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Today's Daf Yomi

April 9, 2018 | ื›ืดื“ ื‘ื ื™ืกืŸ ืชืฉืขืดื—

  • This month's learning is sponsored by Joanna Rom and Steven Goldberg in loving memory of Steve's mother Shirley "Nana" Goldberg (Sura Tema bat Chaim v'Hanka)

Horayot 9

Study Guide Horayot 9

Who is exempt and who is obligated to bring a sliding scale offering? There are various opinionsย and even those who think the king or the Kohen Gadol are obligated, make exceptions in particular cases. Explanations for all the opinions are brought and discussed.

ืœื ืชื’ื™ืข ื™ื“ื• ื•ื ืืžืจ ืœื ืชืฉื™ื’ ื™ื“ื• ืžื™ ืฉื‘ื ืœื™ื“ื™ ืขื ื™ื•ืช ื•ืขืฉื™ืจื•ืช ื™ืฆื ื ืฉื™ื ื•ืžืฉื™ื— ืฉืื™ืŸ ื‘ืื™ืŸ ืœื™ื“ื™ ืขื ื™ื•ืช

โ€œAnd if his means suffice notโ€ (Leviticus 5:7), and it is stated: โ€œAnd if his means not sufficeโ€ (Leviticus 5:11), indicating that the sliding-scale offering applies only to one who can come to a state of poverty and wealth. This serves to exclude a king and an anointed priest, who cannot come to a state of poverty.

ื ืฉื™ื ื“ื›ืชื™ื‘ ื•ืขืฉื” ืื—ืช ืžื›ืœ ืžืฆื•ืช ื”ืณ ืืœื”ื™ื• ืžื™ ืฉืื™ืŸ ืขืœ ื’ื‘ื™ื• ืืœื ื”ืณ ืืœื”ื™ื• ืžืฉื™ื— ื“ื›ืชื™ื‘ ื•ื”ื›ื”ืŸ ื”ื’ื“ื•ืœ ืžืื—ื™ื• ืฉื”ื•ื ื’ื“ื•ืœ ืžืื—ื™ื• ื‘ื ื•ื™ ื‘ื›ื— ื‘ื—ื›ืžื” ื•ื‘ืขื•ืฉืจ ืื—ืจื™ื ืื•ืžืจื™ื ืžื ื™ืŸ ืฉืื ืื™ืŸ ืœื• ื’ื“ืœื”ื• ืžืฉืœ ืื—ื™ื• ืชืœืžื•ื“ ืœื•ืžืจ ื•ื”ื›ื”ืŸ ื”ื’ื“ื•ืœ ืžืื—ื™ื• ืืฉืจ ื™ื•ืฆืง ืขืœ ืจืืฉื• ื’ื“ืœื”ื• ืžืื—ื™ื•

The king cannot become poor, as it is written concerning him: โ€œAnd he performed one of all the mitzvot of the Lord his Godโ€ (Leviticus 4:22), referring to the king as one who has only the Lord his God upon him. He is greater than the entire nation and is not a poor person dependent on others. An anointed priest cannot become poor, as it is written: โ€œAnd the priest that is greatest among his brethrenโ€ (Leviticus 21:10), meaning that he is greater than his brethren in beauty, in power, in wisdom, and in wealth, not a poor person. Others say: From where is it derived that if the High Priest does not have personal wealth, one should make him great from the property of his brethren? The verse states: โ€œAnd the priest that is greatest among his brethren upon whose head the anointing oil is pouredโ€ (Leviticus 21:10), from which it is derived: Make him great from the property of his brethren, who will provide him with enough property to render him wealthy.

ื‘ืขื ืžื™ื ื™ื” ืจื‘ื™ื ื ืžืจื‘ ื ื—ืžืŸ ื‘ืจ ื™ืฆื—ืง ื ืฉื™ื ืฉื ืฆื˜ืจืข ืžื”ื• ืžื™ื“ื—ื ื“ื—ื™ ืื• ืžื™ืคื˜ืจ ืคื˜ื™ืจ ืืžืจ ืœื™ื” ื“ื™ืœืš ืื• ื“ื’ื–ื

Ravina raised a dilemma before Rav Naแธฅman bar Yitzแธฅak: In the case of a king who was afflicted with leprosy and unfit to serve as king during his affliction, what is his status with regard to the sliding-scale offering? Previously, during his reign, was he completely eliminated from the obligation to bring a sliding-scale offering to the extent that even now, when he is no longer king, he remains exempt? Or was he merely exempted, so that now that he is no longer king he is obligated to bring the offering? Rav Naแธฅman bar Yitzแธฅak said to Ravina: Does he bring the offering from your property, i.e., public property, or does he bring the offering from his personal treasure [degazza]? Since he obviously would bring the offering from his own personal treasure, he remains exempt from bringing the offering.

ืชื ื™ื ืจื‘ื™ ืขืงื™ื‘ื ืื•ืžืจ ืžืฉื™ื— ืคื˜ื•ืจ ืžื›ื•ืœืŸ ืืžืจ ืจื‘ื ืžืื™ ื˜ืขืžื ื“ืจื‘ื™ ืขืงื™ื‘ื ืืžืจ ืงืจื ื–ื” ืงืจื‘ืŸ ืื”ืจืŸ ื•ื‘ื ื™ื• ื–ื• ื‘ืื” ื—ื•ื‘ื” ืœื• ื•ืื™ืŸ ืื—ืจืช ื‘ืื” ื—ื•ื‘ื” ืœื•

ยง It is taught in a baraita that Rabbi Akiva says: An anointed priest is exempt from bringing an offering in all the cases where one is liable to bring a sliding-scale offering. Rava said: What is the reason for the opinion of Rabbi Akiva? It is as the verse states: โ€œThis is the offering of Aaron and of his sons that they shall offer unto the Lord on the day that he is anointed: One-tenth part of an ephah of fine flour as a meal-offeringโ€ (Leviticus 6:13). One can infer: It is this tenth of an ephah that comes as an obligation for him, and no other such offering comes as an obligation for him.

ื•ืื™ืžื ื›ื™ ืžืžืขื˜ ืœื™ื” ืจื—ืžื ื ืžื“ืœื™ ื“ืœื•ืช ื•ืžืื™ ื ื™ื”ื• ืขืฉื™ืจื™ืช ื”ืื™ืคื” ืื‘ืœ ืขื ื™ื•ืช ื•ืขืฉื™ืจื•ืช ืœื ืžืขื˜ื™ื” ืจื—ืžื ื ืœื ืกืœืงื ื“ืขืชืš ื“ื›ืชื™ื‘ ื•ื›ืคืจ ืขืœื™ื• ื”ื›ื”ืŸ ืขืœ ื—ื˜ืืชื• ืืฉืจ ื—ื˜ื ืžืื—ืช ืžืืœื” ื”ืžืชื›ืคืจ ื‘ืื—ืช ืžืชื›ืคืจ ื‘ื›ื•ืœืŸ ื•ืฉืื™ืŸ ืžืชื›ืคืจ ื‘ืื—ืช ืื™ืŸ ืžืชื›ืคืจ ื‘ื›ื•ืœืŸ

The Gemara asks: But why not say that when the Merciful One excludes an anointed priest, it is particularly from the type of sliding-scale offering brought due to extreme poverty? And what is it? The one-tenth of an ephah meal-offering mentioned in the verse. But the Merciful One did not exclude him from the dove brought as a sliding-scale offering due to poverty and the sheep brought as a sliding-scale offering by one with wealth. The Gemara rejects this: That should not enter your mind, as it is written with regard to the sliding-scale offering: โ€œAnd the priest shall atone for him for his sin that he has committed from one of theseโ€ (Leviticus 5:13), from which it is derived: One who gains atonement with every one of the types of a sliding-scale offering gains atonement with any of the types of the sliding-scale offering, and one who does not gain atonement with every one of the types of a sliding-scale offering does not gain atonement with any of the types of the sliding-scale offering.

ืืœื ืžืขืชื” ื“ื›ืชื™ื‘ ื•ื”ื™ื” ื›ื™ ื™ืืฉื ืœืื—ืช ืžืืœื” ื”ื›ื™ ื ืžื™ ื“ื›ืœ ื”ืžืชื—ื™ื™ื‘ ื‘ืื—ืช ืžืชื—ื™ื™ื‘ ื‘ื›ื•ืœืŸ ื•ืฉืื™ืŸ ืžืชื—ื™ื™ื‘ ื‘ืื—ืช ืื™ืŸ ืžืชื—ื™ื™ื‘ ื‘ื›ื•ืœืŸ ืืœืžื” ืชื ืŸ ืจื‘ื™ ืขืงื™ื‘ื ืื•ืžืจ ื ืฉื™ื ื—ื™ื™ื‘ ื—ื•ืฅ ืžืฉืžื™ืขืช ืงื•ืœ

The Gemara asks: But if that is so, and the verse is interpreted in that manner, then that which is written there: โ€œAnd it shall be when he shall be guilty of one of these mattersโ€ (Leviticus 5:5), so too shall be interpreted: Anyone who becomes liable in every one of the instances for which one brings a sliding-scale offering can become liable in any of those instances, and anyone who does not become liable in every one of the instances to bring a sliding-scale offering cannot become liable in any of those instances. Why, then, did we learn in the mishna that Rabbi Akiva says: The king is liable in all of these cases except for the case of hearing of a voice, indicating that he can become liable in the rest of the instances even if he is exempt in one?

