispute is between one and two fingers is kemitza, i.e., the ring finger. When one presses his ring finger to his palm, there remain two straight fingers on one side and one on the other.

注砖专讛 讚讘专讬诐 拽砖讬诐 诇转诇诪讜讚 讛注讜讘专 转讞转 讛讗驻住专 [讛讙诪诇] 讜讻诇 砖讻谉 转讞转 讙诪诇 [注爪诪讜] 讜讛注讜讘专 讘讬谉 砖谞讬 讙诪诇讬诐 讜讛注讜讘专 讘讬谉 砖转讬 谞砖讬诐 讜讛讗砖讛 讛注讜讘专转 讘讬谉 砖谞讬 讗谞砖讬诐 讜讛注讜讘专 诪转讞转 专讬讞 专注 砖诇 谞讘讬诇讛 讜讛注讜讘专 转讞转 讛讙砖专 砖诇讗 注讘专讜 转讞转讬讜 诪讬诐 讗专讘注讬诐 讬讜诐 讜讛讗讜讻诇 驻转 砖诇讗 讘砖诇 讻诇 爪专讻讜 讜讛讗讜讻诇 讘砖专 诪讝讜讛诪讗 诇讬住讟专讜谉 讜讛砖讜转讛 诪讗诪转 讛诪讬诐 讛注讜讘专转 讘讘讬转 讛拽讘专讜转 讜讛诪住转讻诇 讘驻谞讬 讛诪转 讜讬砖 讗讜诪专讬诐 讗祝 讛拽讜专讗 讻转讘 砖注诇 讙讘讬 讛拽讘专

Ten factors are detrimental for Torah study: One who passes beneath the bit of the camel, and all the more so one who passes beneath a camel itself; and one who passes between two camels; and one who passes between two women; and a woman who passes between two men; and one who passes beneath a place where there is the foul odor of an animal carcass; and one who passes under a bridge beneath which water has not passed for forty days; and one who eats bread that was not sufficiently baked; and one who eats meat from zuhama listeron, a utensil consisting of a spoon and a fork, used to remove the film on the surface of soup; and one who drinks from an aqueduct that passes through a cemetery; and one who gazes at the face of the dead. And some say: Also one who reads the writing that is on the stone of a grave.

转谞讜 专讘谞谉 讻砖讛谞砖讬讗 谞讻谞住 讻诇 讛注诐 注讜诪讚讬诐 讜讗讬谉 讬讜砖讘讬诐 注讚 砖讗讜诪专 诇讛诐 砖讘讜 讻砖讗讘 讘讬转 讚讬谉 谞讻谞住 注讜砖讬诐 诇讜 砖讜专讛 讗讞转 诪讻讗谉 讜砖讜专讛 讗讞转 诪讻讗谉 注讚 砖讬砖讘 讘诪拽讜诪讜 讻砖讞讻诐 谞讻谞住 讗讞讚 注讜诪讚 讜讗讞讚 讬讜砖讘 注讚 砖讬砖讘 讘诪拽讜诪讜 讘谞讬 讞讻诪讬诐 讜转诇诪讬讚讬 讞讻诪讬诐 讘讝诪谉 砖专讘讬诐 爪专讬讻讬诐 诇讛诐 诪驻住讬注讬谉 注诇 专讗砖讬 讛注诐 讬爪讗 诇爪讜专讱 讬讻谞住 讜讬砖讘 讘诪拽讜诪讜

The Sages taught in a baraita: When the Nasi of the Sanhedrin enters, all the people stand and they do not sit until he says to them: Sit. When the deputy Nasi of the Sanhedrin enters, the people form for him one row from here, on this side of the path that he takes, and one row from there, on the other side of it, in a display of deference, until he sits in his place, and then they may be seated. When the 岣kham, who is ranked third among the members of the Sanhedrin, enters, one person stands when he is within four cubits of the 岣kham, and another sits, i.e., when one is no longer within four cubits of the 岣kham he may sit. And all those whom the 岣kham passes do this, until he sits in his place. When the multitudes require their services, i.e., they serve a public role, sons of the Sages and Torah scholars may step over the heads of the people seated on the ground in order to reach their places in the Sanhedrin. If one of the Sages left for the purpose of relieving himself, when he is finished he may enter and sit in his place in the Sanhedrin, and he need not be concerned that he is imposing upon those assembled.

讘谞讬 转诇诪讬讚讬 讞讻诪讬诐 砖诪诪讜谞讬诐 讗讘讬讛诐 驻专谞住 注诇 讛爪讘讜专 讘讝诪谉 砖讬砖 诇讛诐 讚注转 诇砖诪讜注 谞讻谞住讬诐 讜讬讜砖讘讬诐 诇驻谞讬 讗讘讬讛诐 讜讗讞讜专讬讛诐 讻诇驻讬 讛注诐 讘讝诪谉 砖讗讬谉 诇讛诐 讚注转 诇砖诪讜注 谞讻谞住讬诐 讜讬讜砖讘讬诐 诇驻谞讬 讗讘讬讛诐 讜驻谞讬讛诐 讻诇驻讬 讛注诐 专讘讬 讗诇注讝专 讘专 专讘讬 [爪讚讜拽] 讗讜诪专 讗祝 讘讘讬转 讛诪砖转讛 注讜砖讬诐 讗讜转诐 住谞讬驻讬谉

When they have the wisdom to hear and to study, the sons of Torah scholars, whose fathers are appointed as leaders of the congregation, enter and sit before their fathers, and their backs are directed toward the people. When they do not have the wisdom to hear and to study they enter and sit before their fathers, and their faces are directed toward the people, so everyone sees that they are seated there in deference to their fathers but not as students. Rabbi Elazar, son of Rabbi Tzadok, says: Even at a wedding party one renders them attachments [senifin] and seats them adjacent to their fathers.

[讗诪专 诪专] 讬爪讗 诇爪讜专讱 谞讻谞住 讜讬讜砖讘 讘诪拽讜诪讜 讗诪专 专讘 驻驻讗 诇讗 讗诪专讜 讗诇讗 诇拽讟谞讬诐 讗讘诇 诇讙讚讜诇讬诐 诇讗 讛讜讛 诇讬讛 诇诪讘讚拽 谞驻砖讬讛 诪注讬拽专讗 讚讗诪专 专讘 讬讛讜讚讛 讗诪专 专讘 诇注讜诇诐 讬诇诪讚 讗讚诐 注爪诪讜 诇讛砖讻讬诐 讜诇讛注专讬讘 讻讚讬 砖诇讗 讬转专讞拽 (讗诪专 专讘讗) 讛讗讬讚谞讗 讚讞诇砖讗 注诇诪讗 讗驻讬诇讜 诇讙讚讜诇讬诐 谞诪讬

The Master said: If one of the Sages left for the purpose of relieving himself, when he is finished he may enter and sit in his place. Rav Pappa said: The Sages said this only with regard to one who leaves for minor bodily functions, i.e., to urinate. But with regard to one who leaves for major bodily functions, i.e., to defecate, no, he may not return to his place, because he should have examined himself initially so that he would not need to leave. His failure to do so constitutes negligence and he may not impose upon others when he returns, as Rav Yehuda says that Rav says: A person should always accustom himself to relieving himself in the morning and in the evening so that he will not need to distance himself during the daylight hours to find an appropriate place. Rava said: Today, when the world is weak and people are not as healthy as they once were, one may even return after he leaves for major bodily functions.

专讘讬 讗诇注讝专 讘专 专讘讬 [爪讚讜拽] 讗讜诪专 讗祝 讘讘讬转 讛诪砖转讛 注讜砖讬诐 讗讜转诐 住谞讬驻讬诐 讗诪专 专讘讗 讘讞讬讬 讗讘讬讛诐 讘驻谞讬 讗讘讬讛诐

Rabbi Elazar, son of Rabbi Tzadok, says: Even at a wedding party one renders them attachments. Rava said: This applies during the lifetime of their fathers and in the presence of their fathers.

