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Today's Daf Yomi

July 20, 2022 | 讻状讗 讘转诪讜讝 转砖驻状讘

  • This month's learning is sponsored by Terri Krivosha for the Refuah Shlemah of her husband Harav Hayim Yehuda Ben Faiga Rivah.聽

  • This month's learning is dedicated by Debbie and Yossi Gevir to Rabbanit Michelle and the Hadran Zoom group for their kindness, support, and care during a medically challenging year.

  • Masechet Ketubot is sponsored by Erica and Rob Schwartz in honor of the 50th wedding anniversary of Erica's parents Sheira and Steve Schacter.

Ketubot 14

Today’s daf is sponsored by Avi Yonitzman for the refuah shleima of Moshe David ben Tzvia.

A case came before Rav Yosef with a pregnant fianc茅 – both she and the fianc茅 claimed that the child was his. Rav Yosef believed them since the man agreed with the woman and since we hold like Rabban Gamliel, even in a case where he didn鈥檛 agree, we believe the woman as we rely on her presumptive status (permitted to a kohen). Abaye raises a difficulty as Shmuel ruled like Rabban Gamliel only when there until there is a kosher majority. Rabbi Yosef replied Shmuel must have said that only ab initio but not post facto and our case is post facto as they are already betrothed and she is already pregnant. Abaye cites a Mishna in Eduyot 8:3 where Rabbi Yehushua had an opinion contradictory to his opinion here 鈥 regarding a widow isa (widow of a safek chalal). Raba resolves the contradiction, but Rava points out that he did not take into consideration that in the same Mishna, Rabban Gamliel also has an opinion that contradicts his opinion here. Therefore, Rava resolves the contradiction in a different manner. The Gemara brings a braita with a dispute between three regarding the almanat isa. The Gemara raises three questions in understanding the braita and then explains all three opinions in a way that solves all the difficulties. The Mishnah brings up a case of a young woman that was raped and ruled that she should only be permitted to marry a kohen if the majority of people in the area are 鈥渒osher鈥. How can this be because it does not conform to the opinion of Rabban Gamliel who allows even if the majority are not kosher and not Rabbi Yehoshua who forbids even if the majority are kosher?!

讗讬谉 诪讬谞讗讬 讗诪专 专讘 讬讜住祝 诇诪讗讬 谞讬讞讜砖 诇讛 讞讚讗 讚讛讗 拽讗 诪讜讚讛 讜注讜讚 讛讗 讗诪专 专讘 讬讛讜讚讛 讗诪专 砖诪讜讗诇 讛诇讻讛 讻专讘谉 讙诪诇讬讗诇

Yes, she conceived from relations with me. Rav Yosef said: The ruling here is clear, as with regard to what suspicion need we be concerned? First, he concedes that he is the father. And furthermore, didn鈥檛 Rav Yehuda say that Shmuel said: The halakha is in accordance with the opinion of Rabban Gamliel, and even if he didn鈥檛 admit that the child was his, the woman鈥檚 claim is accorded credibility?

讗诪专 诇讬讛 讗讘讬讬 讜讘讛讗 讻讬 诇讗 诪讜讚讛 诪讻砖专 专讘谉 讙诪诇讬讗诇 讜讛讗诪专 诇讬讛 砖诪讜讗诇 诇专讘 讬讛讜讚讛 砖讬谞谞讗 讛诇讻讛 讻专讘谉 讙诪诇讬讗诇 讜讗转 诇讗 转注讘讬讚 注讜讘讚讗 注讚 讚讗讬讻讗 专讜讘 讻砖专讬谉 讗爪诇讛 讜讛讻讗 专讜讘 驻住讜诇讬谉 讗爪诇讛

Abaye said to him: And in this case, based on the fact that you cited two reasons to deem the child fit, is that to say when he does not admit that he is the father Rabban Gamliel deems the child fit? But didn鈥檛 Shmuel say to Rav Yehuda: Big-toothed one, the halakha is in accordance with the opinion of Rabban Gamliel, i.e., that she is accorded credibility, but you should not perform an action based on this ruling unless the majority of the men in her proximity are honorable and of impeccable lineage, corroborating her claim. And here, since she is betrothed, the majority of the men in her proximity are unfit, as a child fathered by any man other than her betrothed is a mamzer. Shmuel should not have ruled that the halakha was in accordance with the opinion of Rabban Gamliel.

讜诇讬讟注诪讬讱 转拽砖讬 诇讱 讛讬讗 讙讜驻讗 讛诇讻讛 讜讗转 诇讗 转注讘讬讚 注讜讘讚讗 讗诇讗 诪讗讬 讗讬转 诇讱 诇诪讬诪专 讛讗 诇讻转讞诇讛 讛讗 讚讬注讘讚 讜讛讗 谞诪讬 讻讚讬注讘讚 讚诪讬

Rav Yosef said to Abaye: And according to your reasoning, the halakha itself should pose a difficulty for you, as on the one hand Shmuel rules that it is the halakha and on the other hand he adds: But you should not perform an action based on this ruling. Rather, what have you to say to explain this contradiction? This statement that one relies on the woman鈥檚 claim only if a majority of men in her proximity are of unflawed lineage is ab initio. That statement that one may rely on the woman鈥檚 claim regardless of the status on the men in her proximity is after the fact. And this case of the betrothed woman, too, is like a case after the fact, as failure to rely on her claim will render her child a mamzer. Therefore, in this case, Shmuel would rule that the halakha is in accordance with the opinion of Rabban Gamliel.

专诪讬 诇讬讛 讗讘讬讬 诇专讘讗 讜诪讬 讗诪专 专讘讬 讬讛讜砖注 讗讬谞讛 谞讗诪谞转 讜专诪讬谞讛讜 讛注讬讚 专讘讬 讬讛讜砖注 讜专讘讬 讬讛讜讚讛 讘谉 讘转讬专讗 注诇 讗诇诪谞转 注讬住讛 砖讛讬讗 讻砖专讛 诇讻讛讜谞讛

Abaye raised a contradiction before Rava from a mishna (Eduyyot 10:3): Did Rabbi Yehoshua say that the woman is not deemed credible and her claim is not accepted? And the Gemara raises a contradiction: Rabbi Yehoshua and Rabbi Yehuda ben Beteira testified concerning the widow whose late husband was a member of a priestly family of questionable lineage [issa], that she is fit to marry into the priesthood. Since the matter is uncertain, the woman retains her presumptive status of fitness and her late husband is presumed to be of unflawed lineage.

