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Today's Daf Yomi

March 23, 2016 | ื™ืดื’ ื‘ืื“ืจ ื‘ืณ ืชืฉืขืดื•

  • This month's learning is sponsored by Terri Krivosha for the Refuah Shlemah of her husband Harav Hayim Yehuda Ben Faiga Rivah.ย 

  • This month's learning is dedicated by Debbie and Yossi Gevir to Rabbanit Michelle and the Hadran Zoom group for their kindness, support, and care during a medically challenging year.

Kiddushin 12

More opinions are brought about why Beit Shammai require a dinar for marriage. ย The gemara moves to explain Beit Hillel’s opinion that she can be married with a pruta. ย What is the value of that pruta? ย What if the item is something that fluctuates in value? ย What if it was worth less but somewhere else could be worth a pruta? ย What if after the fact there is a question about the marriage and the current value is a pruta but it may have been worth more earlier when the marriage took place? ย Rav instituted lashes for people who did various things including getting betrothedย without prearranging, or in the marketplace and or through having sexual relations. ย  The latter, while permitted by the Torah, was frowned upon by the rabbis.
Study Guide Kiddushin 12


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ืœื ืกืœืงื ื“ืขืชืš ื“ื•ืžื™ื ื“ื™ื™ืขื•ื“ ืžื” ื™ื™ืขื•ื“ ืืฃ ืขืœ ื’ื‘ ื“ืื™ ื‘ืขื™ ืžื™ื™ืขื“ ื•ืื™ ื‘ืขื™ ืœื ืžื™ื™ืขื“ ื›ืœ ื”ื™ื›ื ื“ืœื ืžืฆื™ ืžื™ื™ืขื“ ืœื ื”ื•ื• ื–ื‘ื™ื ื ื–ื‘ื™ื ื™ ื”ื›ื™ ื ืžื™ ื›ืœ ื”ื™ื›ื ื“ืœื ืžืฆื™ ืžื™ื’ืจืขื ืœื ื”ื•ื• ื–ื‘ื™ื ื ื–ื‘ื™ื ื™

The Gemara rejects this suggestion: This cannot enter your mind, as the halakha of deduction must be similar to the halakha of designation, i.e., the process by which a master designates his Hebrew maidservant as a wife for him or his son (Exodus 21:8โ€“9). Just as with designation, although the halakha is that if he desires, he may designate her and if he does not desire, he is not required to designate her, nevertheless anywhere that he cannot designate her, e.g., in a case where they are related and she is therefore forbidden to him, her sale is not a valid sale, so too here, with regard to her redemption, anywhere that she cannot deduct an amount from her purchase price, her sale is not a valid sale.

ื•ืงื™ื“ื•ืฉื™ ืืฉื” ืœื‘ื™ืช ืฉืžืื™ ื ืคืงื ืœื”ื• ืžืืžื” ื”ืขื‘ืจื™ื” ืžื” ืืžื” ื”ืขื‘ืจื™ื” ื‘ืคืจื•ื˜ื” ืœื ืžืงื ื™ื ืืฃ ืืฉื” ื‘ืคืจื•ื˜ื” ืœื ืžื™ืงื“ืฉื

The Gemara notes: And according to the opinion of Beit Shammai the mode of betrothal of a woman by money is derived from the case of a Hebrew maidservant, as follows: Just as a Hebrew maidservant cannot be acquired with one peruta, so too a woman cannot be betrothed with one peruta.

ื•ืื™ืžื ืคืœื’ื ื“ื“ื™ื ืจ ื•ืื™ืžื ืฉืชื™ ืคืจื•ื˜ื•ืช ื›ื™ื•ืŸ ื“ืืคื™ืงืชื™ื” ืžืคืจื•ื˜ื” ืื•ืงืžื” ืื“ื™ื ืจ

The Gemara asks: Even if Beit Shammai derive their opinion from here, how does this prove that a woman can be betrothed only with a minimum of one dinar? But why not say she can be betrothed with half a dinar, or say that she can be betrothed with two perutot, as it is possible to fulfill the redemption of a Hebrew maidservant if her sale was for either of these amounts? The Gemara answers: Since this comparison excludes betrothal with one peruta, as it indicates that a woman can be betrothed only with money of significant value, the Sages established the minimum amount at one dinar, which is a coin of substantial value.

ืจื‘ื ืืžืจ ื”ื™ื™ื ื• ื˜ืขืžื ื“ื‘ื™ืช ืฉืžืื™ ืฉืœื ื™ื”ื• ื‘ื ื•ืช ื™ืฉืจืืœ ื›ื”ืคืงืจ

Rava said a different explanation: This is the reasoning of Beit Shammai, who hold that a woman can be betrothed only with a minimum of one dinar: The daughters of Israel should not be treated like ownerless property. Allowing women to be betrothed with such a small amount as one peruta is disrespectful to them.

ื•ื‘ื™ืช ื”ืœืœ ืื•ืžืจื™ื ื‘ืคืจื•ื˜ื” ืกื‘ืจ ืจื‘ ื™ื•ืกืฃ ืœืžื™ืžืจ ืคืจื•ื˜ื” ื›ืœ ื“ื”ื• ืืžืจ ืœื™ื” ืื‘ื™ื™ ื•ื”ื ืขืœื” ืงืชื ื™ ื›ืžื” ื”ื™ื ืคืจื•ื˜ื” ืื—ื“ ืžืฉืžื ื” ื‘ืื™ืกืจ ื”ืื™ื˜ืœืงื™

ยง The mishna teaches: And Beit Hillel say that a woman can be betrothed with one peruta, or with any item that is worth one peruta. Rav Yosef thought to say: One peruta means any amount. There is no defined value, as a woman may be betrothed with one peruta regardless of its value at the time. Abaye said to him: But isnโ€™t it taught with regard to this in the mishna itself: How much is one peruta? It is one-eighth of the Italian issar. This shows there is a defined value for one peruta.

ื•ื›ื™ ืชื™ืžื ื”ื ื™ ืžื™ืœื™ ื‘ื“ื•ืจื• ืฉืœ ืžืฉื” ืื‘ืœ ื”ื›ื ื›ื“ื—ืฉื‘ื” ืœื”ื• ืœืื™ื ืฉื™ ื•ื”ื ื›ื™ ืืชื ืจื‘ ื“ื™ืžื™ ืืžืจ ืฉื™ืขืจ ืจื‘ื™ ืกื™ืžืื™ ื‘ื“ื•ืจื• ื›ืžื” ื”ื™ื ืคืจื•ื˜ื” ืื—ื“ ืžืฉืžื ื” ื‘ืื™ืกืจ ื”ืื™ื˜ืœืงื™ ื•ื›ื™ ืืชื ืจื‘ื™ืŸ ืืžืจ ืจื‘ื™ ื“ื•ืกืชืื™ ื•ืจื‘ื™ ื™ื ืื™ ื•ืจื‘ื™ ืื•ืฉืขื™ื ืฉื™ืขืจื• ื›ืžื” ื”ื•ื™ ืคืจื•ื˜ื” ืื—ื“ ืžืฉืฉื” ื‘ืื™ืกืจ ื”ืื™ื˜ืœืงื™

And if you would say: This statement applies only to the generation of Moses, i.e., this was the value of one peruta in the time of the Torah, but now, at any later time, its value is determined by that which people consider one peruta, that claim cannot be correct. As when Rav Dimi came from Eretz Yisrael he said: Rabbi Simai estimated in his generation: How much is one peruta? It is one-eighth of the Italian issar. And when Ravin came from Eretz Yisrael to Babylonia he said that Rabbi Dostai and Rabbi Yannai and Rabbi Oshaya estimated: How much is one peruta? It is one-sixth of the Italian issar.

ืืžืจ ืœื™ื” ืจื‘ ื™ื•ืกืฃ ืื™ ื”ื›ื™ ื”ื™ื™ื ื• ื“ืชื ื™ื ื ืฆื ื•ื—ืฉื•ื‘ ื›ืžื” ืคืจื•ื˜ื•ืช ื‘ืฉื ื™ ืกืœืขื™ื ื™ื•ืชืจ ืžืืœืคื™ื ื”ืฉืชื ืืœืคื™ื ืœื ื”ื•ื™ื™ืŸ ื™ืชืจ ืžืืœืคื™ื ืงืจื™ ืœื”ื• ืืžืจ ืœื”ื• ื”ื”ื•ื ืกื‘ื ืื ื ืชื ื™ื ื ืœื” ืงืจื•ื‘ ืœืืœืคื™ื ืกื•ืฃ ืกื•ืฃ ืืœืคื ื•ื—ืžืฉ ืžืื” ื•ืชืœืชื™ืŸ ื•ืฉื™ืชื ื”ื•ื ื“ื”ื•ื™ื™ืŸ ื›ื™ื•ืŸ ื“ื ืคืงื ืœื”ื• ืžืคืœื’ื ืงืจื•ื‘ ืœืืœืคื™ื ืงืจื™ ืœื™ื”

Rav Yosef said to Abaye: If so, then this is in conflict with that which we learned in a baraita: Go and calculate how many perutot there are in two sela: More than two thousand. Now there are not even two thousand, and you call them: More than two thousand? Rather, the peruta is certainly worth less than one-eighth of the Italian issar. A certain old man said to them: I teach this baraita as saying: Close to two thousand. The Gemara asks: Ultimately, according to the calculation of one-eighth of an issar, the number of perutot in two sela is 1,536, which is nowhere near two thousand. The Gemara answers: Since it passes half of the second thousand it is called: Close to two thousand.

