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Today's Daf Yomi

July 11, 2022 | 讬状讘 讘转诪讜讝 转砖驻状讘

  • Masechet Ketubot is sponsored by Erica and Rob Schwartz in honor of the 50th wedding anniversary of Erica's parents Sheira and Steve Schacter.

  • This month's learning is sponsored by the Kessler, Wolkenfeld and Grossman families in loving memory of Mia Rose bat Matan Yehoshua v鈥 Elana Malka. "讛 谞转谉 讜讛 诇拽讞. 讬讛讬 砖诐 讛 诪讘讜专讱"

  • This month's shiurim are sponsored by Shoshana Shur for the refuah shleima of Meira Bat Zelda Zahava.

Ketubot 5

Today’s daf is sponsored by Hannah Piotrkowski in honor of Amy Cohn and Karen Kirschenbaum for their gracious hosting and teaching at the Jerusalem Yevamot siyum.聽

One should not engage in relations with one’s wife for the first time on Friday night or Saturday night. Friday night – out of concern for tearing her hymen and causing her to bleed, which is forbidden on Shabbat. Saturday night – out of concern one will do calculations on Shabbat of expenses for the wedding. Why is that an issue if one is allowed to do calculations for a mitzva? All sorts of things that are either mitzvot or have to do with communal needs are permitted on Shabbat. Therefore that explanation is rejected and a different one is brought. The concern is that one may slaughter a young bird on Shabbat. Why is this not a concern when Yom Kippur falls on a Monday? Two distinctions are made – regarding Yom Kippur, there is more time (Sunday) and it is for oneself and not for others. This explanation (concern about slaughtering a bird) could also explain why one shouldn’t get married on Friday. If one is supposed to get married on Wednesday, can the marriage be consummated on Wednesday or should they wait until Wednesday night so that if she is not a virgin, he will not change his mind by the next day and not go to court? To answer the question, they bring in Bar Kapara’s opinion that connects between the creation of the world (the commandment to be fruitful and multiply – to the fish on Thursday and to humans on Friday) and the days on which virgins and widows are to marry. Widows marry on Thursday for another reason – the rabbis instituted it so that the husband would have three days to spend celebration with his wife before he goes back to work. Other drashot of Bar Kapara are brought. One discusses the greatness of the actions of the righteous and the other, the importance of closing your ears to hearing things that are best not to be heard. When a woman’s hymen tears during intercourse, is that considered inflicting a wound on someone and therefore forbidden to do on Shabbat or is it perceived that the blood was collected there and one is just allowing it to leave. Further questions are asked according to each option relating to famous debates between Rabbi Yehuda and Rabbi Shimon regarding melachot that one does on Shabbat that one did not intend or destructive acts.

诪砖讜诐 讞砖讘讜谞讜转

It is due to calculations performed on Shabbat to prepare for the wedding. He would thereby engage in weekday matters on Shabbat.

讗诪专 诇讬讛 讗讘讬讬 讜讞砖讘讜谞讜转 砖诇 诪爪讜讛 诪讬 讗住讬专讬 讜讛讗 专讘 讞住讚讗 讜专讘 讛诪谞讜谞讗 讚讗诪专讬 转专讜讬讬讛讜 讞砖讘讜谞讜转 砖诇 诪爪讜讛 诪讜转专 诇讞砖讘谉 讘砖讘转 讜讗诪专 专讘讬 讗诇注讝专 驻讜住拽讬谉 爪讚拽讛 诇注谞讬讬诐 讘砖讘转 讜讗诪专 专讘讬 讬注拽讘 讗诪专 专讘讬 讬讜讞谞谉 讛讜诇讻讬谉 诇讘转讬 讻谞住讬讜转 讜诇讘转讬 诪讚专砖讜转 诇驻拽讞 注诇 注住拽讬 专讘讬诐 讘砖讘转 讜讗诪专 专讘讬 讬注拽讘 讘专 讗讬讚讬 讗诪专 专讘讬 讬讜讞谞谉 诪驻拽讞讬谉 驻讬拽讜讞 谞驻砖 讘砖讘转

Abaye said to him: And are calculations for a mitzva prohibited on Shabbat? But wasn鈥檛 it Rav 岣sda and Rav Hamnuna who both said: With regard to calculations for a mitzva, it is permitted to reckon them on Shabbat? And Rabbi Elazar said: One may allocate charity to the poor on Shabbat. And Rabbi Ya鈥檃kov said that Rabbi Yo岣nan said: One goes to synagogues and study halls to supervise matters affecting the multitudes on Shabbat. And Rabbi Ya鈥檃kov bar Idi said that Rabbi Yo岣nan said: One supervises matters of saving a life on Shabbat.

讜讗诪专 专讘 砖诪讜讗诇 讘专 谞讞诪谞讬 讗诪专 专讘讬 讬讜谞转谉 讛讜诇讻讬谉 诇讟专讟讬讬讗讜转 讜诇拽专拽讬讬讗讜转 诇驻拽讞 注诇 注住拽讬 专讘讬诐 讘砖讘转 讜转谞讗 讚讘讬 诪谞砖讬讗 诪砖讚讻讬谉 注诇 讛转讬谞讜拽转 诇讬讗专住 讘砖讘转 讜注诇 讛转讬谞讜拽 诇诇诪讚讜 住驻专 讜诇诇诪讚讜 讗讜诪谞讜转

And Rabbi Shmuel bar Na岣ani said that Rabbi Yo岣nan said: One goes to theaters [tartiyyaot] and circuses [karkiyyaot] to supervise matters affecting the multitudes on Shabbat, because the fate of the Jewish people or of individual Jews is often decided there and one鈥檚 presence could prevent calamity. And the Sage of the school of Menashya taught: One makes matches [meshadkhin] among the families concerned for a young girl to be betrothed on Shabbat, and similarly one may make arrangements for a young boy to teach him Torah and to teach him a craft. Apparently, calculations for a mitzva may be reckoned on Shabbat, including calculations for a wedding. Therefore, this cannot be the reason for the prohibition against marrying at the conclusion of Shabbat.