讗诪专 诇讬讛 讛讻讬 讛砖转讗 讛转诐 讗砖讛 谞讬砖讗转 讘讜讚拽转 讜谞讬砖讗转 讛讻讗 讗砖讛 诪讝谞讛 讘讜讚拽转 讜诪讝谞讛

Rava said to him: How can these cases be compared? There, in the case of the widow, one could say: A woman who marries investigates the lineage of her prospective husband before the wedding and only then marries. Therefore, one may rely on her presumptive status of fitness and deem her fit to marry a priest. Here, can it be said that a woman who engages in licentious intercourse investigates the lineage of her partner and only then engages in licentious intercourse?

讗诪专 专讘讗 讚专讘讬 讬讛讜砖注 讗讚专讘讬 讬讛讜砖注 拽砖讬讗 讚专讘谉 讙诪诇讬讗诇 讗讚专讘谉 讙诪诇讬讗诇 诇讗 拽砖讬讗 讜讛讗 拽转谞讬 住讬驻讗 讗诪专 诇讛谉 专讘谉 讙诪诇讬讗诇 拽讘诇谞讜 注讚讜转讻诐 讗讘诇 诪讛 谞注砖讛 砖讛专讬 讙讝专 专讘谉 讬讜讞谞谉 讘谉 讝讻讗讬 砖诇讗 诇讛讜砖讬讘 讘讬转 讚讬谉 注诇 讻讱 砖讛讻讛谞讬诐 砖讜诪注讬谉 诇讻诐 诇专讞拽 讗讘诇 诇讗 诇拽专讘

Rava said with regard to the contradiction that was raised: Is the contradiction between one statement of Rabbi Yehoshua and another statement of Rabbi Yehoshua difficult, and the contradiction between one statement of Rabban Gamliel and another statement of Rabban Gamliel not difficult? But isn鈥檛 it taught in the latter clause of that mishna with regard to the widow whose late husband was from a priestly family of questionable lineage that Rabban Gamliel said to them: We accept your testimony that this is the halakha, but what can we do, as Rabban Yo岣nan ben Zakkai decreed not to convene a court for this purpose of ruling the woman fit, because the priests obey you when your ruling calls to distance a woman of questionable lineage from marrying them, but not when your ruling calls to bring her near and deem her fit to marry them. Apparently, Rabban Gamliel did not accept the lenient ruling in the case of the widow, contrary to his statement here that she is accorded credibility.

讗诇讗 讗诪专 专讘讗 讚专讘谉 讙诪诇讬讗诇 讗讚专讘谉 讙诪诇讬讗诇 诇讗 拽砖讬讗 讛转诐 讘专讬 讛讻讗 砖诪讗

Rather, Rava said: The contradiction between one statement of Rabban Gamliel and another statement of Rabban Gamliel is not difficult. There, in the case of the woman who engaged in intercourse with an unidentified man, her claim that the lineage of the man is unflawed is a certain claim. Here, in the case of the widow, her claim that his lineage is unflawed is an uncertain claim, because there is objective uncertainty with regard to his lineage.

讚专讘讬 讬讛讜砖注 讗讚专讘讬 讬讛讜砖注 谞诪讬 诇讗 拽砖讬讗 讛转诐 讞讚 住驻讬拽讗 讛讻讗 转专讬 住驻讬拽讬

The contradiction between one statement of Rabbi Yehoshua and another statement of Rabbi Yehoshua is similarly not difficult. There, in the case of the woman who engaged in intercourse with an unidentified man, there is only one uncertainty: Is the lineage of the man with whom she engaged in intercourse flawed or unflawed? In the case of one uncertainty, the ruling is stringent. Here, in the case of the widow, there are two uncertainties with regard to the objective situation. It is established that there is uncertainty with regard to one of the members of the family whether or not he is a 岣lal. The first uncertainty is whether her late husband is the member of that family with regard to whom the uncertainty exists. Even if it is established that her late husband is indeed the one with regard to whom the uncertainty exists, there remains an uncertainty whether he is in fact a 岣lal.

讛诇讻讱 诇专讘谉 讙诪诇讬讗诇 讗诇讬诐 诇讬讛 讘专讬 讚讗驻讬诇讜 讘讞讚 住驻讬拽讗 谞诪讬 诪讻砖讬专 讜拽讬诇 诇讬讛 砖诪讗 讚讗驻讬诇讜 讘住驻拽 住驻讬拽讗 谞诪讬 驻住讬诇 诇专讘讬 讬讛讜砖注 讗诇讬诐 诇讬讛 讞讚 住驻讬拽讗 讚讗驻讬诇讜 讘讘专讬 谞诪讬 驻住讬诇 讜拽讬诇 诇讬讛 住驻拽 住驻讬拽讗 讚讗驻讬诇讜 讘砖诪讗 谞诪讬 诪讻砖讬专

Therefore, according to Rabban Gamliel, a certain claim is so powerful for him that even in a case where there is one uncertainty, he also deems her fit to marry a priest. And an uncertain claim is so insignificant for him that even in a case where there is a compound uncertainty, he also deems her unfit to marry a priest. According to Rabbi Yehoshua, a case where there is one uncertainty is so powerful for him that even in a case where she makes a certain claim, he also deems her unfit. And the case of a compound uncertainty is so insignificant for him that even if she makes an uncertain claim, he also deems her fit.