ื’ื•ืคื ื›ื™ ืืชื ืจื‘ ื“ื™ืžื™ ืืžืจ ืฉื™ืขืจ ืจื‘ื™ ืกื™ืžืื™ ื‘ื“ื•ืจื• ื›ืžื” ื”ื™ื ืคืจื•ื˜ื” ืื—ื“ ืžืฉืžื ื” ื‘ืื™ืกืจ ื”ืื™ื˜ืœืงื™ ื•ื›ื™ ืืชื ืจื‘ื™ืŸ ืืžืจ ืฉื™ืขืจื• ืจื‘ื™ ื“ื•ืกืชืื™ ื•ืจื‘ื™ ื™ื ืื™ ื•ืจื‘ื™ ืื•ืฉืขื™ื ื›ืžื” ื”ื™ื ืคืจื•ื˜ื” ืื—ื“ ืžืฉืฉื” ื‘ืื™ืกืจ ื”ืื™ื˜ืœืงื™ ืืžืจ ืœื™ื” ืื‘ื™ื™ ืœืจื‘ ื“ื™ืžื™ ื ื™ืžื ืืช ื•ืจื‘ื™ืŸ ื‘ืคืœื•ื’ืชื ื“ื”ื ื™ ืชื ืื™ ืงื ืžื™ืคืœื’ื™ืชื•

The Gemara discusses the matter itself. When Rav Dimi came from Eretz Yisrael he said: Rabbi Simai estimated in his generation: How much is one peruta? It is one-eighth of the Italian issar. And when Ravin came he said that Rabbi Dostai and Rabbi Yannai and Rabbi Oshaya estimated: How much is one peruta? It is one-sixth of the Italian issar. Abaye said to Rav Dimi: Shall we say that you and Ravin disagree with regard to the issue that is the subject of the dispute between these tannaโ€™im.

ื“ืชื ื™ื ืคืจื•ื˜ื” ืฉืืžืจื• ื—ื›ืžื™ื ืื—ื“ ืžืฉืžื ื” ื‘ืื™ืกืจ ื”ืื™ื˜ืœืงื™ ืฉืฉ ืžืขื” ื›ืกืฃ ื“ื™ื ืจ ืžืขื” ืฉื ื™ ืคื•ื ื“ื™ื•ื ื™ืŸ ืคื•ื ื“ื™ื•ืŸ ืฉื ื™ ืื™ืกืจื™ืŸ ืื™ืกืจ ืฉื ื™ ืžื•ืกืžื™ืกื™ื ืžืกืžืก ืฉื ื™ ืงื•ื ื˜ืจื•ื ืงื™ืŸ ืงื•ื ื˜ืจื ืง ืฉืชื™ ืคืจื•ื˜ื•ืช ื ืžืฆื ืคืจื•ื˜ื” ืื—ืช ืžืฉืžื ื” ื‘ืื™ืกืจ ื”ืื™ื˜ืœืงื™

As it is taught in a baraita: The peruta mentioned by the Sages is one-eighth of the Italian issar. Six silver maโ€™a are one dinar, and one maโ€™a is worth two pundeyon. In a pundeyon there are two issar, and an issar is two masmas. A masmas is worth two konterank, and a konterank is two perutot. By this calculation, one finds that one peruta is one-eighth of the Italian issar.

ืจื‘ืŸ ืฉืžืขื•ืŸ ื‘ืŸ ื’ืžืœื™ืืœ ืื•ืžืจ ืฉืœืฉื” ื”ื“ืจืกื™ืŸ ืœืžืขื” ืฉื ื™ ื”ื ืฆื™ืŸ ืœื”ื“ืจื™ืก ืฉื ื™ ืฉืžื ื™ืŸ ืœื”ื ืฅ ืฉืชื™ ืคืจื•ื˜ื•ืช ืœืฉืžื™ืŸ ื ืžืฆื ืคืจื•ื˜ื” ืื—ืช ืžืฉืฉื” ื‘ืื™ืกืจ ื”ืื™ื˜ืœืงื™ ืœื™ืžื ื“ืžืจ ืืžืจ ื›ืชื ื ืงืžื ื•ืจื‘ื™ืŸ ื“ืืžืจ ื›ืจื‘ืŸ ืฉืžืขื•ืŸ ื‘ืŸ ื’ืžืœื™ืืœ

Rabban Shimon ben Gamliel says: This is not the case; rather, there are three hadreis to a maโ€™a, two henetz to a hadreis, two shamin to a henetz, and two perutot to a shamin. Consequently, one finds that one peruta is one-sixth of the Italian issar. Shall we say that one Master agrees with the first tanna, and Ravin, who said his ruling in the name of Rabbi Dostai and Rabbi Yannai and Rabbi Oshaya, agrees with Rabban Shimon ben Gamliel?

ืืžืจ ืœื™ื” ื‘ื™ืŸ ื“ื™ื“ื™ ื•ื‘ื™ืŸ ืจื‘ื™ืŸ ืืœื™ื‘ื ื“ืชื ื ืงืžื ื•ืœื ืงืฉื™ื ื”ื ื“ืื™ืงื•ืจ ืื™ืกื•ืจื™ ื”ื ื“ื–ื•ืœ ืื™ืกื•ืจื™ ื”ื ื“ืื™ืงื•ืจ ืื™ืกื•ืจื™ ืงื•ื ืขืฉืจื™ื ื•ืืจื‘ืข ื‘ื–ื•ื–ื ื”ื ื“ื–ื•ืœ ืงื•ื ืชืœืชื™ืŸ ื•ืชืจื™ืŸ ื‘ื–ื•ื–ื

Rav Dimi said to Abaye: Both my statement and that of Ravin are in accordance with the opinion of the first tanna, and it is not difficult. This statement of mine is referring to when the issar increased in value in relation to silver coins, and this statement of Ravin is referring to when the issar decreased in value. The Gemara elaborates: When the issar increased in value, twenty-four issar stood at one dinar; when they decreased in value, thirty-two issar stood at one dinar. If so, there is a set ratio between the value of a peruta and the value of silver, and there are 192 perutot in one dinar. By contrast, the ratio between the value of a copper issar and silver dinars fluctuates, so that sometimes an issar will be worth eight perutot while at other times it is worth only six.

ืืžืจ ืฉืžื•ืืœ ืงื™ื“ืฉื” ื‘ืชืžืจื” ืืคื™ืœื• ืขื•ืžื“ ื›ื•ืจ ืชืžืจื™ื ื‘ื“ื™ื ืจ ืžืงื•ื“ืฉืช ื—ื™ื™ืฉื™ื ืŸ ืฉืžื ืฉื•ื” ืคืจื•ื˜ื” ื‘ืžื“ื™

ยง Shmuel says: If man betrothed a woman with a date, she is betrothed even if a kor of dates is worth one dinar, which would mean that one date is worth much less than one peruta. The reason is that although a date has little value here, we are concerned that perhaps it is worth one peruta in Media or in some other distant place where dates are expensive. Therefore, she is betrothed in this location as well.

ื•ื”ื ืื ืŸ ืชื ืŸ ื‘ื™ืช ื”ืœืœ ืื•ืžืจื™ื ื‘ืคืจื•ื˜ื” ื•ื‘ืฉื•ื” ืคืจื•ื˜ื” ืœื ืงืฉื™ื ื”ื ื‘ืงื™ื“ื•ืฉื™ ื•ื“ืื™ ื”ื ื‘ืงื™ื“ื•ืฉื™ ืกืคืง

The Gemara asks: But didnโ€™t we learn in the mishna that Beit Hillel say: With one peruta or with an item worth one peruta, but not less? The Gemara explains: This is not difficult. This statement in the mishna is referring to betrothal whose status is certain. Betrothal with one peruta or an item worth one peruta is certainly valid. Conversely, this case stated by Shmuel is referring to betrothal whose status is uncertain. Although the item is not worth one peruta here, there is a concern that the betrothal might nevertheless be valid.