ืื‘ื™ื™ ื•ืจื‘ื ื“ืืžืจื™ ืชืจื•ื™ื™ื”ื• ืžืื—ืช ืžืฉืžืข ืœื™ื” ืœืื—ืช ืœื ืžืฉืžืข ืœื™ื” ื•ืžืื™ ืฉื ื ืžืื—ืช ื“ืžืฉืžืข ืœื™ื”

Abaye and Rava both say to resolve this difficulty: Rabbi Akiva learns this inference from the term: โ€œFrom oneโ€ (Leviticus 5:13). He does not learn anything from the term: โ€œOf oneโ€ (Leviticus 5:5). The Gemara asks: And what is different about the term โ€œfrom oneโ€ that he learns a halakha from it?

ื“ื›ืชื‘ื™ื” ืจื—ืžื ื ืœื‘ืกื•ืฃ ื’ื‘ื™ ืขืฉื™ืจื™ืช ื”ืื™ืคื” ืœืžื™ืžืจื ื“ื›ืœ ื“ืžื—ื™ื™ื‘ ื‘ืขืฉื™ืจื™ืช ื”ืื™ืคื” ืžื—ื™ื™ื‘ ื‘ื›ื•ืœืŸ ื“ืื™ ืกืœืงื ื“ืขืชืš ืžืชื—ื™ื™ื‘ ื‘ืื—ืช ืืฃ ืขืœ ืคื™ ืฉืื™ืŸ ืžืชื—ื™ื™ื‘ ื‘ื›ื•ืœืŸ ื ื›ืชื‘ื™ื” ืœื”ืื™ ืžืื—ืช ืžืืœื” ื‘ื“ืœื•ืช ืื™ ื ืžื™ ื‘ืขืฉื™ืจื•ืช

The Gemara answers: The difference is that the Merciful One wrote it at the end of the passage discussing the sliding-scale offering, with regard to the one-tenth of an ephah meal-offering, to say that anyone who can become liable to bring the one-tenth of an ephah can become liable to bring any of them. As, if it enters your mind to say that one can become liable to bring one even though he cannot become liable to bring any one of them, let the Torah write this phrase: From one of these, with regard to the offering brought due to poverty, or alternatively, with regard to the offering brought by one with wealth. Since this term does not appear with regard to one of the other offerings, apparently, it is specifically with regard to the offering brought due to extreme poverty that one who cannot become liable for that offering is exempt from the entire matter.

ืžืชื ื™ืณ ื›ืœ ื”ืžืฆื•ืช ืฉื‘ืชื•ืจื” ืฉื—ื™ื™ื‘ื™ืŸ ืขืœ ื–ื“ื•ื ืŸ ื›ืจืช ื•ืขืœ ืฉื’ื’ืชืŸ ื—ื˜ืืช ื”ื™ื—ื™ื“ ืžื‘ื™ื ื›ืฉื‘ื” ื•ืฉืขื™ืจื” ื•ื”ื ืฉื™ื ืฉืขื™ืจ ื•ืžืฉื™ื— ื•ื‘ื™ืช ื“ื™ืŸ ืžื‘ื™ืื™ืŸ ืคืจ ื•ื‘ืขื‘ื•ื“ื” ื–ืจื” ื”ื™ื—ื™ื“ ื•ื”ื ืฉื™ื ื•ื”ืžืฉื™ื— ืžื‘ื™ืื™ืŸ ืฉืขื™ืจื” ื•ื‘ื™ืช ื“ื™ืŸ ืคืจ ื•ืฉืขื™ืจ ืคืจ ืœืขื•ืœื” ื•ืฉืขื™ืจ ืœื—ื˜ืืช

MISHNA: In summation: For all mitzvot that are in the Torah for whose intentional violation one is liable to receive karet and for whose unwitting violation one is liable to bring a sin-offering, the individual brings a ewe or female goat for their unwitting transgression, and the king brings a male goat for their unwitting transgression, and an anointed priest and a court who issued an erroneous ruling bring a bull. And for unwittingly engaging in idol worship, the individual, and the king, and the anointed priest bring a female goat, and the court brings a bull and a goat: A bull for a burnt-offering and a goat for a sin-offering.

ืืฉื ืชืœื•ื™ ื”ื™ื—ื™ื“ ื•ื”ื ืฉื™ื ื—ื™ื™ื‘ื™ืŸ ื•ืžืฉื™ื— ื•ื‘ื™ืช ื“ื™ืŸ ืคื˜ื•ืจื™ืŸ ืืฉื ื•ื“ืื™ ื”ื™ื—ื™ื“ ื•ื”ื ืฉื™ื ื•ื”ืžืฉื™ื— ื—ื™ื™ื‘ื™ืŸ ื•ื‘ื™ืช ื“ื™ืŸ ืคื˜ื•ืจื™ืŸ

With regard to a provisional guilt-offering, the individual and the king are liable, and an anointed priest and a court are exempt. With regard to a definite guilt-offering, the individual, the king, and the anointed priest are liable, and a court is exempt.

ืขืœ ืฉืžื™ืขืช ื”ืงื•ืœ ื•ืขืœ ื‘ื˜ื•ื™ ืฉืคืชื™ื ื•ืขืœ ื˜ื•ืžืืช ืžืงื“ืฉ ื•ืงื“ืฉื™ื• ื‘ื™ืช ื“ื™ืŸ ืคื˜ื•ืจื™ืŸ ื•ื”ื™ื—ื™ื“ ื•ื”ื ืฉื™ื ื•ื”ืžืฉื™ื— ื—ื™ื™ื‘ื™ืŸ ืืœื ืฉืื™ืŸ ื›ื”ืŸ ื’ื“ื•ืœ ืžืฉื™ื— ื—ื™ื™ื‘ ืขืœ ื˜ื•ืžืืช ืžืงื“ืฉ ื•ืงื“ืฉื™ื• ื“ื‘ืจื™ ืจื‘ื™ ืฉืžืขื•ืŸ ื•ืžื” ื”ืŸ ืžื‘ื™ืื™ืŸ ืงืจื‘ืŸ ืขื•ืœื” ื•ื™ื•ืจื“ ืจื‘ื™ ืืœืขื–ืจ ืื•ืžืจ ื”ื ืฉื™ื ืžื‘ื™ื ืฉืขื™ืจ

For hearing of a voice, i.e., a false oath of testimony, and for a false oath on an utterance of the lips, and for the defiling of the Temple or its sacrificial foods, a court is exempt, and the individual, the king, and the anointed priest are liable. But an anointed High Priest is not liable for the defiling of the Temple or its sacrificial foods; this is the statement of Rabbi Shimon. And what offering are they liable to bring? It is a sliding-scale offering based on their financial circumstances, as delineated in the Torah (see Leviticus 5:1โ€“13). Rabbi Elazar says: The king brings a goat.

ื’ืžืณ ืชื ื™ื ืจื‘ื™ ืฉืžืขื•ืŸ ื”ื™ื” ื ื•ืชืŸ ื›ืœืœ ื›ืœ ืฉื”ื™ื—ื™ื“ ื‘ืืฉื ืชืœื•ื™ ื”ื ืฉื™ื ื›ื™ื•ืฆื ื‘ื• ืžืฉื™ื— ื•ื‘ื™ืช ื“ื™ืŸ ืคื˜ื•ืจื™ืŸ ื•ื›ืœ ืฉื”ื•ื ื‘ืืฉื ื•ื“ืื™ ื ืฉื™ื ื•ืžืฉื™ื— ื›ื™ื•ืฆื ื‘ื”ืŸ ื•ื‘ื™ืช ื“ื™ืŸ ืคื˜ื•ืจื™ืŸ

GEMARA: It is taught in a baraita that Rabbi Shimon would posit a principle: For any case in which the individual is liable to bring a provisional guilt-offering, the status of the king is like that of the individual, and an anointed priest and a court are exempt. And for any case in which an individual is liable to bring a definite guilt-offering, the status of a king and an anointed priest is like that of the individual, and the court is exempt.