转谞讜 专讘谞谉 讗讬讝讜讛讬 讗诇诪谞转 注讬住讛 讻诇 砖讗讬谉 讘讛 诇讗 诪砖讜诐 诪诪讝专讜转 讜诇讗 诪砖讜诐 谞转讬谞讜转 讜诇讗 诪砖讜诐 注讘讚讬 诪诇讻讬诐 讗诪专 专讘讬 诪讗讬专

搂 Apropos the widow, the Rabbis taught: Who is the widow whose late husband was a member of a priestly family of questionable lineage and is fit to marry a priest? It is one who married into any family that does not have the status of being unfit, neither due to uncertain mamzer status, nor due to uncertain Gibeonite status, nor due to uncertain status as slaves of kings, who would force Jewish women, even daughters of priests, to marry them. Rabbi Meir said:

砖诪注转讬 讻诇 砖讗讬谉 讘讛 讗讞讚 诪讻诇 讗诇讜 诪砖讬讗讬谉 诇讻讛讜谞讛

I heard that with regard to the widow of any family that has none of these uncertainties associated with it, one allows her to marry members of the priesthood. The only uncertainty where this ruling applies is in the case of uncertain 岣lal status.

专讘讬 砖诪注讜谉 讘谉 讗诇注讝专 讗讜诪专 诪砖讜诐 专讘讬 诪讗讬专 讜讻谉 讛讬讛 专讘讬 砖诪注讜谉 讘谉 诪谞住讬讗 讗讜诪专 讻讚讘专讬讜 讗讬讝讜讛讬 讗诇诪谞转 注讬住讛 讻诇 砖谞讟诪注 讘讛 住驻拽 讞诇诇

Rabbi Shimon ben Elazar says in the name of Rabbi Meir, and likewise Rabbi Shimon ben Menasya would say in accordance with his statement: Who is the widow whose late husband was a member of a priestly family of questionable lineage? It is a widow who marries into any family in which a person with regard to whom there is uncertainty whether or not he is a 岣lal was assimilated among its members. Therefore, she is referred to as a widow of dough [issa]. Just as dough is the result of a mixture of several ingredients, this family too has a person with regard to whom there is uncertainty whether he is a 岣lal mixed within it.

诪讻讬专讬谉 讬砖专讗诇 诪诪讝专讬诐 砖讘讬谞讬讛诐 讜讗讬谉 诪讻讬专讬谉 讞诇诇讬谉 砖讘讬谞讬讛诐

The reason for the distinction between uncertain 岣lal status and uncertain mamzer status is that Jews identify the mamzerim that are among them, and there is no concern lest they assimilate into families of unflawed lineage. But they do not identify the 岣lalin among them. Therefore, there is concern lest a 岣lal assimilate into the family.

讗诪专 诪专 讗讬讝讜讛讬 讗诇诪谞转 注讬住讛 讻诇 砖讗讬谉 讘讛 诇讗 诪砖讜诐 诪诪讝专讜转 讜诇讗 诪砖讜诐 谞转讬谞讜转 讜诇讗 诪砖讜诐 注讘讚讬 诪诇讻讬诐 讛讗 讞诇诇 讻砖专

The Gemara analyzes the baraita. The Master said in the baraita: Who is the widow whose late husband was a member of a priestly family of questionable lineage? It is one who married into any family that does not have the status of being unfit, neither due to uncertain mamzer status, nor due to uncertain Gibeonite status, nor due to uncertain status as slaves of kings. The Gemara infers: However, if it is due to uncertain 岣lal status, her marriage to a priest is deemed fit.

诪讗讬 砖谞讗 讛谞讱 讚讗讜专讬讬转讗 讞诇诇 谞诪讬 讚讗讜专讬讬转讗 讜转讜 讗诪专 专讘讬 诪讗讬专 砖诪注转讬 讻诇 砖讗讬谉 讘讛 讗讞讚 诪讻诇 讗诇讜 诪砖讬讗讬谉 诇讻讛讜谞讛 讛讬讬谞讜 转谞讗 拽诪讗

The Gemara asks: What is different about these flaws in lineage, uncertain mamzer status and Gibeonite status, which render her unfit to marry a priest by Torah law? A 岣lal also renders her unfit by Torah law. And furthermore, the baraita continues: Rabbi Meir said: I heard that with regard to the widow of any family that has none of these uncertainties associated with it, one marries her to members of the priesthood. That is identical to the opinion of the first tanna. If there is uncertainty with regard to one in the late husband鈥檚 family that he is a mamzer or a Gibeonite, she is unfit to marry a priest; if the uncertainty is with regard to 岣lal status, she is fit to marry a priest. What novel element does Rabbi Meir introduce?

讜转讜 专讘讬 砖诪注讜谉 讘谉 讗诇注讝专 讗讜诪专 诪砖讜诐 专讘讬 诪讗讬专 讜讻谉 讛讬讛 专讘讬 砖诪注讜谉 讘谉 诪谞住讬讗 讗讜诪专 讻讚讘专讬讜 讗讬讝讜讛讬 讗诇诪谞转 注讬住讛 讻诇 砖谞讟诪注 讘讛 住驻拽 讞诇诇 诪讻讬专讬谉 讬砖专讗诇 诪诪讝专讬诐 砖讘讬谞讬讛谉 讜讗讬谉 诪讻讬专讬谉 讞诇诇讬谉 砖讘讬谞讬讛谉 讜讛讗 讗诪专转 专讬砖讗 讞诇诇 讻砖专

The baraita continues: And furthermore, Rabbi Shimon ben Elazar says in the name of Rabbi Meir, and likewise, Rabbi Shimon ben Menasya would say in accordance with his statement: Who is the widow whose late husband was a member of a priestly family of questionable lineage? It is a widow who marries into any family in which a person with regard to whom there is uncertainty whether or not he is a 岣lal was assimilated. Because Jews identify the mamzerim that are among them there is no concern that they will assimilate into families of unflawed lineage, but Jews do not identify the 岣lalin among them. Due to the concern that a 岣lal assimilated into the family, the widow is unfit to marry a priest. The Gemara asks: But didn鈥檛 you say in the first clause of the baraita that if there is uncertainty whether or not a 岣lal was assimilated among its members, her marriage to a priest is deemed fit?