ื”ื”ื•ื ื’ื‘ืจื ื“ืืงื“ื™ืฉ ื‘ื–ื•ื•ื“ื ื“ืื•ืจื“ื™ ื™ืชื™ื‘ ืจื‘ ืฉื™ืžื™ ื‘ืจ ื—ื™ื™ื ืงืžื™ื” ื“ืจื‘ ื•ืงื ืžืขื™ื™ืŸ ื‘ื” ืื™ ืื™ืช ื‘ื” ืฉื•ื” ืคืจื•ื˜ื” ืื™ืŸ ืื™ ืœื ืœื ื•ืื™ ืœื™ืช ื‘ื” ืฉื•ื” ืคืจื•ื˜ื” ืœื ื•ื”ืืžืจ ืฉืžื•ืืœ ื—ื™ื™ืฉื™ื ืŸ ืœื ืงืฉื™ื ื”ื ื‘ืงื™ื“ื•ืฉื™ ื•ื“ืื™ ื”ื ื‘ืงื™ื“ื•ืฉื™ ืกืคืง

The Gemara relates: There was a certain man who betrothed a woman with a bundle of rags [zavda deโ€™urdei]. Rav Shimi bar แธคiyya sat before Rav and examined the bundle to see if it had the value of one peruta. If it was worth one peruta, yes, she was betrothed, and if not, no, she was not betrothed. The Gemara asks: And if it does not have the value of one peruta, is she not betrothed? But didnโ€™t Shmuel say that we are concerned that the item might be worth one peruta in Media? The Gemara explains: This is not difficult. This ruling of Rav Shimi bar แธคiyya is referring to betrothal whose status is certain, whereas this statement of Shmuel is referring to betrothal whose status is uncertain.

ื”ื”ื•ื ื’ื‘ืจื ื“ืืงื“ื™ืฉ ื‘ืื‘ื ื ื“ื›ื•ื—ืœื ื™ืชื™ื‘ ืจื‘ ื—ืกื“ื ื•ืงื ืžืฉืขืจ ืœื™ื” ืื™ ืื™ืช ื‘ื™ื” ืฉื•ื” ืคืจื•ื˜ื” ืื™ืŸ ื•ืื™ ืœื ืœื ื•ืื™ ืœื™ืช ื‘ื™ื” ืฉื•ื” ืคืจื•ื˜ื” ืœื ื•ื”ื ืืžืจ ืฉืžื•ืืœ ื—ื™ื™ืฉื™ื ืŸ ืจื‘ ื—ืกื“ื ืœื ืกื‘ืจ ืœื™ื” ื“ืฉืžื•ืืœ

The Gemara further relates: There was a certain man who betrothed a woman with a blue marble stone. Rav แธคisda sat and estimated whether it was worth one peruta. If it was worth one peruta, yes, she was betrothed, and if not, no, she was not betrothed. The Gemara asks: And if it does not have the value of one peruta, is she not betrothed? But didnโ€™t Shmuel say that we are concerned that the item might be worth one peruta in Media? The Gemara answers: Rav แธคisda does not hold in accordance with that opinion of Shmuel, as he holds that if the item is not worth one peruta in the place where the betrothal occurred, the betrothal is invalid.

ืืžืจื” ืœื™ื” ืื™ืžื™ื” ื•ื”ื ื”ื”ื•ื ื™ื•ืžื ื“ืงื“ืฉื” ื”ื•ื” ื‘ื™ื” ืฉื•ื” ืคืจื•ื˜ื” ืืžืจ ืœื” ืœืื• ื›ืœ ื›ืžื™ื ืš ื“ืืกืจืช ืœื” ืื‘ืชืจื

The mother of the man who offered the betrothal said to Rav แธคisda: But on that day that he betrothed her it was worth one peruta. He said to the mother: It is not in your power to render her forbidden to a later man. If another comes and betroths her, his betrothal is not dismissed due to this earlier act. Since the marble stone is not worth one peruta now, the betrothal of the second man may be valid.

ืœืื• ื”ื™ื™ื ื• ื“ื™ื”ื•ื“ื™ืช ื“ื‘ื™ืชื”ื• ื“ืจื‘ื™ ื—ื™ื™ื ื“ื”ื•ื™ืช ืœื” ืฆืขืจ ืœื™ื“ื” ืืžืจื” ืœื™ื” ืืžืจื” ืœื™ ืื ืงื™ื‘ืœ ื‘ื™ืš ืื‘ื•ืš ืงื™ื“ื•ืฉื™ ื›ื™ ื–ื•ื˜ืจืช ืืžืจ ืœื” ืœืื• ื›ืœ ื›ืžื™ื ื” ื“ืื™ืžืš ื“ืืกืจืช ืœื™ืš ืขื™ืœื•ืื™

Rav แธคisda explained: Is this not similar to the case of Yehudit, wife of Rabbi แธคiyya, who would have painful childbirths and therefore wished to leave Rabbi แธคiyya? She said to Rabbi แธคiyya: My mother told me: When you were young your father accepted betrothal on your behalf from another man, which would render Yehudit forbidden to Rabbi แธคiyya. He said to her: It is not in your motherโ€™s power to render you forbidden to me, as this testimony is insufficient.

ืืžืจื™ ืœื™ื” ืจื‘ื ืŸ ืœืจื‘ ื—ืกื“ื ืืžืื™ ื”ื ืื™ื›ื ืกื”ื“ื™ ื‘ืื™ื“ื™ืช ื“ื™ื“ืขื™ ื“ื‘ื”ื”ื•ื ื™ื•ืžื ื”ื•ื” ื‘ื™ื” ืฉื•ื” ืคืจื•ื˜ื” ื”ืฉืชื ืžื™ื”ื ืœื ืœื™ืชื ื”ื• ืงืžืŸ

Returning to the incident with the blue marble stone, the Gemara relates that the Sages said to Rav แธคisda: Why do you say that she is not betrothed because the item is not worth one peruta in the place where the betrothal occurred? After all, there are witnesses in Idit who know that on that day it had the value of one peruta. Rav แธคisda said to them: Now, in any event, they are not here, and therefore their potential testimony is disregarded.

ืœืื• ื”ื™ื™ื ื• ื“ืจื‘ื™ ื—ื ื™ื ื ื“ืืžืจ ืจื‘ื™ ื—ื ื™ื ื ืขื™ื“ื™ื” ื‘ืฆื“ ืืกืชืŸ ื•ืชื™ืืกืจ

Rav แธคisda cites a proof for his statement: Isnโ€™t this the same as the opinion of Rabbi แธคanina? In the case of a woman who appeared before the court and said that she was taken captive but remained undefiled, if there are no witnesses that she was captured, her entire claim must be accepted, and therefore she is permitted to her husband. Although there are witnesses elsewhere who can testify that she was taken captive, and consequently, the court need not rely on her statement alone, as Rabbi แธคanina says: When her witnesses are far away in the north [istan], will she be forbidden?

ืื‘ื™ื™ ื•ืจื‘ื ืœื ืกื‘ื™ืจื ืœื”ื• ืœื”ื ื“ืจื‘ ื—ืกื“ื ืื ื”ืงื™ืœื• ื‘ืฉื‘ื•ื™ื” ื“ืžื ื•ื•ืœื” ื ืคืฉื” ื’ื‘ื™ ืฉื‘ืื™ ื ื™ืงื™ืœ ื‘ืืฉืช ืื™ืฉ

The Gemara comments: Abaye and Rava do not hold in accordance with this statement of Rav แธคisda with regard to betrothal. In their opinion one cannot learn the halakha here from Rabbi แธคaninaโ€™s statement, as there is a difference between the cases: If in the case of Rabbi แธคanina the Sages were lenient with regard to a captive woman, who makes herself appear repulsive before her captor so that he will not rape her, and it is therefore believable that she was not violated, shall we be lenient with regard to the serious prohibition of a married woman?

ืื™ืฉืชืืจ ืžื”ื”ื™ื ืžืฉืคื—ื” ื‘ืกื•ืจื ื•ืคืจืฉื• ืจื‘ื ืŸ ืžื™ื ื” ื•ืœืื• ืžืฉื•ื ื“ืกื‘ื™ืจื ืœื”ื• ื“ืฉืžื•ืืœ ืืœื ืžืฉื•ื ื“ืกื‘ื™ืจื ืœื”ื• ื›ืื‘ื™ื™ ื•ืจื‘ื

The Gemara reports: Descendants of the family of the woman who had been betrothed with a blue marble stone remained in Sura, as after Rav แธคisda ruled that that womanโ€™s first betrothal was invalid, she married another man and had children. But the Sages avoided the family and refused to marry into it due to the concern that it was founded on a possibly adulterous relationship, which would render the descendants of the family mamzerim. The Gemara comments: And it was not because they maintained, in accordance with the opinion of Shmuel, that there is a concern that any item might be worth one peruta somewhere else. Rather, it was because they held in accordance with the opinion of Abaye and Rava, who said: Since there are witnesses in a different place, one must take them into account.