ืฉืžื™ืขืช ื”ืงื•ืœ ื•ื‘ื˜ื•ื™ ืฉืคืชื™ื ื•ื˜ื•ืžืืช ืžืงื“ืฉ ื•ืงื“ืฉื™ื• ื‘ื™ืช ื“ื™ืŸ ืคื˜ื•ืจื™ืŸ ื ืฉื™ื ื•ืžืฉื™ื— ื—ื™ื™ื‘ื™ืŸ ืืœื ืฉืื™ืŸ ื”ื ืฉื™ื ื—ื™ื™ื‘ ื‘ืฉืžื™ืขืช ื”ืงื•ืœ ื•ืœื ืžืฉื™ื— ื‘ื˜ื•ืžืืช ืžืงื“ืฉ ื•ืงื“ืฉื™ื• ื›ืœ ืฉื”ื•ื ื‘ืขื•ืœื” ื•ื™ื•ืจื“ ื ืฉื™ื ื›ื™ื•ืฆื ื‘ื• ืžืฉื™ื— ื•ื‘ื™ืช ื“ื™ืŸ ืคื˜ื•ืจื™ืŸ

He continues: For hearing of a voice, i.e., a false oath of testimony, and for a false oath on an utterance of the lips, and for the defiling of the Temple or its sacrificial foods, a court is exempt, and a king and an anointed priest are liable. But the king is not liable in a case of hearing of a voice, and an anointed priest is not liable for the defiling of the Temple or its sacrificial foods. In general, for any case for which an individual is liable to bring a sliding-scale offering, the status of a king is like that of the individual, and an anointed priest and a court are exempt.

ื”ื ื’ื•ืคื ืงืฉื™ื ืืžืจืช ืฉืื™ืŸ ืžืฉื™ื— ื—ื™ื™ื‘ ื‘ื˜ื•ืžืืช ืžืงื“ืฉ ื•ืงื“ืฉื™ื• ื‘ื˜ื•ืžืืช ืžืงื“ืฉ ื•ืงื“ืฉื™ื• ื”ื•ื ื“ืคื˜ื•ืจ ืื‘ืœ ื‘ืฉืžื™ืขืช ื”ืงื•ืœ ื•ื‘ื˜ื•ื™ ืฉืคืชื™ื ื—ื™ื™ื‘ ืื™ืžื ืกื™ืคื ื›ืœ ืฉื”ื•ื ื‘ืขื•ืœื” ื•ื™ื•ืจื“ ื ืฉื™ื ื›ื™ื•ืฆื ื‘ื• ืžืฉื™ื— ื•ื‘ื™ืช ื“ื™ืŸ ืคื˜ื•ืจื™ืŸ ืงืชื ื™ ืžืฉื™ื— ื•ื‘ื™ืช ื“ื™ืŸ ืคื˜ื•ืจื™ืŸ ืžื” ื‘ื™ืช ื“ื™ืŸ ืคื˜ื•ืจื™ืŸ ืžื›ื•ืœื”ื•ืŸ ืืฃ ืžืฉื™ื— ืคื˜ื•ืจ ืžื›ื•ืœื”ื•ืŸ

The Gemara expresses surprise: This baraita itself is difficult. You said that an anointed priest is not liable for the defiling of the Temple or its sacrificial foods, and by inference: It is for the defiling of the Temple or its sacrificial foods that he is exempt, but he is liable for hearing of a voice and for a statement of the lips. Say the latter clause of the baraita: For any case for which an individual is liable to bring a sliding-scale offering, the status of a king is like that of the individual, and an anointed priest and a court are exempt. He teaches: An anointed priest and a court are exempt; just as a court is exempt from all of the sliding-scale offerings, so too, an anointed priest is exempt from all of them, not only from the offering for the defiling of the Temple or its sacrificial foods.

ืงืฉื™ื™ืŸ ืื”ื“ื“ื™

If so, these two passages are difficult, as they contradict one another.

ืืžืจ ืจื‘ ื”ื•ื ื ื‘ืจื™ื” ื“ืจื‘ ื™ื”ื•ืฉืข ืœื ืงืฉื™ื ื›ืืŸ ื‘ื“ืœื•ืช ื›ืืŸ ื‘ื“ืœื™ ื“ืœื•ืช ื•ืจื‘ื™ ืฉืžืขื•ืŸ ืกื‘ืจ ืœื” ื›ืจื‘ื™ ืขืงื™ื‘ื ื‘ื—ื“ื ื•ืคืœื™ื’ ืขืœื™ื” ื‘ื—ื“ื ืกื‘ืจ ืœื” ื›ืจื‘ื™ ืขืงื™ื‘ื ื‘ื“ืœื™ ื“ืœื•ืช ื“ืคื˜ื•ืจ ื•ืคืœื™ื’ ืขืœื™ื” ื‘ื“ืœื•ืช

Rav Huna, son of Rav Yehoshua, said: This is not difficult, as there is a distinction between the rulings. Here, in the passage that deems the anointed priest liable in cases other than the defiling the Temple, it is in the case of an offering brought due to poverty, whereas there, in the latter clause, it is in the case of an offering brought due to extreme poverty. And Rabbi Shimon holds in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Akiva with regard to one halakha and disagrees with him with regard to one other halakha. He holds in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Akiva in the case of extreme poverty that the anointed priest is exempt from bringing that meal-offering. And he disagrees with Rabbi Akiva in the case of poverty, as he does not hold that the anointed priest is completely exempt from bringing a sliding-scale offering.

ืืœื ืฉืื™ืŸ ื›ื”ืŸ ื’ื“ื•ืœ ื—ื™ื™ื‘ ื›ื•ืณ ืืžืจ ื—ื–ืงื™ื” ืžืื™ ื˜ืขืžื ื“ืจื‘ื™ ืฉืžืขื•ืŸ ื“ื›ืชื™ื‘ ื•ื ื›ืจืชื” ื”ื ืคืฉ ื”ื”ื™ื ืžืชื•ืš ื”ืงื”ืœ ืžื™ ืฉืงืจื‘ื ื• ืฉื•ื” ืœืงื”ืœ ื™ืฆื ื–ื” ืฉืื™ืŸ ืงืจื‘ื ื• ืฉื•ื” ืœืงื”ืœ

ยง The mishna teaches that Rabbi Shimon says: But an anointed High Priest is not liable for the defiling of the Temple or its sacrificial foods. แธคizkiyya said: What is the reason for the opinion of Rabbi Shimon? It is as it is written with regard to one who becomes ritually impure and enters the Temple: โ€œAnd a man who shall be impure, and shall not be purified, that soul shall be excised [venikhreta] from the midst of the congregation, because he has defiled the Sanctuary of the Lord; the water of sprinkling has not been sprinkled on him: He is impureโ€ (Numbers 19:20). It is derived from this verse that this halakha applies specifically to one whose offering equals the offering of the congregation, i.e., the Jewish people. This serves to exclude the High Priest, as his offering does not equal the offering of the congregation, as on Yom Kippur he brings a bull for his unwitting transgression, while he brings a goat to achieve atonement for the Jewish people.

ืื ื›ืŸ ื ืฉื™ื ื ืžื™ ืื™ืŸ ืงืจื‘ื ื• ืฉื•ื” ืœืงื”ืœ ืฉื•ื” ื‘ื›ืคืจื” ื“ื™ื•ื ื”ื›ื™ืคื•ืจื™ื ืื ื›ืŸ ื›ื”ื ื™ื ื ืžื™ ืœื ืฉื•ื• ืœืงื”ืœ ื‘ื›ืคืจื” ื“ื™ื•ื ื”ื›ื™ืคื•ืจื™ื ื›ื”ื ื™ื ืฉื•ื• ืœืงื”ืœ ื‘ืฉืืจ ืžืฆื•ืช ื“ืฉื ื” ื›ื•ืœื”

The Gemara asks: If so, a king too, should be exempt, as his offering does not equal the offering of the congregation, as he brings a goat. The Gemara answers: Even so, the king equals the congregation in the atonement of Yom Kippur, as his atonement is achieved by means of the same offerings through which the rest of the congregation achieves atonement. The Gemara asks: If so, priests too should be exempt from bring-ing the offering for the defiling of the Temple, as they do not equal the congregation in the atonement of Yom Kippur, as their atonement is achieved by means of the bull of the High Priest. The Gemara answers: Priests equal the congregation with regard to atonement for the rest of the mitzvot of the entire year.

ืžืฉื™ื— ื ืžื™ ื”ื ืฉื•ื” ื‘ืฉืืจ ืžืฆื•ืช ื“ืฉื ื” ืืœื ืืžืจ ืจื‘ื ืื™ืžื ื”ื›ื™ ืžื™ ืฉื—ื˜ืืชื• ืฉื•ื” ืœื™ื—ื™ื“ื™ื ื•ืžืื™ ื ื™ื”ื• ืงื”ืœ

The Gemara challenges: The anointed priest, too, equals the congregation with regard to atonement for the rest of the mitzvot of the entire year. Rather, Rava said: Say this: One whose sin-offering equals that of individuals. And who are these individuals? They are the congregation. The status of a congregation that performed an unwitting transgression not on the basis of the ruling of the court is that of individuals. The High Priestโ€™s sin-offering is different, as he brings a sin-offering only for an unwitting transgression he performed on the basis of his own ruling.