讗诪专 专讘讬 讬讜讞谞谉 诪诪讝专 爪讜讜讞 讜讞诇诇 砖讜转拽 讗讬讻讗 讘讬谞讬讬讛讜 转谞讗 拽诪讗 住讘专 讻诇 驻住讜诇 讚拽专讜 诇讬讛 讜砖转讬拽 驻住讜诇 讜讛讻讬 拽讗诪专 转谞讗 拽诪讗 讗讬讝讜讛讬 讗诇诪谞转 注讬住讛 讻诇 砖讗讬谉 讘讛 诇讗 砖转讜拽 诪诪讝专讜转 讜诇讗 砖转讜拽 谞转讬谞讜转 讜诇讗 砖转讜拽 注讘讚讬 诪诇讻讬诐 讜诇讗 砖转讜拽 讞诇诇

Rabbi Yo岣nan said: The case of one who when called mamzer screams and protests that he is being slandered, and when called 岣lal is silent, is the subject of the dispute between the tanna鈥檌m in the baraita. The first tanna holds: Anyone who when others call him unfit and he is silent, is unfit, as his silence confirms the allegation. And this is what the first tanna is saying: Who is the widow whose late husband was a member of a priestly family of questionable lineage, who is fit to marry a priest? It is one who married into any family that has neither unfitness due to silence in response to allegations of mamzer status, nor silence in response to allegations of Gibeonite status, nor silence in response to allegations that they are slaves of kings, nor silence in response to allegations of 岣lal status. Only a woman who was married into a family that protested in response to all these allegations is fit to marry a priest.

讜拽讗诪专 诇讬讛 专讘讬 诪讗讬专 讛谞讱 讛讜讗 讚拽讗 驻住讬诇 诇讬讛 讘拽讛诇 讗讘诇 砖转讜拽 讞诇诇 讻砖专 讜讛讗 讚砖转讬拽 诪砖讜诐 讚诇讗 讗讬讻驻转 诇讬讛

And Rabbi Meir is saying to him: Specifically, each of those silent in response to allegations of mamzer or Gibeonite status or allegations that they are slaves of kings are rendered unfit because these allegations render him unfit to marry into the congregation of Israel. However, despite silence in response to allegations of 岣lal status, her marriage to a priest is deemed fit. And the fact that he is silent is due to his indifference, as even were he deemed a 岣lal the only restriction would be with regard to marriage to priests.

讜拽讗诪专 诇讬讛 专讘讬 砖诪注讜谉 讘谉 讗诇注讝专 诇转谞讗 拽诪讗 讚专讘讬 诪讗讬专 讗讬 砖诪讬注 诇讱 讚诪讻砖专 专讘讬 诪讗讬专 讘砖转讬拽讛 诇讗 讚拽专讜 诇讬讛 讞诇诇 讜砖转讬拽 讗诇讗 讚拽专讜 诇讬讛 诪诪讝专 讜砖转讬拽 讜讛讗讬 讚砖转讬拽 住讘专 诪诪讝专 拽诇讗 讗讬转 诇讬讛 讗讘诇 诪诪讝专 讜爪讜讜讞 讞诇诇 讜砖讜转拽 驻住讜诇 讜讛讗讬 讚讗砖转讬拽 住讘专 诪讬住转讬讬讛 讚诇讗 诪驻拽讬 诇讬讛 诪拽讛诇

And Rabbi Shimon ben Elazar is saying to the first tanna who quoted Rabbi Meir as saying: I heard, etc. If you heard that Rabbi Meir deems her marriage to a priest fit, in a case of silence in response to allegations, it is not in a case where they called him 岣lal and he is silent; rather, it is in a case where they call him mamzer and he is silent. In that case, the reason he is silent is that he holds: The fact that one is a mamzer generates publicity, and since he is not reputed to be a mamzer, he is indifferent to the allegation. However, in a case where he is called mamzer and he screams in protest, or where he is called 岣lal and he is silent, he is unfit. And the fact that he is silent and does not protest is because he holds: It is sufficient for him that they do not expel him from the congregation of Israel.

转谞讬 讞讚讗 专讘讬 讬讜住讬 讗讜诪专 砖转讜拽 诪诪讝专 讻砖专 砖转讜拽 讞诇诇 驻住讜诇 讜转谞讬讗 讗讬讚讱 砖转讜拽 讞诇诇 讻砖专 砖转讜拽 诪诪讝专 驻住讜诇

The Gemara notes: It is taught in one baraita that Rabbi Yosei says: Despite the fact that with silence in response to allegations of mamzer one is fit; silence in response to allegations of 岣lal renders one unfit. It is taught in another baraita: Despite the fact that with silence in response to allegations of 岣lal one is fit; silence in response to allegations of mamzer renders one unfit.

诇讗 拽砖讬讗 讛讗 转谞讗 拽诪讗 讗诇讬讘讗 讚专讘讬 诪讗讬专 讛讗 讚专讘讬 砖诪注讜谉 讘谉 讗诇注讝专 讗诇讬讘讗 讚专讘讬 诪讗讬专

The Gemara explains: The contradiction between the baraitot is not difficult. This second baraita is the opinion of the first tanna in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Meir, who holds that silence in response to allegations of 岣lal does not render one unfit. And this first baraita is the opinion of Rabbi Shimon ben Elazar in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Meir, who holds that silence in response to allegations of mamzer is motivated by indifference and does not render him unfit; however, silence in response to allegations of 岣lal is an indication that the allegations are true and he is unfit.

诪转谞讬壮 讗诪专 专讘讬 讬讜住讬 诪注砖讛 讘转讬谞讜拽转 砖讬专讚讛 诇诪诇讗讜转 诪讬诐 诪谉 讛注讬谉 讜谞讗谞住讛 讗诪专 专讘讬 讬讜讞谞谉 讘谉 谞讜专讬 讗诐 专讜讘 讗谞砖讬 讛注讬专 诪砖讬讗讬谉 诇讻讛讜谞讛 讛专讬 讝讜 转讬谞砖讗 诇讻讛讜谞讛

MISHNA: Rabbi Yosei said: There was an incident involving a young girl who descended to fill her jug with water from the spring, and she was raped, and the identity of the rapist was unknown. Rabbi Yo岣nan ben Nuri said: If the majority of the people of the city marry their daughters to members of the priesthood, this young girl may be married to a member of the priesthood.