ื”ื”ื•ื ื’ื‘ืจื ื“ืืงื“ื™ืฉ ื‘ืฉื•ื˜ื™ืชื ื“ืืกื ื‘ืฉื•ืงื ืฉืœื—ื” ืจื‘ ืื—ื ื‘ืจ ื”ื•ื ื ืœืงืžื™ื” ื“ืจื‘ ื™ื•ืกืฃ ื›ื”ืื™ ื’ื•ื•ื ื ืžืื™ ืฉืœื— ืœื™ื” ื ื’ื“ื™ื” ื›ืจื‘ ื•ืืฆื˜ืจื™ืš ื’ื™ื˜ื ื›ืฉืžื•ืืœ

ยง The Gemara relates: There was a certain man who betrothed a woman with a myrtle branch in the marketplace. Rav Aแธฅa bar Huna sent this dilemma before Rav Yosef: In a case like this, what is the halakha? Rav Yosef sent a response to him: Flog him, in accordance with the opinion of Rav, and require her to receive a bill of divorce, in accordance with the opinion of Shmuel, in case the myrtle branch is worth one peruta somewhere else.

ื“ืจื‘ ืžื ื’ื™ื“ ืขืœ ื“ืžืงื“ืฉ ื‘ืฉื•ืงื ื•ืขืœ ื“ืžืงื“ืฉ ื‘ื‘ื™ืื” ื•ืขืœ ื“ืžืงื“ืฉ ื‘ืœื ืฉื™ื“ื•ื›ื™

The Gemara explains that Rav would flog a man for betrothing a woman in the marketplace, because this is disrespectful and crude, and for betrothing a woman through sexual intercourse, as it is unsavory to invite witnesses to observe a man and woman enter a room to engage in intercourse. And he would also flog a man for betrothing a woman without an arrangement [shiddukhei], i.e., if he did not discuss betrothal with the woman before betrothing her. Each of these acts is considered indecent behavior.

ื•ืขืœ ื“ืžื‘ื˜ื™ืœ ื’ื™ื˜ื ื•ืขืœ ื“ืžืกืจ ืžื•ื“ืขื ืื’ื™ื˜ื ื•ืขืœ ื“ืžืฆืขืจ ืฉืœื•ื—ื ื“ืจื‘ื ืŸ ื•ืขืœ ื“ื—ืœื” ืฉืžืชื ืขื™ืœื•ื™ื” ืชืœืชื™ืŸ ื™ื•ืžื™ืŸ

And likewise, Rav would flog a man for nullifying a bill of divorce he has already sent to his wife, and for issuing a declaration preemptively invalidating a bill of divorce. The latter case is referring to one who announces before giving a bill of divorce that he is divorcing his wife against his will, thereby rendering the document ineffective. This behavior might lead to a grave sin if the wife marries another man under the mistaken impression that she is divorced. And similarly, Rav would flog anyone for tormenting a messenger of the Sages, as this indicates a lack of regard for the Sages. And Rav would flog one who had an excommunication take effect on him for thirty days and yet does not repent or appeal to the Sages to annul his censure.

ื•ืขืœ ื—ืชื ื ื“ื“ื™ื™ืจ ื‘ื™ ื—ืžื•ื” ื“ื“ื™ื™ืจ ืื™ืŸ ื—ืœื™ืฃ ืœื ื•ื”ื ื”ื”ื•ื ื—ืชื ื ื“ื—ืœื™ืฃ ืื‘ื‘ื ื“ื‘ื™ ื—ืžื•ื” ื•ื ื’ื“ื™ื” ืจื‘ ืฉืฉืช ื”ื”ื•ื ืžื™ื“ื ื”ื•ืช ื“ื™ื™ืžื ื—ืžืชื™ื” ืžื™ื ื™ื”

And Rav would flog a son-in-law who lives in his father-in-lawโ€™s house, as there is a concern that he might sin with his mother-in-law. The Gemara comments: This indicates that with regard to one who lives in his father-in-lawโ€™s house permanently, yes, he is flogged, whereas with regard to one who only passes by his father-in-lawโ€™s house, no, he is not flogged. But there was a certain son-in-law who passed by the entrance of his father-in-lawโ€™s house and Rav Sheshet flogged him due to licentiousness. The Gemara explains: In that case, there were suspicions [dayma] about him and his mother-in-law, i.e., about rumors of intimacy between them. In walking by the house he contributed to these rumors, which is why he was flogged.

ื ื”ืจื“ืขื™ ืืžืจื™ ื‘ื›ื•ืœื”ื• ืœื ืžื ื’ื™ื“ ืจื‘ ืืœื ืขืœ ื“ืžืงื“ืฉ ื‘ื‘ื™ืื” ื‘ืœื ืฉื™ื“ื•ื›ื™ ื•ืื™ื›ื ื“ืืžืจื™ ื•ืืคื™ืœื• ื‘ืฉื™ื“ื•ื›ื™ ื ืžื™ ืžืฉื•ื ืคืจื™ืฆื•ืชื

The Sages of Nehardeโ€™a say: Rav would not flog a violator in all of the cases listed, but he would in fact flog a man for betrothing a woman through sexual intercourse without a prior arrangement. And there are those who say: Even if there was an arrangement beforehand, he would also flog a man for betrothing a woman with intercourse, due to licentiousness, as it is indecent to have witnesses observe a man and woman enter a room to engage in intercourse.

ื”ื”ื•ื ื’ื‘ืจื ื“ืงื“ื™ืฉ ื‘ืฆื™ืคืชื ื“ืืกื ืืžืจื• ืœื™ื” ื•ื”ื ืœื™ืช ื‘ื” ืฉื•ื” ืคืจื•ื˜ื” ืืžืจ ืœื”ื• ืชื™ืงื“ื•ืฉ ื‘ืืจื‘ืข ื–ื•ื–ื™ ื“ืื™ืช ื‘ื” ืฉืงืœืชื ื•ืื™ืฉืชื™ืงื ืืžืจ ืจื‘ื ื”ื•ื” ืฉืชื™ืงื•ืชื ื“ืœืื—ืจ ืžืชืŸ ืžืขื•ืช ื•ื›ืœ ืฉืชื™ืงื•ืชื ื“ืœืื—ืจ ืžืชืŸ ืžืขื•ืช ืœืื• ื›ืœื•ื ื”ื™ื

ยง The Gemara relates: There was a certain man who betrothed a woman with a mat of myrtle branches. People who were present said to him: But it is not worth one peruta. He said to them: If so, let her be betrothed with the four dinars that are wrapped in the mat. The woman took the mat and was silent. Rava said: This is silence after the money is given, and any silence after the money is given is nothing. Since it was assumed at the time that he gave her an item worth less than one peruta, there is no proof that she acted in accordance with his subsequent statement. It is possible that she ignored him and did not intend to become betrothed with the four dinars.

ืืžืจ ืจื‘ื ืžื ื ืืžื™ื ื ืœื” ื“ืชื ื™ื ืืžืจ ืœื” ื›ื ืกื™ ืกืœืข ื–ื• ื‘ืคืงื“ื•ืŸ ื•ื—ื–ืจ ื•ืืžืจ ืœื” ื”ืชืงื“ืฉื™ ืœื™ ื‘ื• ื‘ืฉืขืช ืžืชืŸ ืžืขื•ืช ืžืงื•ื“ืฉืช ืœืื—ืจ ืžืชืŸ ืžืขื•ืช ืจืฆืชื” ืžืงื•ื“ืฉืช ืœื ืจืฆืชื” ืื™ื ื” ืžืงื•ื“ืฉืช

Rava said: From where do I state this opinion? As it is taught in a baraita that in a case where a man said to a woman: Take this sela as a deposit, and he subsequently went back and said to her: Be betrothed to me with it, if he said this at the time the money was given, she is betrothed. In a case where he said this after the money was given, then if she wanted to be betrothed in this manner, she is betrothed. If she did not want it, she is not betrothed.