讗诪专 专讘讬 讬讜讞谞谉 讘讬诪讬 专讘谉 砖诪注讜谉 讘谉 讙诪诇讬讗诇 谞讬砖谞讬转 诪砖谞讛 讝讜 专讘谉 砖诪注讜谉 讘谉 讙诪诇讬讗诇 谞砖讬讗 专讘讬 诪讗讬专 讞讻诐 专讘讬 谞转谉 讗讘 讘讬转 讚讬谉 讻讬 讛讜讛 专讘谉 砖诪注讜谉 讘谉 讙诪诇讬讗诇 讛转诐 讛讜讜 拽讬讬诪讬 讻讜诇讬 注诇诪讗 诪拽诪讬讛 讻讬 讛讜讜 注讬讬诇讬 专讘讬 诪讗讬专 讜专讘讬 谞转谉 讛讜讜 拽讬讬诪讬 讻讜诇讬 注诇诪讗 诪拽诪讬讬讛讜 讗诪专 专讘谉 砖诪注讜谉 讘谉 讙诪诇讬讗诇 诇讗 讘注讜 诇诪讬讛讜讬 讛讬讻专讗 讘讬谉 讚讬诇讬 诇讚讬讚讛讜 转拽讬谉 讛讗 诪转谞讬转讗

Rabbi Yo岣nan says: This mishna, i.e., the preceding baraita, was taught during the days of Rabban Shimon ben Gamliel. Rabban Shimon ben Gamliel was the Nasi, Rabbi Meir was the 岣kham, and Rabbi Natan was the deputy Nasi. When Rabban Shimon ben Gamliel was there, everyone would arise before him. When Rabbi Meir and Rabbi Natan would enter, everyone would arise before them. Rabban Shimon ben Gamliel said: Shouldn鈥檛 there be a conspicuous distinction between me and them in terms of the manner in which deference is shown? Rabban Shimon ben Gamliel instituted the provisions delineated in this baraita that distinguish between the Nasi and his subordinates with regard to the deference shown them.

讛讛讜讗 讬讜诪讗 诇讗 讛讜讜 专讘讬 诪讗讬专 讜专讘讬 谞转谉 讛转诐 诇诪讞专 讻讬 讗转讜 讞讝讜 讚诇讗 拽诪讜 诪拽诪讬讬讛讜 讻讚专讙讬诇讗 诪讬诇转讗 讗诪专讬 诪讗讬 讛讗讬 讗诪专讜 诇讛讜 讛讻讬 转拽讬谉 专讘谉 砖诪注讜谉 讘谉 讙诪诇讬讗诇

That day, when Rabban Shimon ben Gamliel instituted these provisions, Rabbi Meir and Rabbi Natan were not there. The following day when they came to the study hall, they saw that the people did not stand before them as the matter was typically done. They said: What is this? The people said to them: This is what Rabban Shimon ben Gamliel instituted.

讗诪专 诇讬讛 专讘讬 诪讗讬专 诇专讘讬 谞转谉 讗谞讗 讞讻诐 讜讗转 讗讘 讘讬转 讚讬谉 谞转拽讬谉 诪讬诇转讗 讻讬 诇讚讬讚谉 诪讗讬 谞注讘讬讚 诇讬讛 谞讬诪讗 诇讬讛 讙诇讬 注讜拽爪讬诐 讚诇讬转 诇讬讛 讜讻讬讜谉 讚诇讗 讙诪专 谞讬诪讗 诇讬讛 诪讬 讬诪诇诇 讙讘讜专讜转 讛壮 讬砖诪讬注 讻诇 转讛诇转讜 诇诪讬 谞讗讛 诇诪诇诇 讙讘讜专讜转 讛壮 诪讬 砖讬讻讜诇 诇讛砖诪讬注 讻诇 转讛诇讜转讬讜 谞注讘专讬讛 讜讛讜讬 讗谞讗 讗讘 讘讬转 讚讬谉 讜讗转 谞砖讬讗

Rabbi Meir said to Rabbi Natan: I am the 岣kham and you are the deputy Nasi. Let us devise a matter and do to him as he did to us. What shall we do to him? Let us say to him: Reveal to us tractate Okatzim, which he does not know. And once it is clear to all that he did not learn, he will not have anything to say. Then we will say to him: 鈥淲ho can express the mighty acts of the Lord, shall make all His praises heard?鈥 (Psalms 106:2), indicating: For whom is it becoming to express the mighty acts of the Lord? It is becoming for one who is capable of making all His praises heard, and not for one who does not know one of the tractates. We will remove him from his position as Nasi, and I will be deputy Nasi and you will be Nasi.

砖诪注讬谞讛讜 专讘讬 讬注拽讘 讘谉 拽专砖讬 讗诪专 讚诇诪讗 讞住 讜砖诇讜诐 讗转讬讗 诪诇转讗 诇讬讚讬 讻讬住讜驻讗 讗讝诇 讬转讬讘 讗讞讜专讬 注讬诇讬转讬讛 讚专讘谉 砖诪注讜谉 讘谉 讙诪诇讬讗诇 驻砖讟 讙专住 讜转谞讗 讙专住 讜转谞讗

Rabbi Ya鈥檃kov ben Korshei heard them talking, and said: Perhaps, Heaven forfend, this matter will come to a situation of humiliation for Rabban Shimon ben Gamliel. He did not wish to speak criticism or gossip about Rabbi Meir and Rabbi Natan, so he went and sat behind the upper story where Rabban Shimon ben Gamliel lived. He explained tractate Okatzin; he studied it aloud and repeated it, and studied it aloud and repeated it.

讗诪专 诪讗讬 讚拽诪讗 讚诇诪讗 讞住 讜砖诇讜诐 讗讬讻讗 讘讬 诪讚专砖讗 诪讬讚讬 讬讛讘 讚注转讬讛 讜讙专住讛 诇诪讞专 讗诪专讜 诇讬讛 谞讬转讬 诪专 讜谞讬转谞讬 讘注讜拽爪讬谉 驻转讞 讜讗诪专 讘转专 讚讗讜拽讬诐 讗诪专 诇讛讜 讗讬 诇讗 讙诪讬专谞讗 讻住讬驻讬转谞谉

Rabban Shimon ben Gamliel said to himself: What is this that is transpiring before us? Perhaps, Heaven forfend, there is something transpiring in the study hall. He suspected that Rabbi Meir and Rabbi Natan were planning something. He concentrated and studied tractate Okatzin. The following day Rabbi Meir and Rabbi Natan said to him: Let the Master come and teach a lesson in tractate Okatzin. He began and stated the lesson he had prepared. After he completed teaching the tractate, he said to them: If I had not studied the tractate, you would have humiliated me.

驻拽讬讚 讜讗驻拽讬谞讛讜 诪讘讬 诪讚专砖讗 讛讜讜 讻转讘讬 拽讜砖讬讬转讗 [讘驻转拽讗] 讜砖讚讜 讛转诐 讚讛讜讛 诪讬驻专讬拽 诪讬驻专讬拽 讚诇讗 讛讜讜 诪讬驻专讬拽 讻转讘讬 驻讬专讜拽讬 讜砖讚讜 讗诪专 诇讛讜 专讘讬 讬讜住讬 转讜专讛 诪讘讞讜抓 讜讗谞讜 诪讘驻谞讬诐

Rabban Shimon ben Gamliel commanded those present and they expelled Rabbi Meir and Rabbi Natan from the study hall as punishment. Rabbi Meir and Rabbi Natan would write difficulties on a scrap of paper [pitka] and would throw them there into the study hall. Those difficulties that were resolved were resolved; as for those that were not resolved, Rabbi Meir and Rabbi Natan wrote resolutions on a scrap of paper and threw them into the study hall. Rabbi Yosei said to the Sages: How is it that the Torah, embodied in the preeminent Torah scholars, is outside and we are inside?

讗诪专 诇讛谉 专讘谉 [砖诪注讜谉 讘谉] 讙诪诇讬讗诇 谞讬注讬讬诇讬谞讛讜 诪讬讛讜 谞讬拽谞住讬谞讛讜 讚诇讗 谞讬诪专讜 砖诪注转讗 诪砖诪讬讬讛讜 讗住讬拽讜 诇专讘讬 诪讗讬专 讗讞专讬诐 讜诇专讘讬 谞转谉 讬砖 讗讜诪专讬诐 讗讞讜讜 诇讛讜 讘讞诇诪讬讬讛讜 讝讬诇讜 驻讬讬住讜讛讜 [诇专讘谉 砖诪注讜谉 讘谉 讙诪诇讬讗诇] 专讘讬 谞转谉 讗讝诇 专讘讬 诪讗讬专 诇讗 讗讝诇 讗诪专 讚讘专讬 讞诇讜诪讜转 诇讗 诪注诇讬谉 讜诇讗 诪讜专讬讚讬谉 讻讬 讗讝诇 专讘讬 谞转谉 讗诪专 诇讬讛 专讘谉 砖诪注讜谉 讘谉 讙诪诇讬讗诇 谞讛讬 讚讗讛谞讬 诇讱 拽诪专讗 讚讗讘讜讱 诇诪讛讜讬 讗讘 讘讬转 讚讬谉 砖讜讬谞讬讱 谞诪讬 谞砖讬讗

Rabban Shimon ben Gamliel said to them: Let us admit them into the study hall. But we will penalize them in that we will not cite halakha in their names. They cited statements of Rabbi Meir in the name of A岣rim, meaning: Others, and they cited statements of Rabbi Natan in the name of yesh omerim, meaning: Some say. Rabbi Meir and Rabbi Natan were shown a message in their dreams: Go, appease Rabban Shimon ben Gamliel. Rabbi Natan went. Rabbi Meir did not go. He said in his heart: Matters of dreams are insignificant. When Rabbi Natan went, Rabban Shimon ben Gamliel said to him: Although the ornate belt, i.e., the importance, of your father was effective in enabling you to become deputy Nasi, as Rabbi Natan鈥檚 father was the Babylonian Exilarch, will it render you Nasi as well?

