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Today's Daf Yomi

March 2, 2015 | ื™ืดื ื‘ืื“ืจ ืชืฉืขืดื”

  • This month's learning is sponsored by Joanna Rom and Steven Goldberg in loving memory of Steve's mother Shirley "Nana" Goldberg (Sura Tema bat Chaim v'Hanka)

Ketubot 28

ื•ืื ื”ื™ื” ื›ื”ืŸ ืœื ืชื“ื•ืจ ืขืžื• ื‘ืžื‘ื•ื™ ืื ื”ื™ื” ื›ืคืจ ืงื˜ืŸ ื–ื” ื”ื™ื” ืžืขืฉื” ื•ืืžืจื• ื›ืคืจ ืงื˜ืŸ ื ื™ื“ื•ืŸ ื›ืฉื›ื•ื ื”

And if he was a priest she may not live with him even in one alleyway that opens into several courtyards, even if she did not remarry, as she is forbidden to him forever. What is the ruling if it was a small village? May she live with her ex-husband in the same village? The Gemara relates that this case of his divorcรฉe and a small village was an incident that transpired and the Sages said: A small village is judged as his immediate proximity.

ืžื™ ื ื“ื—ื” ืžืคื ื™ ืžื™ ืชื ืฉืžืข ื“ืชื ื™ื ื”ื™ื ื ื“ื—ื™ืช ืžืคื ื™ื• ื•ืื™ืŸ ื”ื•ื ื ื“ื—ื” ืžืคื ื™ื” ื•ืื ื”ื™ืชื” ื—ืฆืจ ืฉืœื” ื”ื•ื ื ื“ื—ื” ืžืคื ื™ื”

The Gemara asks: In cases where they may not reside in the same courtyard or alleyway, who is ousted in favor of whom? Which of them must leave? The Gemara suggests: Come and hear proof as it is taught in a baraita: She is ousted in favor of him, and leaves, and he is not ousted in favor of her. But if it was her courtyard, he is ousted in favor of her.

ืื™ื‘ืขื™ื ืœื”ื• ื”ื™ืชื” ื—ืฆืจ ืฉืœ ืฉื ื™ื”ื ืžื”ื• ืชื ืฉืžืข ื”ื™ื ื ื“ื—ื™ืช ืžืคื ื™ื• ื‘ืžืื™ ืขืกืงื™ื ืŸ ืื™ืœื™ืžื ื‘ื—ืฆืจ ืฉืœื• ืคืฉื™ื˜ื ื•ืืœื ื‘ื—ืฆืจ ืฉืœื” ื•ื”ืชื ื™ื ืื ื”ื™ืชื” ื—ืฆืจ ืฉืœื” ื”ื•ื ื ื“ื—ื” ืžืคื ื™ื” ืืœื ืœืื• ื›ื™ ื”ืื™ ื’ื•ื•ื ื ื“ืœืžื ื“ืื’ื™ืจ ืžื™ื’ืจ

A dilemma was raised before the Sages: If it was a courtyard belonging to both of them, what is the halakha; who is ousted in favor of whom? The Gemara suggests: Come and hear proof as it is taught in a baraita: She is ousted in favor of him. The Gemara elaborates: With what circumstances are we dealing? If we say that the subject of the baraita is with regard to his courtyard, it is obvious that she is ousted. But rather, is it with regard to her courtyard? Isnโ€™t it taught in a baraita: If it was her courtyard, he is ousted in favor of her? Rather, is it not that the baraita is dealing with a case like this, where it was a courtyard belonging to both of them? The Gemara rejects this proof: Perhaps the baraita is teaching that even in a case where he rented the courtyard she is ousted in his favor. Therefore, the dilemma with regard to a courtyard belonging to both of them is unresolved.

ืžืื™ ื”ื•ื™ ืขืœื” ืชื ืฉืžืข ื”ื ื” ื”ืณ ืžื˜ืœื˜ืœืš ื˜ืœื˜ืœื” ื’ื‘ืจ ื•ืืžืจ ืจื‘ ื˜ืœื˜ื•ืœื™ ื“ื’ื‘ืจื ืงืฉื™ืŸ ืžื“ืื™ืชืชื

The Gemara asks: What halakhic conclusion was reached about this matter? The Gemara suggests: Come and hear proof from the verse: โ€œThe Lord will dislocate you the dislocation of a manโ€ (Isaiah 22:17), and Rav said: This indicates that the dislocation of a man is more difficult for him than the dislocation of a woman is for her. Therefore, the woman is ousted.

ืชื ื• ืจื‘ื ืŸ ืœื•ื” ื”ื™ืžื ื” ื‘ื ื›ืกื™ ืื‘ื™ื” ืื™ื ื” ื ืคืจืขืช ืืœื ืขืœ ื™ื“ื™ ืื—ืจ ืืžืจ ืจื‘ ืฉืฉืช ื•ืื™ ืืชื• ืœืงืžืŸ ืœื“ื™ื ื ืœื ืžื–ื“ืงืงื™ื ืŸ ืœื”ื• ืจื‘ ืคืคื ืืžืจ ืฉืžื•ืชื™ ืžืฉืžืชื™ื ืŸ ืœื”ื• ืจื‘ ื”ื•ื ื ื‘ืจื™ื” ื“ืจื‘ ื™ื”ื•ืฉืข ืืžืจ ื ื’ื•ื“ื™ ื ืžื™ ืžื ื’ื“ื™ื ืŸ ืœื”ื• ืืžืจ ืจื‘ ื ื—ืžืŸ ืชื ื ื‘ืื‘ืœ ืจื‘ืชื™ ื‘ืžื” ื“ื‘ืจื™ื ืืžื•ืจื™ื ืฉื ืชื’ืจืฉื” ืžืŸ ื”ื ืฉื•ืื™ืŸ ืื‘ืœ ื›ืฉื ืชื’ืจืฉื” ืžืŸ ื”ืื™ืจื•ืกื™ืŸ ื ืคืจืขืช ืขืœ ื™ื“ื™ ืขืฆืžื” ืฉืื™ืŸ ืœื‘ื• ื’ืก ื‘ื”

The Sages taught: With regard to a priest who borrowed from his wife from usufruct property that she inherited from her father and then he divorced her, she is repaid only by means of another person and not directly from her husband, to prevent them from engaging in business dealings. Rav Sheshet said: And if after engaging in business dealings they came before us for judgment, we do not attend to them because by engaging in those dealings they were in violation of a transgression. Rav Pappa said: We excommunicate them for violating that transgression. Rav Huna, the son of Rav Yehoshua, said: We also flog them with lashes. Rav Naแธฅman said: The tanna taught in Evel Rabbati, one of the minor tractates that deals primarily with the halakhot of mourning: In what case is this statement said? It is in a case where she was divorced from marriage. However, when she was divorced from betrothal, she is repaid even directly by means of receiving the money herself, because, in that case, he is not yet accustomed to her. Since they never shared intimacy, there is no concern that it will lead to transgression.

ื”ื”ื•ื ืืจื•ืก ื•ืืจื•ืกืชื• ื“ืืชื• ืœืงืžื™ื” ื“ืจื‘ื ื™ืชื™ื‘ ืจื‘ ืื“ื ื‘ืจ ืžืชื ื ืงืžื™ื” ืื•ืงื™ ืจื‘ื ืฉืœื•ื—ื ื‘ื™ื ืชื™ื™ื”ื• ืืžืจ ืœื™ื” ืจื‘ ืื“ื ื‘ืจ ืžืชื ื ื•ื”ืืžืจ ืจื‘ ื ื—ืžืŸ ืชื ื ื‘ืื‘ืœ ืจื‘ืชื™ ื›ื•ืณ ืืžืจ ืœื™ื” ืงื ื—ื–ื™ื ืŸ ื“ืงื ื’ื™ื™ืกื™ ื‘ื”ื“ื“ื™

The Gemara relates: There was an incident concerning this divorced, betrothed man and his betrothed who came before Rava for judgment, and Rav Adda bar Mattana was sitting before him at the time. Rava placed an intermediary to separate between them. Rav Adda bar Mattana said to Rava: But didnโ€™t Rav Naแธฅman say: The tanna taught in Evel Rabbati that if she was divorced from betrothal she is paid directly? Rava said to him: This applies only in a case where they are not accustomed to each other. However, with regard to these people, we see that they are accustomed to each other, and therefore they must be separated.

ืื™ื›ื ื“ืืžืจื™ ืœื ืื•ืงื™ ืจื‘ื ืฉืœื™ื— ื‘ื™ื ืชื™ื™ื”ื• ืืžืจ ืœื™ื” ืจื‘ ืื“ื ื‘ืจ ืžืชื ื ื ื™ืงื•ื ืžืจ ืฉืœื•ื—ื ื‘ื™ื ืชื™ื™ื”ื• ืืžืจ ืœื™ื” ื•ื”ื [ืืžืจ] ืจื‘ ื ื—ืžืŸ ืชื ื ื‘ืื‘ืœ ืจื‘ืชื™ ื›ื•ืณ ืืžืจ ืœื™ื” ื”ื ื™ ืžื™ืœื™ ื”ื™ื›ื ื“ืœื ื’ื™ื™ืกื™ ื‘ื”ื“ื“ื™ ืื‘ืœ ื”ื ื™ ืงื ื—ื–ื™ื ื ืœื”ื• ื“ื’ื™ื™ืกื™ ื‘ื”ื“ื“ื™

Some say that Rava did not place an intermediary to separate between them. Rav Adda bar Mattana said to Rava: Let the Master place an intermediary to separate between them. Rava said to Rav Adda bar Mattana: But didnโ€™t Rav Naแธฅman say: The tanna taught in Evel Rabbati that if she was divorced from betrothal she is paid directly? Rav Adda bar Mattana said to Rava: This applies only in a case where they are not accustomed to each other. However, with regard to these people, we see that they are accustomed to each other, and therefore they must be separated.