ืจื‘ื™ ืืœื™ืขื–ืจ ืื•ืžืจ ื”ื ืฉื™ื ืžื‘ื™ื ืฉืขื™ืจ ื•ื›ื•ืณ ืืžืจ ืจื‘ื™ ื™ื•ื—ื ืŸ ืœื ืืžืจ ืจื‘ื™ ืืœื™ืขื–ืจ ืืœื ื‘ื˜ื•ืžืืช ืžืงื“ืฉ ื•ืงื“ืฉื™ื• ื”ื•ืื™ืœ ื•ื ืืžืจ ื›ืจืช ื‘ื• ื›ื‘ืงื‘ื•ืขื”

ยง The mishna teaches that Rabbi Eliezer says: The king brings a goat, and not a sliding-scale offering. Rabbi Yoแธฅanan says: Rabbi Eliezer stated his opinion only with regard to the defiling of the Temple or its sacrificial foods, since karet is stated concerning it, as it is stated in all matters where there is liability to bring a fixed sin-offering. Just as the king brings a goat as a sin-offering for any unwitting transgression for whose intentional violation one is liable to receive karet, so too, he brings a goat for the defiling of the Temple. For other unwitting transgressions for which one is liable to bring a sliding-scale offering and for whose intentional violation one is not liable to receive karet, the king is also liable to bring a sliding-scale offering.

ืืžืจ ืจื‘ ืคืคื ื”ื›ื™ ื ืžื™ ืžืกืชื‘ืจื ื“ืื™ ืกืœืงื ื“ืขืชืš ืจื‘ื™ ืืœื™ืขื–ืจ ืขืœ ื›ื•ืœื”ื•ืŸ ืงืืžืจ ืžื›ื“ื™ ืฉืขื™ืจ ื ืฉื™ื ื•ืคืจ ืžืฉื™ื— ื‘ืžืงื•ื ื™ื—ื™ื“ ืœื—ื˜ืืช ืงืื™ ื ื™ืชื ื™ ื ืžื™ ืžืฉื™ื— ืžื‘ื™ื ืคืจ ื‘ืฉืžื™ืขืช ืงื•ืœ ื•ื‘ื˜ื•ื™ ืฉืคืชื™ื ืืœื ืžื“ืœื ืงืชื ื™ ืžืฉื™ื— ืฉืžืข ืžื™ื ื” ืื˜ื•ืžืืช ืžืงื“ืฉ ื•ืงื“ืฉื™ื• ืงืื™ ื“ืžืฉื™ื— ืคื˜ื•ืจ

Rav Pappa said: So too, it is reasonable, as if it enters your mind to say that Rabbi Eliezer says that the king brings a goat for all of the transgressions enumerated in the mishna, and the king brings a goat in cases where individuals bring a sliding-scale offering, then since the goat of a king and the bull of an anointed priest stand in place of liability of an individual to bring a sin-offering, let Rabbi Eliezer also teach: An anointed priest brings a bull for hearing of a voice and for an utterance of the lips. Rather, from the fact that Rabbi Eliezer does not teach this halakha with regard to an anointed priest, learn from it that his statement that the king brings a goat stands in reference only to the defiling of the Temple or its sacrificial foods, with regard to which an anointed priest is exempt, in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Shimon.

ืืžืจ ืœื™ื” ืจื‘ ื”ื•ื ื ื‘ืจื™ื” ื“ืจื‘ ื ืชืŸ ืœืจื‘ ืคืคื ืžืžืื™ ื“ืœืžื ืจื‘ื™ ืืœื™ืขื–ืจ ืื›ื•ืœื”ื•ืŸ ืงืื™ ื•ื‘ืžืฉื™ื— ืกื‘ืจ ืœื” ื›ืจื‘ื™ ืขืงื™ื‘ื ื“ืืžืจ ืžืฉื™ื— ืคื˜ื•ืจ ื‘ื›ื•ืœืŸ ืืžืจ ืœื™ื” ื•ืจื‘ื™ ืขืงื™ื‘ื ืžื™ ืคื˜ืจ ืœื™ื” ืžืคืจ ื•ืชื• ืœื ืžื™ื“ื™

Rav Huna, son of Rav Natan, said to Rav Pappa: From where do you prove this? Perhaps the statement of Rabbi Eliezer stands in reference to all of them. And with regard to an anointed priest, he holds in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Akiva, who says: An anointed priest is exempt from all of the cases where one is liable to bring a sliding-scale offering. Rav Pappa said to him: And Rabbi Akiva, does he exempt an anointed priest from bringing a bull? Rabbi Akiva exempted him only from bringing a sliding-scale offering, but he holds that the High Priest is liable to bring the offering unique to him, the bull for an unwitting transgression he performed on the basis of his own erroneous ruling. And nothing more need be discussed.

ืืžืจ ืจื‘ื™ ื™ื•ื—ื ืŸ ืžื•ื“ื” ืจื‘ื™ ืืœื™ืขื–ืจ ืฉืื™ืŸ ืžื‘ื™ื ืืฉื ืชื ื™ ืชื ื ืงืžื™ื” ื“ืจื‘ ืฉืฉืช ืืฉื ืชืœื•ื™ ื‘ื ืขืœ ื˜ื•ืžืืช ืžืงื“ืฉ ื•ืงื“ืฉื™ื• ืืžืจ ืœื™ื” ื“ืืžืจ ืœืš ืžื ื™ ืจื‘ื™ ืืœื™ืขื–ืจ ื”ื™ื ื“ืืžืจ ื”ื•ืื™ืœ ื•ื ืืžืจ ื‘ื• ื›ืจืช ื›ื‘ืงื‘ื•ืขื” ืžื™ื™ืชื™ ื ืฉื™ื ืฉืขื™ืจ ืขืœื™ื” ื•ื”ืืžืจ ืจื‘ื™ ื™ื•ื—ื ืŸ ืžื•ื“ื” ืจื‘ื™ ืืœื™ืขื–ืจ ืฉืื™ืŸ ืžื‘ื™ื ืืฉื ืชืœื•ื™ ืงืฉื™ื

Rabbi Yoแธฅanan said: Rabbi Eliezer concedes that a king does not bring a guilt-offering for the defiling of the Temple or its sacrificial foods. The tanna who recited mishnayot and baraitot in the study hall recited a baraita before Rav Sheshet: In the case of a king, a provisional guilt-offering comes for the defiling of the Temple or its sacrificial foods. Rav Sheshet said to him: Who said this to you? Is it Rabbi Eliezer, who said: Since karet is stated in its regard as it is stated in all matters where there is liability to bring a fixed sin-offering, a king brings a goat for the defiling of the Temple? Since the status of his offering is like that of a fixed sin-offering, in cases of uncertainty, he is liable to bring a provisional guilt-offering. Rav Sheshet asks: But didnโ€™t Rabbi Yoแธฅanan say: Rabbi Eliezer concedes that a king does not bring a provisional guilt-offering? The Gemara concludes: Indeed, based on the statement of Rabbi Yoแธฅanan, the baraita is difficult.

ื”ื“ืจืŸ ืขืœื™ืš ื”ื•ืจื” ื›ื”ืŸ ืžืฉื™ื—

 

ืžืชื ื™ืณ ื›ื”ืŸ ืžืฉื™ื— ืฉื—ื˜ื ื•ืื—ืจ ื›ืš ืขื‘ืจ ืžืžืฉื™ื—ื•ืชื• ื•ื›ืŸ ื ืฉื™ื ืฉื—ื˜ื ื•ืื—ืจ ื›ืš ืขื‘ืจ ืžื’ื“ื•ืœืชื• ื›ื”ืŸ ืžืฉื™ื— ืžื‘ื™ื ืคืจ ื•ื”ื ืฉื™ื ืžื‘ื™ื ืฉืขื™ืจ ืžืฉื™ื— ืฉืขื‘ืจ ืžืžืฉื™ื—ื•ืชื• ื•ืื—ืจ ื›ืš ื—ื˜ื ื•ื›ืŸ ื”ื ืฉื™ื ืฉืขื‘ืจ ืžื’ื“ื•ืœืชื• ื•ืื—ืจ ื›ืš ื—ื˜ื ื›ื”ืŸ ืžืฉื™ื— ืžื‘ื™ื ืคืจ ื•ื”ื ืฉื™ื ื›ื”ื“ื™ื•ื˜

MISHNA: In the case of an anointed priest who sinned on the basis of his own erroneous halakhic ruling and thereafter moved on from his anointment, e.g., if he was disqualified due to a blemish that befell him before he brought his sin-offering, and likewise in the case of a king [nasi] who sinned and thereafter moved on from his prominence before he had brought an offering, an anointed priest brings a bull despite the fact that he is no longer the High Priest, and the king brings a goat, as he would have done during his reign. In the case of an anointed priest who moved on from his anointment and thereafter sinned, and likewise the king who moved on from his prominence and thereafter sinned, an anointed priest brings a bull, which he would have brought while he was High Priest, and the status of the king is like that of a commoner [kehedyot].