诪转谞讬 诇讬讛 专讘讬 诇专讘谉 砖诪注讜谉 讘专讬讛 讗讞专讬诐 讗讜诪专讬诐 讗讬诇讜 讛讬讛 转诪讜专讛

Years later, Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi taught Rabban Shimon his son that A岣rim say: If it was considered a substitute,

  • This month's learning is sponsored by Joanna Rom and Steven Goldberg in loving memory of Steve's mother Shirley "Nana" Goldberg (Sura Tema bat Chaim v'Hanka)

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Horayot 13

The William Davidson Talmud | Powered by Sefaria

Horayot 13

驻专 讻讛谉 诪砖讜讞 讜驻专 注讚讛 讻讜壮 诪谞讗 讛谞讬 诪讬诇讬 讚转谞讜 专讘谞谉 讜砖专祝 讗讜转讜 讻讗砖专 砖专祝 讗转 讛驻专 讛专讗砖讜谉 诪讛 转诇诪讜讚 诇讜诪专 讛专讗砖讜谉 砖讬讛讗 专讗砖讜谉 拽讜讚诐 诇驻专 讛注讚讛 讘讻诇 诪注砖讬讜

搂 The mishna teaches: If the bull of the anointed priest and the bull of the congregation, which are brought for absence of awareness of the matter, are pending, the bull of the anointed priest precedes the bull of the congregation in all its actions. The Gemara asks: From where are these matters derived? It is as the Sages taught: 鈥淎nd he shall burn it as he burned the first bull鈥 (Leviticus 4:21). Why must the verse state 鈥渢he first鈥? The verse could simply state that he shall burn it as he burned the bull. It is in order to establish that the first offering precedes the bull of the congregation in all its actions.

转谞讜 专讘谞谉 驻专 讻讛谉 诪砖讬讞 讜驻专 讛注讚讛 注讜诪讚讬诐 驻专 讻讛谉 诪砖讬讞 拽讜讚诐 诇驻专 讛注讚讛 讘讻诇 诪注砖讬讜 讛讜讗讬诇 讜诪砖讬讞 诪讻驻专 讜注讚讛 诪转讻驻专转 讚讬谉 讛讜讗 砖讬拽讚讬诐 讛诪讻驻专 诇诪转讻驻专 讜讻谉 讛讜讗 讗讜诪专 讜讻驻专 讘注讚讜 讜讘注讚 讘讬转讜 讜讘注讚 讻诇 拽讛诇 讬砖专讗诇

The Sages taught in a baraita: If the bull of the anointed priest and the bull of the congregation are pending, the bull of the anointed priest precedes the bull of the congregation in all its actions. Since the anointed priest atones for the entire Jewish people, and the congregation gains atonement, it is logical that the one who atones will precede the one who gains atonement. And so the verse states: 鈥淎nd he shall atone for himself, and for his household, and for all the congregation of Israel鈥 (Leviticus 16:17).

驻专 讛注诇诐 讚讘专 砖诇 爪讘讜专 拽讜讚诐 诇驻专 砖诇 注讘讜讚讛 讝专讛 诪讗讬 讟注诪讗 讛讗讬 讞讟讗转 讜讛讗讬 注讜诇讛 讜转谞讬讗 讜讛拽专讬讘 讗转 讗砖专 诇讞讟讗转 专讗砖讜谞讛 诪讛 转诇诪讜讚 诇讜诪专 讗诐 诇诇诪讚 砖转讛讗 讞讟讗转 专讗砖讜谞讛 讛专讬 讻讘专 谞讗诪专 讜讗转 讛砖谞讬 讬注砖讛 注讜诇讛 讻诪砖驻讟 讗诇讗 讝讛 讘谞讛 讗讘 砖讬讛讜 讻诇 讞讟讗讜转 拽讜讚诪讜转 诇注讜诇讜转 讛讘讗讬诐 注诪讛诐 讜拽讬讬诪讗 诇谉 讚讗驻讬诇讜 讞讟讗转 讛注讜祝 拽讜讚诪转 诇注讜诇转 讘讛诪讛

The baraita continues: A bull for an unwitting communal sin precedes a bull for idol worship. What is the reason for this halakha? This, i.e., the bull for an unwitting communal sin, is a sin-offering, and that, i.e., the bull for idol worship, is a burnt-offering, and it is taught in a baraita: 鈥淎nd he shall sacrifice that which is for the sin-offering first鈥 (Leviticus 5:8); why must the verse state this? If it is to teach that the sinoffering will be first, it is already stated: 鈥淎nd the second he shall prepare as a burnt-offering according to the ordinance鈥 (Leviticus 5:10). Rather, this established a paradigm from which all similar cases may be derived, teaching that all sin-offerings precede the burnt-offerings that accompany them, and we maintain that even bird sin-offerings precede animal burnt-offerings.

驻专 注讘讜讚讛 讝专讛 拽讜讚诐 诇砖注讬专 注讘讜讚讛 讝专讛 讗诪讗讬 讛讗讬 讞讟讗转 讜讛讗讬 注讜诇讛 讗诪专讬 讘诪注专讘讗 诪砖诪讬讛 讚专讘讗 讘专 诪专讬 讞讟讗转 注讘讜讚讛 讝专讛 讞住讬专讗 讗诇祝 诇讞讟转 讻转讬讘 专讘讗 讗诪专 讻诪砖驻讟 讻转讬讘 讘讬讛

A bull for idol worship brought by the entire congregation precedes a goat for idol worship brought by the entire congregation. The Gemara asks: Why is this so; this, i.e., the goat is a sin-offering, and that, i.e., the bull is a burnt-offering? In the West, Eretz Yisrael, they say in the name of Rava bar Mari: In the verse: 鈥淚f it is performed unwittingly by the congregation, being hidden from their eyes, the entire congregation shall bring one young bull for a burnt-offering, for a pleasing aroma to the Lord, with its meal-offering, and its libation, according to the ordinance, and one goat as a sin-offering [le岣ttat]鈥 (Numbers 15:24), the sin-offering for idol worship is lacking an alef, i.e., le岣ttat鈥 is written without an alef. This indicates that not all the halakhot of sin-offerings apply to it. Rava said: 鈥淎ccording to the ordinance鈥 is written concerning it, indicating that the service must be performed in accordance with the order stated in the verse, i.e., the bull is sacrificed before the goat.

砖注讬专 注讘讜讚讛 讝专讛 拽讜讚诐 诇砖注讬专 谞砖讬讗 诪讗讬 讟注诪讗 讛讗讬 爪讘讜专 讜讛讗讬 讬讞讬讚 砖注讬专 谞砖讬讗 拽讜讚诐 诇砖注讬专转 讬讞讬讚 诪讗讬 讟注诪讗 讛讗讬 诪诇讱 讜讛讗讬 讛讚讬讜讟

The goat for idol worship of the congregation precedes the goat of the king. What is the reason for this? The reason is that this goat is brought by the general public and that goat is brought by an individual, and the communal precedes the individual even if that individual is the king. The male goat of the king precedes the female goat of the individual. What is the reason for this? This male goat is brought by a king, and that female goat is brought by a commoner.