ืžืชื ื™ืณ ื•ืืœื• ื ืืžื ื™ืŸ ืœื”ืขื™ื“ ื‘ื’ื•ื“ืœืŸ ืžื” ืฉืจืื• ื‘ืงื•ื˜ื ืŸ ื ืืžืŸ ืื“ื ืœื•ืžืจ ื–ื” ื›ืชื‘ ื™ื“ื• ืฉืœ ืื‘ื ื•ื–ื” ื›ืชื‘ ื™ื“ื• ืฉืœ ืจื‘ื™ ื•ื–ื” ื›ืชื‘ ื™ื“ื• ืฉืœ ืื—ื™

MISHNA: And these are deemed credible to testify in their majority with regard to what they saw in their minority. A person is deemed credible to say: This is my fatherโ€™s handwriting, and to say: This is my teacherโ€™s handwriting; and to say: This is my brotherโ€™s handwriting, even though he never saw their handwriting after reaching majority.

ื–ื›ื•ืจ ื”ื™ื™ืชื™ ื‘ืคืœื•ื ื™ืช ืฉื™ืฆืื” ื‘ื”ื™ื ื•ืžื ื•ืจืืฉื” ืคืจื•ืข ื•ืฉื”ื™ื” ืื™ืฉ ืคืœื•ื ื™ ื™ื•ืฆื ืžื‘ื™ืช ื”ืกืคืจ ืœื˜ื‘ื•ืœ ืœืื›ื•ืœ ื‘ืชืจื•ืžื” ื•ืฉื”ื™ื” ื—ื•ืœืง ืขืžื ื• ืขืœ ื”ื’ื•ืจืŸ ื•ื”ืžืงื•ื ื”ื–ื” ื‘ื™ืช ื”ืคืจืก ื•ืขื“ ื›ืืŸ ื”ื™ื™ื ื• ื‘ืื™ืŸ ื‘ืฉื‘ืช

ยง Similarly, one is deemed credible to say: I was reminded of the wedding of so-and-so, who went out with a hinnuma, or with her hair uncovered in a manner typical of virgins, and therefore, her marriage contract is two hundred dinars; and to say that so-and-so would leave school to immerse in order to partake of teruma, and that he would share teruma with us at the threshing floor and therefore he is a priest. Similarly, one is deemed credible to say: This place is a beit haperas, a field with a grave that was plowed, scattering the bones, and rendering the field a place of uncertain ritual impurity; and to say: Until here we would come on Shabbat and thereby determine the Shabbat boundary.

ืื‘ืœ ืื™ืŸ ืื“ื ื ืืžืŸ ืœื•ืžืจ ื“ืจืš ื”ื™ื” ืœืคืœื•ื ื™ ื‘ืžืงื•ื ื”ื–ื” ืžืขืžื“ ื•ืžืกืคื“ ื”ื™ื” ืœืคืœื•ื ื™ ื‘ืžืงื•ื ื”ื–ื”

However, a person is neither deemed credible to say: So-and-so had a path in this place; nor to say: So-and-so had a tract of land where they would perform the ritual of standing and sitting and deliver a eulogy in that place, thereby attesting that the land belongs to that person. The reason he is not deemed credible in those cases is that full-fledged testimony is required to remove property from the possession of its presumptive owner.

ื’ืžืณ ืืžืจ ืจื‘ ื”ื•ื ื ื‘ืจื™ื” ื“ืจื‘ ื™ื”ื•ืฉืข ื•ื”ื•ื ืฉื™ืฉ ื’ื“ื•ืœ ืขืžื•

GEMARA: Rav Huna, son of Rav Yehoshua, said: And the mishna said that one is deemed credible to testify about handwriting he saw as a minor only when there is a witness who saw the handwriting as an adult testifying with him.

ื•ืฆืจื™ื›ื ื“ืื™ ืืฉืžืขื™ื ืŸ ืื‘ื™ื• ืžืฉื•ื ื“ืฉื›ื™ื— ื’ื‘ื™ื” ืื‘ืœ ืจื‘ื• ืœื ื•ืื™ ืืฉืžืขื™ื ืŸ ืจื‘ื• ืžืฉื•ื ื“ืื™ืช ืœื™ื” ืื™ืžืชื™ื” ื“ืจื‘ื™ื” ืื‘ืœ ืื‘ื™ื• ืœื

And all of these cases are necessary, as one could not have been derived from the other. As, if the tanna had taught us the case of his fatherโ€™s handwriting, one might have thought that he is deemed credible due to the fact that he is often found with his father and is familiar with his handwriting; but with regard to his teacherโ€™s handwriting, no, he is not deemed credible. And if the tanna had taught us the case of his teacherโ€™s handwriting, one might have thought that he is deemed credible due to the fact that he has a sense of awe of his teacher and therefore pays attention to his handwriting; but with regard to his fatherโ€™s handwriting, no, he is not deemed credible.

ื•ืื™ ืืฉืžืขื™ื ืŸ ื”ื ื™ ืชืจืชื™ ืื‘ื™ื• ื“ืฉื›ื™ื— ื’ื‘ื™ื” ื•ืจื‘ื• ื“ืื™ืช ืœื™ื” ืื™ืžืชื™ื” ืื‘ืœ ืื—ื™ื• ื“ืœื™ืช ืœื™ื” ืœื ื”ื ื•ืœื ื”ื ืื™ืžื ืœื ืงื ืžืฉืžืข ืœืŸ ื›ื™ื•ืŸ ื“ืงื™ื•ื ืฉื˜ืจื•ืช ืžื“ืจื‘ื ืŸ ื”ื™ืžื ื•ื”ื• ืจื‘ื ืŸ ื‘ื“ืจื‘ื ืŸ

And if the tanna had taught us these two cases, one might have thought that he is deemed credible with regard to his fatherโ€™s handwriting due to the fact that he is often found with him, and his teacherโ€™s handwriting due to the fact that he has a sense of awe of him. But with regard to his brotherโ€™s handwriting, which has neither this factor nor that factor, say no, he is not deemed credible. Therefore, the tanna teaches us: Since ratification of documents is required by rabbinic law, as by Torah law, the signatories are sufficient proof of a documentโ€™s validity; the Sages deemed him credible to testify in cases that he witnessed as a minor in matters that are by rabbinic law, including the case of his brother.

ื–ื›ื•ืจ ื”ื™ื™ืชื™ ื‘ืคืœื•ื ื™ืช ืฉื™ืฆืื” ื‘ื”ื™ื ื•ืžื ื•ืจืืฉื” ืคืจื•ืข ืžืื™ ื˜ืขืžื ื›ื™ื•ืŸ ื“ืจื•ื‘ ื ืฉื™ื ื‘ืชื•ืœื•ืช ื ื™ืฉืื•ืช ื’ืœื•ื™ ืžืœืชื ื‘ืขืœืžื ื”ื•ื

And the mishna states that one is deemed credible to say: I was reminded of the wedding of so-and-so, who went out with a hinnuma, or with her hair uncovered. What is the reason that he is deemed credible? Since most women are married as virgins, her presumptive status is that of a virgin even without his testimony. His testimony with regard to what he saw as a minor is merely revealing of a matter already presumed true, not actual testimony.

ื•ืฉื”ื™ื” ืื™ืฉ ืคืœื•ื ื™ ื™ื•ืฆื ืžื‘ื™ืช ื”ืกืคืจ ืœื˜ื‘ื•ืœ ืœืื›ื•ืœ ื‘ืชืจื•ืžื” ื•ื“ืœืžื ืขื‘ื“ ื›ื”ืŸ ื”ื•ื ืžืกื™ื™ืข ืœื™ื” ืœืจื‘ื™ ื™ื”ื•ืฉืข ื‘ืŸ ืœื•ื™ ื“ืืžืจ ืจื‘ื™ ื™ื”ื•ืฉืข ื‘ืŸ ืœื•ื™ ืืกื•ืจ ืœืื“ื ืฉื™ืœืžื“ ืืช ืขื‘ื“ื• ืชื•ืจื”

And the mishna states that one is deemed credible to say that so-and-so would leave school to immerse in order to partake of teruma, and therefore he is a priest. The Gemara asks: And perhaps he is the slave of a priest, who is also eligible to partake of teruma. The Gemara notes: This mishna provides support for the opinion of Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi, as Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi said: It is prohibited for a person to teach his slave Torah. Since the testimony is that he was in school, apparently he is not a slave. Therefore, the fact that he partook of teruma indicates that he is a priest.