ื’ืžืณ ื”ืฉืชื ื™ืฉ ืœื•ืžืจ ืขื‘ืจ ืžืžืฉื™ื—ื•ืชื•

GEMARA: The Gemara questions the formulation of the mishna: Now it can be said: An anointed priest who moved on from his anointment

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Horayot 9

The William Davidson Talmud | Powered by Sefaria

Horayot 9

ืœื ืชื’ื™ืข ื™ื“ื• ื•ื ืืžืจ ืœื ืชืฉื™ื’ ื™ื“ื• ืžื™ ืฉื‘ื ืœื™ื“ื™ ืขื ื™ื•ืช ื•ืขืฉื™ืจื•ืช ื™ืฆื ื ืฉื™ื ื•ืžืฉื™ื— ืฉืื™ืŸ ื‘ืื™ืŸ ืœื™ื“ื™ ืขื ื™ื•ืช

โ€œAnd if his means suffice notโ€ (Leviticus 5:7), and it is stated: โ€œAnd if his means not sufficeโ€ (Leviticus 5:11), indicating that the sliding-scale offering applies only to one who can come to a state of poverty and wealth. This serves to exclude a king and an anointed priest, who cannot come to a state of poverty.

ื ืฉื™ื ื“ื›ืชื™ื‘ ื•ืขืฉื” ืื—ืช ืžื›ืœ ืžืฆื•ืช ื”ืณ ืืœื”ื™ื• ืžื™ ืฉืื™ืŸ ืขืœ ื’ื‘ื™ื• ืืœื ื”ืณ ืืœื”ื™ื• ืžืฉื™ื— ื“ื›ืชื™ื‘ ื•ื”ื›ื”ืŸ ื”ื’ื“ื•ืœ ืžืื—ื™ื• ืฉื”ื•ื ื’ื“ื•ืœ ืžืื—ื™ื• ื‘ื ื•ื™ ื‘ื›ื— ื‘ื—ื›ืžื” ื•ื‘ืขื•ืฉืจ ืื—ืจื™ื ืื•ืžืจื™ื ืžื ื™ืŸ ืฉืื ืื™ืŸ ืœื• ื’ื“ืœื”ื• ืžืฉืœ ืื—ื™ื• ืชืœืžื•ื“ ืœื•ืžืจ ื•ื”ื›ื”ืŸ ื”ื’ื“ื•ืœ ืžืื—ื™ื• ืืฉืจ ื™ื•ืฆืง ืขืœ ืจืืฉื• ื’ื“ืœื”ื• ืžืื—ื™ื•

The king cannot become poor, as it is written concerning him: โ€œAnd he performed one of all the mitzvot of the Lord his Godโ€ (Leviticus 4:22), referring to the king as one who has only the Lord his God upon him. He is greater than the entire nation and is not a poor person dependent on others. An anointed priest cannot become poor, as it is written: โ€œAnd the priest that is greatest among his brethrenโ€ (Leviticus 21:10), meaning that he is greater than his brethren in beauty, in power, in wisdom, and in wealth, not a poor person. Others say: From where is it derived that if the High Priest does not have personal wealth, one should make him great from the property of his brethren? The verse states: โ€œAnd the priest that is greatest among his brethren upon whose head the anointing oil is pouredโ€ (Leviticus 21:10), from which it is derived: Make him great from the property of his brethren, who will provide him with enough property to render him wealthy.

ื‘ืขื ืžื™ื ื™ื” ืจื‘ื™ื ื ืžืจื‘ ื ื—ืžืŸ ื‘ืจ ื™ืฆื—ืง ื ืฉื™ื ืฉื ืฆื˜ืจืข ืžื”ื• ืžื™ื“ื—ื ื“ื—ื™ ืื• ืžื™ืคื˜ืจ ืคื˜ื™ืจ ืืžืจ ืœื™ื” ื“ื™ืœืš ืื• ื“ื’ื–ื

Ravina raised a dilemma before Rav Naแธฅman bar Yitzแธฅak: In the case of a king who was afflicted with leprosy and unfit to serve as king during his affliction, what is his status with regard to the sliding-scale offering? Previously, during his reign, was he completely eliminated from the obligation to bring a sliding-scale offering to the extent that even now, when he is no longer king, he remains exempt? Or was he merely exempted, so that now that he is no longer king he is obligated to bring the offering? Rav Naแธฅman bar Yitzแธฅak said to Ravina: Does he bring the offering from your property, i.e., public property, or does he bring the offering from his personal treasure [degazza]? Since he obviously would bring the offering from his own personal treasure, he remains exempt from bringing the offering.

ืชื ื™ื ืจื‘ื™ ืขืงื™ื‘ื ืื•ืžืจ ืžืฉื™ื— ืคื˜ื•ืจ ืžื›ื•ืœืŸ ืืžืจ ืจื‘ื ืžืื™ ื˜ืขืžื ื“ืจื‘ื™ ืขืงื™ื‘ื ืืžืจ ืงืจื ื–ื” ืงืจื‘ืŸ ืื”ืจืŸ ื•ื‘ื ื™ื• ื–ื• ื‘ืื” ื—ื•ื‘ื” ืœื• ื•ืื™ืŸ ืื—ืจืช ื‘ืื” ื—ื•ื‘ื” ืœื•

ยง It is taught in a baraita that Rabbi Akiva says: An anointed priest is exempt from bringing an offering in all the cases where one is liable to bring a sliding-scale offering. Rava said: What is the reason for the opinion of Rabbi Akiva? It is as the verse states: โ€œThis is the offering of Aaron and of his sons that they shall offer unto the Lord on the day that he is anointed: One-tenth part of an ephah of fine flour as a meal-offeringโ€ (Leviticus 6:13). One can infer: It is this tenth of an ephah that comes as an obligation for him, and no other such offering comes as an obligation for him.

ื•ืื™ืžื ื›ื™ ืžืžืขื˜ ืœื™ื” ืจื—ืžื ื ืžื“ืœื™ ื“ืœื•ืช ื•ืžืื™ ื ื™ื”ื• ืขืฉื™ืจื™ืช ื”ืื™ืคื” ืื‘ืœ ืขื ื™ื•ืช ื•ืขืฉื™ืจื•ืช ืœื ืžืขื˜ื™ื” ืจื—ืžื ื ืœื ืกืœืงื ื“ืขืชืš ื“ื›ืชื™ื‘ ื•ื›ืคืจ ืขืœื™ื• ื”ื›ื”ืŸ ืขืœ ื—ื˜ืืชื• ืืฉืจ ื—ื˜ื ืžืื—ืช ืžืืœื” ื”ืžืชื›ืคืจ ื‘ืื—ืช ืžืชื›ืคืจ ื‘ื›ื•ืœืŸ ื•ืฉืื™ืŸ ืžืชื›ืคืจ ื‘ืื—ืช ืื™ืŸ ืžืชื›ืคืจ ื‘ื›ื•ืœืŸ

The Gemara asks: But why not say that when the Merciful One excludes an anointed priest, it is particularly from the type of sliding-scale offering brought due to extreme poverty? And what is it? The one-tenth of an ephah meal-offering mentioned in the verse. But the Merciful One did not exclude him from the dove brought as a sliding-scale offering due to poverty and the sheep brought as a sliding-scale offering by one with wealth. The Gemara rejects this: That should not enter your mind, as it is written with regard to the sliding-scale offering: โ€œAnd the priest shall atone for him for his sin that he has committed from one of theseโ€ (Leviticus 5:13), from which it is derived: One who gains atonement with every one of the types of a sliding-scale offering gains atonement with any of the types of the sliding-scale offering, and one who does not gain atonement with every one of the types of a sliding-scale offering does not gain atonement with any of the types of the sliding-scale offering.

ืืœื ืžืขืชื” ื“ื›ืชื™ื‘ ื•ื”ื™ื” ื›ื™ ื™ืืฉื ืœืื—ืช ืžืืœื” ื”ื›ื™ ื ืžื™ ื“ื›ืœ ื”ืžืชื—ื™ื™ื‘ ื‘ืื—ืช ืžืชื—ื™ื™ื‘ ื‘ื›ื•ืœืŸ ื•ืฉืื™ืŸ ืžืชื—ื™ื™ื‘ ื‘ืื—ืช ืื™ืŸ ืžืชื—ื™ื™ื‘ ื‘ื›ื•ืœืŸ ืืœืžื” ืชื ืŸ ืจื‘ื™ ืขืงื™ื‘ื ืื•ืžืจ ื ืฉื™ื ื—ื™ื™ื‘ ื—ื•ืฅ ืžืฉืžื™ืขืช ืงื•ืœ

The Gemara asks: But if that is so, and the verse is interpreted in that manner, then that which is written there: โ€œAnd it shall be when he shall be guilty of one of these mattersโ€ (Leviticus 5:5), so too shall be interpreted: Anyone who becomes liable in every one of the instances for which one brings a sliding-scale offering can become liable in any of those instances, and anyone who does not become liable in every one of the instances to bring a sliding-scale offering cannot become liable in any of those instances. Why, then, did we learn in the mishna that Rabbi Akiva says: The king is liable in all of these cases except for the case of hearing of a voice, indicating that he can become liable in the rest of the instances even if he is exempt in one?