ืžืื™ ืจืฆืชื” ื•ืžืื™ ืœื ืจืฆืชื” ืื™ืœื™ืžื ืจืฆืชื” ื“ืืžืจื” ืื™ืŸ ืœื ืจืฆืชื” ื“ืืžืจื” ืœื ืžื›ืœืœ ื“ืจื™ืฉื

The Gemara inquires: What is the meaning of: She wanted, and what is the meaning of: She did not want? If we say that: She wanted, means that she said yes, she wishes to be betrothed, and: She did not want, means that she explicitly said no, one can learn by inference that in the first clause of the baraita, when he spoke as he gave her the money and no difference is suggested between her wanting or not wanting,

  • This month's learning is sponsored by Terri Krivosha for the Refuah Shlemah of her husband Harav Hayim Yehuda Ben Faiga Rivah.ย 

  • This month's learning is dedicated by Debbie and Yossi Gevir to Rabbanit Michelle and the Hadran Zoom group for their kindness, support, and care during a medically challenging year.

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Kiddushin 12

The William Davidson Talmud | Powered by Sefaria

Kiddushin 12

ืœื ืกืœืงื ื“ืขืชืš ื“ื•ืžื™ื ื“ื™ื™ืขื•ื“ ืžื” ื™ื™ืขื•ื“ ืืฃ ืขืœ ื’ื‘ ื“ืื™ ื‘ืขื™ ืžื™ื™ืขื“ ื•ืื™ ื‘ืขื™ ืœื ืžื™ื™ืขื“ ื›ืœ ื”ื™ื›ื ื“ืœื ืžืฆื™ ืžื™ื™ืขื“ ืœื ื”ื•ื• ื–ื‘ื™ื ื ื–ื‘ื™ื ื™ ื”ื›ื™ ื ืžื™ ื›ืœ ื”ื™ื›ื ื“ืœื ืžืฆื™ ืžื™ื’ืจืขื ืœื ื”ื•ื• ื–ื‘ื™ื ื ื–ื‘ื™ื ื™

The Gemara rejects this suggestion: This cannot enter your mind, as the halakha of deduction must be similar to the halakha of designation, i.e., the process by which a master designates his Hebrew maidservant as a wife for him or his son (Exodus 21:8โ€“9). Just as with designation, although the halakha is that if he desires, he may designate her and if he does not desire, he is not required to designate her, nevertheless anywhere that he cannot designate her, e.g., in a case where they are related and she is therefore forbidden to him, her sale is not a valid sale, so too here, with regard to her redemption, anywhere that she cannot deduct an amount from her purchase price, her sale is not a valid sale.

ื•ืงื™ื“ื•ืฉื™ ืืฉื” ืœื‘ื™ืช ืฉืžืื™ ื ืคืงื ืœื”ื• ืžืืžื” ื”ืขื‘ืจื™ื” ืžื” ืืžื” ื”ืขื‘ืจื™ื” ื‘ืคืจื•ื˜ื” ืœื ืžืงื ื™ื ืืฃ ืืฉื” ื‘ืคืจื•ื˜ื” ืœื ืžื™ืงื“ืฉื

The Gemara notes: And according to the opinion of Beit Shammai the mode of betrothal of a woman by money is derived from the case of a Hebrew maidservant, as follows: Just as a Hebrew maidservant cannot be acquired with one peruta, so too a woman cannot be betrothed with one peruta.

ื•ืื™ืžื ืคืœื’ื ื“ื“ื™ื ืจ ื•ืื™ืžื ืฉืชื™ ืคืจื•ื˜ื•ืช ื›ื™ื•ืŸ ื“ืืคื™ืงืชื™ื” ืžืคืจื•ื˜ื” ืื•ืงืžื” ืื“ื™ื ืจ

The Gemara asks: Even if Beit Shammai derive their opinion from here, how does this prove that a woman can be betrothed only with a minimum of one dinar? But why not say she can be betrothed with half a dinar, or say that she can be betrothed with two perutot, as it is possible to fulfill the redemption of a Hebrew maidservant if her sale was for either of these amounts? The Gemara answers: Since this comparison excludes betrothal with one peruta, as it indicates that a woman can be betrothed only with money of significant value, the Sages established the minimum amount at one dinar, which is a coin of substantial value.

ืจื‘ื ืืžืจ ื”ื™ื™ื ื• ื˜ืขืžื ื“ื‘ื™ืช ืฉืžืื™ ืฉืœื ื™ื”ื• ื‘ื ื•ืช ื™ืฉืจืืœ ื›ื”ืคืงืจ

Rava said a different explanation: This is the reasoning of Beit Shammai, who hold that a woman can be betrothed only with a minimum of one dinar: The daughters of Israel should not be treated like ownerless property. Allowing women to be betrothed with such a small amount as one peruta is disrespectful to them.

ื•ื‘ื™ืช ื”ืœืœ ืื•ืžืจื™ื ื‘ืคืจื•ื˜ื” ืกื‘ืจ ืจื‘ ื™ื•ืกืฃ ืœืžื™ืžืจ ืคืจื•ื˜ื” ื›ืœ ื“ื”ื• ืืžืจ ืœื™ื” ืื‘ื™ื™ ื•ื”ื ืขืœื” ืงืชื ื™ ื›ืžื” ื”ื™ื ืคืจื•ื˜ื” ืื—ื“ ืžืฉืžื ื” ื‘ืื™ืกืจ ื”ืื™ื˜ืœืงื™

ยง The mishna teaches: And Beit Hillel say that a woman can be betrothed with one peruta, or with any item that is worth one peruta. Rav Yosef thought to say: One peruta means any amount. There is no defined value, as a woman may be betrothed with one peruta regardless of its value at the time. Abaye said to him: But isnโ€™t it taught with regard to this in the mishna itself: How much is one peruta? It is one-eighth of the Italian issar. This shows there is a defined value for one peruta.

ื•ื›ื™ ืชื™ืžื ื”ื ื™ ืžื™ืœื™ ื‘ื“ื•ืจื• ืฉืœ ืžืฉื” ืื‘ืœ ื”ื›ื ื›ื“ื—ืฉื‘ื” ืœื”ื• ืœืื™ื ืฉื™ ื•ื”ื ื›ื™ ืืชื ืจื‘ ื“ื™ืžื™ ืืžืจ ืฉื™ืขืจ ืจื‘ื™ ืกื™ืžืื™ ื‘ื“ื•ืจื• ื›ืžื” ื”ื™ื ืคืจื•ื˜ื” ืื—ื“ ืžืฉืžื ื” ื‘ืื™ืกืจ ื”ืื™ื˜ืœืงื™ ื•ื›ื™ ืืชื ืจื‘ื™ืŸ ืืžืจ ืจื‘ื™ ื“ื•ืกืชืื™ ื•ืจื‘ื™ ื™ื ืื™ ื•ืจื‘ื™ ืื•ืฉืขื™ื ืฉื™ืขืจื• ื›ืžื” ื”ื•ื™ ืคืจื•ื˜ื” ืื—ื“ ืžืฉืฉื” ื‘ืื™ืกืจ ื”ืื™ื˜ืœืงื™

And if you would say: This statement applies only to the generation of Moses, i.e., this was the value of one peruta in the time of the Torah, but now, at any later time, its value is determined by that which people consider one peruta, that claim cannot be correct. As when Rav Dimi came from Eretz Yisrael he said: Rabbi Simai estimated in his generation: How much is one peruta? It is one-eighth of the Italian issar. And when Ravin came from Eretz Yisrael to Babylonia he said that Rabbi Dostai and Rabbi Yannai and Rabbi Oshaya estimated: How much is one peruta? It is one-sixth of the Italian issar.

ืืžืจ ืœื™ื” ืจื‘ ื™ื•ืกืฃ ืื™ ื”ื›ื™ ื”ื™ื™ื ื• ื“ืชื ื™ื ื ืฆื ื•ื—ืฉื•ื‘ ื›ืžื” ืคืจื•ื˜ื•ืช ื‘ืฉื ื™ ืกืœืขื™ื ื™ื•ืชืจ ืžืืœืคื™ื ื”ืฉืชื ืืœืคื™ื ืœื ื”ื•ื™ื™ืŸ ื™ืชืจ ืžืืœืคื™ื ืงืจื™ ืœื”ื• ืืžืจ ืœื”ื• ื”ื”ื•ื ืกื‘ื ืื ื ืชื ื™ื ื ืœื” ืงืจื•ื‘ ืœืืœืคื™ื ืกื•ืฃ ืกื•ืฃ ืืœืคื ื•ื—ืžืฉ ืžืื” ื•ืชืœืชื™ืŸ ื•ืฉื™ืชื ื”ื•ื ื“ื”ื•ื™ื™ืŸ ื›ื™ื•ืŸ ื“ื ืคืงื ืœื”ื• ืžืคืœื’ื ืงืจื•ื‘ ืœืืœืคื™ื ืงืจื™ ืœื™ื”

Rav Yosef said to Abaye: If so, then this is in conflict with that which we learned in a baraita: Go and calculate how many perutot there are in two sela: More than two thousand. Now there are not even two thousand, and you call them: More than two thousand? Rather, the peruta is certainly worth less than one-eighth of the Italian issar. A certain old man said to them: I teach this baraita as saying: Close to two thousand. The Gemara asks: Ultimately, according to the calculation of one-eighth of an issar, the number of perutot in two sela is 1,536, which is nowhere near two thousand. The Gemara answers: Since it passes half of the second thousand it is called: Close to two thousand.