ื•ืœื ื•ื”ืชื ื™ื ืœื•ื” ื”ื™ืžื ื• ืจื‘ื• ืื• ืฉืขืฉืื• ืจื‘ื•

The Gemara asks: And may one not teach his slave Torah? But isnโ€™t it taught in a baraita: A slave whose master borrowed from him, or whose master made him

ืืคื•ื˜ืจื•ืคื•ืก ืื• ืฉื”ื ื™ื— ืชืคื™ืœื™ืŸ ื‘ืคื ื™ ืจื‘ื• ืื• ืฉืงืจื ืฉืœืฉื” ืคืกื•ืงื™ื ื‘ื‘ื™ืช ื”ื›ื ืกืช ื”ืจื™ ื–ื” ืœื ื™ืฆื ืœื—ื™ืจื•ืช ื”ืชื ื“ืื™ืงืจื™ ืขื‘ื“ ืžื“ืขืชื• ื›ื™ ืงืืžืจื™ื ืŸ ื“ืงื ื ื”ื™ื’ ื‘ื™ื” ืžื ื”ื’ ื‘ื ื™ื ืœื˜ื‘ื•ืœ ืœืื›ื•ืœ ื‘ืชืจื•ืžื” ื‘ืชืจื•ืžื” ื“ืจื‘ื ืŸ

steward over his property, or who donned phylacteries in his masterโ€™s presence, or who read three verses from the Torah scroll in the synagogue, did not necessarily emerge to freedom. Apparently, there are slaves who learn Torah to the extent that they are capable of reading the Torah in the synagogue, and conceivably that Torah is learned in school. The Gemara answers that there is no proof from the baraita, as there it is a case where the slave read at his own initiative, and conceivably he taught himself to read the Torah as well. When we say in the mishna that it is proof that he is a priest, it is in a case where he treats him with treatment typical of children, not slaves, and sends him to school. When the mishna states that he is deemed credible to testify that as a minor he saw that others went to immerse in order to partake of teruma, the Sages permit them only to partake of teruma by rabbinic law.

ื•ืฉื”ื™ื” ื—ื•ืœืง ืขืžื ื• ืขืœ ื”ื’ื•ืจืŸ ื•ื“ืœืžื ืขื‘ื“ ื›ื”ืŸ ื”ื•ื ืชื ืŸ ื›ืžืืŸ ื“ืืžืจ ืื™ืŸ ื—ื•ืœืงื™ืŸ ืชืจื•ืžื” ืœืขื‘ื“ ืืœื ืื ื›ืŸ ืจื‘ื• ืขืžื• ื“ืชื ื™ื ืื™ืŸ ื—ื•ืœืงื™ืŸ ืชืจื•ืžื” ืœืขื‘ื“ ืืœื ืื ื›ืŸ ืจื‘ื• ืขืžื• ื“ื‘ืจื™ ืจื‘ื™ ื™ื”ื•ื“ื” ืจื‘ื™ ื™ื•ืกื™ ืื•ืžืจ ื™ื›ื•ืœ ื”ื•ื ืฉื™ืืžืจ ืื ื›ื”ืŸ ืื ื™ ืชื ื• ืœื™ ื‘ืฉื‘ื™ืœ ืขืฆืžื™ ื•ืื ืขื‘ื“ ื›ื”ืŸ ืื ื™ ืชื ื• ืœื™ ื‘ืฉื‘ื™ืœ ืจื‘ื™

And the mishna states that he is deemed credible to say that they saw that so-and-so would share teruma with us at the threshing floor, and therefore he is a priest. The Gemara asks: And perhaps he is the slave of a priest? The Gemara answers: We learned the mishna according to the one who says: One distributes teruma to a slave only if his master is with him. Therefore, it is clear that the one sharing teruma with them was a priest, not a slave, as it is taught in a baraita: In the case of the son of a priestโ€™s wife and the son of a priestโ€™s maidservant who were intermingled at birth, both mothers go to the threshing floor together based on the principle: One distributes teruma to a slave only if his master is with him; this is the statement of Rabbi Yehuda. Rabbi Yosei says: It is possible that each will say: If I am a priest, give me teruma for my own sake, and if I am the slave of a priest, give me teruma for the sake of my master.

ื‘ืžืงื•ืžื• ืฉืœ ืจื‘ื™ ื™ื”ื•ื“ื” ื”ื™ื• ืžืขืœื™ืŸ ืžืชืจื•ืžื” ืœื™ื•ื—ืกื™ืŸ ื‘ืžืงื•ืžื• ืฉืœ ืจื‘ื™ ื™ื•ืกื™ ืœื ื”ื™ื• ืžืขืœื™ืŸ ืžืชืจื•ืžื” ืœื™ื•ื—ืกื™ืŸ

The dispute in the baraita is based on the fact that in the place of Rabbi Yehuda, they would elevate one who eats teruma to the presumptive status of priesthood for the purpose of lineage. Therefore, he permitted distributing teruma to the slave of a priest only if his master is present, due to the concern that if he were given teruma directly, he would be elevated to priesthood. In the place of Rabbi Yosei, they would not elevate from teruma to lineage. Therefore, he permitted distributing teruma directly to the slave of a priest, as there is no concern that the slave would be mistaken for a priest.

ืชื ื™ื ืืžืจ ืจื‘ื™ ืืœืขื–ืจ ื‘ืจื‘ื™ ื™ื•ืกื™ ืžื™ืžื™ ืœื ื”ืขื“ืชื™ ืคืขื ืื—ืช ื”ืขื“ืชื™ ื•ื”ืขืœื• ืขื‘ื“ ืœื›ื”ื•ื ื” ืขืœ ืคื™ ื”ืขืœื• ืกืœืงื ื“ืขืชืš ื”ืฉืชื ื•ืžื” ื‘ื”ืžืชืŸ ืฉืœ ืฆื“ื™ืงื™ื ืื™ืŸ ื”ืงื“ื•ืฉ ื‘ืจื•ืš ื”ื•ื ืžื‘ื™ื ืชืงืœื” ืขืœ ื™ื“ื ืฆื“ื™ืงื™ื ืขืฆืžื ืœื ื›ืœ ืฉื›ืŸ

It is taught in a baraita that Rabbi Elazar, son of Rabbi Yosei, said: In all my days, I never had occasion to testify in court. One time I testified, and the court elevated a slave to priesthood on the basis of my testimony. The Gemara asks: Does it enter your mind that they actually elevated the slave to priesthood? Now, just as with regard to the animals of the righteous the Holy One, Blessed be He, does not engender a pitfall on their account, as the Gemara relates with regard to the donkey of Rabbi Pinแธฅas ben Yair that it would not eat untithed produce (แธคullin 7a), all the more so will He not engender a pitfall on account of the righteous themselves.

ืืœื ื‘ืงืฉื• ืœื”ืขืœื•ืช ืขื‘ื“ ืœื›ื”ื•ื ื” ืขืœ ืคื™ ื—ื–ื ื‘ืืชืจื™ื” ื“ืจื‘ื™ ื™ื•ืกื™ ื•ืื–ืœ ื•ืืกื”ื™ื“ ื‘ืืชืจื™ื” ื“ืจื‘ื™ ื™ื”ื•ื“ื”

Rather, the Gemara emends the statement of Rabbi Elazar, son of Rabbi Yosei: They sought to elevate a slave to priesthood on the basis of my testimony, but ultimately they did not. Rabbi Elazar saw teruma distributed directly to the slave of a priest in the place of Rabbi Yosei, where one does not elevate from teruma to priesthood, and he went and testified about what he saw in the place of Rabbi Yehuda, where one elevates from teruma to priesthood.

ื•ืฉื”ืžืงื•ื ื”ื–ื” ื‘ื™ืช ื”ืคืจืก ื”ื•ื ืžืื™ ื˜ืขืžื ื‘ื™ืช ื”ืคืจืก ื“ืจื‘ื ืŸ ื“ืืžืจ ืจื‘ ื™ื”ื•ื“ื” ืืžืจ ืฉืžื•ืืœ ืžื ืคื— ืื“ื ื‘ื™ืช ื”ืคืจืก ื•ื”ื•ืœืš ื•ืจื‘ ื™ื”ื•ื“ื” ื‘ืจ ืืžื™ ืžืฉืžื™ื” ื“ืจื‘ ื™ื”ื•ื“ื” ืืžืจ ื‘ื™ืช ื”ืคืจืก ืฉื ื™ื“ืฉ ื˜ื”ื•ืจ ืžืื™ ื˜ืขืžื ืื™ ืืคืฉืจ ืœืขืฆื ื›ืฉืขื•ืจื” ืฉืœื ื ื™ื“ืฉ ื‘ืจื’ืœ

And the mishna states that one is deemed credible to testify in his adulthood that as a minor he saw that this place is a beit haperas. The Gemara asks: What is the reason that he is deemed credible to testify what he witnessed as a minor? The Gemara answers: The ritual impurity of a beit haperas is by rabbinic law, as Rav Yehuda said that Shmuel said: A person who passes through a beit haperas may blow on the dust before taking each step, so that if there is a bone beneath the dust he will expose it, avoid it, and proceed. One may not rely on that method of examination with regard to impurity by Torah law. And Rav Yehuda bar Ami, in the name of Rav Yehuda, said: A beit haperas that has been trodden underfoot, creating a path, is pure. What is the reason? It is that it is impossible for a bone the size of a grain of barley, whose possible presence led to the decree of impurity, not to have been trodden underfoot and rendered smaller. This presumption is possible only in cases of impurity by rabbinic law.

ื•ืขื“ ื›ืืŸ ื”ื™ื™ื ื• ื‘ืื™ืŸ ื‘ืฉื‘ืช ืงืกื‘ืจ ืชื—ื•ืžื™ืŸ ื“ืจื‘ื ืŸ

And the mishna states that one is deemed credible to testify, in his adulthood, that he saw as a minor: Until here we would come on Shabbat. The Gemara explains: This tanna maintains that the Shabbat boundaries, beyond which one may not go outside the city on Shabbat, are mandated by rabbinic law, and the Sages deemed him credible in matters of rabbinic law.