讙诪壮 讗诪专 诇讬讛 专讘讗 诇专讘 谞讞诪谉 专讘讬 讬讜讞谞谉 讘谉 谞讜专讬 讚讗诪专 讻诪讗谉 讗讬 讻专讘谉 讙诪诇讬讗诇 讗驻讬诇讜 讘专讜讘 驻住讜诇讬谉 谞诪讬 诪讻砖专 讗讬 讻专讘讬 讬讛讜砖注 讗驻讬诇讜 讘专讜讘 讻砖专讬诐 谞诪讬 驻住讬诇 讗诪专 诇讬讛 讛讻讬 讗诪专 专讘 讬讛讜讚讛 讗诪专 专讘

GEMARA: Rava said to Rav Na岣an: In accordance with whose opinion is it that Rabbi Yo岣nan ben Nuri stated his opinion? If it is in accordance with the opinion of Rabban Gamliel, even in a case where the majority of the people are of flawed lineage as well, he deems her fit to marry into the priesthood. If it is in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Yehoshua, even in a case where the majority of the people are of unflawed lineage, he deems her unfit to marry into the priesthood. Rav Na岣an said to Rava that this is what Rav Yehuda said that Rav said:

  • This month's learning is sponsored by Terri Krivosha for the Refuah Shlemah of her husband Harav Hayim Yehuda Ben Faiga Rivah.聽

  • This month's learning is dedicated by Debbie and Yossi Gevir to Rabbanit Michelle and the Hadran Zoom group for their kindness, support, and care during a medically challenging year.

  • Masechet Ketubot is sponsored by Erica and Rob Schwartz in honor of the 50th wedding anniversary of Erica's parents Sheira and Steve Schacter.

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Ketubot 14

讗讬谉 诪讬谞讗讬 讗诪专 专讘 讬讜住祝 诇诪讗讬 谞讬讞讜砖 诇讛 讞讚讗 讚讛讗 拽讗 诪讜讚讛 讜注讜讚 讛讗 讗诪专 专讘 讬讛讜讚讛 讗诪专 砖诪讜讗诇 讛诇讻讛 讻专讘谉 讙诪诇讬讗诇

Yes, she conceived from relations with me. Rav Yosef said: The ruling here is clear, as with regard to what suspicion need we be concerned? First, he concedes that he is the father. And furthermore, didn鈥檛 Rav Yehuda say that Shmuel said: The halakha is in accordance with the opinion of Rabban Gamliel, and even if he didn鈥檛 admit that the child was his, the woman鈥檚 claim is accorded credibility?

讗诪专 诇讬讛 讗讘讬讬 讜讘讛讗 讻讬 诇讗 诪讜讚讛 诪讻砖专 专讘谉 讙诪诇讬讗诇 讜讛讗诪专 诇讬讛 砖诪讜讗诇 诇专讘 讬讛讜讚讛 砖讬谞谞讗 讛诇讻讛 讻专讘谉 讙诪诇讬讗诇 讜讗转 诇讗 转注讘讬讚 注讜讘讚讗 注讚 讚讗讬讻讗 专讜讘 讻砖专讬谉 讗爪诇讛 讜讛讻讗 专讜讘 驻住讜诇讬谉 讗爪诇讛

Abaye said to him: And in this case, based on the fact that you cited two reasons to deem the child fit, is that to say when he does not admit that he is the father Rabban Gamliel deems the child fit? But didn鈥檛 Shmuel say to Rav Yehuda: Big-toothed one, the halakha is in accordance with the opinion of Rabban Gamliel, i.e., that she is accorded credibility, but you should not perform an action based on this ruling unless the majority of the men in her proximity are honorable and of impeccable lineage, corroborating her claim. And here, since she is betrothed, the majority of the men in her proximity are unfit, as a child fathered by any man other than her betrothed is a mamzer. Shmuel should not have ruled that the halakha was in accordance with the opinion of Rabban Gamliel.

讜诇讬讟注诪讬讱 转拽砖讬 诇讱 讛讬讗 讙讜驻讗 讛诇讻讛 讜讗转 诇讗 转注讘讬讚 注讜讘讚讗 讗诇讗 诪讗讬 讗讬转 诇讱 诇诪讬诪专 讛讗 诇讻转讞诇讛 讛讗 讚讬注讘讚 讜讛讗 谞诪讬 讻讚讬注讘讚 讚诪讬

Rav Yosef said to Abaye: And according to your reasoning, the halakha itself should pose a difficulty for you, as on the one hand Shmuel rules that it is the halakha and on the other hand he adds: But you should not perform an action based on this ruling. Rather, what have you to say to explain this contradiction? This statement that one relies on the woman鈥檚 claim only if a majority of men in her proximity are of unflawed lineage is ab initio. That statement that one may rely on the woman鈥檚 claim regardless of the status on the men in her proximity is after the fact. And this case of the betrothed woman, too, is like a case after the fact, as failure to rely on her claim will render her child a mamzer. Therefore, in this case, Shmuel would rule that the halakha is in accordance with the opinion of Rabban Gamliel.

专诪讬 诇讬讛 讗讘讬讬 诇专讘讗 讜诪讬 讗诪专 专讘讬 讬讛讜砖注 讗讬谞讛 谞讗诪谞转 讜专诪讬谞讛讜 讛注讬讚 专讘讬 讬讛讜砖注 讜专讘讬 讬讛讜讚讛 讘谉 讘转讬专讗 注诇 讗诇诪谞转 注讬住讛 砖讛讬讗 讻砖专讛 诇讻讛讜谞讛

Abaye raised a contradiction before Rava from a mishna (Eduyyot 10:3): Did Rabbi Yehoshua say that the woman is not deemed credible and her claim is not accepted? And the Gemara raises a contradiction: Rabbi Yehoshua and Rabbi Yehuda ben Beteira testified concerning the widow whose late husband was a member of a priestly family of questionable lineage [issa], that she is fit to marry into the priesthood. Since the matter is uncertain, the woman retains her presumptive status of fitness and her late husband is presumed to be of unflawed lineage.

讗诪专 诇讬讛 讛讻讬 讛砖转讗 讛转诐 讗砖讛 谞讬砖讗转 讘讜讚拽转 讜谞讬砖讗转 讛讻讗 讗砖讛 诪讝谞讛 讘讜讚拽转 讜诪讝谞讛

Rava said to him: How can these cases be compared? There, in the case of the widow, one could say: A woman who marries investigates the lineage of her prospective husband before the wedding and only then marries. Therefore, one may rely on her presumptive status of fitness and deem her fit to marry a priest. Here, can it be said that a woman who engages in licentious intercourse investigates the lineage of her partner and only then engages in licentious intercourse?