讗诇讗 讗诪专 专讘讬 讝讬专讗 讙讝讬专讛 砖诪讗 讬砖讞讜讟 讘谉 注讜祝 讗诪专 诇讬讛 讗讘讬讬 讗诇讗 诪注转讛 讬讜诐 讛讻驻讜专讬诐 砖讞诇 诇讛讬讜转 讘砖谞讬 讘砖讘转 讬讚讞讛 讙讝讬专讛 砖诪讗 讬砖讞讜讟 讘谉 注讜祝 讛转诐 讚诇谞驻砖讬讛 诇讗 讟专讬讚 讛讻讗 讚诇讗讞专讬诐 讟专讬讚 讗讬 谞诪讬 讛转诐 讗讬转 诇讬讛 专讜讜讞讗 讛讻讗 诇讬转 诇讬讛 专讜讜讞讗

Rather, Rabbi Zeira said: It is a decree lest one slaughter a young fowl on Shabbat, due to his preoccupation with the preparations for that night鈥檚 wedding feast. Abaye said to him: If that is so, Yom Kippur that occurs on Monday should be postponed when fixing the calendar, due to a decree lest one slaughter a young fowl on Shabbat for the meal on Yom Kippur eve, which is a mitzva. The Gemara distinguishes between the cases. There, with regard to Yom Kippur eve, when one is preparing a meal for himself, he is not preoccupied, and he will not overlook the fact that it is Shabbat. Here, in the case of a wedding, one is preparing a meal for others and is preoccupied. Alternatively, there, on Yom Kippur eve, he has an interval of time during which he can slaughter the bird, as the mitzva is to eat the meal on Yom Kippur eve the next day. Here, he does not have an interval of time, because the wedding and the feast take place at night at the conclusion of Shabbat.

讛砖转讗 讚讗转讬转 诇讛讻讬 注专讘 砖讘转 谞诪讬 讙讝讬专讛 砖诪讗 讬砖讞讜讟 讘谉 注讜祝

The Gemara says: Now that we have come to this understanding of the prohibition against marrying at the conclusion of Shabbat, the prohibition not to engage in sexual intercourse on Shabbat evening, too, is not due to the intercourse. Rather, it is a decree lest one slaughter a young fowl for the wedding feast.

讗讬讘注讬讗 诇讛讜 讘转讜诇讛 谞砖讗转 讘专讘讬注讬 讜谞讘注诇转 讘专讘讬注讬 讜诇讗 讞讬讬砖讬谞谉 诇讗讬拽专讜专讬 讚注转讗 讗讜 讚诇诪讗 讘转讜诇讛 谞砖讗转 讘专讘讬注讬 讜谞讘注诇转 讘讞诪讬砖讬 讚讞讬讬砖讬谞谉 诇讗讬拽专讜专讬 讚注转讗

搂 The Gemara raises a dilemma: Is a virgin married on Wednesday and does she engage in intercourse on that Wednesday, and we are not concerned lest his resolve to take his bride to court upon discovering that she was not a virgin cool overnight? Rather, he will certainly go to court the next morning. Or perhaps, a virgin is married on Wednesday but engages in intercourse on Thursday, as we are concerned that his resolve will cool.

转讗 砖诪注 讚转谞讬 讘专 拽驻专讗 讘转讜诇讛 谞砖讗转 讘专讘讬注讬 讜谞讘注诇转 讘讞诪讬砖讬 讛讜讗讬诇 讜谞讗诪专讛 讘讜 讘专讻讛 诇讚讙讬诐 讗诇诪谞讛 谞砖讗转 讘讞诪讬砖讬 讜谞讘注诇转 讘砖砖讬 讛讜讗讬诇 讜谞讗诪专讛 讘讜 讘专讻讛 诇讗讚诐 讟注诪讗 诪砖讜诐 讘专讻讛 讗讘诇 诪砖讜诐 讗讬拽专讜专讬 讚注转讗 诇讗 讞讬讬砖讬谞谉

Come and hear proof, as bar Kappara taught: A virgin is married on Wednesday and engages in intercourse on Thursday, since the blessing to the fish: Be fruitful and multiply, was stated on the fifth day of Creation. A widow is married on Thursday and engages in intercourse on Friday, since the blessing of procreation was stated to man on the sixth day of Creation. It may be inferred that the reason is due to the blessing, but with regard to the possibility lest his resolve cool, we are not concerned.

讗讬 讛讻讬 讗诇诪谞讛 谞诪讬 转讬讘注诇 讘讞诪讬砖讬 讛讜讗讬诇 讜谞讗诪专讛 讘讜 讘专讻讛 诇讚讙讬诐 讘专讻讛 讚讗讚诐 注讚讬驻讗 诇讬讛

The Gemara asks: If so, a widow should also engage in intercourse on Thursday, since the blessing to the fish was stated then. The Gemara answers: Since there is the option to postpone engaging in relations to the day on which the blessing of man was stated, doing so is preferable for him.

讜讗讬 谞诪讬 诪砖讜诐 砖拽讚讜 讚转谞讬讗 诪驻谞讬 诪讛 讗诪专讜 讗诇诪谞讛 谞砖讗转 讘讞诪讬砖讬 讜谞讘注诇转 讘砖砖讬 砖讗诐 讗转讛 讗讜诪专 转讬讘注诇 讘讞诪讬砖讬 诇诪讞专 诪砖讻讬诐 诇讗讜诪谞转讜 讜讛讜诇讱 诇讜 砖拽讚讜 讞讻诪讬诐 注诇 转拽谞转 讘谞讜转 讬砖专讗诇 砖讬讛讗 砖诪讞 注诪讛 砖诇砖讛 讬诪讬诐 讞诪讬砖讬 讘砖讘转 讜注专讘 砖讘转 讜砖讘转

Alternatively, that day was established as the day for a widow to engage in sexual relations due to the fact that the Sages were assiduous in seeing to the well-being of Jewish women, as it is taught in a baraita: Why did the Sages say that a widow is married on Thursday and engages in intercourse on Friday? It is because if you say that she should engage in intercourse on Thursday, on the next day the groom will go to ply his craft early and leave his wife alone. When a man marries a widow, there is no observance of the seven days of rejoicing, whose legal status is like that of a Festival, during which he does not go to work. Therefore, the Sages were assiduous in seeing to the well-being of Jewish women and ensured that the groom rejoice with her for three days: Thursday, the day of the wedding; and Shabbat eve, the day when they engage in sexual relations; and Shabbat.