ื•ืื™ืŸ ื ืืžืŸ ืœื•ืžืจ ื“ืจืš ื”ื™ื” ืœืคืœื•ื ื™ ื‘ืžืงื•ื ื”ื–ื” ืžืขืžื“ ื•ืžืกืคื“ ื”ื™ื” ืœืคืœื•ื ื™ ื‘ืžืงื•ื ื”ื–ื” ืžืื™ ื˜ืขืžื ืืคื•ืงื™ ืžืžื•ื ื ืœื ืžืคืงื™ื ืŸ

And the mishna states that one is neither deemed credible to say: So-and-so had a path in this place; nor to say: So-and-so had a tract of land where they would perform the ritual of standing and sitting and deliver a eulogy in that place. The Gemara asks: What is the reason that he is not deemed credible? It is due to the fact that we do not remove money from the possession of its presumptive owner on the basis of testimony about a matter that he witnessed as a minor.

ืชื ื• ืจื‘ื ืŸ ื ืืžืŸ ื”ืชื™ื ื•ืง ืœื•ืžืจ ื›ืš ืืžืจ ืœื™ ืื‘ื ืžืฉืคื—ื” ื–ื• ื˜ื”ื•ืจื” ืžืฉืคื—ื” ื–ื• ื˜ืžืื” ื˜ื”ื•ืจื” ื•ื˜ืžืื” ืกืœืงื ื“ืขืชืš ืืœื ืžืฉืคื—ื” ื–ื• ื›ืฉืจื” ื•ืžืฉืคื—ื” ื–ื• ืคืกื•ืœื”

The Sages taught: A child is deemed credible to say when he reaches majority that this is what my father told me when I was a minor: This family is pure, that family is impure. The Gemara asks: Does it enter your mind that his father said pure and impure? What do those concepts mean with regard to a family? Rather, his father said to him: This family is of unflawed lineage, and this family is of flawed lineage.

ื•ืฉืื›ืœื ื• ื‘ืงืฆืฆื” ืฉืœ ื‘ืช ืคืœื•ื ื™ ืœืคืœื•ื ื™ ื•ืฉื”ื™ื™ื ื• ืžื•ืœื™ื›ื™ื ื—ืœื” ื•ืžืชื ื•ืช ืœืคืœื•ื ื™ ื›ื”ืŸ ืขืœ ื™ื“ื™ ืขืฆืžื• ืื‘ืœ ืœื ืขืœ ื™ื“ื™ ืื—ืจ ื•ื›ื•ืœืŸ ืื ื”ื™ื” ื’ื•ื™ ื•ื ืชื’ื™ื™ืจ ืขื‘ื“ ื•ื ืฉืชื—ืจืจ ืื™ืŸ ื ืืžื ื™ื ื•ืื™ืŸ ื ืืžืŸ ืœื•ืžืจ ื“ืจืš ื”ื™ื” ืœืคืœื•ื ื™ ื‘ืžืงื•ื ื”ื–ื” ืžืขืžื“ ื•ืžืกืคื“ ื”ื™ื” ืœืคืœื•ื ื™ ื‘ืžืงื•ื ื”ื–ื” ืจื‘ื™ ื™ื•ื—ื ืŸ ื‘ืŸ ื‘ืจื•ืงื ืื•ืžืจ ื ืืžื ื™ื

And he is deemed credible to say that we ate at the ketzatza that took place to publicize that the marriage of the daughter of so-and-so to so-and-so was unsuitable; and to say that we would bring แธฅalla and priestly gifts to so-and-so, who is a priest. In that case, he is deemed credible only to testify that he brought the แธฅalla by himself, but not by means of another, as one is certain of matters that he performed himself, even as a minor. However, he is not deemed credible to testify about actions performed by others when he was a minor. And with regard to all these testimonies, if he was a gentile and he converted, or a slave and he was liberated, they are not deemed credible to testify after their conversion and liberation about matters that transpired beforehand when they were disqualified as witnesses. And one is neither deemed credible to say that he remembers that when he was a minor, so-and-so had a path in this place; nor that so-and-so had a tract of land where they would perform the ritual of standing and sitting and deliver a eulogy in that place. Rabbi Yoแธฅanan ben Beroka says: They are deemed credible.

ืจื‘ื™ ื™ื•ื—ื ืŸ ื‘ืŸ ื‘ืจื•ืงื ืื”ื™ื™ื ืื™ืœื™ืžื ืืกื™ืคื ืืคื•ืงื™ ืžืžื•ื ื ื”ื•ื ืืœื ืืจื™ืฉื ื•ื›ื•ืœื ืื ื”ื™ื” ื’ื•ื™ ื•ื ืชื’ื™ื™ืจ ืขื‘ื“ ื•ื ืฉืชื—ืจืจ ืื™ืŸ ื ืืžื ื™ืŸ ืจื‘ื™ ื™ื•ื—ื ืŸ ื‘ืŸ ื‘ืจื•ืงื ืื•ืžืจ ื ืืžื ื™ืŸ

The Gemara asks: With regard to which clause in the baraita is Rabbi Yoแธฅanan ben Beroka disputing? If we say he is disputing the last clause of the baraita, which concerns testimony about a path or a place for mourning, it is a case of removing money from the possession of its presumptive owner. How could his testimony be deemed credible? Rather, Rabbi Yoแธฅanan ben Beroka is certainly disagreeing with the former clause of the baraita: And with regard to all these testimonies, if he was a gentile and he converted, or a slave and he was liberated, they are not deemed credible. It is with regard to that halakha that Rabbi Yoแธฅanan ben Beroka says: They are deemed credible.

ื‘ืžืื™ ืงืžื™ืคืœื’ื™ ืชื ื ืงืžื ืกื‘ืจ ื›ื™ื•ืŸ ื“ื’ื•ื™ ื”ื•ื ืœื ื”ื•ื” ื“ื™ื™ืง ื•ืจื‘ื™ ื™ื•ื—ื ืŸ ื‘ืŸ ื‘ืจื•ืงื ืกื‘ืจ ื›ื™ื•ืŸ ื“ื“ืขืชื™ื” ืœืื™ื’ื™ื•ืจื™ ืžื™ื“ืง ื”ื•ื” ื“ื™ื™ืง

The Gemara asks: With regard to what principle do they disagree? The Gemara explains that the first tanna maintains: Since he was a gentile, he was not exacting in scrutinizing the matter, as it was irrelevant to him. Therefore, even after he converted he is not deemed credible. And Rabbi Yoแธฅanan ben Beroka maintains: Since it was his intention to convert, he took interest in Judaism and he was exacting in scrutinizing the matter, and he is deemed credible.

ืžืื™ ืงืฆืฆื” ื“ืชื ื• ืจื‘ื ืŸ ื›ื™ืฆื“ ืงืฆืฆื” ืื—ื“ ืžืŸ ื”ืื—ื™ืŸ ืฉื ืฉื ืืฉื” ืฉืื™ื ื” ื”ื•ื’ื ืช ืœื• ื‘ืื™ืŸ ื‘ื ื™ ืžืฉืคื—ื” ื•ืžื‘ื™ืื™ืŸ ื—ื‘ื™ืช ืžืœื™ืื” ืคื™ืจื•ืช ื•ืฉื•ื‘ืจื™ืŸ ืื•ืชื” ื‘ืืžืฆืข ืจื—ื‘ื” ื•ืื•ืžืจื™ื ืื—ื™ื ื• ื‘ื™ืช ื™ืฉืจืืœ ืฉืžืขื• ืื—ื™ื ื• ืคืœื•ื ื™ ื ืฉื ืืฉื” ืฉืื™ื ื” ื”ื•ื’ื ืช ืœื• ื•ืžืชื™ื™ืจืื™ื ืื ื• ืฉืžื ื™ืชืขืจื‘ ื–ืจืขื• ื‘ื–ืจืขื™ื ื• ื‘ื•ืื• ื•ืงื—ื• ืœื›ื ื“ื•ื’ืžื ืœื“ื•ืจื•ืช ืฉืœื ื™ืชืขืจื‘ ื–ืจืขื• ื‘ื–ืจืขื™ื ื• ื•ื–ื• ื”ื™ื ืงืฆืฆื” ืฉื”ืชื™ื ื•ืง ื ืืžืŸ ืœื”ืขื™ื“ ืขืœื™ื”

The Gemara asks about a term employed in the baraita: What is the meaning of ketzatza? It is as the Sages taught: How is ketzatza performed? If a situation where one of the brothers who married a woman who is unsuited for him, due to flawed lineage, occurs, the family members come and bring with them a barrel full of fruits, and break it in the middle of a public square to publicize the matter, and they say: Our brothers, the house of Israel, listen. Our brother so-and-so married a woman who is unsuited for him, and we fear lest his descendants become intermingled with our descendants. In order to further underscore the matter, they continue: Come and take for yourselves a sample as an indicator for future generations, so that his descendants will not intermingle with our descendants. The gathering of the large crowd to take the fruit generates publicity. And this is the ketzatza that a child who witnessed it is deemed credible to testify about it when he is an adult.