讗诪专 专讘讗 讚专讘讬 讬讛讜砖注 讗讚专讘讬 讬讛讜砖注 拽砖讬讗 讚专讘谉 讙诪诇讬讗诇 讗讚专讘谉 讙诪诇讬讗诇 诇讗 拽砖讬讗 讜讛讗 拽转谞讬 住讬驻讗 讗诪专 诇讛谉 专讘谉 讙诪诇讬讗诇 拽讘诇谞讜 注讚讜转讻诐 讗讘诇 诪讛 谞注砖讛 砖讛专讬 讙讝专 专讘谉 讬讜讞谞谉 讘谉 讝讻讗讬 砖诇讗 诇讛讜砖讬讘 讘讬转 讚讬谉 注诇 讻讱 砖讛讻讛谞讬诐 砖讜诪注讬谉 诇讻诐 诇专讞拽 讗讘诇 诇讗 诇拽专讘

Rava said with regard to the contradiction that was raised: Is the contradiction between one statement of Rabbi Yehoshua and another statement of Rabbi Yehoshua difficult, and the contradiction between one statement of Rabban Gamliel and another statement of Rabban Gamliel not difficult? But isn鈥檛 it taught in the latter clause of that mishna with regard to the widow whose late husband was from a priestly family of questionable lineage that Rabban Gamliel said to them: We accept your testimony that this is the halakha, but what can we do, as Rabban Yo岣nan ben Zakkai decreed not to convene a court for this purpose of ruling the woman fit, because the priests obey you when your ruling calls to distance a woman of questionable lineage from marrying them, but not when your ruling calls to bring her near and deem her fit to marry them. Apparently, Rabban Gamliel did not accept the lenient ruling in the case of the widow, contrary to his statement here that she is accorded credibility.

讗诇讗 讗诪专 专讘讗 讚专讘谉 讙诪诇讬讗诇 讗讚专讘谉 讙诪诇讬讗诇 诇讗 拽砖讬讗 讛转诐 讘专讬 讛讻讗 砖诪讗

Rather, Rava said: The contradiction between one statement of Rabban Gamliel and another statement of Rabban Gamliel is not difficult. There, in the case of the woman who engaged in intercourse with an unidentified man, her claim that the lineage of the man is unflawed is a certain claim. Here, in the case of the widow, her claim that his lineage is unflawed is an uncertain claim, because there is objective uncertainty with regard to his lineage.

讚专讘讬 讬讛讜砖注 讗讚专讘讬 讬讛讜砖注 谞诪讬 诇讗 拽砖讬讗 讛转诐 讞讚 住驻讬拽讗 讛讻讗 转专讬 住驻讬拽讬

The contradiction between one statement of Rabbi Yehoshua and another statement of Rabbi Yehoshua is similarly not difficult. There, in the case of the woman who engaged in intercourse with an unidentified man, there is only one uncertainty: Is the lineage of the man with whom she engaged in intercourse flawed or unflawed? In the case of one uncertainty, the ruling is stringent. Here, in the case of the widow, there are two uncertainties with regard to the objective situation. It is established that there is uncertainty with regard to one of the members of the family whether or not he is a 岣lal. The first uncertainty is whether her late husband is the member of that family with regard to whom the uncertainty exists. Even if it is established that her late husband is indeed the one with regard to whom the uncertainty exists, there remains an uncertainty whether he is in fact a 岣lal.

讛诇讻讱 诇专讘谉 讙诪诇讬讗诇 讗诇讬诐 诇讬讛 讘专讬 讚讗驻讬诇讜 讘讞讚 住驻讬拽讗 谞诪讬 诪讻砖讬专 讜拽讬诇 诇讬讛 砖诪讗 讚讗驻讬诇讜 讘住驻拽 住驻讬拽讗 谞诪讬 驻住讬诇 诇专讘讬 讬讛讜砖注 讗诇讬诐 诇讬讛 讞讚 住驻讬拽讗 讚讗驻讬诇讜 讘讘专讬 谞诪讬 驻住讬诇 讜拽讬诇 诇讬讛 住驻拽 住驻讬拽讗 讚讗驻讬诇讜 讘砖诪讗 谞诪讬 诪讻砖讬专

Therefore, according to Rabban Gamliel, a certain claim is so powerful for him that even in a case where there is one uncertainty, he also deems her fit to marry a priest. And an uncertain claim is so insignificant for him that even in a case where there is a compound uncertainty, he also deems her unfit to marry a priest. According to Rabbi Yehoshua, a case where there is one uncertainty is so powerful for him that even in a case where she makes a certain claim, he also deems her unfit. And the case of a compound uncertainty is so insignificant for him that even if she makes an uncertain claim, he also deems her fit.

转谞讜 专讘谞谉 讗讬讝讜讛讬 讗诇诪谞转 注讬住讛 讻诇 砖讗讬谉 讘讛 诇讗 诪砖讜诐 诪诪讝专讜转 讜诇讗 诪砖讜诐 谞转讬谞讜转 讜诇讗 诪砖讜诐 注讘讚讬 诪诇讻讬诐 讗诪专 专讘讬 诪讗讬专

搂 Apropos the widow, the Rabbis taught: Who is the widow whose late husband was a member of a priestly family of questionable lineage and is fit to marry a priest? It is one who married into any family that does not have the status of being unfit, neither due to uncertain mamzer status, nor due to uncertain Gibeonite status, nor due to uncertain status as slaves of kings, who would force Jewish women, even daughters of priests, to marry them. Rabbi Meir said:

砖诪注转讬 讻诇 砖讗讬谉 讘讛 讗讞讚 诪讻诇 讗诇讜 诪砖讬讗讬谉 诇讻讛讜谞讛

I heard that with regard to the widow of any family that has none of these uncertainties associated with it, one allows her to marry members of the priesthood. The only uncertainty where this ruling applies is in the case of uncertain 岣lal status.