诪讗讬 讗讬讻讗 讘讬谉 讘专讻讛 诇砖拽讚讜 讗讬讻讗 讘讬谞讬讬讛讜 讗讚诐 讘讟诇 讗讬 谞诪讬 讬讜诐 讟讜讘 砖讞诇 诇讛讬讜转 讘注专讘 砖讘转

What practical difference is there between the two reasons given to engage in relations on Friday, i.e., the blessing of procreation for man and the fact that the Sages were assiduous? The Gemara answers: There is a practical difference between them in the case of an idle person, who has no job, in which case the reason of blessing applies and the reason that the Sages were assiduous does not, as no matter what he will not go to work early. Alternatively, there is a practical difference in the case of a Festival that occurs on Shabbat eve. There too, the reason of blessing applies but the Sages鈥 assiduousness does not apply, as one does not work on a Festival.

讚专砖 讘专 拽驻专讗 讙讚讜诇讬诐 诪注砖讛 爪讚讬拽讬诐 讬讜转专 诪诪注砖讛 砖诪讬诐 讜讗专抓 讚讗讬诇讜 讘诪注砖讛 砖诪讬诐 讜讗专抓 讻转讬讘 讗祝 讬讚讬 讬住讚讛 讗专抓 讜讬诪讬谞讬 讟驻讞讛 砖诪讬诐 讜讗诇讜 讘诪注砖讛 讬讚讬讛诐 砖诇 爪讚讬拽讬诐 讻转讬讘 诪讻讜谉 诇砖讘转讱 驻注诇转 讛壮 诪拽讚砖 讗讚谞讬 讻讜谞谞讜 讬讚讬讱

搂 The Gemara cites additional aggadic statements of bar Kappara. Bar Kappara taught: The handiwork of the righteous is greater than the creation of heaven and earth, as with regard to the creation of heaven and earth it is written: 鈥淢y hand also has laid the foundation of the earth, and My right hand has spanned the heavens鈥 (Isaiah 48:13). There, hand is written in the singular. Whereas with regard to the handiwork of the righteous it is written: 鈥淭he place which You have made for Yourself to dwell in, Lord, the Sanctuary, Lord, which your hands have established鈥 (Exodus 15:17). The reference is to the Temple, which is the handiwork of man, and hand is written in the plural.

讛砖讬讘 讘讘诇讬 讗讞讚 讜专讘讬 讞讬讬讗 砖诪讜 讜讬讘砖转 讬讚讬讜 讬爪专讜 讬讚讜 讻转讬讘 讜讛讻转讬讘 讬爪专讜 讗诪专 专讘 谞讞诪谉 讘专 讬爪讞拽 讬爪专讜 讗爪讘注讜转讬讜 讻讚讻转讬讘 讻讬 讗专讗讛 砖诪讬讱 诪注砖讛 讗爪讘注讜转讬讱 讬专讞 讜讻讜讻讘讬诐 讗砖专 讻讜谞谞转

A certain Babylonian, and his name is Rabbi 岣yya, responded with a challenge. It is written with regard to creation of the earth: 鈥淎nd His hands formed the dry land鈥 (Psalms 95:5). The Gemara answers: 鈥淗is hand鈥 is the way it is written. Although the word is vocalized in the plural, it is written in the singular, without the letter yod. But isn鈥檛 it written: 鈥淔ormed,鈥 in the plural? Rav Na岣an bar Yitz岣k said: The plural is referring to His fingers, as it is written: 鈥淲hen I see Your heavens, the work of Your fingers, the moon and stars, which You have established鈥 (Psalms 8:4).

诪讬转讬讘讬 讛砖诪讬诐 诪住驻专讬诐 讻讘讜讚 讗诇 讜诪注砖讛 讬讚讬讜 诪讙讬讚 讛专拽讬注 讛讻讬 拽讗诪专 诪注砖讛 讬讚讬讛诐 砖诇 爪讚讬拽讬诐 诪讬 诪讙讬讚 讛专拽讬注 讜诪讗讬 谞讬讛讜 诪讟专

The Gemara raises an objection: 鈥淭he heavens declare the glory of God, and the firmament proclaims the work of His hands鈥 (Psalms 19:2). The heavens were created by His hands. The Gemara answers that this is what the verse is saying: Who attests to the handiwork of the righteous, that they are performing the will of God? It is the heavens. And what is the avenue through which the heavens do so? It is by means of rain that falls due to the prayers of the righteous.

讚专砖 讘专 拽驻专讗 诪讗讬 讚讻转讬讘 讜讬转讚 转讛讬讛 诇讱 注诇 讗讝谞讱 讗诇 转拽专讬 讗讝谞讱 讗诇讗 注诇 讗讝谞讱 砖讗诐 讬砖诪注 讗讚诐 讚讘专 砖讗讬谞讜 讛讙讜谉

Bar Kappara taught: What is the meaning of that which is written: And you shall have a peg among your weapons [azenekha]鈥 (Deuteronomy 23:14)? Do not read it as: Your weapons [azenekha]. Rather, read it: On your ear [oznekha], meaning that if a person hears an inappropriate matter,

讬谞讬讞 讗爪讘注讜 讘讗讝谞讬讜 讜讛讬讬谞讜 讚讗诪专 专讘讬 讗诇注讝专 诪驻谞讬 诪讛 讗爪讘注讜转讬讜 砖诇 讗讚诐 讚讜诪讜转 诇讬转讬讚讜转 诪讗讬 讟注诪讗 讗讬诇讬诪讗 诪砖讜诐 讚诪讞诇拽谉 讻诇 讞讚讗 讜讞讚讗 诇诪讬诇转讬讛 注讘讬讚讗 讚讗诪专 诪专 讝讜 讝专转 讝讜 拽诪讬爪讛 讝讜 讗诪讛 讝讜 讗爪讘注 讝讛 讙讜讚诇

he should place his finger, which is shaped like a peg, into his ears. And that is what Rabbi Elazar said: Why are the fingers of a person similar to pegs? The Gemara asks: What is the reason that Rabbi Elazar said that fingers are like pegs? If we say that it is due to the fact that they are discrete from each other, each and every finger was designated for its own discrete, sacred matter, as the Master said: This small finger is for measuring a span, the distance between the little finger to the tip of the thumb used in measuring the breastplate of the High Priest; this next finger is used for taking a fistful of the meal-offering; this middle finger is used for measuring a cubit, the distance from the elbow to the tip of the middle finger; this one next to the thumb is the finger used to sprinkle the blood of offerings on the altar; this is the thumb, on which the blood and oil is placed in the purification ritual of a leper.