ื”ื“ืจืŸ ืขืœืš ื”ืืฉื” ืฉื ืชืืจืžืœื”

 

  • This month's learning is sponsored by Joanna Rom and Steven Goldberg in loving memory of Steve's mother Shirley "Nana" Goldberg (Sura Tema bat Chaim v'Hanka)

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Ketubot 28

The William Davidson Talmud | Powered by Sefaria

Ketubot 28

ื•ืื ื”ื™ื” ื›ื”ืŸ ืœื ืชื“ื•ืจ ืขืžื• ื‘ืžื‘ื•ื™ ืื ื”ื™ื” ื›ืคืจ ืงื˜ืŸ ื–ื” ื”ื™ื” ืžืขืฉื” ื•ืืžืจื• ื›ืคืจ ืงื˜ืŸ ื ื™ื“ื•ืŸ ื›ืฉื›ื•ื ื”

And if he was a priest she may not live with him even in one alleyway that opens into several courtyards, even if she did not remarry, as she is forbidden to him forever. What is the ruling if it was a small village? May she live with her ex-husband in the same village? The Gemara relates that this case of his divorcรฉe and a small village was an incident that transpired and the Sages said: A small village is judged as his immediate proximity.

ืžื™ ื ื“ื—ื” ืžืคื ื™ ืžื™ ืชื ืฉืžืข ื“ืชื ื™ื ื”ื™ื ื ื“ื—ื™ืช ืžืคื ื™ื• ื•ืื™ืŸ ื”ื•ื ื ื“ื—ื” ืžืคื ื™ื” ื•ืื ื”ื™ืชื” ื—ืฆืจ ืฉืœื” ื”ื•ื ื ื“ื—ื” ืžืคื ื™ื”

The Gemara asks: In cases where they may not reside in the same courtyard or alleyway, who is ousted in favor of whom? Which of them must leave? The Gemara suggests: Come and hear proof as it is taught in a baraita: She is ousted in favor of him, and leaves, and he is not ousted in favor of her. But if it was her courtyard, he is ousted in favor of her.

ืื™ื‘ืขื™ื ืœื”ื• ื”ื™ืชื” ื—ืฆืจ ืฉืœ ืฉื ื™ื”ื ืžื”ื• ืชื ืฉืžืข ื”ื™ื ื ื“ื—ื™ืช ืžืคื ื™ื• ื‘ืžืื™ ืขืกืงื™ื ืŸ ืื™ืœื™ืžื ื‘ื—ืฆืจ ืฉืœื• ืคืฉื™ื˜ื ื•ืืœื ื‘ื—ืฆืจ ืฉืœื” ื•ื”ืชื ื™ื ืื ื”ื™ืชื” ื—ืฆืจ ืฉืœื” ื”ื•ื ื ื“ื—ื” ืžืคื ื™ื” ืืœื ืœืื• ื›ื™ ื”ืื™ ื’ื•ื•ื ื ื“ืœืžื ื“ืื’ื™ืจ ืžื™ื’ืจ

A dilemma was raised before the Sages: If it was a courtyard belonging to both of them, what is the halakha; who is ousted in favor of whom? The Gemara suggests: Come and hear proof as it is taught in a baraita: She is ousted in favor of him. The Gemara elaborates: With what circumstances are we dealing? If we say that the subject of the baraita is with regard to his courtyard, it is obvious that she is ousted. But rather, is it with regard to her courtyard? Isnโ€™t it taught in a baraita: If it was her courtyard, he is ousted in favor of her? Rather, is it not that the baraita is dealing with a case like this, where it was a courtyard belonging to both of them? The Gemara rejects this proof: Perhaps the baraita is teaching that even in a case where he rented the courtyard she is ousted in his favor. Therefore, the dilemma with regard to a courtyard belonging to both of them is unresolved.

ืžืื™ ื”ื•ื™ ืขืœื” ืชื ืฉืžืข ื”ื ื” ื”ืณ ืžื˜ืœื˜ืœืš ื˜ืœื˜ืœื” ื’ื‘ืจ ื•ืืžืจ ืจื‘ ื˜ืœื˜ื•ืœื™ ื“ื’ื‘ืจื ืงืฉื™ืŸ ืžื“ืื™ืชืชื

The Gemara asks: What halakhic conclusion was reached about this matter? The Gemara suggests: Come and hear proof from the verse: โ€œThe Lord will dislocate you the dislocation of a manโ€ (Isaiah 22:17), and Rav said: This indicates that the dislocation of a man is more difficult for him than the dislocation of a woman is for her. Therefore, the woman is ousted.

ืชื ื• ืจื‘ื ืŸ ืœื•ื” ื”ื™ืžื ื” ื‘ื ื›ืกื™ ืื‘ื™ื” ืื™ื ื” ื ืคืจืขืช ืืœื ืขืœ ื™ื“ื™ ืื—ืจ ืืžืจ ืจื‘ ืฉืฉืช ื•ืื™ ืืชื• ืœืงืžืŸ ืœื“ื™ื ื ืœื ืžื–ื“ืงืงื™ื ืŸ ืœื”ื• ืจื‘ ืคืคื ืืžืจ ืฉืžื•ืชื™ ืžืฉืžืชื™ื ืŸ ืœื”ื• ืจื‘ ื”ื•ื ื ื‘ืจื™ื” ื“ืจื‘ ื™ื”ื•ืฉืข ืืžืจ ื ื’ื•ื“ื™ ื ืžื™ ืžื ื’ื“ื™ื ืŸ ืœื”ื• ืืžืจ ืจื‘ ื ื—ืžืŸ ืชื ื ื‘ืื‘ืœ ืจื‘ืชื™ ื‘ืžื” ื“ื‘ืจื™ื ืืžื•ืจื™ื ืฉื ืชื’ืจืฉื” ืžืŸ ื”ื ืฉื•ืื™ืŸ ืื‘ืœ ื›ืฉื ืชื’ืจืฉื” ืžืŸ ื”ืื™ืจื•ืกื™ืŸ ื ืคืจืขืช ืขืœ ื™ื“ื™ ืขืฆืžื” ืฉืื™ืŸ ืœื‘ื• ื’ืก ื‘ื”

The Sages taught: With regard to a priest who borrowed from his wife from usufruct property that she inherited from her father and then he divorced her, she is repaid only by means of another person and not directly from her husband, to prevent them from engaging in business dealings. Rav Sheshet said: And if after engaging in business dealings they came before us for judgment, we do not attend to them because by engaging in those dealings they were in violation of a transgression. Rav Pappa said: We excommunicate them for violating that transgression. Rav Huna, the son of Rav Yehoshua, said: We also flog them with lashes. Rav Naแธฅman said: The tanna taught in Evel Rabbati, one of the minor tractates that deals primarily with the halakhot of mourning: In what case is this statement said? It is in a case where she was divorced from marriage. However, when she was divorced from betrothal, she is repaid even directly by means of receiving the money herself, because, in that case, he is not yet accustomed to her. Since they never shared intimacy, there is no concern that it will lead to transgression.

ื”ื”ื•ื ืืจื•ืก ื•ืืจื•ืกืชื• ื“ืืชื• ืœืงืžื™ื” ื“ืจื‘ื ื™ืชื™ื‘ ืจื‘ ืื“ื ื‘ืจ ืžืชื ื ืงืžื™ื” ืื•ืงื™ ืจื‘ื ืฉืœื•ื—ื ื‘ื™ื ืชื™ื™ื”ื• ืืžืจ ืœื™ื” ืจื‘ ืื“ื ื‘ืจ ืžืชื ื ื•ื”ืืžืจ ืจื‘ ื ื—ืžืŸ ืชื ื ื‘ืื‘ืœ ืจื‘ืชื™ ื›ื•ืณ ืืžืจ ืœื™ื” ืงื ื—ื–ื™ื ืŸ ื“ืงื ื’ื™ื™ืกื™ ื‘ื”ื“ื“ื™

The Gemara relates: There was an incident concerning this divorced, betrothed man and his betrothed who came before Rava for judgment, and Rav Adda bar Mattana was sitting before him at the time. Rava placed an intermediary to separate between them. Rav Adda bar Mattana said to Rava: But didnโ€™t Rav Naแธฅman say: The tanna taught in Evel Rabbati that if she was divorced from betrothal she is paid directly? Rava said to him: This applies only in a case where they are not accustomed to each other. However, with regard to these people, we see that they are accustomed to each other, and therefore they must be separated.

ืื™ื›ื ื“ืืžืจื™ ืœื ืื•ืงื™ ืจื‘ื ืฉืœื™ื— ื‘ื™ื ืชื™ื™ื”ื• ืืžืจ ืœื™ื” ืจื‘ ืื“ื ื‘ืจ ืžืชื ื ื ื™ืงื•ื ืžืจ ืฉืœื•ื—ื ื‘ื™ื ืชื™ื™ื”ื• ืืžืจ ืœื™ื” ื•ื”ื [ืืžืจ] ืจื‘ ื ื—ืžืŸ ืชื ื ื‘ืื‘ืœ ืจื‘ืชื™ ื›ื•ืณ ืืžืจ ืœื™ื” ื”ื ื™ ืžื™ืœื™ ื”ื™ื›ื ื“ืœื ื’ื™ื™ืกื™ ื‘ื”ื“ื“ื™ ืื‘ืœ ื”ื ื™ ืงื ื—ื–ื™ื ื ืœื”ื• ื“ื’ื™ื™ืกื™ ื‘ื”ื“ื“ื™

Some say that Rava did not place an intermediary to separate between them. Rav Adda bar Mattana said to Rava: Let the Master place an intermediary to separate between them. Rava said to Rav Adda bar Mattana: But didnโ€™t Rav Naแธฅman say: The tanna taught in Evel Rabbati that if she was divorced from betrothal she is paid directly? Rav Adda bar Mattana said to Rava: This applies only in a case where they are not accustomed to each other. However, with regard to these people, we see that they are accustomed to each other, and therefore they must be separated.