专讘讬 砖诪注讜谉 讘谉 讗诇注讝专 讗讜诪专 诪砖讜诐 专讘讬 诪讗讬专 讜讻谉 讛讬讛 专讘讬 砖诪注讜谉 讘谉 诪谞住讬讗 讗讜诪专 讻讚讘专讬讜 讗讬讝讜讛讬 讗诇诪谞转 注讬住讛 讻诇 砖谞讟诪注 讘讛 住驻拽 讞诇诇

Rabbi Shimon ben Elazar says in the name of Rabbi Meir, and likewise Rabbi Shimon ben Menasya would say in accordance with his statement: Who is the widow whose late husband was a member of a priestly family of questionable lineage? It is a widow who marries into any family in which a person with regard to whom there is uncertainty whether or not he is a 岣lal was assimilated among its members. Therefore, she is referred to as a widow of dough [issa]. Just as dough is the result of a mixture of several ingredients, this family too has a person with regard to whom there is uncertainty whether he is a 岣lal mixed within it.

诪讻讬专讬谉 讬砖专讗诇 诪诪讝专讬诐 砖讘讬谞讬讛诐 讜讗讬谉 诪讻讬专讬谉 讞诇诇讬谉 砖讘讬谞讬讛诐

The reason for the distinction between uncertain 岣lal status and uncertain mamzer status is that Jews identify the mamzerim that are among them, and there is no concern lest they assimilate into families of unflawed lineage. But they do not identify the 岣lalin among them. Therefore, there is concern lest a 岣lal assimilate into the family.

讗诪专 诪专 讗讬讝讜讛讬 讗诇诪谞转 注讬住讛 讻诇 砖讗讬谉 讘讛 诇讗 诪砖讜诐 诪诪讝专讜转 讜诇讗 诪砖讜诐 谞转讬谞讜转 讜诇讗 诪砖讜诐 注讘讚讬 诪诇讻讬诐 讛讗 讞诇诇 讻砖专

The Gemara analyzes the baraita. The Master said in the baraita: Who is the widow whose late husband was a member of a priestly family of questionable lineage? It is one who married into any family that does not have the status of being unfit, neither due to uncertain mamzer status, nor due to uncertain Gibeonite status, nor due to uncertain status as slaves of kings. The Gemara infers: However, if it is due to uncertain 岣lal status, her marriage to a priest is deemed fit.

诪讗讬 砖谞讗 讛谞讱 讚讗讜专讬讬转讗 讞诇诇 谞诪讬 讚讗讜专讬讬转讗 讜转讜 讗诪专 专讘讬 诪讗讬专 砖诪注转讬 讻诇 砖讗讬谉 讘讛 讗讞讚 诪讻诇 讗诇讜 诪砖讬讗讬谉 诇讻讛讜谞讛 讛讬讬谞讜 转谞讗 拽诪讗

The Gemara asks: What is different about these flaws in lineage, uncertain mamzer status and Gibeonite status, which render her unfit to marry a priest by Torah law? A 岣lal also renders her unfit by Torah law. And furthermore, the baraita continues: Rabbi Meir said: I heard that with regard to the widow of any family that has none of these uncertainties associated with it, one marries her to members of the priesthood. That is identical to the opinion of the first tanna. If there is uncertainty with regard to one in the late husband鈥檚 family that he is a mamzer or a Gibeonite, she is unfit to marry a priest; if the uncertainty is with regard to 岣lal status, she is fit to marry a priest. What novel element does Rabbi Meir introduce?

讜转讜 专讘讬 砖诪注讜谉 讘谉 讗诇注讝专 讗讜诪专 诪砖讜诐 专讘讬 诪讗讬专 讜讻谉 讛讬讛 专讘讬 砖诪注讜谉 讘谉 诪谞住讬讗 讗讜诪专 讻讚讘专讬讜 讗讬讝讜讛讬 讗诇诪谞转 注讬住讛 讻诇 砖谞讟诪注 讘讛 住驻拽 讞诇诇 诪讻讬专讬谉 讬砖专讗诇 诪诪讝专讬诐 砖讘讬谞讬讛谉 讜讗讬谉 诪讻讬专讬谉 讞诇诇讬谉 砖讘讬谞讬讛谉 讜讛讗 讗诪专转 专讬砖讗 讞诇诇 讻砖专

The baraita continues: And furthermore, Rabbi Shimon ben Elazar says in the name of Rabbi Meir, and likewise, Rabbi Shimon ben Menasya would say in accordance with his statement: Who is the widow whose late husband was a member of a priestly family of questionable lineage? It is a widow who marries into any family in which a person with regard to whom there is uncertainty whether or not he is a 岣lal was assimilated. Because Jews identify the mamzerim that are among them there is no concern that they will assimilate into families of unflawed lineage, but Jews do not identify the 岣lalin among them. Due to the concern that a 岣lal assimilated into the family, the widow is unfit to marry a priest. The Gemara asks: But didn鈥檛 you say in the first clause of the baraita that if there is uncertainty whether or not a 岣lal was assimilated among its members, her marriage to a priest is deemed fit?

讗诪专 专讘讬 讬讜讞谞谉 诪诪讝专 爪讜讜讞 讜讞诇诇 砖讜转拽 讗讬讻讗 讘讬谞讬讬讛讜 转谞讗 拽诪讗 住讘专 讻诇 驻住讜诇 讚拽专讜 诇讬讛 讜砖转讬拽 驻住讜诇 讜讛讻讬 拽讗诪专 转谞讗 拽诪讗 讗讬讝讜讛讬 讗诇诪谞转 注讬住讛 讻诇 砖讗讬谉 讘讛 诇讗 砖转讜拽 诪诪讝专讜转 讜诇讗 砖转讜拽 谞转讬谞讜转 讜诇讗 砖转讜拽 注讘讚讬 诪诇讻讬诐 讜诇讗 砖转讜拽 讞诇诇

Rabbi Yo岣nan said: The case of one who when called mamzer screams and protests that he is being slandered, and when called 岣lal is silent, is the subject of the dispute between the tanna鈥檌m in the baraita. The first tanna holds: Anyone who when others call him unfit and he is silent, is unfit, as his silence confirms the allegation. And this is what the first tanna is saying: Who is the widow whose late husband was a member of a priestly family of questionable lineage, who is fit to marry a priest? It is one who married into any family that has neither unfitness due to silence in response to allegations of mamzer status, nor silence in response to allegations of Gibeonite status, nor silence in response to allegations that they are slaves of kings, nor silence in response to allegations of 岣lal status. Only a woman who was married into a family that protested in response to all these allegations is fit to marry a priest.