讗诇讗 诪讛 讟注诐 诪砖讜驻讜转 讻讬转讬讚讜转 砖讗诐 讬砖诪注 讗讚诐 讚讘专 砖讗讬谞讜 讛讙讜谉 讬谞讬讞 讗爪讘注讜转讬讜 讘讗讝谞讬讜 转谞讗 讚讘讬 专讘讬 讬砖诪注讗诇 诪驻谞讬 诪讛 讗讜讝谉 讻讜诇讛 拽砖讛 讜讛讗诇讬讛 专讻讛 砖讗诐 讬砖诪注 讗讚诐 讚讘专 砖讗讬谞讜 讛讙讜谉 讬讻讜祝 讗诇讬讛 诇转讜讻讛 转谞讜 专讘谞谉 讗诇 讬砖诪讬注 讗讚诐 诇讗讝谞讬讜 讚讘专讬诐 讘讟诇讬诐 诪驻谞讬 砖讛谉 谞讻讜讜转 转讞诇讛 诇讗讬讘专讬诐

Rather, the question is: What is the reason that they are pointed like pegs? It is so that if a person hears an inappropriate matter, he will place his fingers in his ears. Similarly, a Sage of the school of Rabbi Yishmael taught: Why is the entire ear hard and the earlobe soft? It is so that if a person hears an inappropriate matter, he will bend his earlobe into his ear to seal it. The Sages taught: A person should not allow his ears to hear idle matters. Because of the fact that ears are very sensitive and are the first of the limbs burned, one should make certain not to expose them to anything problematic.

讗讬讘注讬讗 诇讛讜 诪讛讜 诇讘注讜诇 讘转讞诇讛 讘砖讘转 讚诐 诪讬驻拽讚 驻拽讬讚 讗讜 讞讘讜专讬 诪讬讞讘专

A dilemma was raised before the Sages: What is the halakha with regard to engaging in intercourse with one鈥檚 virgin bride for the first time on Shabbat? The dilemma is with regard to the nature of the blood that emerges as a result of the piercing of the hymen. Is it that the blood is pooled, and it is released once the hymen is pierced, so that no prohibition is violated? Or, is the blood flowing through vessels attached to the body, and it emerges as a result of a wound, so that he does violate a prohibition?

讜讗诐 转讬诪爪讬 诇讜诪专 讚诐 诪讬驻拽讚 驻拽讬讚 诇讚诐 讛讜讗 爪专讬讱 讜砖专讬 讗讜 讚诇诪讗 诇驻转讞 讛讜讗 爪专讬讱 讜讗住讬专

And if you say that it is pooled and the intercourse does not cause a wound, there is an additional dilemma: Does the husband require the blood to flow, and that is his objective in performing the act, in which case it is permitted? Or, perhaps he requires the opening caused by the rupture of the hymen, and creating that opening is prohibited on Shabbat.

讜讗诐 转讬诪爪讬 诇讜诪专 诇讚诐 讛讜讗 爪专讬讱 讜驻转讞 诪诪讬诇讗 拽讗转讬 讛诇讻讛 讻专讘讬 砖诪注讜谉 讚讗诪专 讚讘专 砖讗讬谉 诪转讻讜讬谉 诪讜转专 讗讜 讛诇讻讛 讻专讘讬 讬讛讜讚讛 讚讗诪专 讚讘专 砖讗讬谉 诪转讻讜讬谉 讗住讜专

And if you say that he requires the blood, and the opening comes about incidentally as an unintended consequence, is the halakha in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Shimon, who said: An unintentional act, i.e., a permitted action from which a forbidden labor inadvertently ensued, is permitted? Or, is the halakha in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Yehuda, who said: An unintentional act is forbidden?

讜讗诐 转讬诪爪讬 诇讜诪专 讛诇讻讛 讻专讘讬 讬讛讜讚讛 诪拽诇拽诇 讛讜讗 讗爪诇 讛驻转讞 讗讜 诪转拽谉 讛讜讗 讗爪诇 讛驻转讞

And even if you say that the halakha is in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Yehuda in this regard, is this a destructive action vis-脿-vis the opening, and is it consequently permitted on Shabbat because only constructive actions are forbidden? Or, perhaps it is a constructive action vis-脿-vis the opening.

讗讬讻讗 讚讗诪专讬 讜讗诐 转讬诪爪讬 诇讜诪专 讚诐 讞讘讜专讬 诪讬讞讘专 诇讚诐 讛讜讗 爪专讬讱 讜讗住讜专 讗讜 讚诇诪讗 诇讛谞讗转 注爪诪讜 讛讜讗 爪专讬讱 讜砖专讬

Some say that the series of dilemmas is as follows: And if you say that the blood is flowing through vessels attached to the body and emerges as a result of a wound, does the husband require the blood, and engaging in intercourse is consequently prohibited, as his intent is to cause the wound? Or, perhaps he requires the act of intercourse solely for his own pleasure, and it is permitted.

讜讗诐 转讬诪爪讬 诇讜诪专 诇讛谞讗转 注爪诪讜 讛讜讗 爪专讬讱 讜讚诐 诪诪讬诇讗 拽讗转讬 讛诇讻讛 讻专讘讬 讬讛讜讚讛 讗讜 讛诇讻讛 讻专讘讬 砖诪注讜谉

And if you say that he requires the act of intercourse solely for his own pleasure, and the blood comes incidentally, as it was not his intent to draw blood, is the halakha in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Yehuda with regard to an unintentional act, or is it in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Shimon?