ืžืชื ื™ืณ ื•ืืœื• ื ืืžื ื™ืŸ ืœื”ืขื™ื“ ื‘ื’ื•ื“ืœืŸ ืžื” ืฉืจืื• ื‘ืงื•ื˜ื ืŸ ื ืืžืŸ ืื“ื ืœื•ืžืจ ื–ื” ื›ืชื‘ ื™ื“ื• ืฉืœ ืื‘ื ื•ื–ื” ื›ืชื‘ ื™ื“ื• ืฉืœ ืจื‘ื™ ื•ื–ื” ื›ืชื‘ ื™ื“ื• ืฉืœ ืื—ื™

MISHNA: And these are deemed credible to testify in their majority with regard to what they saw in their minority. A person is deemed credible to say: This is my fatherโ€™s handwriting, and to say: This is my teacherโ€™s handwriting; and to say: This is my brotherโ€™s handwriting, even though he never saw their handwriting after reaching majority.

ื–ื›ื•ืจ ื”ื™ื™ืชื™ ื‘ืคืœื•ื ื™ืช ืฉื™ืฆืื” ื‘ื”ื™ื ื•ืžื ื•ืจืืฉื” ืคืจื•ืข ื•ืฉื”ื™ื” ืื™ืฉ ืคืœื•ื ื™ ื™ื•ืฆื ืžื‘ื™ืช ื”ืกืคืจ ืœื˜ื‘ื•ืœ ืœืื›ื•ืœ ื‘ืชืจื•ืžื” ื•ืฉื”ื™ื” ื—ื•ืœืง ืขืžื ื• ืขืœ ื”ื’ื•ืจืŸ ื•ื”ืžืงื•ื ื”ื–ื” ื‘ื™ืช ื”ืคืจืก ื•ืขื“ ื›ืืŸ ื”ื™ื™ื ื• ื‘ืื™ืŸ ื‘ืฉื‘ืช

ยง Similarly, one is deemed credible to say: I was reminded of the wedding of so-and-so, who went out with a hinnuma, or with her hair uncovered in a manner typical of virgins, and therefore, her marriage contract is two hundred dinars; and to say that so-and-so would leave school to immerse in order to partake of teruma, and that he would share teruma with us at the threshing floor and therefore he is a priest. Similarly, one is deemed credible to say: This place is a beit haperas, a field with a grave that was plowed, scattering the bones, and rendering the field a place of uncertain ritual impurity; and to say: Until here we would come on Shabbat and thereby determine the Shabbat boundary.

ืื‘ืœ ืื™ืŸ ืื“ื ื ืืžืŸ ืœื•ืžืจ ื“ืจืš ื”ื™ื” ืœืคืœื•ื ื™ ื‘ืžืงื•ื ื”ื–ื” ืžืขืžื“ ื•ืžืกืคื“ ื”ื™ื” ืœืคืœื•ื ื™ ื‘ืžืงื•ื ื”ื–ื”

However, a person is neither deemed credible to say: So-and-so had a path in this place; nor to say: So-and-so had a tract of land where they would perform the ritual of standing and sitting and deliver a eulogy in that place, thereby attesting that the land belongs to that person. The reason he is not deemed credible in those cases is that full-fledged testimony is required to remove property from the possession of its presumptive owner.

ื’ืžืณ ืืžืจ ืจื‘ ื”ื•ื ื ื‘ืจื™ื” ื“ืจื‘ ื™ื”ื•ืฉืข ื•ื”ื•ื ืฉื™ืฉ ื’ื“ื•ืœ ืขืžื•

GEMARA: Rav Huna, son of Rav Yehoshua, said: And the mishna said that one is deemed credible to testify about handwriting he saw as a minor only when there is a witness who saw the handwriting as an adult testifying with him.

ื•ืฆืจื™ื›ื ื“ืื™ ืืฉืžืขื™ื ืŸ ืื‘ื™ื• ืžืฉื•ื ื“ืฉื›ื™ื— ื’ื‘ื™ื” ืื‘ืœ ืจื‘ื• ืœื ื•ืื™ ืืฉืžืขื™ื ืŸ ืจื‘ื• ืžืฉื•ื ื“ืื™ืช ืœื™ื” ืื™ืžืชื™ื” ื“ืจื‘ื™ื” ืื‘ืœ ืื‘ื™ื• ืœื

And all of these cases are necessary, as one could not have been derived from the other. As, if the tanna had taught us the case of his fatherโ€™s handwriting, one might have thought that he is deemed credible due to the fact that he is often found with his father and is familiar with his handwriting; but with regard to his teacherโ€™s handwriting, no, he is not deemed credible. And if the tanna had taught us the case of his teacherโ€™s handwriting, one might have thought that he is deemed credible due to the fact that he has a sense of awe of his teacher and therefore pays attention to his handwriting; but with regard to his fatherโ€™s handwriting, no, he is not deemed credible.

ื•ืื™ ืืฉืžืขื™ื ืŸ ื”ื ื™ ืชืจืชื™ ืื‘ื™ื• ื“ืฉื›ื™ื— ื’ื‘ื™ื” ื•ืจื‘ื• ื“ืื™ืช ืœื™ื” ืื™ืžืชื™ื” ืื‘ืœ ืื—ื™ื• ื“ืœื™ืช ืœื™ื” ืœื ื”ื ื•ืœื ื”ื ืื™ืžื ืœื ืงื ืžืฉืžืข ืœืŸ ื›ื™ื•ืŸ ื“ืงื™ื•ื ืฉื˜ืจื•ืช ืžื“ืจื‘ื ืŸ ื”ื™ืžื ื•ื”ื• ืจื‘ื ืŸ ื‘ื“ืจื‘ื ืŸ

And if the tanna had taught us these two cases, one might have thought that he is deemed credible with regard to his fatherโ€™s handwriting due to the fact that he is often found with him, and his teacherโ€™s handwriting due to the fact that he has a sense of awe of him. But with regard to his brotherโ€™s handwriting, which has neither this factor nor that factor, say no, he is not deemed credible. Therefore, the tanna teaches us: Since ratification of documents is required by rabbinic law, as by Torah law, the signatories are sufficient proof of a documentโ€™s validity; the Sages deemed him credible to testify in cases that he witnessed as a minor in matters that are by rabbinic law, including the case of his brother.

ื–ื›ื•ืจ ื”ื™ื™ืชื™ ื‘ืคืœื•ื ื™ืช ืฉื™ืฆืื” ื‘ื”ื™ื ื•ืžื ื•ืจืืฉื” ืคืจื•ืข ืžืื™ ื˜ืขืžื ื›ื™ื•ืŸ ื“ืจื•ื‘ ื ืฉื™ื ื‘ืชื•ืœื•ืช ื ื™ืฉืื•ืช ื’ืœื•ื™ ืžืœืชื ื‘ืขืœืžื ื”ื•ื

And the mishna states that one is deemed credible to say: I was reminded of the wedding of so-and-so, who went out with a hinnuma, or with her hair uncovered. What is the reason that he is deemed credible? Since most women are married as virgins, her presumptive status is that of a virgin even without his testimony. His testimony with regard to what he saw as a minor is merely revealing of a matter already presumed true, not actual testimony.

ื•ืฉื”ื™ื” ืื™ืฉ ืคืœื•ื ื™ ื™ื•ืฆื ืžื‘ื™ืช ื”ืกืคืจ ืœื˜ื‘ื•ืœ ืœืื›ื•ืœ ื‘ืชืจื•ืžื” ื•ื“ืœืžื ืขื‘ื“ ื›ื”ืŸ ื”ื•ื ืžืกื™ื™ืข ืœื™ื” ืœืจื‘ื™ ื™ื”ื•ืฉืข ื‘ืŸ ืœื•ื™ ื“ืืžืจ ืจื‘ื™ ื™ื”ื•ืฉืข ื‘ืŸ ืœื•ื™ ืืกื•ืจ ืœืื“ื ืฉื™ืœืžื“ ืืช ืขื‘ื“ื• ืชื•ืจื”

And the mishna states that one is deemed credible to say that so-and-so would leave school to immerse in order to partake of teruma, and therefore he is a priest. The Gemara asks: And perhaps he is the slave of a priest, who is also eligible to partake of teruma. The Gemara notes: This mishna provides support for the opinion of Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi, as Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi said: It is prohibited for a person to teach his slave Torah. Since the testimony is that he was in school, apparently he is not a slave. Therefore, the fact that he partook of teruma indicates that he is a priest.