ื’ื•ืคื ื›ื™ ืืชื ืจื‘ ื“ื™ืžื™ ืืžืจ ืฉื™ืขืจ ืจื‘ื™ ืกื™ืžืื™ ื‘ื“ื•ืจื• ื›ืžื” ื”ื™ื ืคืจื•ื˜ื” ืื—ื“ ืžืฉืžื ื” ื‘ืื™ืกืจ ื”ืื™ื˜ืœืงื™ ื•ื›ื™ ืืชื ืจื‘ื™ืŸ ืืžืจ ืฉื™ืขืจื• ืจื‘ื™ ื“ื•ืกืชืื™ ื•ืจื‘ื™ ื™ื ืื™ ื•ืจื‘ื™ ืื•ืฉืขื™ื ื›ืžื” ื”ื™ื ืคืจื•ื˜ื” ืื—ื“ ืžืฉืฉื” ื‘ืื™ืกืจ ื”ืื™ื˜ืœืงื™ ืืžืจ ืœื™ื” ืื‘ื™ื™ ืœืจื‘ ื“ื™ืžื™ ื ื™ืžื ืืช ื•ืจื‘ื™ืŸ ื‘ืคืœื•ื’ืชื ื“ื”ื ื™ ืชื ืื™ ืงื ืžื™ืคืœื’ื™ืชื•

The Gemara discusses the matter itself. When Rav Dimi came from Eretz Yisrael he said: Rabbi Simai estimated in his generation: How much is one peruta? It is one-eighth of the Italian issar. And when Ravin came he said that Rabbi Dostai and Rabbi Yannai and Rabbi Oshaya estimated: How much is one peruta? It is one-sixth of the Italian issar. Abaye said to Rav Dimi: Shall we say that you and Ravin disagree with regard to the issue that is the subject of the dispute between these tannaโ€™im.

ื“ืชื ื™ื ืคืจื•ื˜ื” ืฉืืžืจื• ื—ื›ืžื™ื ืื—ื“ ืžืฉืžื ื” ื‘ืื™ืกืจ ื”ืื™ื˜ืœืงื™ ืฉืฉ ืžืขื” ื›ืกืฃ ื“ื™ื ืจ ืžืขื” ืฉื ื™ ืคื•ื ื“ื™ื•ื ื™ืŸ ืคื•ื ื“ื™ื•ืŸ ืฉื ื™ ืื™ืกืจื™ืŸ ืื™ืกืจ ืฉื ื™ ืžื•ืกืžื™ืกื™ื ืžืกืžืก ืฉื ื™ ืงื•ื ื˜ืจื•ื ืงื™ืŸ ืงื•ื ื˜ืจื ืง ืฉืชื™ ืคืจื•ื˜ื•ืช ื ืžืฆื ืคืจื•ื˜ื” ืื—ืช ืžืฉืžื ื” ื‘ืื™ืกืจ ื”ืื™ื˜ืœืงื™

As it is taught in a baraita: The peruta mentioned by the Sages is one-eighth of the Italian issar. Six silver maโ€™a are one dinar, and one maโ€™a is worth two pundeyon. In a pundeyon there are two issar, and an issar is two masmas. A masmas is worth two konterank, and a konterank is two perutot. By this calculation, one finds that one peruta is one-eighth of the Italian issar.

ืจื‘ืŸ ืฉืžืขื•ืŸ ื‘ืŸ ื’ืžืœื™ืืœ ืื•ืžืจ ืฉืœืฉื” ื”ื“ืจืกื™ืŸ ืœืžืขื” ืฉื ื™ ื”ื ืฆื™ืŸ ืœื”ื“ืจื™ืก ืฉื ื™ ืฉืžื ื™ืŸ ืœื”ื ืฅ ืฉืชื™ ืคืจื•ื˜ื•ืช ืœืฉืžื™ืŸ ื ืžืฆื ืคืจื•ื˜ื” ืื—ืช ืžืฉืฉื” ื‘ืื™ืกืจ ื”ืื™ื˜ืœืงื™ ืœื™ืžื ื“ืžืจ ืืžืจ ื›ืชื ื ืงืžื ื•ืจื‘ื™ืŸ ื“ืืžืจ ื›ืจื‘ืŸ ืฉืžืขื•ืŸ ื‘ืŸ ื’ืžืœื™ืืœ

Rabban Shimon ben Gamliel says: This is not the case; rather, there are three hadreis to a maโ€™a, two henetz to a hadreis, two shamin to a henetz, and two perutot to a shamin. Consequently, one finds that one peruta is one-sixth of the Italian issar. Shall we say that one Master agrees with the first tanna, and Ravin, who said his ruling in the name of Rabbi Dostai and Rabbi Yannai and Rabbi Oshaya, agrees with Rabban Shimon ben Gamliel?

ืืžืจ ืœื™ื” ื‘ื™ืŸ ื“ื™ื“ื™ ื•ื‘ื™ืŸ ืจื‘ื™ืŸ ืืœื™ื‘ื ื“ืชื ื ืงืžื ื•ืœื ืงืฉื™ื ื”ื ื“ืื™ืงื•ืจ ืื™ืกื•ืจื™ ื”ื ื“ื–ื•ืœ ืื™ืกื•ืจื™ ื”ื ื“ืื™ืงื•ืจ ืื™ืกื•ืจื™ ืงื•ื ืขืฉืจื™ื ื•ืืจื‘ืข ื‘ื–ื•ื–ื ื”ื ื“ื–ื•ืœ ืงื•ื ืชืœืชื™ืŸ ื•ืชืจื™ืŸ ื‘ื–ื•ื–ื

Rav Dimi said to Abaye: Both my statement and that of Ravin are in accordance with the opinion of the first tanna, and it is not difficult. This statement of mine is referring to when the issar increased in value in relation to silver coins, and this statement of Ravin is referring to when the issar decreased in value. The Gemara elaborates: When the issar increased in value, twenty-four issar stood at one dinar; when they decreased in value, thirty-two issar stood at one dinar. If so, there is a set ratio between the value of a peruta and the value of silver, and there are 192 perutot in one dinar. By contrast, the ratio between the value of a copper issar and silver dinars fluctuates, so that sometimes an issar will be worth eight perutot while at other times it is worth only six.

ืืžืจ ืฉืžื•ืืœ ืงื™ื“ืฉื” ื‘ืชืžืจื” ืืคื™ืœื• ืขื•ืžื“ ื›ื•ืจ ืชืžืจื™ื ื‘ื“ื™ื ืจ ืžืงื•ื“ืฉืช ื—ื™ื™ืฉื™ื ืŸ ืฉืžื ืฉื•ื” ืคืจื•ื˜ื” ื‘ืžื“ื™

ยง Shmuel says: If man betrothed a woman with a date, she is betrothed even if a kor of dates is worth one dinar, which would mean that one date is worth much less than one peruta. The reason is that although a date has little value here, we are concerned that perhaps it is worth one peruta in Media or in some other distant place where dates are expensive. Therefore, she is betrothed in this location as well.

ื•ื”ื ืื ืŸ ืชื ืŸ ื‘ื™ืช ื”ืœืœ ืื•ืžืจื™ื ื‘ืคืจื•ื˜ื” ื•ื‘ืฉื•ื” ืคืจื•ื˜ื” ืœื ืงืฉื™ื ื”ื ื‘ืงื™ื“ื•ืฉื™ ื•ื“ืื™ ื”ื ื‘ืงื™ื“ื•ืฉื™ ืกืคืง

The Gemara asks: But didnโ€™t we learn in the mishna that Beit Hillel say: With one peruta or with an item worth one peruta, but not less? The Gemara explains: This is not difficult. This statement in the mishna is referring to betrothal whose status is certain. Betrothal with one peruta or an item worth one peruta is certainly valid. Conversely, this case stated by Shmuel is referring to betrothal whose status is uncertain. Although the item is not worth one peruta here, there is a concern that the betrothal might nevertheless be valid.