讜讗诐 转讬诪爪讬 诇讜诪专 讛诇讻讛 讻专讘讬 讬讛讜讚讛 诪拽诇拽诇 讘讞讘讜专讛 讗讜 诪转拽谉 讘讞讘讜专讛 讛讜讗

And if you say that the halakha is in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Yehuda and unintentional acts are forbidden, is one destructive in causing the wound or constructive in causing the wound?

讜讗诐 转讬诪爪讬 诇讜诪专 诪拽诇拽诇 讘讞讘讜专讛 讛讜讗 讘诪拽诇拽诇 讛诇讻讛 讻专讘讬 讬讛讜讚讛

And if you say that he is destructive in causing the wound, in cases involving destructive acts is the halakha in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Yehuda, who rules that one who performs any destructive act on Shabbat is exempt, even if he did so intentionally?

  • Masechet Ketubot is sponsored by Erica and Rob Schwartz in honor of the 50th wedding anniversary of Erica's parents Sheira and Steve Schacter.

  • This month's learning is sponsored by the Kessler, Wolkenfeld and Grossman families in loving memory of Mia Rose bat Matan Yehoshua v鈥 Elana Malka. "讛 谞转谉 讜讛 诇拽讞. 讬讛讬 砖诐 讛 诪讘讜专讱"

  • This month's shiurim are sponsored by Shoshana Shur for the refuah shleima of Meira Bat Zelda Zahava.

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Ketubot 5

诪砖讜诐 讞砖讘讜谞讜转

It is due to calculations performed on Shabbat to prepare for the wedding. He would thereby engage in weekday matters on Shabbat.

讗诪专 诇讬讛 讗讘讬讬 讜讞砖讘讜谞讜转 砖诇 诪爪讜讛 诪讬 讗住讬专讬 讜讛讗 专讘 讞住讚讗 讜专讘 讛诪谞讜谞讗 讚讗诪专讬 转专讜讬讬讛讜 讞砖讘讜谞讜转 砖诇 诪爪讜讛 诪讜转专 诇讞砖讘谉 讘砖讘转 讜讗诪专 专讘讬 讗诇注讝专 驻讜住拽讬谉 爪讚拽讛 诇注谞讬讬诐 讘砖讘转 讜讗诪专 专讘讬 讬注拽讘 讗诪专 专讘讬 讬讜讞谞谉 讛讜诇讻讬谉 诇讘转讬 讻谞住讬讜转 讜诇讘转讬 诪讚专砖讜转 诇驻拽讞 注诇 注住拽讬 专讘讬诐 讘砖讘转 讜讗诪专 专讘讬 讬注拽讘 讘专 讗讬讚讬 讗诪专 专讘讬 讬讜讞谞谉 诪驻拽讞讬谉 驻讬拽讜讞 谞驻砖 讘砖讘转

Abaye said to him: And are calculations for a mitzva prohibited on Shabbat? But wasn鈥檛 it Rav 岣sda and Rav Hamnuna who both said: With regard to calculations for a mitzva, it is permitted to reckon them on Shabbat? And Rabbi Elazar said: One may allocate charity to the poor on Shabbat. And Rabbi Ya鈥檃kov said that Rabbi Yo岣nan said: One goes to synagogues and study halls to supervise matters affecting the multitudes on Shabbat. And Rabbi Ya鈥檃kov bar Idi said that Rabbi Yo岣nan said: One supervises matters of saving a life on Shabbat.

讜讗诪专 专讘 砖诪讜讗诇 讘专 谞讞诪谞讬 讗诪专 专讘讬 讬讜谞转谉 讛讜诇讻讬谉 诇讟专讟讬讬讗讜转 讜诇拽专拽讬讬讗讜转 诇驻拽讞 注诇 注住拽讬 专讘讬诐 讘砖讘转 讜转谞讗 讚讘讬 诪谞砖讬讗 诪砖讚讻讬谉 注诇 讛转讬谞讜拽转 诇讬讗专住 讘砖讘转 讜注诇 讛转讬谞讜拽 诇诇诪讚讜 住驻专 讜诇诇诪讚讜 讗讜诪谞讜转

And Rabbi Shmuel bar Na岣ani said that Rabbi Yo岣nan said: One goes to theaters [tartiyyaot] and circuses [karkiyyaot] to supervise matters affecting the multitudes on Shabbat, because the fate of the Jewish people or of individual Jews is often decided there and one鈥檚 presence could prevent calamity. And the Sage of the school of Menashya taught: One makes matches [meshadkhin] among the families concerned for a young girl to be betrothed on Shabbat, and similarly one may make arrangements for a young boy to teach him Torah and to teach him a craft. Apparently, calculations for a mitzva may be reckoned on Shabbat, including calculations for a wedding. Therefore, this cannot be the reason for the prohibition against marrying at the conclusion of Shabbat.

讗诇讗 讗诪专 专讘讬 讝讬专讗 讙讝讬专讛 砖诪讗 讬砖讞讜讟 讘谉 注讜祝 讗诪专 诇讬讛 讗讘讬讬 讗诇讗 诪注转讛 讬讜诐 讛讻驻讜专讬诐 砖讞诇 诇讛讬讜转 讘砖谞讬 讘砖讘转 讬讚讞讛 讙讝讬专讛 砖诪讗 讬砖讞讜讟 讘谉 注讜祝 讛转诐 讚诇谞驻砖讬讛 诇讗 讟专讬讚 讛讻讗 讚诇讗讞专讬诐 讟专讬讚 讗讬 谞诪讬 讛转诐 讗讬转 诇讬讛 专讜讜讞讗 讛讻讗 诇讬转 诇讬讛 专讜讜讞讗

Rather, Rabbi Zeira said: It is a decree lest one slaughter a young fowl on Shabbat, due to his preoccupation with the preparations for that night鈥檚 wedding feast. Abaye said to him: If that is so, Yom Kippur that occurs on Monday should be postponed when fixing the calendar, due to a decree lest one slaughter a young fowl on Shabbat for the meal on Yom Kippur eve, which is a mitzva. The Gemara distinguishes between the cases. There, with regard to Yom Kippur eve, when one is preparing a meal for himself, he is not preoccupied, and he will not overlook the fact that it is Shabbat. Here, in the case of a wedding, one is preparing a meal for others and is preoccupied. Alternatively, there, on Yom Kippur eve, he has an interval of time during which he can slaughter the bird, as the mitzva is to eat the meal on Yom Kippur eve the next day. Here, he does not have an interval of time, because the wedding and the feast take place at night at the conclusion of Shabbat.