砖注讬专转 讬讞讬讚 拽讜讚诪转 诇讻讘砖转 讬讞讬讚 讜讛讗 转谞讬讗 讻讘砖转 讬讞讬讚 拽讜讚诪转 诇砖注讬专转 讬讞讬讚 讗诪专 讗讘讬讬 转谞讗讬 讛讬讗 诪专 住讘专 砖注讬专讛 注讚讬驻讗 砖讻谉 谞转专讘转讛 讗爪诇 注讘讜讚讛 讝专讛 讘讬讞讬讚 讜诪专 住讘专 讻讘砖讛 注讚讬驻讗 砖讻谉 谞转专讘转讛 讘讗诇讬讛

The female goat of an individual brought as a standard sin-offering precedes the ewe of an individual brought as a standard sin-offering. The Gemara asks: But isn鈥檛 it taught in a baraita: The ewe of an individual precedes the female goat of an individual? Abaye said: It is a dispute between tanna鈥檌m. One Sage holds that a female goat is preferable and takes precedence, as it has an increased applicability in that it is brought for idol worship by an individual, in which case one must bring a female goat, not a female sheep. And one Sage holds that the ewe is preferable and takes precedence, as it has more sacrificial portions than a female goat, as its tail is also included, which indicates that it is a preferable offering.

注讜诪专 拽讜讚诐 诇讻讘砖 讛讘讗 注诪讜 砖转讬 讛诇讞诐 拽讜讚诪讬诐 诇讻讘砖讬诐 讛讘讗讬诐 注诪讛诐 讝讛 讛讻诇诇 讚讘专 讛讘讗 讘讙讬谉 诇讬讜诐 拽讜讚诐 诇讚讘专 讛讘讗 讘讙讬谉 诇讞诐

The omer offering precedes the lamb that accompanies it; the two loaves, i.e., the public offering on Shavuot of two loaves of bread from the new wheat, precede the sheep that accompany them. This is the principle: A matter that comes due to a mitzva of the day precedes a matter that comes due to the bread. The omer and two loaves are meal-offerings brought due to the day. The accompanying sheep are brought due to the meal-offerings.

诪转谞讬壮 讛讗讬砖 拽讜讚诐 诇讗砖讛 诇讛讞讬讜转 讜诇讛砖讘 讗讘讚讛 讜讛讗砖讛 拽讜讚诪转 诇讗讬砖 诇讻住讜转 讜诇讛讜爪讬讗 诪讘讬转 讛砖讘讬 讘讝诪谉 砖砖谞讬讛诐 注讜诪讚讬诐 讘拽诇拽诇讛 讛讗讬砖 拽讜讚诐 诇讗砖讛

MISHNA: The man precedes the woman when there is uncertainty with regard to which of them to rescue or to return a lost item to first. And the woman precedes the man with regard to which of them to provide with a garment first, because her humiliation is great, or to release from captivity first, due to the concern that she will be raped. When they are both subject to degradation, i.e., there is also concern that the man will be raped in captivity, the release of the man precedes the release of the woman.

讙诪壮 转谞讜 专讘谞谉 讛讬讛 讛讜讗 讜讗讘讬讜 讜专讘讜 讘砖讘讬 讛讜讗 拽讜讚诐 诇专讘讜 讜专讘讜 拽讜讚诐 诇讗讘讬讜 讗诪讜 拽讜讚诪转 诇讻讜诇诐

GEMARA: Apropos precedence, the Sages taught in a baraita: If one and his father and his teacher were in captivity, his release precedes his teacher鈥檚 because one鈥檚 own life takes precedence, and his teacher鈥檚 release precedes his father鈥檚 release. His mother鈥檚 release precedes the release of all of them.

讞讻诐 拽讜讚诐 诇诪诇讱 讬砖专讗诇 讞讻诐 砖诪转 讗讬谉 诇谞讜 讻讬讜爪讗 讘讜 诪诇讱 讬砖专讗诇 砖诪转 讻诇 讬砖专讗诇 专讗讜讬诐 诇诪诇讻讜转

A Torah scholar precedes the king of Israel, because in the case of a Sage who dies, we have no one like him, but in the case of a king of Israel who dies, all of Israel are fit for royalty.

诪诇讱 拽讜讚诐 诇讻讛谉 讙讚讜诇 砖谞讗诪专 讜讬讗诪专 讛诪诇讱 (讗诇讬讛诐) [诇讛诐] 拽讞讜 注诪讻诐 (讗讜 诪注讘讚讬) [讗转 注讘讚讬] 讗讚谞讬讻诐 讜讙讜壮

A king precedes a High Priest, as it is stated: 鈥淎nd the king said unto them: Take with you the servants of your lord鈥 (I聽Kings 1:33). King David was referring to himself as lord when speaking to Zadok the priest.

讻讛谉 讙讚讜诇 拽讜讚诐 诇谞讘讬讗 砖谞讗诪专 讜诪砖讞 讗转讜 砖诐 爪讚讜拽 讛讻讛谉 讜谞转谉 讛谞讘讬讗 讛拽讚讬诐 爪讚讜拽 诇谞转谉 讜讗讜诪专 砖诪注 谞讗 讬讛讜砖注 讛讻讛谉 讛讙讚讜诇 讗转讛 讜专注讬讱 讜讙讜壮 讬讻讜诇 讛讚讬讜讟讜转 讛讬讜 转诇诪讜讚 诇讜诪专 讻讬 讗谞砖讬 诪讜驻转 讛诪讛 讜讗讬谉 诪讜驻转 讗诇讗 谞讘讬讗 砖谞讗诪专 讜谞转谉 讗诇讬讱 讗讜转 讗讜 诪讜驻转

A High Priest precedes a prophet, as it is stated: 鈥淎nd let Zadok the priest and Nathan the prophet anoint him there鈥 (I聽Kings 1:34); Zadok is written before Natan. And similarly, the prophet says: 鈥淗ear now, Joshua the High Priest, you and your colleagues who sit before you, for they are men that are a sign; for behold, I will bring forth My servant Zemah鈥 (Zechariah 3:8). One might have thought that these colleagues were laymen. Therefore, the verse states: 鈥淔or they are men that are a sign,鈥 and 鈥渟ign鈥 means nothing other than a prophet, as it is stated: 鈥淎nd he gives you a sign or a wonder鈥 (Deuteronomy 13:2).

诪砖讜讞 讘砖诪谉 讛诪砖讞讛 拽讜讚诐 诇诪专讜讘讛 讘讙讚讬诐 诪专讜讘讛 讘讙讚讬诐 拽讜讚诐 诇诪砖讬讞 砖注讘专 诪讞诪转 拽专讬讜 诪砖讬讞 砖注讘专 诪讞诪转 拽专讬讜 拽讜讚诐 诇注讘专 诪讞诪转 诪讜诪讜 注讘专 诪讞诪转 诪讜诪讜 拽讜讚诐 诇诪砖讜讞 诪诇讞诪讛 诪砖讜讞 诪诇讞诪讛 拽讜讚诐 诇住讙谉

A High Priest anointed with anointing oil precedes a priest consecrated by donning multiple garments. A High Priest consecrated by donning multiple garments precedes an anointed High Priest who stepped down, even if he did so due to his seminal emission. An anointed High Priest who stepped down due to his seminal emission precedes an anointed High Priest who stepped down due to his blemish. An anointed High Priest who stepped down due to his blemish precedes a priest anointed for war. A priest anointed for war precedes a deputy High Priest, who replaces the High Priest when he is unable to serve in the Temple.

住讙谉 拽讜讚诐 诇讗诪专讻诇 诪讗讬 讗诪专讻诇 讗诪专 专讘 讞住讚讗 讗诪专 讻讜诇讗 讗诪专讻诇 拽讜讚诐 诇讙讝讘专 讙讝讘专 拽讜讚诐 诇专讗砖 诪砖诪专 专讗砖 诪砖诪专 拽讜讚诐 诇专讗砖 讘讬转 讗讘 专讗砖 讘讬转 讗讘 拽讜讚诐 诇讻讛谉 讛讚讬讜讟

The baraita concludes: A deputy High Priest precedes the overseer [la鈥檃markal], one of the seven appointed officials in the Temple. The Gemara asks: What is the meaning of amarkal? Rav 岣sda said: Amarkal is an acronym for amar kulla, meaning: He says it all. The overseer of the Temple has the final word in matters concerning the administration of the Temple. The overseer precedes the Temple treasurer. The treasurer precedes the head of the priestly watch that would serve in the Temple for a period of one week at a time. The head of the priestly watch precedes the head of the patrilineal family. Each patrilineal family performed the Temple service for one day during the week of its priestly watch. The head of the patrilineal family precedes an ordinary priest.