ื•ืœื ื•ื”ืชื ื™ื ืœื•ื” ื”ื™ืžื ื• ืจื‘ื• ืื• ืฉืขืฉืื• ืจื‘ื•

The Gemara asks: And may one not teach his slave Torah? But isnโ€™t it taught in a baraita: A slave whose master borrowed from him, or whose master made him

ืืคื•ื˜ืจื•ืคื•ืก ืื• ืฉื”ื ื™ื— ืชืคื™ืœื™ืŸ ื‘ืคื ื™ ืจื‘ื• ืื• ืฉืงืจื ืฉืœืฉื” ืคืกื•ืงื™ื ื‘ื‘ื™ืช ื”ื›ื ืกืช ื”ืจื™ ื–ื” ืœื ื™ืฆื ืœื—ื™ืจื•ืช ื”ืชื ื“ืื™ืงืจื™ ืขื‘ื“ ืžื“ืขืชื• ื›ื™ ืงืืžืจื™ื ืŸ ื“ืงื ื ื”ื™ื’ ื‘ื™ื” ืžื ื”ื’ ื‘ื ื™ื ืœื˜ื‘ื•ืœ ืœืื›ื•ืœ ื‘ืชืจื•ืžื” ื‘ืชืจื•ืžื” ื“ืจื‘ื ืŸ

steward over his property, or who donned phylacteries in his masterโ€™s presence, or who read three verses from the Torah scroll in the synagogue, did not necessarily emerge to freedom. Apparently, there are slaves who learn Torah to the extent that they are capable of reading the Torah in the synagogue, and conceivably that Torah is learned in school. The Gemara answers that there is no proof from the baraita, as there it is a case where the slave read at his own initiative, and conceivably he taught himself to read the Torah as well. When we say in the mishna that it is proof that he is a priest, it is in a case where he treats him with treatment typical of children, not slaves, and sends him to school. When the mishna states that he is deemed credible to testify that as a minor he saw that others went to immerse in order to partake of teruma, the Sages permit them only to partake of teruma by rabbinic law.

ื•ืฉื”ื™ื” ื—ื•ืœืง ืขืžื ื• ืขืœ ื”ื’ื•ืจืŸ ื•ื“ืœืžื ืขื‘ื“ ื›ื”ืŸ ื”ื•ื ืชื ืŸ ื›ืžืืŸ ื“ืืžืจ ืื™ืŸ ื—ื•ืœืงื™ืŸ ืชืจื•ืžื” ืœืขื‘ื“ ืืœื ืื ื›ืŸ ืจื‘ื• ืขืžื• ื“ืชื ื™ื ืื™ืŸ ื—ื•ืœืงื™ืŸ ืชืจื•ืžื” ืœืขื‘ื“ ืืœื ืื ื›ืŸ ืจื‘ื• ืขืžื• ื“ื‘ืจื™ ืจื‘ื™ ื™ื”ื•ื“ื” ืจื‘ื™ ื™ื•ืกื™ ืื•ืžืจ ื™ื›ื•ืœ ื”ื•ื ืฉื™ืืžืจ ืื ื›ื”ืŸ ืื ื™ ืชื ื• ืœื™ ื‘ืฉื‘ื™ืœ ืขืฆืžื™ ื•ืื ืขื‘ื“ ื›ื”ืŸ ืื ื™ ืชื ื• ืœื™ ื‘ืฉื‘ื™ืœ ืจื‘ื™

And the mishna states that he is deemed credible to say that they saw that so-and-so would share teruma with us at the threshing floor, and therefore he is a priest. The Gemara asks: And perhaps he is the slave of a priest? The Gemara answers: We learned the mishna according to the one who says: One distributes teruma to a slave only if his master is with him. Therefore, it is clear that the one sharing teruma with them was a priest, not a slave, as it is taught in a baraita: In the case of the son of a priestโ€™s wife and the son of a priestโ€™s maidservant who were intermingled at birth, both mothers go to the threshing floor together based on the principle: One distributes teruma to a slave only if his master is with him; this is the statement of Rabbi Yehuda. Rabbi Yosei says: It is possible that each will say: If I am a priest, give me teruma for my own sake, and if I am the slave of a priest, give me teruma for the sake of my master.

ื‘ืžืงื•ืžื• ืฉืœ ืจื‘ื™ ื™ื”ื•ื“ื” ื”ื™ื• ืžืขืœื™ืŸ ืžืชืจื•ืžื” ืœื™ื•ื—ืกื™ืŸ ื‘ืžืงื•ืžื• ืฉืœ ืจื‘ื™ ื™ื•ืกื™ ืœื ื”ื™ื• ืžืขืœื™ืŸ ืžืชืจื•ืžื” ืœื™ื•ื—ืกื™ืŸ

The dispute in the baraita is based on the fact that in the place of Rabbi Yehuda, they would elevate one who eats teruma to the presumptive status of priesthood for the purpose of lineage. Therefore, he permitted distributing teruma to the slave of a priest only if his master is present, due to the concern that if he were given teruma directly, he would be elevated to priesthood. In the place of Rabbi Yosei, they would not elevate from teruma to lineage. Therefore, he permitted distributing teruma directly to the slave of a priest, as there is no concern that the slave would be mistaken for a priest.

ืชื ื™ื ืืžืจ ืจื‘ื™ ืืœืขื–ืจ ื‘ืจื‘ื™ ื™ื•ืกื™ ืžื™ืžื™ ืœื ื”ืขื“ืชื™ ืคืขื ืื—ืช ื”ืขื“ืชื™ ื•ื”ืขืœื• ืขื‘ื“ ืœื›ื”ื•ื ื” ืขืœ ืคื™ ื”ืขืœื• ืกืœืงื ื“ืขืชืš ื”ืฉืชื ื•ืžื” ื‘ื”ืžืชืŸ ืฉืœ ืฆื“ื™ืงื™ื ืื™ืŸ ื”ืงื“ื•ืฉ ื‘ืจื•ืš ื”ื•ื ืžื‘ื™ื ืชืงืœื” ืขืœ ื™ื“ื ืฆื“ื™ืงื™ื ืขืฆืžื ืœื ื›ืœ ืฉื›ืŸ

It is taught in a baraita that Rabbi Elazar, son of Rabbi Yosei, said: In all my days, I never had occasion to testify in court. One time I testified, and the court elevated a slave to priesthood on the basis of my testimony. The Gemara asks: Does it enter your mind that they actually elevated the slave to priesthood? Now, just as with regard to the animals of the righteous the Holy One, Blessed be He, does not engender a pitfall on their account, as the Gemara relates with regard to the donkey of Rabbi Pinแธฅas ben Yair that it would not eat untithed produce (แธคullin 7a), all the more so will He not engender a pitfall on account of the righteous themselves.

ืืœื ื‘ืงืฉื• ืœื”ืขืœื•ืช ืขื‘ื“ ืœื›ื”ื•ื ื” ืขืœ ืคื™ ื—ื–ื ื‘ืืชืจื™ื” ื“ืจื‘ื™ ื™ื•ืกื™ ื•ืื–ืœ ื•ืืกื”ื™ื“ ื‘ืืชืจื™ื” ื“ืจื‘ื™ ื™ื”ื•ื“ื”

Rather, the Gemara emends the statement of Rabbi Elazar, son of Rabbi Yosei: They sought to elevate a slave to priesthood on the basis of my testimony, but ultimately they did not. Rabbi Elazar saw teruma distributed directly to the slave of a priest in the place of Rabbi Yosei, where one does not elevate from teruma to priesthood, and he went and testified about what he saw in the place of Rabbi Yehuda, where one elevates from teruma to priesthood.

ื•ืฉื”ืžืงื•ื ื”ื–ื” ื‘ื™ืช ื”ืคืจืก ื”ื•ื ืžืื™ ื˜ืขืžื ื‘ื™ืช ื”ืคืจืก ื“ืจื‘ื ืŸ ื“ืืžืจ ืจื‘ ื™ื”ื•ื“ื” ืืžืจ ืฉืžื•ืืœ ืžื ืคื— ืื“ื ื‘ื™ืช ื”ืคืจืก ื•ื”ื•ืœืš ื•ืจื‘ ื™ื”ื•ื“ื” ื‘ืจ ืืžื™ ืžืฉืžื™ื” ื“ืจื‘ ื™ื”ื•ื“ื” ืืžืจ ื‘ื™ืช ื”ืคืจืก ืฉื ื™ื“ืฉ ื˜ื”ื•ืจ ืžืื™ ื˜ืขืžื ืื™ ืืคืฉืจ ืœืขืฆื ื›ืฉืขื•ืจื” ืฉืœื ื ื™ื“ืฉ ื‘ืจื’ืœ

And the mishna states that one is deemed credible to testify in his adulthood that as a minor he saw that this place is a beit haperas. The Gemara asks: What is the reason that he is deemed credible to testify what he witnessed as a minor? The Gemara answers: The ritual impurity of a beit haperas is by rabbinic law, as Rav Yehuda said that Shmuel said: A person who passes through a beit haperas may blow on the dust before taking each step, so that if there is a bone beneath the dust he will expose it, avoid it, and proceed. One may not rely on that method of examination with regard to impurity by Torah law. And Rav Yehuda bar Ami, in the name of Rav Yehuda, said: A beit haperas that has been trodden underfoot, creating a path, is pure. What is the reason? It is that it is impossible for a bone the size of a grain of barley, whose possible presence led to the decree of impurity, not to have been trodden underfoot and rendered smaller. This presumption is possible only in cases of impurity by rabbinic law.

ื•ืขื“ ื›ืืŸ ื”ื™ื™ื ื• ื‘ืื™ืŸ ื‘ืฉื‘ืช ืงืกื‘ืจ ืชื—ื•ืžื™ืŸ ื“ืจื‘ื ืŸ

And the mishna states that one is deemed credible to testify, in his adulthood, that he saw as a minor: Until here we would come on Shabbat. The Gemara explains: This tanna maintains that the Shabbat boundaries, beyond which one may not go outside the city on Shabbat, are mandated by rabbinic law, and the Sages deemed him credible in matters of rabbinic law.