讛砖转讗 讚讗转讬转 诇讛讻讬 注专讘 砖讘转 谞诪讬 讙讝讬专讛 砖诪讗 讬砖讞讜讟 讘谉 注讜祝

The Gemara says: Now that we have come to this understanding of the prohibition against marrying at the conclusion of Shabbat, the prohibition not to engage in sexual intercourse on Shabbat evening, too, is not due to the intercourse. Rather, it is a decree lest one slaughter a young fowl for the wedding feast.

讗讬讘注讬讗 诇讛讜 讘转讜诇讛 谞砖讗转 讘专讘讬注讬 讜谞讘注诇转 讘专讘讬注讬 讜诇讗 讞讬讬砖讬谞谉 诇讗讬拽专讜专讬 讚注转讗 讗讜 讚诇诪讗 讘转讜诇讛 谞砖讗转 讘专讘讬注讬 讜谞讘注诇转 讘讞诪讬砖讬 讚讞讬讬砖讬谞谉 诇讗讬拽专讜专讬 讚注转讗

搂 The Gemara raises a dilemma: Is a virgin married on Wednesday and does she engage in intercourse on that Wednesday, and we are not concerned lest his resolve to take his bride to court upon discovering that she was not a virgin cool overnight? Rather, he will certainly go to court the next morning. Or perhaps, a virgin is married on Wednesday but engages in intercourse on Thursday, as we are concerned that his resolve will cool.

转讗 砖诪注 讚转谞讬 讘专 拽驻专讗 讘转讜诇讛 谞砖讗转 讘专讘讬注讬 讜谞讘注诇转 讘讞诪讬砖讬 讛讜讗讬诇 讜谞讗诪专讛 讘讜 讘专讻讛 诇讚讙讬诐 讗诇诪谞讛 谞砖讗转 讘讞诪讬砖讬 讜谞讘注诇转 讘砖砖讬 讛讜讗讬诇 讜谞讗诪专讛 讘讜 讘专讻讛 诇讗讚诐 讟注诪讗 诪砖讜诐 讘专讻讛 讗讘诇 诪砖讜诐 讗讬拽专讜专讬 讚注转讗 诇讗 讞讬讬砖讬谞谉

Come and hear proof, as bar Kappara taught: A virgin is married on Wednesday and engages in intercourse on Thursday, since the blessing to the fish: Be fruitful and multiply, was stated on the fifth day of Creation. A widow is married on Thursday and engages in intercourse on Friday, since the blessing of procreation was stated to man on the sixth day of Creation. It may be inferred that the reason is due to the blessing, but with regard to the possibility lest his resolve cool, we are not concerned.

讗讬 讛讻讬 讗诇诪谞讛 谞诪讬 转讬讘注诇 讘讞诪讬砖讬 讛讜讗讬诇 讜谞讗诪专讛 讘讜 讘专讻讛 诇讚讙讬诐 讘专讻讛 讚讗讚诐 注讚讬驻讗 诇讬讛

The Gemara asks: If so, a widow should also engage in intercourse on Thursday, since the blessing to the fish was stated then. The Gemara answers: Since there is the option to postpone engaging in relations to the day on which the blessing of man was stated, doing so is preferable for him.

讜讗讬 谞诪讬 诪砖讜诐 砖拽讚讜 讚转谞讬讗 诪驻谞讬 诪讛 讗诪专讜 讗诇诪谞讛 谞砖讗转 讘讞诪讬砖讬 讜谞讘注诇转 讘砖砖讬 砖讗诐 讗转讛 讗讜诪专 转讬讘注诇 讘讞诪讬砖讬 诇诪讞专 诪砖讻讬诐 诇讗讜诪谞转讜 讜讛讜诇讱 诇讜 砖拽讚讜 讞讻诪讬诐 注诇 转拽谞转 讘谞讜转 讬砖专讗诇 砖讬讛讗 砖诪讞 注诪讛 砖诇砖讛 讬诪讬诐 讞诪讬砖讬 讘砖讘转 讜注专讘 砖讘转 讜砖讘转

Alternatively, that day was established as the day for a widow to engage in sexual relations due to the fact that the Sages were assiduous in seeing to the well-being of Jewish women, as it is taught in a baraita: Why did the Sages say that a widow is married on Thursday and engages in intercourse on Friday? It is because if you say that she should engage in intercourse on Thursday, on the next day the groom will go to ply his craft early and leave his wife alone. When a man marries a widow, there is no observance of the seven days of rejoicing, whose legal status is like that of a Festival, during which he does not go to work. Therefore, the Sages were assiduous in seeing to the well-being of Jewish women and ensured that the groom rejoice with her for three days: Thursday, the day of the wedding; and Shabbat eve, the day when they engage in sexual relations; and Shabbat.

诪讗讬 讗讬讻讗 讘讬谉 讘专讻讛 诇砖拽讚讜 讗讬讻讗 讘讬谞讬讬讛讜 讗讚诐 讘讟诇 讗讬 谞诪讬 讬讜诐 讟讜讘 砖讞诇 诇讛讬讜转 讘注专讘 砖讘转

What practical difference is there between the two reasons given to engage in relations on Friday, i.e., the blessing of procreation for man and the fact that the Sages were assiduous? The Gemara answers: There is a practical difference between them in the case of an idle person, who has no job, in which case the reason of blessing applies and the reason that the Sages were assiduous does not, as no matter what he will not go to work early. Alternatively, there is a practical difference in the case of a Festival that occurs on Shabbat eve. There too, the reason of blessing applies but the Sages鈥 assiduousness does not apply, as one does not work on a Festival.