讗讬讘注讬讗 诇讛讜 诇注谞讬谉 讟讜诪讗讛 住讙谉 讜诪砖讜讞 诪诇讞诪讛 讗讬讝讛 诪讛诐 拽讜讚诐

A dilemma was raised before the Sages: With regard to the matter of ritual impurity, when there is a corpse with no one to bury it [met mitzva], which even a priest and a nazirite are commanded to bury, and the deputy High Priest and the priest anointed for war are available to bury it, which of them precedes the other and becomes impure?

讗诪专 诪专 讝讜讟专讗 讘专讬讛 讚专讘 谞讞诪谉 转讗 砖诪注 讚转谞讬讗 住讙谉 讜诪砖讜讞 诪诇讞诪讛 砖讛讬讜 诪讛诇讻讬诐 讘讚专讱 讜驻讙注 讘讛诐 诪转 诪爪讜讛 诪讜讟讘 砖讬讟诪讗 诪砖讜讞 诪诇讞诪讛 讜讗诇 讬讟诪讗 住讙谉 砖讗诐 讬讗专注 讘讜 驻住讜诇 讘讻讛谉 讙讚讜诇 谞讻谞住 讛住讙谉 讜诪砖诪砖 转讞转讬讜 讜讛转谞讬讗 诪砖讜讞 诪诇讞诪讛 拽讜讚诐 诇住讙谉 讗诪专 专讘讬谞讗 讻讬 转谞讬讗 讛讛讬讗 诇讛讞讬讜转讜

Mar Zutra, son of Rav Na岣an, said: Come and hear a resolution, as it is taught in a baraita: In the case of a deputy High Priest and a priest anointed for war who were walking along the path and they encountered a met mitzva and one of them must bury him and become ritually impure, it is preferable that the priest anointed for war will become ritually impure and the deputy High Priest will not become ritually impure. The reason is that if disqualification befalls the High Priest, the deputy enters and performs the Temple service in his stead. Therefore, one must ensure to every possible extent that the deputy High Priest remain ritually pure. The Gemara asks: But isn鈥檛 it taught in a baraita: A priest anointed for war precedes a deputy High Priest? Ravina said: When that baraita is taught, it is not with regard to ritual impurity; rather, it is taught with regard to rescuing him, as the standing of the priest anointed for war is higher than that of the deputy High Priest.

诪转谞讬壮 讻讛谉 拽讜讚诐 诇诇讜讬 诇讜讬 诇讬砖专讗诇 讬砖专讗诇 诇诪诪讝专 讜诪诪讝专 诇谞转讬谉 讜谞转讬谉 诇讙专 讜讙专 诇注讘讚 诪砖讜讞专专 讗讬诪转讬 讘讝诪谉 砖讻讜诇诐 砖讜讬诐 讗讘诇 讗诐 讛讬讛 诪诪讝专 转诇诪讬讚 讞讻诐 讜讻讛谉 讙讚讜诇 注诐 讛讗专抓 诪诪讝专 转诇诪讬讚 讞讻诐 拽讜讚诐 诇讻讛谉 讙讚讜诇 注诐 讛讗专抓

MISHNA: A priest precedes a Levite. A Levite precedes an Israelite. An Israelite precedes a son born from an incestuous or adulterous relationship [mamzer], and a mamzer precedes a Gibeonite, and a Gibeonite precedes a convert, and a convert precedes an emancipated slave. When do these halakhot of precedence take effect? In circumstances when they are all equal in terms of wisdom. But if there were a mamzer who is a Torah scholar and a High Priest who is an ignoramus, a mamzer who is a Torah scholar precedes a High Priest who is an ignoramus, as Torah wisdom surpasses all else.

讙诪壮 讻讛谉 拽讜讚诐 诇诇讜讬 砖谞讗诪专 (讜讘谞讬) [讘谞讬] 注诪专诐 讗讛专谉 讜诪砖讛 讜讬讘讚诇 讗讛专谉 (诇讛拽专讬讘) [诇讛拽讚讬砖讜] 拽讚砖 (讛拽讚砖讬诐) [拽讚砖讬诐] 诇讜讬 拽讜讚诐 诇讬砖专讗诇 砖谞讗诪专 讘注转 讛讛讬讗 讛讘讚讬诇 讛壮 讗转 砖讘讟 讛诇讜讬 (诪转讜讱) 讜讙讜壮

GEMARA: A priest precedes a Levite, as it is stated: 鈥淭he sons of Amram: Aaron and Moses, and Aaron was separated that he should be sanctified as the most sacred鈥 (I聽Chronicles 23:13). A Levite precedes an Israelite, as it is stated: 鈥淎t that time the Lord separated the tribe of Levi, to bear the Ark of the Covenant of the Lord, to stand before the Lord to minister unto Him, and to bless in His name, unto this day鈥 (Deuteronomy 10:8).

讬砖专讗诇 拽讜讚诐 诇诪诪讝专 砖讝讛 诪讬讜讞住 讜讝讛 讗讬谞讜 诪讬讜讞住 诪诪讝专 拽讜讚诐 诇谞转讬谉 讝讛 讘讗 诪讟驻讛 讻砖专讛 讜讝讛 讘讗 诪讟驻讛 驻住讜诇讛 谞转讬谉 拽讜讚诐 诇讙专 讝讛 讙讚诇 注诪谞讜 讘拽讚讜砖讛 讜讝讛 诇讗 讙讚诇 注诪谞讜 讘拽讚讜砖讛 讙专 拽讜讚诐 诇注讘讚 诪砖讜讞专专 讝讛 讛讬讛 讘讻诇诇 讗专讜专 讜讝讛 诇讗 讛讬讛 讘讻诇诇 讗专讜专

An Israelite precedes a mamzer because this Israelite is of legitimate lineage and that mamzer is not of legitimate lineage and is disqualified from entering into the congregation of Israel. A mamzer precedes a Gibeonite because this mamzer comes from a fit drop of semen, i.e., from Jewish parentage, and that Gibeonite comes from an unfit drop of semen, from gentile parentage. A Gibeonite precedes a convert, as this Gibeonite grew among us in sanctity and conducted his life as a Jew, and that convert did not grow among us in sanctity. A convert precedes an emancipated Canaanite slave as this emancipated Canaanite slave was included in the category of the curse while he was enslaved, and that convert was not included in the category of the curse.

讗讬诪转讬 讘讝诪谉 砖讻讜诇谉 砖讜讬谉 讻讜壮 诪谞讗 讛谞讬 诪讬诇讬 讗诪专 专讘 讗讞讗 讘专讘讬 讞谞讬谞讗 讚讗诪专 拽专讗 讬拽专讛 讛讬讗 诪驻谞讬谞讬诐 诪讻讛谉 讙讚讜诇 砖谞讻谞住 诇驻谞讬 讜诇驻谞讬诐

The mishna teaches: When do these halakhot of precedence take effect? In circumstances when they are all equal in terms of wisdom. The Gemara asks: From where are these matters derived? Rav A岣, son of Rabbi 岣nina, said: This is derived from a verse, as the verse states: 鈥淪he is more precious than rubies [mipeninim]鈥 (Proverbs 3:15). The Torah is more precious than the High Priest who enters the innermost sanctum [lifnai velifnim], the Holy of Holies.

转谞讬讗 专讘讬 砖诪注讜谉 讘专 讬讜讞讗讬 讗讜诪专 讘讚讬谉 讛讜讗 砖讬拽讚讬诐 注讘讚 诪砖讜讞专专 诇讙专 砖讝讛 讙讚诇 注诪谞讜 讘拽讚讜砖讛 讜讝讛 诇讗 讙讚诇 注诪谞讜 讘拽讚讜砖讛 讗诇讗 讝讛 讛讬讛 讘讻诇诇 讗专讜专 讜讝讛 诇讗 讛讬讛 讘讻诇诇 讗专讜专

It is taught in a baraita that Rabbi Shimon bar Yo岣i says: By right, an emancipated Canaanite slave should have preceded a convert, because this emancipated Canaanite slave grew among us in sanctity, and that convert did not grow among us in sanctity. But the convert precedes the Canaanite slave because this Canaanite slave was in the category of the curse, and that convert was not in the category of the curse.