ื”ื”ื•ื ื’ื‘ืจื ื“ืืงื“ื™ืฉ ื‘ื–ื•ื•ื“ื ื“ืื•ืจื“ื™ ื™ืชื™ื‘ ืจื‘ ืฉื™ืžื™ ื‘ืจ ื—ื™ื™ื ืงืžื™ื” ื“ืจื‘ ื•ืงื ืžืขื™ื™ืŸ ื‘ื” ืื™ ืื™ืช ื‘ื” ืฉื•ื” ืคืจื•ื˜ื” ืื™ืŸ ืื™ ืœื ืœื ื•ืื™ ืœื™ืช ื‘ื” ืฉื•ื” ืคืจื•ื˜ื” ืœื ื•ื”ืืžืจ ืฉืžื•ืืœ ื—ื™ื™ืฉื™ื ืŸ ืœื ืงืฉื™ื ื”ื ื‘ืงื™ื“ื•ืฉื™ ื•ื“ืื™ ื”ื ื‘ืงื™ื“ื•ืฉื™ ืกืคืง

The Gemara relates: There was a certain man who betrothed a woman with a bundle of rags [zavda deโ€™urdei]. Rav Shimi bar แธคiyya sat before Rav and examined the bundle to see if it had the value of one peruta. If it was worth one peruta, yes, she was betrothed, and if not, no, she was not betrothed. The Gemara asks: And if it does not have the value of one peruta, is she not betrothed? But didnโ€™t Shmuel say that we are concerned that the item might be worth one peruta in Media? The Gemara explains: This is not difficult. This ruling of Rav Shimi bar แธคiyya is referring to betrothal whose status is certain, whereas this statement of Shmuel is referring to betrothal whose status is uncertain.

ื”ื”ื•ื ื’ื‘ืจื ื“ืืงื“ื™ืฉ ื‘ืื‘ื ื ื“ื›ื•ื—ืœื ื™ืชื™ื‘ ืจื‘ ื—ืกื“ื ื•ืงื ืžืฉืขืจ ืœื™ื” ืื™ ืื™ืช ื‘ื™ื” ืฉื•ื” ืคืจื•ื˜ื” ืื™ืŸ ื•ืื™ ืœื ืœื ื•ืื™ ืœื™ืช ื‘ื™ื” ืฉื•ื” ืคืจื•ื˜ื” ืœื ื•ื”ื ืืžืจ ืฉืžื•ืืœ ื—ื™ื™ืฉื™ื ืŸ ืจื‘ ื—ืกื“ื ืœื ืกื‘ืจ ืœื™ื” ื“ืฉืžื•ืืœ

The Gemara further relates: There was a certain man who betrothed a woman with a blue marble stone. Rav แธคisda sat and estimated whether it was worth one peruta. If it was worth one peruta, yes, she was betrothed, and if not, no, she was not betrothed. The Gemara asks: And if it does not have the value of one peruta, is she not betrothed? But didnโ€™t Shmuel say that we are concerned that the item might be worth one peruta in Media? The Gemara answers: Rav แธคisda does not hold in accordance with that opinion of Shmuel, as he holds that if the item is not worth one peruta in the place where the betrothal occurred, the betrothal is invalid.

ืืžืจื” ืœื™ื” ืื™ืžื™ื” ื•ื”ื ื”ื”ื•ื ื™ื•ืžื ื“ืงื“ืฉื” ื”ื•ื” ื‘ื™ื” ืฉื•ื” ืคืจื•ื˜ื” ืืžืจ ืœื” ืœืื• ื›ืœ ื›ืžื™ื ืš ื“ืืกืจืช ืœื” ืื‘ืชืจื

The mother of the man who offered the betrothal said to Rav แธคisda: But on that day that he betrothed her it was worth one peruta. He said to the mother: It is not in your power to render her forbidden to a later man. If another comes and betroths her, his betrothal is not dismissed due to this earlier act. Since the marble stone is not worth one peruta now, the betrothal of the second man may be valid.

ืœืื• ื”ื™ื™ื ื• ื“ื™ื”ื•ื“ื™ืช ื“ื‘ื™ืชื”ื• ื“ืจื‘ื™ ื—ื™ื™ื ื“ื”ื•ื™ืช ืœื” ืฆืขืจ ืœื™ื“ื” ืืžืจื” ืœื™ื” ืืžืจื” ืœื™ ืื ืงื™ื‘ืœ ื‘ื™ืš ืื‘ื•ืš ืงื™ื“ื•ืฉื™ ื›ื™ ื–ื•ื˜ืจืช ืืžืจ ืœื” ืœืื• ื›ืœ ื›ืžื™ื ื” ื“ืื™ืžืš ื“ืืกืจืช ืœื™ืš ืขื™ืœื•ืื™

Rav แธคisda explained: Is this not similar to the case of Yehudit, wife of Rabbi แธคiyya, who would have painful childbirths and therefore wished to leave Rabbi แธคiyya? She said to Rabbi แธคiyya: My mother told me: When you were young your father accepted betrothal on your behalf from another man, which would render Yehudit forbidden to Rabbi แธคiyya. He said to her: It is not in your motherโ€™s power to render you forbidden to me, as this testimony is insufficient.

ืืžืจื™ ืœื™ื” ืจื‘ื ืŸ ืœืจื‘ ื—ืกื“ื ืืžืื™ ื”ื ืื™ื›ื ืกื”ื“ื™ ื‘ืื™ื“ื™ืช ื“ื™ื“ืขื™ ื“ื‘ื”ื”ื•ื ื™ื•ืžื ื”ื•ื” ื‘ื™ื” ืฉื•ื” ืคืจื•ื˜ื” ื”ืฉืชื ืžื™ื”ื ืœื ืœื™ืชื ื”ื• ืงืžืŸ

Returning to the incident with the blue marble stone, the Gemara relates that the Sages said to Rav แธคisda: Why do you say that she is not betrothed because the item is not worth one peruta in the place where the betrothal occurred? After all, there are witnesses in Idit who know that on that day it had the value of one peruta. Rav แธคisda said to them: Now, in any event, they are not here, and therefore their potential testimony is disregarded.

ืœืื• ื”ื™ื™ื ื• ื“ืจื‘ื™ ื—ื ื™ื ื ื“ืืžืจ ืจื‘ื™ ื—ื ื™ื ื ืขื™ื“ื™ื” ื‘ืฆื“ ืืกืชืŸ ื•ืชื™ืืกืจ

Rav แธคisda cites a proof for his statement: Isnโ€™t this the same as the opinion of Rabbi แธคanina? In the case of a woman who appeared before the court and said that she was taken captive but remained undefiled, if there are no witnesses that she was captured, her entire claim must be accepted, and therefore she is permitted to her husband. Although there are witnesses elsewhere who can testify that she was taken captive, and consequently, the court need not rely on her statement alone, as Rabbi แธคanina says: When her witnesses are far away in the north [istan], will she be forbidden?

ืื‘ื™ื™ ื•ืจื‘ื ืœื ืกื‘ื™ืจื ืœื”ื• ืœื”ื ื“ืจื‘ ื—ืกื“ื ืื ื”ืงื™ืœื• ื‘ืฉื‘ื•ื™ื” ื“ืžื ื•ื•ืœื” ื ืคืฉื” ื’ื‘ื™ ืฉื‘ืื™ ื ื™ืงื™ืœ ื‘ืืฉืช ืื™ืฉ

The Gemara comments: Abaye and Rava do not hold in accordance with this statement of Rav แธคisda with regard to betrothal. In their opinion one cannot learn the halakha here from Rabbi แธคaninaโ€™s statement, as there is a difference between the cases: If in the case of Rabbi แธคanina the Sages were lenient with regard to a captive woman, who makes herself appear repulsive before her captor so that he will not rape her, and it is therefore believable that she was not violated, shall we be lenient with regard to the serious prohibition of a married woman?

ืื™ืฉืชืืจ ืžื”ื”ื™ื ืžืฉืคื—ื” ื‘ืกื•ืจื ื•ืคืจืฉื• ืจื‘ื ืŸ ืžื™ื ื” ื•ืœืื• ืžืฉื•ื ื“ืกื‘ื™ืจื ืœื”ื• ื“ืฉืžื•ืืœ ืืœื ืžืฉื•ื ื“ืกื‘ื™ืจื ืœื”ื• ื›ืื‘ื™ื™ ื•ืจื‘ื

The Gemara reports: Descendants of the family of the woman who had been betrothed with a blue marble stone remained in Sura, as after Rav แธคisda ruled that that womanโ€™s first betrothal was invalid, she married another man and had children. But the Sages avoided the family and refused to marry into it due to the concern that it was founded on a possibly adulterous relationship, which would render the descendants of the family mamzerim. The Gemara comments: And it was not because they maintained, in accordance with the opinion of Shmuel, that there is a concern that any item might be worth one peruta somewhere else. Rather, it was because they held in accordance with the opinion of Abaye and Rava, who said: Since there are witnesses in a different place, one must take them into account.