讚专砖 讘专 拽驻专讗 讙讚讜诇讬诐 诪注砖讛 爪讚讬拽讬诐 讬讜转专 诪诪注砖讛 砖诪讬诐 讜讗专抓 讚讗讬诇讜 讘诪注砖讛 砖诪讬诐 讜讗专抓 讻转讬讘 讗祝 讬讚讬 讬住讚讛 讗专抓 讜讬诪讬谞讬 讟驻讞讛 砖诪讬诐 讜讗诇讜 讘诪注砖讛 讬讚讬讛诐 砖诇 爪讚讬拽讬诐 讻转讬讘 诪讻讜谉 诇砖讘转讱 驻注诇转 讛壮 诪拽讚砖 讗讚谞讬 讻讜谞谞讜 讬讚讬讱

搂 The Gemara cites additional aggadic statements of bar Kappara. Bar Kappara taught: The handiwork of the righteous is greater than the creation of heaven and earth, as with regard to the creation of heaven and earth it is written: 鈥淢y hand also has laid the foundation of the earth, and My right hand has spanned the heavens鈥 (Isaiah 48:13). There, hand is written in the singular. Whereas with regard to the handiwork of the righteous it is written: 鈥淭he place which You have made for Yourself to dwell in, Lord, the Sanctuary, Lord, which your hands have established鈥 (Exodus 15:17). The reference is to the Temple, which is the handiwork of man, and hand is written in the plural.

讛砖讬讘 讘讘诇讬 讗讞讚 讜专讘讬 讞讬讬讗 砖诪讜 讜讬讘砖转 讬讚讬讜 讬爪专讜 讬讚讜 讻转讬讘 讜讛讻转讬讘 讬爪专讜 讗诪专 专讘 谞讞诪谉 讘专 讬爪讞拽 讬爪专讜 讗爪讘注讜转讬讜 讻讚讻转讬讘 讻讬 讗专讗讛 砖诪讬讱 诪注砖讛 讗爪讘注讜转讬讱 讬专讞 讜讻讜讻讘讬诐 讗砖专 讻讜谞谞转

A certain Babylonian, and his name is Rabbi 岣yya, responded with a challenge. It is written with regard to creation of the earth: 鈥淎nd His hands formed the dry land鈥 (Psalms 95:5). The Gemara answers: 鈥淗is hand鈥 is the way it is written. Although the word is vocalized in the plural, it is written in the singular, without the letter yod. But isn鈥檛 it written: 鈥淔ormed,鈥 in the plural? Rav Na岣an bar Yitz岣k said: The plural is referring to His fingers, as it is written: 鈥淲hen I see Your heavens, the work of Your fingers, the moon and stars, which You have established鈥 (Psalms 8:4).

诪讬转讬讘讬 讛砖诪讬诐 诪住驻专讬诐 讻讘讜讚 讗诇 讜诪注砖讛 讬讚讬讜 诪讙讬讚 讛专拽讬注 讛讻讬 拽讗诪专 诪注砖讛 讬讚讬讛诐 砖诇 爪讚讬拽讬诐 诪讬 诪讙讬讚 讛专拽讬注 讜诪讗讬 谞讬讛讜 诪讟专

The Gemara raises an objection: 鈥淭he heavens declare the glory of God, and the firmament proclaims the work of His hands鈥 (Psalms 19:2). The heavens were created by His hands. The Gemara answers that this is what the verse is saying: Who attests to the handiwork of the righteous, that they are performing the will of God? It is the heavens. And what is the avenue through which the heavens do so? It is by means of rain that falls due to the prayers of the righteous.

讚专砖 讘专 拽驻专讗 诪讗讬 讚讻转讬讘 讜讬转讚 转讛讬讛 诇讱 注诇 讗讝谞讱 讗诇 转拽专讬 讗讝谞讱 讗诇讗 注诇 讗讝谞讱 砖讗诐 讬砖诪注 讗讚诐 讚讘专 砖讗讬谞讜 讛讙讜谉

Bar Kappara taught: What is the meaning of that which is written: And you shall have a peg among your weapons [azenekha]鈥 (Deuteronomy 23:14)? Do not read it as: Your weapons [azenekha]. Rather, read it: On your ear [oznekha], meaning that if a person hears an inappropriate matter,

讬谞讬讞 讗爪讘注讜 讘讗讝谞讬讜 讜讛讬讬谞讜 讚讗诪专 专讘讬 讗诇注讝专 诪驻谞讬 诪讛 讗爪讘注讜转讬讜 砖诇 讗讚诐 讚讜诪讜转 诇讬转讬讚讜转 诪讗讬 讟注诪讗 讗讬诇讬诪讗 诪砖讜诐 讚诪讞诇拽谉 讻诇 讞讚讗 讜讞讚讗 诇诪讬诇转讬讛 注讘讬讚讗 讚讗诪专 诪专 讝讜 讝专转 讝讜 拽诪讬爪讛 讝讜 讗诪讛 讝讜 讗爪讘注 讝讛 讙讜讚诇

he should place his finger, which is shaped like a peg, into his ears. And that is what Rabbi Elazar said: Why are the fingers of a person similar to pegs? The Gemara asks: What is the reason that Rabbi Elazar said that fingers are like pegs? If we say that it is due to the fact that they are discrete from each other, each and every finger was designated for its own discrete, sacred matter, as the Master said: This small finger is for measuring a span, the distance between the little finger to the tip of the thumb used in measuring the breastplate of the High Priest; this next finger is used for taking a fistful of the meal-offering; this middle finger is used for measuring a cubit, the distance from the elbow to the tip of the middle finger; this one next to the thumb is the finger used to sprinkle the blood of offerings on the altar; this is the thumb, on which the blood and oil is placed in the purification ritual of a leper.