砖讗诇讜 转诇诪讬讚讬讜 讗转 专讘讬 讗诇注讝专 讘专讘讬 爪讚讜拽 诪驻谞讬 诪讛 讛讻诇 专爪讬谉 诇讬砖讗 讙讬讜专转 讜讗讬谉 讛讻诇 专爪讬谉 诇讬砖讗 诪砖讜讞专专转 讗诪专 诇讛诐 讝讜 讛讬转讛 讘讻诇诇 讗专讜专 讜讝讜 诇讗 讛讬转讛 讘讻诇诇 讗专讜专 讚讘专 讗讞专 讝讜 讛讬转讛 讘讞讝拽转 砖诪讜专 讜讝讜 诇讗 讛讬转讛 讘讞讝拽转 砖诪讜专

The students of Rabbi Elazar, son of Rabbi Tzadok, asked him: For what reason does everyone, i.e., do many people, run to marry a female convert, and not everyone runs to marry an emancipated Canaanite maidservant? He said to them: This Canaanite maidservant was in the category of the curse, and that convert was not in the category of the curse. Alternatively, the reason is that this convert has the presumptive status of chastity, and that Canaanite maidservant does not have the presumptive status of chastity.

砖讗诇讜 转诇诪讬讚讬讜 讗转 专讘讬 讗诇注讝专 诪驻谞讬 诪讛 讛讻诇讘 诪讻讬专 讗转 拽讜谞讜 讜讞转讜诇 讗讬谞讜 诪讻讬专 讗转 拽讜谞讜 讗诪专 诇讛诐 讜诪讛 讛讗讜讻诇 诪诪讛 砖注讻讘专 讗讜讻诇 诪砖讻讞 讛讗讜讻诇 注讻讘专 注爪诪讜 注诇 讗讞转 讻诪讛 讜讻诪讛

The students of Rabbi Elazar asked him: For what reason does a dog recognize its master, while a cat does not recognize its master? Rabbi Elazar said to them: If it is established that with regard to one who eats from that which a mouse eats, eating that item causes him to forget, with regard to the cat, who eats the mouse itself, all the more so does eating it cause it to forget.

砖讗诇讜 转诇诪讬讚讬讜 讗转 专讘讬 讗诇讬注讝专 诪驻谞讬 诪讛 讛讻诇 诪讜砖诇讬诐 讘注讻讘专讬诐 诪驻谞讬 砖住讜专谉 专注 诪讗讬 讛讬讗 专讘讗 讗诪专 讗驻讬诇讜 讙诇讬诪讬 讙讬讬爪讬

The students of Rabbi Eliezer asked him: For what reason do all predators dominate mice and prey on them? He said to them: Because concerning mice, their inclination [shesuran] is evil. The Gemara asks: What is the indication of this? Rava said: They gnaw even at cloaks, despite the fact that cloaks do not provide nourishment for them.

专讘 驻驻讗 讗诪专 讗驻讬诇讜 砖讜驻转讗 诪专讗 讙讬讬爪讬

Rav Pappa said: They gnaw even on the handle of a hoe.

转谞讜 专讘谞谉 讞诪砖讛 讚讘专讬诐 诪砖讻讞讬诐 讗转 讛转诇诪讜讚 讛讗讜讻诇 诪诪讛 砖讗讜讻诇 注讻讘专 讜诪诪讛 砖讗讜讻诇 讞转讜诇 讜讛讗讜讻诇 诇讘 砖诇 讘讛诪讛 讜讛专讙讬诇 讘讝讬转讬诐 讜讛砖讜转讛 诪讬诐 砖诇 砖讬讜专讬 专讞讬爪讛 讜讛专讜讞抓 专讙诇讬讜 讝讜 注诇 讙讘讬 讝讜 讜讬砖 讗讜诪专讬诐 讗祝 讛诪谞讬讞 讻诇讬讜 转讞转 诪专讗砖讜转讬讜 讞诪砖讛 讚讘专讬诐 诪砖讬讘讬诐 讗转 讛转诇诪讜讚 驻转 驻讞诪讬谉 讜讻诇 砖讻谉 驻讞诪讬谉 注爪诪谉 讜讛讗讜讻诇 讘讬爪讛 诪讙讜诇讙诇转 讘诇讗 诪诇讞 讜讛专讙讬诇 讘砖诪谉 讝讬转 讜讛专讙讬诇 讘讬讬谉 讜讘砖诪讬诐 讜讛砖讜转讛 诪讬诐 砖诇 砖讬讜专讬 注讬住讛 讜讬砖 讗讜诪专讬诐 讗祝 讛讟讜讘诇 讗爪讘注讜 讘诪诇讞 讜讗讜讻诇

The Sages taught in a baraita: There are five factors that cause one to forget his Torah study: One who eats from that which a mouse eats and from that which a cat eats, and one who eats the heart of an animal, and one who is accustomed to eating olives, and one who drinks water that remains from washing, and one who washes his feet with this foot atop that foot. And some say: Also one who places his garments under his head. Correspondingly, there are five factors that restore forgotten Torah study: Eating bread baked on coals and all the more so one who warms himself with the heat of the coals themselves, and one who eats a hard-boiled egg [beitza megulgelet] without salt, and one who is accustomed to eating olive oil, and one who is accustomed to drinking wine and smelling spices, and one who drinks water that remains from kneading dough. And some say: Also one who dips his finger in salt and eats it.

讛专讙讬诇 讘砖诪谉 讝讬转 诪住讬讬注 诇讬讛 诇专讘讬 讬讜讞谞谉 讚讗诪专 专讘讬 讬讜讞谞谉 讻砖诐 砖讛讝讬转 诪砖讻讞 转诇诪讜讚 砖诇 砖讘注讬诐 砖谞讛 讻讱 砖诪谉 讝讬转 诪砖讬讘 转诇诪讜讚 砖诇 砖讘注讬诐 砖谞讛

The Gemara elaborates on the baraita: One who is accustomed to eating olive oil restores forgotten Torah study. The Gemara notes: This supports the opinion of Rabbi Yo岣nan, as Rabbi Yo岣nan said: Just as eating an olive causes one to forget seventy years鈥 worth of Torah study, olive oil restores seventy years鈥 worth of Torah study.

讜讛专讙讬诇 讘讬讬谉 讜讘砖诪讬诐 诪住讬讬注 诇讬讛 诇专讘讗 讚讗诪专 专讘讗 讞诪专讗 讜专讬讞谞讬 驻拽讞讬谉

The baraita continues: And one who is accustomed to drinking wine and smelling spices restores forgotten Torah study. The Gemara notes: This supports the opinion of Rava, as Rava said: Wine and spices rendered me wise.

讜讛讟讜讘诇 讗爪讘注讜 讘诪诇讞 讗诪专 专讬砖 诇拽讬砖 讜讘讗讞转 讻转谞讗讬 专讘讬 讬讛讜讚讛 讗讜诪专 讗讞转 讜诇讗 砖转讬诐 专讘讬 讬讜住讬 讗讜诪专 砖转讬诐 讜诇讗 砖诇砖 讜住讬诪谞讬讱 拽诪讬爪讛

The baraita continues: One who dips his finger in salt and eats it restores forgotten Torah study. Reish Lakish says: And that is the case with regard to one finger. The Gemara notes: This is parallel to a dispute between tanna鈥檌m. Rabbi Yehuda says: One finger but not two. Rabbi Yosei says: Two fingers but not three. And your mnemonic for the fact that the dispute is between one and two fingers is kemitza, i.e., the ring finger. When one presses his ring finger to his palm, there remain two straight fingers on one side and one on the other.

注砖专讛 讚讘专讬诐 拽砖讬诐 诇转诇诪讜讚 讛注讜讘专 转讞转 讛讗驻住专 [讛讙诪诇] 讜讻诇 砖讻谉 转讞转 讙诪诇 [注爪诪讜] 讜讛注讜讘专 讘讬谉 砖谞讬 讙诪诇讬诐 讜讛注讜讘专 讘讬谉 砖转讬 谞砖讬诐 讜讛讗砖讛 讛注讜讘专转 讘讬谉 砖谞讬 讗谞砖讬诐 讜讛注讜讘专 诪转讞转 专讬讞 专注 砖诇 谞讘讬诇讛 讜讛注讜讘专 转讞转 讛讙砖专 砖诇讗 注讘专讜 转讞转讬讜 诪讬诐 讗专讘注讬诐 讬讜诐 讜讛讗讜讻诇 驻转 砖诇讗 讘砖诇 讻诇 爪专讻讜 讜讛讗讜讻诇 讘砖专 诪讝讜讛诪讗 诇讬住讟专讜谉 讜讛砖讜转讛 诪讗诪转 讛诪讬诐 讛注讜讘专转 讘讘讬转 讛拽讘专讜转 讜讛诪住转讻诇 讘驻谞讬 讛诪转 讜讬砖 讗讜诪专讬诐 讗祝 讛拽讜专讗 讻转讘 砖注诇 讙讘讬 讛拽讘专

Ten factors are detrimental for Torah study: One who passes beneath the bit of the camel, and all the more so one who passes beneath a camel itself; and one who passes between two camels; and one who passes between two women; and a woman who passes between two men; and one who passes beneath a place where there is the foul odor of an animal carcass; and one who passes under a bridge beneath which water has not passed for forty days; and one who eats bread that was not sufficiently baked; and one who eats meat from zuhama listeron, a utensil consisting of a spoon and a fork, used to remove the film on the surface of soup; and one who drinks from an aqueduct that passes through a cemetery; and one who gazes at the face of the dead. And some say: Also one who reads the writing that is on the stone of a grave.