ืื‘ื™ื™ ื•ืจื‘ื ื“ืืžืจื™ ืชืจื•ื™ื™ื”ื• ืžืื—ืช ืžืฉืžืข ืœื™ื” ืœืื—ืช ืœื ืžืฉืžืข ืœื™ื” ื•ืžืื™ ืฉื ื ืžืื—ืช ื“ืžืฉืžืข ืœื™ื”

Abaye and Rava both say to resolve this difficulty: Rabbi Akiva learns this inference from the term: โ€œFrom oneโ€ (Leviticus 5:13). He does not learn anything from the term: โ€œOf oneโ€ (Leviticus 5:5). The Gemara asks: And what is different about the term โ€œfrom oneโ€ that he learns a halakha from it?

ื“ื›ืชื‘ื™ื” ืจื—ืžื ื ืœื‘ืกื•ืฃ ื’ื‘ื™ ืขืฉื™ืจื™ืช ื”ืื™ืคื” ืœืžื™ืžืจื ื“ื›ืœ ื“ืžื—ื™ื™ื‘ ื‘ืขืฉื™ืจื™ืช ื”ืื™ืคื” ืžื—ื™ื™ื‘ ื‘ื›ื•ืœืŸ ื“ืื™ ืกืœืงื ื“ืขืชืš ืžืชื—ื™ื™ื‘ ื‘ืื—ืช ืืฃ ืขืœ ืคื™ ืฉืื™ืŸ ืžืชื—ื™ื™ื‘ ื‘ื›ื•ืœืŸ ื ื›ืชื‘ื™ื” ืœื”ืื™ ืžืื—ืช ืžืืœื” ื‘ื“ืœื•ืช ืื™ ื ืžื™ ื‘ืขืฉื™ืจื•ืช

The Gemara answers: The difference is that the Merciful One wrote it at the end of the passage discussing the sliding-scale offering, with regard to the one-tenth of an ephah meal-offering, to say that anyone who can become liable to bring the one-tenth of an ephah can become liable to bring any of them. As, if it enters your mind to say that one can become liable to bring one even though he cannot become liable to bring any one of them, let the Torah write this phrase: From one of these, with regard to the offering brought due to poverty, or alternatively, with regard to the offering brought by one with wealth. Since this term does not appear with regard to one of the other offerings, apparently, it is specifically with regard to the offering brought due to extreme poverty that one who cannot become liable for that offering is exempt from the entire matter.

ืžืชื ื™ืณ ื›ืœ ื”ืžืฆื•ืช ืฉื‘ืชื•ืจื” ืฉื—ื™ื™ื‘ื™ืŸ ืขืœ ื–ื“ื•ื ืŸ ื›ืจืช ื•ืขืœ ืฉื’ื’ืชืŸ ื—ื˜ืืช ื”ื™ื—ื™ื“ ืžื‘ื™ื ื›ืฉื‘ื” ื•ืฉืขื™ืจื” ื•ื”ื ืฉื™ื ืฉืขื™ืจ ื•ืžืฉื™ื— ื•ื‘ื™ืช ื“ื™ืŸ ืžื‘ื™ืื™ืŸ ืคืจ ื•ื‘ืขื‘ื•ื“ื” ื–ืจื” ื”ื™ื—ื™ื“ ื•ื”ื ืฉื™ื ื•ื”ืžืฉื™ื— ืžื‘ื™ืื™ืŸ ืฉืขื™ืจื” ื•ื‘ื™ืช ื“ื™ืŸ ืคืจ ื•ืฉืขื™ืจ ืคืจ ืœืขื•ืœื” ื•ืฉืขื™ืจ ืœื—ื˜ืืช

MISHNA: In summation: For all mitzvot that are in the Torah for whose intentional violation one is liable to receive karet and for whose unwitting violation one is liable to bring a sin-offering, the individual brings a ewe or female goat for their unwitting transgression, and the king brings a male goat for their unwitting transgression, and an anointed priest and a court who issued an erroneous ruling bring a bull. And for unwittingly engaging in idol worship, the individual, and the king, and the anointed priest bring a female goat, and the court brings a bull and a goat: A bull for a burnt-offering and a goat for a sin-offering.

ืืฉื ืชืœื•ื™ ื”ื™ื—ื™ื“ ื•ื”ื ืฉื™ื ื—ื™ื™ื‘ื™ืŸ ื•ืžืฉื™ื— ื•ื‘ื™ืช ื“ื™ืŸ ืคื˜ื•ืจื™ืŸ ืืฉื ื•ื“ืื™ ื”ื™ื—ื™ื“ ื•ื”ื ืฉื™ื ื•ื”ืžืฉื™ื— ื—ื™ื™ื‘ื™ืŸ ื•ื‘ื™ืช ื“ื™ืŸ ืคื˜ื•ืจื™ืŸ

With regard to a provisional guilt-offering, the individual and the king are liable, and an anointed priest and a court are exempt. With regard to a definite guilt-offering, the individual, the king, and the anointed priest are liable, and a court is exempt.

ืขืœ ืฉืžื™ืขืช ื”ืงื•ืœ ื•ืขืœ ื‘ื˜ื•ื™ ืฉืคืชื™ื ื•ืขืœ ื˜ื•ืžืืช ืžืงื“ืฉ ื•ืงื“ืฉื™ื• ื‘ื™ืช ื“ื™ืŸ ืคื˜ื•ืจื™ืŸ ื•ื”ื™ื—ื™ื“ ื•ื”ื ืฉื™ื ื•ื”ืžืฉื™ื— ื—ื™ื™ื‘ื™ืŸ ืืœื ืฉืื™ืŸ ื›ื”ืŸ ื’ื“ื•ืœ ืžืฉื™ื— ื—ื™ื™ื‘ ืขืœ ื˜ื•ืžืืช ืžืงื“ืฉ ื•ืงื“ืฉื™ื• ื“ื‘ืจื™ ืจื‘ื™ ืฉืžืขื•ืŸ ื•ืžื” ื”ืŸ ืžื‘ื™ืื™ืŸ ืงืจื‘ืŸ ืขื•ืœื” ื•ื™ื•ืจื“ ืจื‘ื™ ืืœืขื–ืจ ืื•ืžืจ ื”ื ืฉื™ื ืžื‘ื™ื ืฉืขื™ืจ

For hearing of a voice, i.e., a false oath of testimony, and for a false oath on an utterance of the lips, and for the defiling of the Temple or its sacrificial foods, a court is exempt, and the individual, the king, and the anointed priest are liable. But an anointed High Priest is not liable for the defiling of the Temple or its sacrificial foods; this is the statement of Rabbi Shimon. And what offering are they liable to bring? It is a sliding-scale offering based on their financial circumstances, as delineated in the Torah (see Leviticus 5:1โ€“13). Rabbi Elazar says: The king brings a goat.

ื’ืžืณ ืชื ื™ื ืจื‘ื™ ืฉืžืขื•ืŸ ื”ื™ื” ื ื•ืชืŸ ื›ืœืœ ื›ืœ ืฉื”ื™ื—ื™ื“ ื‘ืืฉื ืชืœื•ื™ ื”ื ืฉื™ื ื›ื™ื•ืฆื ื‘ื• ืžืฉื™ื— ื•ื‘ื™ืช ื“ื™ืŸ ืคื˜ื•ืจื™ืŸ ื•ื›ืœ ืฉื”ื•ื ื‘ืืฉื ื•ื“ืื™ ื ืฉื™ื ื•ืžืฉื™ื— ื›ื™ื•ืฆื ื‘ื”ืŸ ื•ื‘ื™ืช ื“ื™ืŸ ืคื˜ื•ืจื™ืŸ

GEMARA: It is taught in a baraita that Rabbi Shimon would posit a principle: For any case in which the individual is liable to bring a provisional guilt-offering, the status of the king is like that of the individual, and an anointed priest and a court are exempt. And for any case in which an individual is liable to bring a definite guilt-offering, the status of a king and an anointed priest is like that of the individual, and the court is exempt.