讜拽讗诪专 诇讬讛 专讘讬 诪讗讬专 讛谞讱 讛讜讗 讚拽讗 驻住讬诇 诇讬讛 讘拽讛诇 讗讘诇 砖转讜拽 讞诇诇 讻砖专 讜讛讗 讚砖转讬拽 诪砖讜诐 讚诇讗 讗讬讻驻转 诇讬讛

And Rabbi Meir is saying to him: Specifically, each of those silent in response to allegations of mamzer or Gibeonite status or allegations that they are slaves of kings are rendered unfit because these allegations render him unfit to marry into the congregation of Israel. However, despite silence in response to allegations of 岣lal status, her marriage to a priest is deemed fit. And the fact that he is silent is due to his indifference, as even were he deemed a 岣lal the only restriction would be with regard to marriage to priests.

讜拽讗诪专 诇讬讛 专讘讬 砖诪注讜谉 讘谉 讗诇注讝专 诇转谞讗 拽诪讗 讚专讘讬 诪讗讬专 讗讬 砖诪讬注 诇讱 讚诪讻砖专 专讘讬 诪讗讬专 讘砖转讬拽讛 诇讗 讚拽专讜 诇讬讛 讞诇诇 讜砖转讬拽 讗诇讗 讚拽专讜 诇讬讛 诪诪讝专 讜砖转讬拽 讜讛讗讬 讚砖转讬拽 住讘专 诪诪讝专 拽诇讗 讗讬转 诇讬讛 讗讘诇 诪诪讝专 讜爪讜讜讞 讞诇诇 讜砖讜转拽 驻住讜诇 讜讛讗讬 讚讗砖转讬拽 住讘专 诪讬住转讬讬讛 讚诇讗 诪驻拽讬 诇讬讛 诪拽讛诇

And Rabbi Shimon ben Elazar is saying to the first tanna who quoted Rabbi Meir as saying: I heard, etc. If you heard that Rabbi Meir deems her marriage to a priest fit, in a case of silence in response to allegations, it is not in a case where they called him 岣lal and he is silent; rather, it is in a case where they call him mamzer and he is silent. In that case, the reason he is silent is that he holds: The fact that one is a mamzer generates publicity, and since he is not reputed to be a mamzer, he is indifferent to the allegation. However, in a case where he is called mamzer and he screams in protest, or where he is called 岣lal and he is silent, he is unfit. And the fact that he is silent and does not protest is because he holds: It is sufficient for him that they do not expel him from the congregation of Israel.

转谞讬 讞讚讗 专讘讬 讬讜住讬 讗讜诪专 砖转讜拽 诪诪讝专 讻砖专 砖转讜拽 讞诇诇 驻住讜诇 讜转谞讬讗 讗讬讚讱 砖转讜拽 讞诇诇 讻砖专 砖转讜拽 诪诪讝专 驻住讜诇

The Gemara notes: It is taught in one baraita that Rabbi Yosei says: Despite the fact that with silence in response to allegations of mamzer one is fit; silence in response to allegations of 岣lal renders one unfit. It is taught in another baraita: Despite the fact that with silence in response to allegations of 岣lal one is fit; silence in response to allegations of mamzer renders one unfit.

诇讗 拽砖讬讗 讛讗 转谞讗 拽诪讗 讗诇讬讘讗 讚专讘讬 诪讗讬专 讛讗 讚专讘讬 砖诪注讜谉 讘谉 讗诇注讝专 讗诇讬讘讗 讚专讘讬 诪讗讬专

The Gemara explains: The contradiction between the baraitot is not difficult. This second baraita is the opinion of the first tanna in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Meir, who holds that silence in response to allegations of 岣lal does not render one unfit. And this first baraita is the opinion of Rabbi Shimon ben Elazar in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Meir, who holds that silence in response to allegations of mamzer is motivated by indifference and does not render him unfit; however, silence in response to allegations of 岣lal is an indication that the allegations are true and he is unfit.

诪转谞讬壮 讗诪专 专讘讬 讬讜住讬 诪注砖讛 讘转讬谞讜拽转 砖讬专讚讛 诇诪诇讗讜转 诪讬诐 诪谉 讛注讬谉 讜谞讗谞住讛 讗诪专 专讘讬 讬讜讞谞谉 讘谉 谞讜专讬 讗诐 专讜讘 讗谞砖讬 讛注讬专 诪砖讬讗讬谉 诇讻讛讜谞讛 讛专讬 讝讜 转讬谞砖讗 诇讻讛讜谞讛

MISHNA: Rabbi Yosei said: There was an incident involving a young girl who descended to fill her jug with water from the spring, and she was raped, and the identity of the rapist was unknown. Rabbi Yo岣nan ben Nuri said: If the majority of the people of the city marry their daughters to members of the priesthood, this young girl may be married to a member of the priesthood.

讙诪壮 讗诪专 诇讬讛 专讘讗 诇专讘 谞讞诪谉 专讘讬 讬讜讞谞谉 讘谉 谞讜专讬 讚讗诪专 讻诪讗谉 讗讬 讻专讘谉 讙诪诇讬讗诇 讗驻讬诇讜 讘专讜讘 驻住讜诇讬谉 谞诪讬 诪讻砖专 讗讬 讻专讘讬 讬讛讜砖注 讗驻讬诇讜 讘专讜讘 讻砖专讬诐 谞诪讬 驻住讬诇 讗诪专 诇讬讛 讛讻讬 讗诪专 专讘 讬讛讜讚讛 讗诪专 专讘

GEMARA: Rava said to Rav Na岣an: In accordance with whose opinion is it that Rabbi Yo岣nan ben Nuri stated his opinion? If it is in accordance with the opinion of Rabban Gamliel, even in a case where the majority of the people are of flawed lineage as well, he deems her fit to marry into the priesthood. If it is in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Yehoshua, even in a case where the majority of the people are of unflawed lineage, he deems her unfit to marry into the priesthood. Rav Na岣an said to Rava that this is what Rav Yehuda said that Rav said:

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