讗诇讗 诪讛 讟注诐 诪砖讜驻讜转 讻讬转讬讚讜转 砖讗诐 讬砖诪注 讗讚诐 讚讘专 砖讗讬谞讜 讛讙讜谉 讬谞讬讞 讗爪讘注讜转讬讜 讘讗讝谞讬讜 转谞讗 讚讘讬 专讘讬 讬砖诪注讗诇 诪驻谞讬 诪讛 讗讜讝谉 讻讜诇讛 拽砖讛 讜讛讗诇讬讛 专讻讛 砖讗诐 讬砖诪注 讗讚诐 讚讘专 砖讗讬谞讜 讛讙讜谉 讬讻讜祝 讗诇讬讛 诇转讜讻讛 转谞讜 专讘谞谉 讗诇 讬砖诪讬注 讗讚诐 诇讗讝谞讬讜 讚讘专讬诐 讘讟诇讬诐 诪驻谞讬 砖讛谉 谞讻讜讜转 转讞诇讛 诇讗讬讘专讬诐

Rather, the question is: What is the reason that they are pointed like pegs? It is so that if a person hears an inappropriate matter, he will place his fingers in his ears. Similarly, a Sage of the school of Rabbi Yishmael taught: Why is the entire ear hard and the earlobe soft? It is so that if a person hears an inappropriate matter, he will bend his earlobe into his ear to seal it. The Sages taught: A person should not allow his ears to hear idle matters. Because of the fact that ears are very sensitive and are the first of the limbs burned, one should make certain not to expose them to anything problematic.

讗讬讘注讬讗 诇讛讜 诪讛讜 诇讘注讜诇 讘转讞诇讛 讘砖讘转 讚诐 诪讬驻拽讚 驻拽讬讚 讗讜 讞讘讜专讬 诪讬讞讘专

A dilemma was raised before the Sages: What is the halakha with regard to engaging in intercourse with one鈥檚 virgin bride for the first time on Shabbat? The dilemma is with regard to the nature of the blood that emerges as a result of the piercing of the hymen. Is it that the blood is pooled, and it is released once the hymen is pierced, so that no prohibition is violated? Or, is the blood flowing through vessels attached to the body, and it emerges as a result of a wound, so that he does violate a prohibition?

讜讗诐 转讬诪爪讬 诇讜诪专 讚诐 诪讬驻拽讚 驻拽讬讚 诇讚诐 讛讜讗 爪专讬讱 讜砖专讬 讗讜 讚诇诪讗 诇驻转讞 讛讜讗 爪专讬讱 讜讗住讬专

And if you say that it is pooled and the intercourse does not cause a wound, there is an additional dilemma: Does the husband require the blood to flow, and that is his objective in performing the act, in which case it is permitted? Or, perhaps he requires the opening caused by the rupture of the hymen, and creating that opening is prohibited on Shabbat.

讜讗诐 转讬诪爪讬 诇讜诪专 诇讚诐 讛讜讗 爪专讬讱 讜驻转讞 诪诪讬诇讗 拽讗转讬 讛诇讻讛 讻专讘讬 砖诪注讜谉 讚讗诪专 讚讘专 砖讗讬谉 诪转讻讜讬谉 诪讜转专 讗讜 讛诇讻讛 讻专讘讬 讬讛讜讚讛 讚讗诪专 讚讘专 砖讗讬谉 诪转讻讜讬谉 讗住讜专

And if you say that he requires the blood, and the opening comes about incidentally as an unintended consequence, is the halakha in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Shimon, who said: An unintentional act, i.e., a permitted action from which a forbidden labor inadvertently ensued, is permitted? Or, is the halakha in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Yehuda, who said: An unintentional act is forbidden?

讜讗诐 转讬诪爪讬 诇讜诪专 讛诇讻讛 讻专讘讬 讬讛讜讚讛 诪拽诇拽诇 讛讜讗 讗爪诇 讛驻转讞 讗讜 诪转拽谉 讛讜讗 讗爪诇 讛驻转讞

And even if you say that the halakha is in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Yehuda in this regard, is this a destructive action vis-脿-vis the opening, and is it consequently permitted on Shabbat because only constructive actions are forbidden? Or, perhaps it is a constructive action vis-脿-vis the opening.

讗讬讻讗 讚讗诪专讬 讜讗诐 转讬诪爪讬 诇讜诪专 讚诐 讞讘讜专讬 诪讬讞讘专 诇讚诐 讛讜讗 爪专讬讱 讜讗住讜专 讗讜 讚诇诪讗 诇讛谞讗转 注爪诪讜 讛讜讗 爪专讬讱 讜砖专讬

Some say that the series of dilemmas is as follows: And if you say that the blood is flowing through vessels attached to the body and emerges as a result of a wound, does the husband require the blood, and engaging in intercourse is consequently prohibited, as his intent is to cause the wound? Or, perhaps he requires the act of intercourse solely for his own pleasure, and it is permitted.

讜讗诐 转讬诪爪讬 诇讜诪专 诇讛谞讗转 注爪诪讜 讛讜讗 爪专讬讱 讜讚诐 诪诪讬诇讗 拽讗转讬 讛诇讻讛 讻专讘讬 讬讛讜讚讛 讗讜 讛诇讻讛 讻专讘讬 砖诪注讜谉

And if you say that he requires the act of intercourse solely for his own pleasure, and the blood comes incidentally, as it was not his intent to draw blood, is the halakha in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Yehuda with regard to an unintentional act, or is it in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Shimon?

讜讗诐 转讬诪爪讬 诇讜诪专 讛诇讻讛 讻专讘讬 讬讛讜讚讛 诪拽诇拽诇 讘讞讘讜专讛 讗讜 诪转拽谉 讘讞讘讜专讛 讛讜讗

And if you say that the halakha is in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Yehuda and unintentional acts are forbidden, is one destructive in causing the wound or constructive in causing the wound?

讜讗诐 转讬诪爪讬 诇讜诪专 诪拽诇拽诇 讘讞讘讜专讛 讛讜讗 讘诪拽诇拽诇 讛诇讻讛 讻专讘讬 讬讛讜讚讛

And if you say that he is destructive in causing the wound, in cases involving destructive acts is the halakha in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Yehuda, who rules that one who performs any destructive act on Shabbat is exempt, even if he did so intentionally?

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