ืฉืžื™ืขืช ื”ืงื•ืœ ื•ื‘ื˜ื•ื™ ืฉืคืชื™ื ื•ื˜ื•ืžืืช ืžืงื“ืฉ ื•ืงื“ืฉื™ื• ื‘ื™ืช ื“ื™ืŸ ืคื˜ื•ืจื™ืŸ ื ืฉื™ื ื•ืžืฉื™ื— ื—ื™ื™ื‘ื™ืŸ ืืœื ืฉืื™ืŸ ื”ื ืฉื™ื ื—ื™ื™ื‘ ื‘ืฉืžื™ืขืช ื”ืงื•ืœ ื•ืœื ืžืฉื™ื— ื‘ื˜ื•ืžืืช ืžืงื“ืฉ ื•ืงื“ืฉื™ื• ื›ืœ ืฉื”ื•ื ื‘ืขื•ืœื” ื•ื™ื•ืจื“ ื ืฉื™ื ื›ื™ื•ืฆื ื‘ื• ืžืฉื™ื— ื•ื‘ื™ืช ื“ื™ืŸ ืคื˜ื•ืจื™ืŸ

He continues: For hearing of a voice, i.e., a false oath of testimony, and for a false oath on an utterance of the lips, and for the defiling of the Temple or its sacrificial foods, a court is exempt, and a king and an anointed priest are liable. But the king is not liable in a case of hearing of a voice, and an anointed priest is not liable for the defiling of the Temple or its sacrificial foods. In general, for any case for which an individual is liable to bring a sliding-scale offering, the status of a king is like that of the individual, and an anointed priest and a court are exempt.

ื”ื ื’ื•ืคื ืงืฉื™ื ืืžืจืช ืฉืื™ืŸ ืžืฉื™ื— ื—ื™ื™ื‘ ื‘ื˜ื•ืžืืช ืžืงื“ืฉ ื•ืงื“ืฉื™ื• ื‘ื˜ื•ืžืืช ืžืงื“ืฉ ื•ืงื“ืฉื™ื• ื”ื•ื ื“ืคื˜ื•ืจ ืื‘ืœ ื‘ืฉืžื™ืขืช ื”ืงื•ืœ ื•ื‘ื˜ื•ื™ ืฉืคืชื™ื ื—ื™ื™ื‘ ืื™ืžื ืกื™ืคื ื›ืœ ืฉื”ื•ื ื‘ืขื•ืœื” ื•ื™ื•ืจื“ ื ืฉื™ื ื›ื™ื•ืฆื ื‘ื• ืžืฉื™ื— ื•ื‘ื™ืช ื“ื™ืŸ ืคื˜ื•ืจื™ืŸ ืงืชื ื™ ืžืฉื™ื— ื•ื‘ื™ืช ื“ื™ืŸ ืคื˜ื•ืจื™ืŸ ืžื” ื‘ื™ืช ื“ื™ืŸ ืคื˜ื•ืจื™ืŸ ืžื›ื•ืœื”ื•ืŸ ืืฃ ืžืฉื™ื— ืคื˜ื•ืจ ืžื›ื•ืœื”ื•ืŸ

The Gemara expresses surprise: This baraita itself is difficult. You said that an anointed priest is not liable for the defiling of the Temple or its sacrificial foods, and by inference: It is for the defiling of the Temple or its sacrificial foods that he is exempt, but he is liable for hearing of a voice and for a statement of the lips. Say the latter clause of the baraita: For any case for which an individual is liable to bring a sliding-scale offering, the status of a king is like that of the individual, and an anointed priest and a court are exempt. He teaches: An anointed priest and a court are exempt; just as a court is exempt from all of the sliding-scale offerings, so too, an anointed priest is exempt from all of them, not only from the offering for the defiling of the Temple or its sacrificial foods.

ืงืฉื™ื™ืŸ ืื”ื“ื“ื™

If so, these two passages are difficult, as they contradict one another.

ืืžืจ ืจื‘ ื”ื•ื ื ื‘ืจื™ื” ื“ืจื‘ ื™ื”ื•ืฉืข ืœื ืงืฉื™ื ื›ืืŸ ื‘ื“ืœื•ืช ื›ืืŸ ื‘ื“ืœื™ ื“ืœื•ืช ื•ืจื‘ื™ ืฉืžืขื•ืŸ ืกื‘ืจ ืœื” ื›ืจื‘ื™ ืขืงื™ื‘ื ื‘ื—ื“ื ื•ืคืœื™ื’ ืขืœื™ื” ื‘ื—ื“ื ืกื‘ืจ ืœื” ื›ืจื‘ื™ ืขืงื™ื‘ื ื‘ื“ืœื™ ื“ืœื•ืช ื“ืคื˜ื•ืจ ื•ืคืœื™ื’ ืขืœื™ื” ื‘ื“ืœื•ืช

Rav Huna, son of Rav Yehoshua, said: This is not difficult, as there is a distinction between the rulings. Here, in the passage that deems the anointed priest liable in cases other than the defiling the Temple, it is in the case of an offering brought due to poverty, whereas there, in the latter clause, it is in the case of an offering brought due to extreme poverty. And Rabbi Shimon holds in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Akiva with regard to one halakha and disagrees with him with regard to one other halakha. He holds in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Akiva in the case of extreme poverty that the anointed priest is exempt from bringing that meal-offering. And he disagrees with Rabbi Akiva in the case of poverty, as he does not hold that the anointed priest is completely exempt from bringing a sliding-scale offering.

ืืœื ืฉืื™ืŸ ื›ื”ืŸ ื’ื“ื•ืœ ื—ื™ื™ื‘ ื›ื•ืณ ืืžืจ ื—ื–ืงื™ื” ืžืื™ ื˜ืขืžื ื“ืจื‘ื™ ืฉืžืขื•ืŸ ื“ื›ืชื™ื‘ ื•ื ื›ืจืชื” ื”ื ืคืฉ ื”ื”ื™ื ืžืชื•ืš ื”ืงื”ืœ ืžื™ ืฉืงืจื‘ื ื• ืฉื•ื” ืœืงื”ืœ ื™ืฆื ื–ื” ืฉืื™ืŸ ืงืจื‘ื ื• ืฉื•ื” ืœืงื”ืœ

ยง The mishna teaches that Rabbi Shimon says: But an anointed High Priest is not liable for the defiling of the Temple or its sacrificial foods. แธคizkiyya said: What is the reason for the opinion of Rabbi Shimon? It is as it is written with regard to one who becomes ritually impure and enters the Temple: โ€œAnd a man who shall be impure, and shall not be purified, that soul shall be excised [venikhreta] from the midst of the congregation, because he has defiled the Sanctuary of the Lord; the water of sprinkling has not been sprinkled on him: He is impureโ€ (Numbers 19:20). It is derived from this verse that this halakha applies specifically to one whose offering equals the offering of the congregation, i.e., the Jewish people. This serves to exclude the High Priest, as his offering does not equal the offering of the congregation, as on Yom Kippur he brings a bull for his unwitting transgression, while he brings a goat to achieve atonement for the Jewish people.

ืื ื›ืŸ ื ืฉื™ื ื ืžื™ ืื™ืŸ ืงืจื‘ื ื• ืฉื•ื” ืœืงื”ืœ ืฉื•ื” ื‘ื›ืคืจื” ื“ื™ื•ื ื”ื›ื™ืคื•ืจื™ื ืื ื›ืŸ ื›ื”ื ื™ื ื ืžื™ ืœื ืฉื•ื• ืœืงื”ืœ ื‘ื›ืคืจื” ื“ื™ื•ื ื”ื›ื™ืคื•ืจื™ื ื›ื”ื ื™ื ืฉื•ื• ืœืงื”ืœ ื‘ืฉืืจ ืžืฆื•ืช ื“ืฉื ื” ื›ื•ืœื”

The Gemara asks: If so, a king too, should be exempt, as his offering does not equal the offering of the congregation, as he brings a goat. The Gemara answers: Even so, the king equals the congregation in the atonement of Yom Kippur, as his atonement is achieved by means of the same offerings through which the rest of the congregation achieves atonement. The Gemara asks: If so, priests too should be exempt from bring-ing the offering for the defiling of the Temple, as they do not equal the congregation in the atonement of Yom Kippur, as their atonement is achieved by means of the bull of the High Priest. The Gemara answers: Priests equal the congregation with regard to atonement for the rest of the mitzvot of the entire year.

ืžืฉื™ื— ื ืžื™ ื”ื ืฉื•ื” ื‘ืฉืืจ ืžืฆื•ืช ื“ืฉื ื” ืืœื ืืžืจ ืจื‘ื ืื™ืžื ื”ื›ื™ ืžื™ ืฉื—ื˜ืืชื• ืฉื•ื” ืœื™ื—ื™ื“ื™ื ื•ืžืื™ ื ื™ื”ื• ืงื”ืœ

The Gemara challenges: The anointed priest, too, equals the congregation with regard to atonement for the rest of the mitzvot of the entire year. Rather, Rava said: Say this: One whose sin-offering equals that of individuals. And who are these individuals? They are the congregation. The status of a congregation that performed an unwitting transgression not on the basis of the ruling of the court is that of individuals. The High Priestโ€™s sin-offering is different, as he brings a sin-offering only for an unwitting transgression he performed on the basis of his own ruling.