ื”ื”ื•ื ื’ื‘ืจื ื“ืืงื“ื™ืฉ ื‘ืฉื•ื˜ื™ืชื ื“ืืกื ื‘ืฉื•ืงื ืฉืœื—ื” ืจื‘ ืื—ื ื‘ืจ ื”ื•ื ื ืœืงืžื™ื” ื“ืจื‘ ื™ื•ืกืฃ ื›ื”ืื™ ื’ื•ื•ื ื ืžืื™ ืฉืœื— ืœื™ื” ื ื’ื“ื™ื” ื›ืจื‘ ื•ืืฆื˜ืจื™ืš ื’ื™ื˜ื ื›ืฉืžื•ืืœ

ยง The Gemara relates: There was a certain man who betrothed a woman with a myrtle branch in the marketplace. Rav Aแธฅa bar Huna sent this dilemma before Rav Yosef: In a case like this, what is the halakha? Rav Yosef sent a response to him: Flog him, in accordance with the opinion of Rav, and require her to receive a bill of divorce, in accordance with the opinion of Shmuel, in case the myrtle branch is worth one peruta somewhere else.

ื“ืจื‘ ืžื ื’ื™ื“ ืขืœ ื“ืžืงื“ืฉ ื‘ืฉื•ืงื ื•ืขืœ ื“ืžืงื“ืฉ ื‘ื‘ื™ืื” ื•ืขืœ ื“ืžืงื“ืฉ ื‘ืœื ืฉื™ื“ื•ื›ื™

The Gemara explains that Rav would flog a man for betrothing a woman in the marketplace, because this is disrespectful and crude, and for betrothing a woman through sexual intercourse, as it is unsavory to invite witnesses to observe a man and woman enter a room to engage in intercourse. And he would also flog a man for betrothing a woman without an arrangement [shiddukhei], i.e., if he did not discuss betrothal with the woman before betrothing her. Each of these acts is considered indecent behavior.

ื•ืขืœ ื“ืžื‘ื˜ื™ืœ ื’ื™ื˜ื ื•ืขืœ ื“ืžืกืจ ืžื•ื“ืขื ืื’ื™ื˜ื ื•ืขืœ ื“ืžืฆืขืจ ืฉืœื•ื—ื ื“ืจื‘ื ืŸ ื•ืขืœ ื“ื—ืœื” ืฉืžืชื ืขื™ืœื•ื™ื” ืชืœืชื™ืŸ ื™ื•ืžื™ืŸ

And likewise, Rav would flog a man for nullifying a bill of divorce he has already sent to his wife, and for issuing a declaration preemptively invalidating a bill of divorce. The latter case is referring to one who announces before giving a bill of divorce that he is divorcing his wife against his will, thereby rendering the document ineffective. This behavior might lead to a grave sin if the wife marries another man under the mistaken impression that she is divorced. And similarly, Rav would flog anyone for tormenting a messenger of the Sages, as this indicates a lack of regard for the Sages. And Rav would flog one who had an excommunication take effect on him for thirty days and yet does not repent or appeal to the Sages to annul his censure.

ื•ืขืœ ื—ืชื ื ื“ื“ื™ื™ืจ ื‘ื™ ื—ืžื•ื” ื“ื“ื™ื™ืจ ืื™ืŸ ื—ืœื™ืฃ ืœื ื•ื”ื ื”ื”ื•ื ื—ืชื ื ื“ื—ืœื™ืฃ ืื‘ื‘ื ื“ื‘ื™ ื—ืžื•ื” ื•ื ื’ื“ื™ื” ืจื‘ ืฉืฉืช ื”ื”ื•ื ืžื™ื“ื ื”ื•ืช ื“ื™ื™ืžื ื—ืžืชื™ื” ืžื™ื ื™ื”

And Rav would flog a son-in-law who lives in his father-in-lawโ€™s house, as there is a concern that he might sin with his mother-in-law. The Gemara comments: This indicates that with regard to one who lives in his father-in-lawโ€™s house permanently, yes, he is flogged, whereas with regard to one who only passes by his father-in-lawโ€™s house, no, he is not flogged. But there was a certain son-in-law who passed by the entrance of his father-in-lawโ€™s house and Rav Sheshet flogged him due to licentiousness. The Gemara explains: In that case, there were suspicions [dayma] about him and his mother-in-law, i.e., about rumors of intimacy between them. In walking by the house he contributed to these rumors, which is why he was flogged.

ื ื”ืจื“ืขื™ ืืžืจื™ ื‘ื›ื•ืœื”ื• ืœื ืžื ื’ื™ื“ ืจื‘ ืืœื ืขืœ ื“ืžืงื“ืฉ ื‘ื‘ื™ืื” ื‘ืœื ืฉื™ื“ื•ื›ื™ ื•ืื™ื›ื ื“ืืžืจื™ ื•ืืคื™ืœื• ื‘ืฉื™ื“ื•ื›ื™ ื ืžื™ ืžืฉื•ื ืคืจื™ืฆื•ืชื

The Sages of Nehardeโ€™a say: Rav would not flog a violator in all of the cases listed, but he would in fact flog a man for betrothing a woman through sexual intercourse without a prior arrangement. And there are those who say: Even if there was an arrangement beforehand, he would also flog a man for betrothing a woman with intercourse, due to licentiousness, as it is indecent to have witnesses observe a man and woman enter a room to engage in intercourse.

ื”ื”ื•ื ื’ื‘ืจื ื“ืงื“ื™ืฉ ื‘ืฆื™ืคืชื ื“ืืกื ืืžืจื• ืœื™ื” ื•ื”ื ืœื™ืช ื‘ื” ืฉื•ื” ืคืจื•ื˜ื” ืืžืจ ืœื”ื• ืชื™ืงื“ื•ืฉ ื‘ืืจื‘ืข ื–ื•ื–ื™ ื“ืื™ืช ื‘ื” ืฉืงืœืชื ื•ืื™ืฉืชื™ืงื ืืžืจ ืจื‘ื ื”ื•ื” ืฉืชื™ืงื•ืชื ื“ืœืื—ืจ ืžืชืŸ ืžืขื•ืช ื•ื›ืœ ืฉืชื™ืงื•ืชื ื“ืœืื—ืจ ืžืชืŸ ืžืขื•ืช ืœืื• ื›ืœื•ื ื”ื™ื

ยง The Gemara relates: There was a certain man who betrothed a woman with a mat of myrtle branches. People who were present said to him: But it is not worth one peruta. He said to them: If so, let her be betrothed with the four dinars that are wrapped in the mat. The woman took the mat and was silent. Rava said: This is silence after the money is given, and any silence after the money is given is nothing. Since it was assumed at the time that he gave her an item worth less than one peruta, there is no proof that she acted in accordance with his subsequent statement. It is possible that she ignored him and did not intend to become betrothed with the four dinars.

ืืžืจ ืจื‘ื ืžื ื ืืžื™ื ื ืœื” ื“ืชื ื™ื ืืžืจ ืœื” ื›ื ืกื™ ืกืœืข ื–ื• ื‘ืคืงื“ื•ืŸ ื•ื—ื–ืจ ื•ืืžืจ ืœื” ื”ืชืงื“ืฉื™ ืœื™ ื‘ื• ื‘ืฉืขืช ืžืชืŸ ืžืขื•ืช ืžืงื•ื“ืฉืช ืœืื—ืจ ืžืชืŸ ืžืขื•ืช ืจืฆืชื” ืžืงื•ื“ืฉืช ืœื ืจืฆืชื” ืื™ื ื” ืžืงื•ื“ืฉืช

Rava said: From where do I state this opinion? As it is taught in a baraita that in a case where a man said to a woman: Take this sela as a deposit, and he subsequently went back and said to her: Be betrothed to me with it, if he said this at the time the money was given, she is betrothed. In a case where he said this after the money was given, then if she wanted to be betrothed in this manner, she is betrothed. If she did not want it, she is not betrothed.

ืžืื™ ืจืฆืชื” ื•ืžืื™ ืœื ืจืฆืชื” ืื™ืœื™ืžื ืจืฆืชื” ื“ืืžืจื” ืื™ืŸ ืœื ืจืฆืชื” ื“ืืžืจื” ืœื ืžื›ืœืœ ื“ืจื™ืฉื

The Gemara inquires: What is the meaning of: She wanted, and what is the meaning of: She did not want? If we say that: She wanted, means that she said yes, she wishes to be betrothed, and: She did not want, means that she explicitly said no, one can learn by inference that in the first clause of the baraita, when he spoke as he gave her the money and no difference is suggested between her wanting or not wanting,

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