转谞讜 专讘谞谉 讻砖讛谞砖讬讗 谞讻谞住 讻诇 讛注诐 注讜诪讚讬诐 讜讗讬谉 讬讜砖讘讬诐 注讚 砖讗讜诪专 诇讛诐 砖讘讜 讻砖讗讘 讘讬转 讚讬谉 谞讻谞住 注讜砖讬诐 诇讜 砖讜专讛 讗讞转 诪讻讗谉 讜砖讜专讛 讗讞转 诪讻讗谉 注讚 砖讬砖讘 讘诪拽讜诪讜 讻砖讞讻诐 谞讻谞住 讗讞讚 注讜诪讚 讜讗讞讚 讬讜砖讘 注讚 砖讬砖讘 讘诪拽讜诪讜 讘谞讬 讞讻诪讬诐 讜转诇诪讬讚讬 讞讻诪讬诐 讘讝诪谉 砖专讘讬诐 爪专讬讻讬诐 诇讛诐 诪驻住讬注讬谉 注诇 专讗砖讬 讛注诐 讬爪讗 诇爪讜专讱 讬讻谞住 讜讬砖讘 讘诪拽讜诪讜

The Sages taught in a baraita: When the Nasi of the Sanhedrin enters, all the people stand and they do not sit until he says to them: Sit. When the deputy Nasi of the Sanhedrin enters, the people form for him one row from here, on this side of the path that he takes, and one row from there, on the other side of it, in a display of deference, until he sits in his place, and then they may be seated. When the 岣kham, who is ranked third among the members of the Sanhedrin, enters, one person stands when he is within four cubits of the 岣kham, and another sits, i.e., when one is no longer within four cubits of the 岣kham he may sit. And all those whom the 岣kham passes do this, until he sits in his place. When the multitudes require their services, i.e., they serve a public role, sons of the Sages and Torah scholars may step over the heads of the people seated on the ground in order to reach their places in the Sanhedrin. If one of the Sages left for the purpose of relieving himself, when he is finished he may enter and sit in his place in the Sanhedrin, and he need not be concerned that he is imposing upon those assembled.

讘谞讬 转诇诪讬讚讬 讞讻诪讬诐 砖诪诪讜谞讬诐 讗讘讬讛诐 驻专谞住 注诇 讛爪讘讜专 讘讝诪谉 砖讬砖 诇讛诐 讚注转 诇砖诪讜注 谞讻谞住讬诐 讜讬讜砖讘讬诐 诇驻谞讬 讗讘讬讛诐 讜讗讞讜专讬讛诐 讻诇驻讬 讛注诐 讘讝诪谉 砖讗讬谉 诇讛诐 讚注转 诇砖诪讜注 谞讻谞住讬诐 讜讬讜砖讘讬诐 诇驻谞讬 讗讘讬讛诐 讜驻谞讬讛诐 讻诇驻讬 讛注诐 专讘讬 讗诇注讝专 讘专 专讘讬 [爪讚讜拽] 讗讜诪专 讗祝 讘讘讬转 讛诪砖转讛 注讜砖讬诐 讗讜转诐 住谞讬驻讬谉

When they have the wisdom to hear and to study, the sons of Torah scholars, whose fathers are appointed as leaders of the congregation, enter and sit before their fathers, and their backs are directed toward the people. When they do not have the wisdom to hear and to study they enter and sit before their fathers, and their faces are directed toward the people, so everyone sees that they are seated there in deference to their fathers but not as students. Rabbi Elazar, son of Rabbi Tzadok, says: Even at a wedding party one renders them attachments [senifin] and seats them adjacent to their fathers.

[讗诪专 诪专] 讬爪讗 诇爪讜专讱 谞讻谞住 讜讬讜砖讘 讘诪拽讜诪讜 讗诪专 专讘 驻驻讗 诇讗 讗诪专讜 讗诇讗 诇拽讟谞讬诐 讗讘诇 诇讙讚讜诇讬诐 诇讗 讛讜讛 诇讬讛 诇诪讘讚拽 谞驻砖讬讛 诪注讬拽专讗 讚讗诪专 专讘 讬讛讜讚讛 讗诪专 专讘 诇注讜诇诐 讬诇诪讚 讗讚诐 注爪诪讜 诇讛砖讻讬诐 讜诇讛注专讬讘 讻讚讬 砖诇讗 讬转专讞拽 (讗诪专 专讘讗) 讛讗讬讚谞讗 讚讞诇砖讗 注诇诪讗 讗驻讬诇讜 诇讙讚讜诇讬诐 谞诪讬

The Master said: If one of the Sages left for the purpose of relieving himself, when he is finished he may enter and sit in his place. Rav Pappa said: The Sages said this only with regard to one who leaves for minor bodily functions, i.e., to urinate. But with regard to one who leaves for major bodily functions, i.e., to defecate, no, he may not return to his place, because he should have examined himself initially so that he would not need to leave. His failure to do so constitutes negligence and he may not impose upon others when he returns, as Rav Yehuda says that Rav says: A person should always accustom himself to relieving himself in the morning and in the evening so that he will not need to distance himself during the daylight hours to find an appropriate place. Rava said: Today, when the world is weak and people are not as healthy as they once were, one may even return after he leaves for major bodily functions.

专讘讬 讗诇注讝专 讘专 专讘讬 [爪讚讜拽] 讗讜诪专 讗祝 讘讘讬转 讛诪砖转讛 注讜砖讬诐 讗讜转诐 住谞讬驻讬诐 讗诪专 专讘讗 讘讞讬讬 讗讘讬讛诐 讘驻谞讬 讗讘讬讛诐

Rabbi Elazar, son of Rabbi Tzadok, says: Even at a wedding party one renders them attachments. Rava said: This applies during the lifetime of their fathers and in the presence of their fathers.

讗诪专 专讘讬 讬讜讞谞谉 讘讬诪讬 专讘谉 砖诪注讜谉 讘谉 讙诪诇讬讗诇 谞讬砖谞讬转 诪砖谞讛 讝讜 专讘谉 砖诪注讜谉 讘谉 讙诪诇讬讗诇 谞砖讬讗 专讘讬 诪讗讬专 讞讻诐 专讘讬 谞转谉 讗讘 讘讬转 讚讬谉 讻讬 讛讜讛 专讘谉 砖诪注讜谉 讘谉 讙诪诇讬讗诇 讛转诐 讛讜讜 拽讬讬诪讬 讻讜诇讬 注诇诪讗 诪拽诪讬讛 讻讬 讛讜讜 注讬讬诇讬 专讘讬 诪讗讬专 讜专讘讬 谞转谉 讛讜讜 拽讬讬诪讬 讻讜诇讬 注诇诪讗 诪拽诪讬讬讛讜 讗诪专 专讘谉 砖诪注讜谉 讘谉 讙诪诇讬讗诇 诇讗 讘注讜 诇诪讬讛讜讬 讛讬讻专讗 讘讬谉 讚讬诇讬 诇讚讬讚讛讜 转拽讬谉 讛讗 诪转谞讬转讗

Rabbi Yo岣nan says: This mishna, i.e., the preceding baraita, was taught during the days of Rabban Shimon ben Gamliel. Rabban Shimon ben Gamliel was the Nasi, Rabbi Meir was the 岣kham, and Rabbi Natan was the deputy Nasi. When Rabban Shimon ben Gamliel was there, everyone would arise before him. When Rabbi Meir and Rabbi Natan would enter, everyone would arise before them. Rabban Shimon ben Gamliel said: Shouldn鈥檛 there be a conspicuous distinction between me and them in terms of the manner in which deference is shown? Rabban Shimon ben Gamliel instituted the provisions delineated in this baraita that distinguish between the Nasi and his subordinates with regard to the deference shown them.