ื•ืื™ืŸ ื ืืžืŸ ืœื•ืžืจ ื“ืจืš ื”ื™ื” ืœืคืœื•ื ื™ ื‘ืžืงื•ื ื”ื–ื” ืžืขืžื“ ื•ืžืกืคื“ ื”ื™ื” ืœืคืœื•ื ื™ ื‘ืžืงื•ื ื”ื–ื” ืžืื™ ื˜ืขืžื ืืคื•ืงื™ ืžืžื•ื ื ืœื ืžืคืงื™ื ืŸ

And the mishna states that one is neither deemed credible to say: So-and-so had a path in this place; nor to say: So-and-so had a tract of land where they would perform the ritual of standing and sitting and deliver a eulogy in that place. The Gemara asks: What is the reason that he is not deemed credible? It is due to the fact that we do not remove money from the possession of its presumptive owner on the basis of testimony about a matter that he witnessed as a minor.

ืชื ื• ืจื‘ื ืŸ ื ืืžืŸ ื”ืชื™ื ื•ืง ืœื•ืžืจ ื›ืš ืืžืจ ืœื™ ืื‘ื ืžืฉืคื—ื” ื–ื• ื˜ื”ื•ืจื” ืžืฉืคื—ื” ื–ื• ื˜ืžืื” ื˜ื”ื•ืจื” ื•ื˜ืžืื” ืกืœืงื ื“ืขืชืš ืืœื ืžืฉืคื—ื” ื–ื• ื›ืฉืจื” ื•ืžืฉืคื—ื” ื–ื• ืคืกื•ืœื”

The Sages taught: A child is deemed credible to say when he reaches majority that this is what my father told me when I was a minor: This family is pure, that family is impure. The Gemara asks: Does it enter your mind that his father said pure and impure? What do those concepts mean with regard to a family? Rather, his father said to him: This family is of unflawed lineage, and this family is of flawed lineage.

ื•ืฉืื›ืœื ื• ื‘ืงืฆืฆื” ืฉืœ ื‘ืช ืคืœื•ื ื™ ืœืคืœื•ื ื™ ื•ืฉื”ื™ื™ื ื• ืžื•ืœื™ื›ื™ื ื—ืœื” ื•ืžืชื ื•ืช ืœืคืœื•ื ื™ ื›ื”ืŸ ืขืœ ื™ื“ื™ ืขืฆืžื• ืื‘ืœ ืœื ืขืœ ื™ื“ื™ ืื—ืจ ื•ื›ื•ืœืŸ ืื ื”ื™ื” ื’ื•ื™ ื•ื ืชื’ื™ื™ืจ ืขื‘ื“ ื•ื ืฉืชื—ืจืจ ืื™ืŸ ื ืืžื ื™ื ื•ืื™ืŸ ื ืืžืŸ ืœื•ืžืจ ื“ืจืš ื”ื™ื” ืœืคืœื•ื ื™ ื‘ืžืงื•ื ื”ื–ื” ืžืขืžื“ ื•ืžืกืคื“ ื”ื™ื” ืœืคืœื•ื ื™ ื‘ืžืงื•ื ื”ื–ื” ืจื‘ื™ ื™ื•ื—ื ืŸ ื‘ืŸ ื‘ืจื•ืงื ืื•ืžืจ ื ืืžื ื™ื

And he is deemed credible to say that we ate at the ketzatza that took place to publicize that the marriage of the daughter of so-and-so to so-and-so was unsuitable; and to say that we would bring แธฅalla and priestly gifts to so-and-so, who is a priest. In that case, he is deemed credible only to testify that he brought the แธฅalla by himself, but not by means of another, as one is certain of matters that he performed himself, even as a minor. However, he is not deemed credible to testify about actions performed by others when he was a minor. And with regard to all these testimonies, if he was a gentile and he converted, or a slave and he was liberated, they are not deemed credible to testify after their conversion and liberation about matters that transpired beforehand when they were disqualified as witnesses. And one is neither deemed credible to say that he remembers that when he was a minor, so-and-so had a path in this place; nor that so-and-so had a tract of land where they would perform the ritual of standing and sitting and deliver a eulogy in that place. Rabbi Yoแธฅanan ben Beroka says: They are deemed credible.

ืจื‘ื™ ื™ื•ื—ื ืŸ ื‘ืŸ ื‘ืจื•ืงื ืื”ื™ื™ื ืื™ืœื™ืžื ืืกื™ืคื ืืคื•ืงื™ ืžืžื•ื ื ื”ื•ื ืืœื ืืจื™ืฉื ื•ื›ื•ืœื ืื ื”ื™ื” ื’ื•ื™ ื•ื ืชื’ื™ื™ืจ ืขื‘ื“ ื•ื ืฉืชื—ืจืจ ืื™ืŸ ื ืืžื ื™ืŸ ืจื‘ื™ ื™ื•ื—ื ืŸ ื‘ืŸ ื‘ืจื•ืงื ืื•ืžืจ ื ืืžื ื™ืŸ

The Gemara asks: With regard to which clause in the baraita is Rabbi Yoแธฅanan ben Beroka disputing? If we say he is disputing the last clause of the baraita, which concerns testimony about a path or a place for mourning, it is a case of removing money from the possession of its presumptive owner. How could his testimony be deemed credible? Rather, Rabbi Yoแธฅanan ben Beroka is certainly disagreeing with the former clause of the baraita: And with regard to all these testimonies, if he was a gentile and he converted, or a slave and he was liberated, they are not deemed credible. It is with regard to that halakha that Rabbi Yoแธฅanan ben Beroka says: They are deemed credible.

ื‘ืžืื™ ืงืžื™ืคืœื’ื™ ืชื ื ืงืžื ืกื‘ืจ ื›ื™ื•ืŸ ื“ื’ื•ื™ ื”ื•ื ืœื ื”ื•ื” ื“ื™ื™ืง ื•ืจื‘ื™ ื™ื•ื—ื ืŸ ื‘ืŸ ื‘ืจื•ืงื ืกื‘ืจ ื›ื™ื•ืŸ ื“ื“ืขืชื™ื” ืœืื™ื’ื™ื•ืจื™ ืžื™ื“ืง ื”ื•ื” ื“ื™ื™ืง

The Gemara asks: With regard to what principle do they disagree? The Gemara explains that the first tanna maintains: Since he was a gentile, he was not exacting in scrutinizing the matter, as it was irrelevant to him. Therefore, even after he converted he is not deemed credible. And Rabbi Yoแธฅanan ben Beroka maintains: Since it was his intention to convert, he took interest in Judaism and he was exacting in scrutinizing the matter, and he is deemed credible.

ืžืื™ ืงืฆืฆื” ื“ืชื ื• ืจื‘ื ืŸ ื›ื™ืฆื“ ืงืฆืฆื” ืื—ื“ ืžืŸ ื”ืื—ื™ืŸ ืฉื ืฉื ืืฉื” ืฉืื™ื ื” ื”ื•ื’ื ืช ืœื• ื‘ืื™ืŸ ื‘ื ื™ ืžืฉืคื—ื” ื•ืžื‘ื™ืื™ืŸ ื—ื‘ื™ืช ืžืœื™ืื” ืคื™ืจื•ืช ื•ืฉื•ื‘ืจื™ืŸ ืื•ืชื” ื‘ืืžืฆืข ืจื—ื‘ื” ื•ืื•ืžืจื™ื ืื—ื™ื ื• ื‘ื™ืช ื™ืฉืจืืœ ืฉืžืขื• ืื—ื™ื ื• ืคืœื•ื ื™ ื ืฉื ืืฉื” ืฉืื™ื ื” ื”ื•ื’ื ืช ืœื• ื•ืžืชื™ื™ืจืื™ื ืื ื• ืฉืžื ื™ืชืขืจื‘ ื–ืจืขื• ื‘ื–ืจืขื™ื ื• ื‘ื•ืื• ื•ืงื—ื• ืœื›ื ื“ื•ื’ืžื ืœื“ื•ืจื•ืช ืฉืœื ื™ืชืขืจื‘ ื–ืจืขื• ื‘ื–ืจืขื™ื ื• ื•ื–ื• ื”ื™ื ืงืฆืฆื” ืฉื”ืชื™ื ื•ืง ื ืืžืŸ ืœื”ืขื™ื“ ืขืœื™ื”

The Gemara asks about a term employed in the baraita: What is the meaning of ketzatza? It is as the Sages taught: How is ketzatza performed? If a situation where one of the brothers who married a woman who is unsuited for him, due to flawed lineage, occurs, the family members come and bring with them a barrel full of fruits, and break it in the middle of a public square to publicize the matter, and they say: Our brothers, the house of Israel, listen. Our brother so-and-so married a woman who is unsuited for him, and we fear lest his descendants become intermingled with our descendants. In order to further underscore the matter, they continue: Come and take for yourselves a sample as an indicator for future generations, so that his descendants will not intermingle with our descendants. The gathering of the large crowd to take the fruit generates publicity. And this is the ketzatza that a child who witnessed it is deemed credible to testify about it when he is an adult.

ื”ื“ืจืŸ ืขืœืš ื”ืืฉื” ืฉื ืชืืจืžืœื”

 

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