ืจื‘ื™ ืืœื™ืขื–ืจ ืื•ืžืจ ื”ื ืฉื™ื ืžื‘ื™ื ืฉืขื™ืจ ื•ื›ื•ืณ ืืžืจ ืจื‘ื™ ื™ื•ื—ื ืŸ ืœื ืืžืจ ืจื‘ื™ ืืœื™ืขื–ืจ ืืœื ื‘ื˜ื•ืžืืช ืžืงื“ืฉ ื•ืงื“ืฉื™ื• ื”ื•ืื™ืœ ื•ื ืืžืจ ื›ืจืช ื‘ื• ื›ื‘ืงื‘ื•ืขื”

ยง The mishna teaches that Rabbi Eliezer says: The king brings a goat, and not a sliding-scale offering. Rabbi Yoแธฅanan says: Rabbi Eliezer stated his opinion only with regard to the defiling of the Temple or its sacrificial foods, since karet is stated concerning it, as it is stated in all matters where there is liability to bring a fixed sin-offering. Just as the king brings a goat as a sin-offering for any unwitting transgression for whose intentional violation one is liable to receive karet, so too, he brings a goat for the defiling of the Temple. For other unwitting transgressions for which one is liable to bring a sliding-scale offering and for whose intentional violation one is not liable to receive karet, the king is also liable to bring a sliding-scale offering.

ืืžืจ ืจื‘ ืคืคื ื”ื›ื™ ื ืžื™ ืžืกืชื‘ืจื ื“ืื™ ืกืœืงื ื“ืขืชืš ืจื‘ื™ ืืœื™ืขื–ืจ ืขืœ ื›ื•ืœื”ื•ืŸ ืงืืžืจ ืžื›ื“ื™ ืฉืขื™ืจ ื ืฉื™ื ื•ืคืจ ืžืฉื™ื— ื‘ืžืงื•ื ื™ื—ื™ื“ ืœื—ื˜ืืช ืงืื™ ื ื™ืชื ื™ ื ืžื™ ืžืฉื™ื— ืžื‘ื™ื ืคืจ ื‘ืฉืžื™ืขืช ืงื•ืœ ื•ื‘ื˜ื•ื™ ืฉืคืชื™ื ืืœื ืžื“ืœื ืงืชื ื™ ืžืฉื™ื— ืฉืžืข ืžื™ื ื” ืื˜ื•ืžืืช ืžืงื“ืฉ ื•ืงื“ืฉื™ื• ืงืื™ ื“ืžืฉื™ื— ืคื˜ื•ืจ

Rav Pappa said: So too, it is reasonable, as if it enters your mind to say that Rabbi Eliezer says that the king brings a goat for all of the transgressions enumerated in the mishna, and the king brings a goat in cases where individuals bring a sliding-scale offering, then since the goat of a king and the bull of an anointed priest stand in place of liability of an individual to bring a sin-offering, let Rabbi Eliezer also teach: An anointed priest brings a bull for hearing of a voice and for an utterance of the lips. Rather, from the fact that Rabbi Eliezer does not teach this halakha with regard to an anointed priest, learn from it that his statement that the king brings a goat stands in reference only to the defiling of the Temple or its sacrificial foods, with regard to which an anointed priest is exempt, in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Shimon.

ืืžืจ ืœื™ื” ืจื‘ ื”ื•ื ื ื‘ืจื™ื” ื“ืจื‘ ื ืชืŸ ืœืจื‘ ืคืคื ืžืžืื™ ื“ืœืžื ืจื‘ื™ ืืœื™ืขื–ืจ ืื›ื•ืœื”ื•ืŸ ืงืื™ ื•ื‘ืžืฉื™ื— ืกื‘ืจ ืœื” ื›ืจื‘ื™ ืขืงื™ื‘ื ื“ืืžืจ ืžืฉื™ื— ืคื˜ื•ืจ ื‘ื›ื•ืœืŸ ืืžืจ ืœื™ื” ื•ืจื‘ื™ ืขืงื™ื‘ื ืžื™ ืคื˜ืจ ืœื™ื” ืžืคืจ ื•ืชื• ืœื ืžื™ื“ื™

Rav Huna, son of Rav Natan, said to Rav Pappa: From where do you prove this? Perhaps the statement of Rabbi Eliezer stands in reference to all of them. And with regard to an anointed priest, he holds in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Akiva, who says: An anointed priest is exempt from all of the cases where one is liable to bring a sliding-scale offering. Rav Pappa said to him: And Rabbi Akiva, does he exempt an anointed priest from bringing a bull? Rabbi Akiva exempted him only from bringing a sliding-scale offering, but he holds that the High Priest is liable to bring the offering unique to him, the bull for an unwitting transgression he performed on the basis of his own erroneous ruling. And nothing more need be discussed.

ืืžืจ ืจื‘ื™ ื™ื•ื—ื ืŸ ืžื•ื“ื” ืจื‘ื™ ืืœื™ืขื–ืจ ืฉืื™ืŸ ืžื‘ื™ื ืืฉื ืชื ื™ ืชื ื ืงืžื™ื” ื“ืจื‘ ืฉืฉืช ืืฉื ืชืœื•ื™ ื‘ื ืขืœ ื˜ื•ืžืืช ืžืงื“ืฉ ื•ืงื“ืฉื™ื• ืืžืจ ืœื™ื” ื“ืืžืจ ืœืš ืžื ื™ ืจื‘ื™ ืืœื™ืขื–ืจ ื”ื™ื ื“ืืžืจ ื”ื•ืื™ืœ ื•ื ืืžืจ ื‘ื• ื›ืจืช ื›ื‘ืงื‘ื•ืขื” ืžื™ื™ืชื™ ื ืฉื™ื ืฉืขื™ืจ ืขืœื™ื” ื•ื”ืืžืจ ืจื‘ื™ ื™ื•ื—ื ืŸ ืžื•ื“ื” ืจื‘ื™ ืืœื™ืขื–ืจ ืฉืื™ืŸ ืžื‘ื™ื ืืฉื ืชืœื•ื™ ืงืฉื™ื

Rabbi Yoแธฅanan said: Rabbi Eliezer concedes that a king does not bring a guilt-offering for the defiling of the Temple or its sacrificial foods. The tanna who recited mishnayot and baraitot in the study hall recited a baraita before Rav Sheshet: In the case of a king, a provisional guilt-offering comes for the defiling of the Temple or its sacrificial foods. Rav Sheshet said to him: Who said this to you? Is it Rabbi Eliezer, who said: Since karet is stated in its regard as it is stated in all matters where there is liability to bring a fixed sin-offering, a king brings a goat for the defiling of the Temple? Since the status of his offering is like that of a fixed sin-offering, in cases of uncertainty, he is liable to bring a provisional guilt-offering. Rav Sheshet asks: But didnโ€™t Rabbi Yoแธฅanan say: Rabbi Eliezer concedes that a king does not bring a provisional guilt-offering? The Gemara concludes: Indeed, based on the statement of Rabbi Yoแธฅanan, the baraita is difficult.

ื”ื“ืจืŸ ืขืœื™ืš ื”ื•ืจื” ื›ื”ืŸ ืžืฉื™ื—

 

ืžืชื ื™ืณ ื›ื”ืŸ ืžืฉื™ื— ืฉื—ื˜ื ื•ืื—ืจ ื›ืš ืขื‘ืจ ืžืžืฉื™ื—ื•ืชื• ื•ื›ืŸ ื ืฉื™ื ืฉื—ื˜ื ื•ืื—ืจ ื›ืš ืขื‘ืจ ืžื’ื“ื•ืœืชื• ื›ื”ืŸ ืžืฉื™ื— ืžื‘ื™ื ืคืจ ื•ื”ื ืฉื™ื ืžื‘ื™ื ืฉืขื™ืจ ืžืฉื™ื— ืฉืขื‘ืจ ืžืžืฉื™ื—ื•ืชื• ื•ืื—ืจ ื›ืš ื—ื˜ื ื•ื›ืŸ ื”ื ืฉื™ื ืฉืขื‘ืจ ืžื’ื“ื•ืœืชื• ื•ืื—ืจ ื›ืš ื—ื˜ื ื›ื”ืŸ ืžืฉื™ื— ืžื‘ื™ื ืคืจ ื•ื”ื ืฉื™ื ื›ื”ื“ื™ื•ื˜

MISHNA: In the case of an anointed priest who sinned on the basis of his own erroneous halakhic ruling and thereafter moved on from his anointment, e.g., if he was disqualified due to a blemish that befell him before he brought his sin-offering, and likewise in the case of a king [nasi] who sinned and thereafter moved on from his prominence before he had brought an offering, an anointed priest brings a bull despite the fact that he is no longer the High Priest, and the king brings a goat, as he would have done during his reign. In the case of an anointed priest who moved on from his anointment and thereafter sinned, and likewise the king who moved on from his prominence and thereafter sinned, an anointed priest brings a bull, which he would have brought while he was High Priest, and the status of the king is like that of a commoner [kehedyot].

ื’ืžืณ ื”ืฉืชื ื™ืฉ ืœื•ืžืจ ืขื‘ืจ ืžืžืฉื™ื—ื•ืชื•

GEMARA: The Gemara questions the formulation of the mishna: Now it can be said: An anointed priest who moved on from his anointment

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