讛讛讜讗 讬讜诪讗 诇讗 讛讜讜 专讘讬 诪讗讬专 讜专讘讬 谞转谉 讛转诐 诇诪讞专 讻讬 讗转讜 讞讝讜 讚诇讗 拽诪讜 诪拽诪讬讬讛讜 讻讚专讙讬诇讗 诪讬诇转讗 讗诪专讬 诪讗讬 讛讗讬 讗诪专讜 诇讛讜 讛讻讬 转拽讬谉 专讘谉 砖诪注讜谉 讘谉 讙诪诇讬讗诇

That day, when Rabban Shimon ben Gamliel instituted these provisions, Rabbi Meir and Rabbi Natan were not there. The following day when they came to the study hall, they saw that the people did not stand before them as the matter was typically done. They said: What is this? The people said to them: This is what Rabban Shimon ben Gamliel instituted.

讗诪专 诇讬讛 专讘讬 诪讗讬专 诇专讘讬 谞转谉 讗谞讗 讞讻诐 讜讗转 讗讘 讘讬转 讚讬谉 谞转拽讬谉 诪讬诇转讗 讻讬 诇讚讬讚谉 诪讗讬 谞注讘讬讚 诇讬讛 谞讬诪讗 诇讬讛 讙诇讬 注讜拽爪讬诐 讚诇讬转 诇讬讛 讜讻讬讜谉 讚诇讗 讙诪专 谞讬诪讗 诇讬讛 诪讬 讬诪诇诇 讙讘讜专讜转 讛壮 讬砖诪讬注 讻诇 转讛诇转讜 诇诪讬 谞讗讛 诇诪诇诇 讙讘讜专讜转 讛壮 诪讬 砖讬讻讜诇 诇讛砖诪讬注 讻诇 转讛诇讜转讬讜 谞注讘专讬讛 讜讛讜讬 讗谞讗 讗讘 讘讬转 讚讬谉 讜讗转 谞砖讬讗

Rabbi Meir said to Rabbi Natan: I am the 岣kham and you are the deputy Nasi. Let us devise a matter and do to him as he did to us. What shall we do to him? Let us say to him: Reveal to us tractate Okatzim, which he does not know. And once it is clear to all that he did not learn, he will not have anything to say. Then we will say to him: 鈥淲ho can express the mighty acts of the Lord, shall make all His praises heard?鈥 (Psalms 106:2), indicating: For whom is it becoming to express the mighty acts of the Lord? It is becoming for one who is capable of making all His praises heard, and not for one who does not know one of the tractates. We will remove him from his position as Nasi, and I will be deputy Nasi and you will be Nasi.

砖诪注讬谞讛讜 专讘讬 讬注拽讘 讘谉 拽专砖讬 讗诪专 讚诇诪讗 讞住 讜砖诇讜诐 讗转讬讗 诪诇转讗 诇讬讚讬 讻讬住讜驻讗 讗讝诇 讬转讬讘 讗讞讜专讬 注讬诇讬转讬讛 讚专讘谉 砖诪注讜谉 讘谉 讙诪诇讬讗诇 驻砖讟 讙专住 讜转谞讗 讙专住 讜转谞讗

Rabbi Ya鈥檃kov ben Korshei heard them talking, and said: Perhaps, Heaven forfend, this matter will come to a situation of humiliation for Rabban Shimon ben Gamliel. He did not wish to speak criticism or gossip about Rabbi Meir and Rabbi Natan, so he went and sat behind the upper story where Rabban Shimon ben Gamliel lived. He explained tractate Okatzin; he studied it aloud and repeated it, and studied it aloud and repeated it.

讗诪专 诪讗讬 讚拽诪讗 讚诇诪讗 讞住 讜砖诇讜诐 讗讬讻讗 讘讬 诪讚专砖讗 诪讬讚讬 讬讛讘 讚注转讬讛 讜讙专住讛 诇诪讞专 讗诪专讜 诇讬讛 谞讬转讬 诪专 讜谞讬转谞讬 讘注讜拽爪讬谉 驻转讞 讜讗诪专 讘转专 讚讗讜拽讬诐 讗诪专 诇讛讜 讗讬 诇讗 讙诪讬专谞讗 讻住讬驻讬转谞谉

Rabban Shimon ben Gamliel said to himself: What is this that is transpiring before us? Perhaps, Heaven forfend, there is something transpiring in the study hall. He suspected that Rabbi Meir and Rabbi Natan were planning something. He concentrated and studied tractate Okatzin. The following day Rabbi Meir and Rabbi Natan said to him: Let the Master come and teach a lesson in tractate Okatzin. He began and stated the lesson he had prepared. After he completed teaching the tractate, he said to them: If I had not studied the tractate, you would have humiliated me.

驻拽讬讚 讜讗驻拽讬谞讛讜 诪讘讬 诪讚专砖讗 讛讜讜 讻转讘讬 拽讜砖讬讬转讗 [讘驻转拽讗] 讜砖讚讜 讛转诐 讚讛讜讛 诪讬驻专讬拽 诪讬驻专讬拽 讚诇讗 讛讜讜 诪讬驻专讬拽 讻转讘讬 驻讬专讜拽讬 讜砖讚讜 讗诪专 诇讛讜 专讘讬 讬讜住讬 转讜专讛 诪讘讞讜抓 讜讗谞讜 诪讘驻谞讬诐

Rabban Shimon ben Gamliel commanded those present and they expelled Rabbi Meir and Rabbi Natan from the study hall as punishment. Rabbi Meir and Rabbi Natan would write difficulties on a scrap of paper [pitka] and would throw them there into the study hall. Those difficulties that were resolved were resolved; as for those that were not resolved, Rabbi Meir and Rabbi Natan wrote resolutions on a scrap of paper and threw them into the study hall. Rabbi Yosei said to the Sages: How is it that the Torah, embodied in the preeminent Torah scholars, is outside and we are inside?

讗诪专 诇讛谉 专讘谉 [砖诪注讜谉 讘谉] 讙诪诇讬讗诇 谞讬注讬讬诇讬谞讛讜 诪讬讛讜 谞讬拽谞住讬谞讛讜 讚诇讗 谞讬诪专讜 砖诪注转讗 诪砖诪讬讬讛讜 讗住讬拽讜 诇专讘讬 诪讗讬专 讗讞专讬诐 讜诇专讘讬 谞转谉 讬砖 讗讜诪专讬诐 讗讞讜讜 诇讛讜 讘讞诇诪讬讬讛讜 讝讬诇讜 驻讬讬住讜讛讜 [诇专讘谉 砖诪注讜谉 讘谉 讙诪诇讬讗诇] 专讘讬 谞转谉 讗讝诇 专讘讬 诪讗讬专 诇讗 讗讝诇 讗诪专 讚讘专讬 讞诇讜诪讜转 诇讗 诪注诇讬谉 讜诇讗 诪讜专讬讚讬谉 讻讬 讗讝诇 专讘讬 谞转谉 讗诪专 诇讬讛 专讘谉 砖诪注讜谉 讘谉 讙诪诇讬讗诇 谞讛讬 讚讗讛谞讬 诇讱 拽诪专讗 讚讗讘讜讱 诇诪讛讜讬 讗讘 讘讬转 讚讬谉 砖讜讬谞讬讱 谞诪讬 谞砖讬讗

Rabban Shimon ben Gamliel said to them: Let us admit them into the study hall. But we will penalize them in that we will not cite halakha in their names. They cited statements of Rabbi Meir in the name of A岣rim, meaning: Others, and they cited statements of Rabbi Natan in the name of yesh omerim, meaning: Some say. Rabbi Meir and Rabbi Natan were shown a message in their dreams: Go, appease Rabban Shimon ben Gamliel. Rabbi Natan went. Rabbi Meir did not go. He said in his heart: Matters of dreams are insignificant. When Rabbi Natan went, Rabban Shimon ben Gamliel said to him: Although the ornate belt, i.e., the importance, of your father was effective in enabling you to become deputy Nasi, as Rabbi Natan鈥檚 father was the Babylonian Exilarch, will it render you Nasi as well?

诪转谞讬 诇讬讛 专讘讬 诇专讘谉 砖诪注讜谉 讘专讬讛 讗讞专讬诐 讗讜诪专讬诐 讗讬诇讜 讛讬讛 转诪讜专讛

Years later, Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi taught Rabban Shimon his son that A岣rim say: If it was considered a substitute,

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