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Daf Yomi

September 11, 2023 | ื›ืดื” ื‘ืืœื•ืœ ืชืฉืคืดื’

  • This month's learning is sponsored by Shifra Tyberg and Rephael Wenger in loving memory of Zvi ben Yisrael Yitzhak Tyberg on his yahrzeit, and in honor of their daughter Ayelet's upcoming marriage to Ori Kinberg.

  • This month's learning is sponsored by Rabbi Hayim Herring with pride and love, in honor of his spouse, Terri Krivosha, who received this year's Sidney Barrows Lifetime Commitment Award from the Mpls. And St. Paul Federations in recognition of her distinguished contribution to the Twin Cities Legal and Jewish Communities.ย 

  • Masechet Kiddushin is sponsored by Julie and Martin Mendelsohn in honor of their two children who were recently married

Kiddushin 29

In redeeming sanctified items, the item is acquired when paying money and not by meshicha, pulling. What is the law if the price changes between the paying of the money and the pulling of the item or between the pulling and the paying of the money? The Mishna explains that the mitzvot that a father is required to do for his son are only incumbent on men and not on women (mothers). The Mishna also explains which types of mitzvot are obligatory for women and which are women exempt from, including time-bound positive commandments. The Gemara brings a braita that gives examples of the mitzvot that the father is required to do to his son – circumcision, redeeming the firstborn son, teaching him Torah, marrying him off, teaching him a trade and some say swimming as well. The Gemara begins to go over the examples and brings sources from the Torah for the fatherโ€™s obligation and the motherโ€™s exemption. Who is obligated in the event that the father doesnโ€™t take care of it?

ืขื“ ืฉื™ืžืฉื•ืš ื•ื™ื—ื–ื™ืง ืžืฉื›ื• ื‘ืžื ื” ื•ืœื ื”ืกืคื™ืง ืœืคื“ื•ืชื• ืขื“ ืฉืขืžื“ ื‘ืžืืชื™ื ื ื•ืชืŸ ืžืืชื™ื ืžืื™ ื˜ืขืžื ื•ื ืชืŸ ื”ื›ืกืฃ ื•ืงื ืœื•


until he pulls or takes possession of it. Additionally, the Temple treasury has the following advantage: If a commoner pulled a consecrated item for the purpose of acquiring it with one hundred dinars, and he did not manage to redeem it by paying the one hundred dinars to the Temple treasurer before the itemโ€™s price stood at two hundred dinars, he gives two hundred dinars. What is the reason for this? It states: He will give the money and it will be assured to him (see Leviticus 27:19). This indicates that one can acquire an item from the Temple treasury only by the actual transfer of money.


ืžืฉื›ื• ื‘ืžืืชื™ื ื•ืœื ื”ืกืคื™ืง ืœืคื“ื•ืชื• ืขื“ ืฉืขืžื“ ื‘ืžื ื” ื ื•ืชืŸ ืžืืชื™ื ืžืื™ ื˜ืขืžื ืœื ื™ื”ื ื›ื— ื”ื“ื™ื•ื˜ ื—ืžื•ืจ ืžื”ืงื“ืฉ


By contrast, in the reverse case, when the commoner pulled an item when it was worth two hundred dinars, and he did not manage to redeem it before the value of the item stood at one hundred dinars, he gives two hundred dinars. What is the reason for this? The power of a commoner should not be greater than that of the Temple treasury of consecrated property. Since a commoner completes his acquisition by pulling, the item is acquired by him at that price, and the Temple treasury should not suffer a loss in a case where the commoner could not have reneged on his commitment had he been dealing with another commoner.


ืคื“ืื• ื‘ืžืืชื™ื ื•ืœื ื”ืกืคื™ืง ืœืžื•ืฉื›ื• ืขื“ ืฉืขืžื“ ื‘ืžื ื” ื ื•ืชืŸ ืžืืชื™ื ืžืื™ ื˜ืขืžื ื•ื ืชืŸ ื”ื›ืกืฃ ื•ืงื ืœื• ืคื“ืื• ื‘ืžื ื” ื•ืœื ื”ืกืคื™ืง ืœืžื•ืฉื›ื• ืขื“ ืฉืขืžื“ ื‘ืžืืชื™ื ืžื” ืฉืคื“ื” ืคื“ื•ื™ ื•ืื™ืŸ ื ื•ืชืŸ ืืœื ืžื ื”


Similarly, if the commoner redeemed it at two hundred dinars, but he did not manage to pull it before its value stood at one hundred dinars, he gives two hundred dinars. What is the reason? It states: He will give the money and it will be assured to him, which indicates that the redemption of consecrated property is effected with money. By contrast, if he redeemed it at one hundred dinars and did not manage to pull it before it stood at two hundred dinars, what he redeemed is redeemed, and he gives only one hundred dinars.


ืืžืื™ ื”ื›ื™ ื ืžื™ ื ื™ืžื ืœื ื™ื”ื ื›ื— ื”ื“ื™ื•ื˜ ื—ืžื•ืจ ืžื”ืงื“ืฉ


The Gemara asks: Why is this the halakha? So too, let us say: The power of a commoner should not be greater than that of the Temple treasury of consecrated property, and if this occurred in a case where he was dealing with another commoner he would need to pay the full two hundred dinars, which was the value of the item when he pulled it. Shouldnโ€™t the Temple treasury have as much power as a common person?


ืื˜ื• ื”ื“ื™ื•ื˜ ืœืื• ื‘ืžื™ ืฉืคืจืข ืงืื™:


The Gemara answers: There is an additional impediment to reneging on an agreement with another commoner. Is that to say that a commoner who gave a seller money and changed his mind before acquiring the item is not forced to accept upon himself the curse of: He Who exacted payment from the generation of the flood (see Genesis, chapter 7) and the generation of the dispersion (see Genesis, chapter 11) will punish one who does not keep his word? Although a commoner can legally renege on his agreement at this stage, the Sages disapproved of such dishonest conduct, and one who did so would be cursed in this manner. Consequently, the power of a commoner is not greater than that of the Temple treasury, as it is not a simple matter to renege on an agreement with another commoner.


ืžืชื ื™ืณ ื›ืœ ืžืฆื•ืช ื”ื‘ืŸ ืขืœ ื”ืื‘ ืื ืฉื™ื ื—ื™ื™ื‘ื™ืŸ ื•ื ืฉื™ื ืคื˜ื•ืจื•ืช ื•ื›ืœ ืžืฆื•ืช ื”ืื‘ ืขืœ ื”ื‘ืŸ ืื—ื“ ืื ืฉื™ื ื•ืื—ื“ ื ืฉื™ื ื—ื™ื™ื‘ื™ืŸ ื•ื›ืœ ืžืฆื•ืช ืขืฉื” ืฉื”ื–ืžืŸ ื’ืจืžื ืื ืฉื™ื ื—ื™ื™ื‘ื™ืŸ ื•ื ืฉื™ื ืคื˜ื•ืจื•ืช ื•ื›ืœ ืžืฆื•ืช ืขืฉื” ืฉืœื ื”ื–ืžืŸ ื’ืจืžื ืื—ื“ ื”ืื ืฉื™ื ื•ืื—ื“ ื”ื ืฉื™ื ื—ื™ื™ื‘ื™ืŸ


MISHNA: With regard to all mitzvot of a son with regard to his father, men are obligated to perform them and women are exempt. And with regard to all mitzvot of a father with regard to his son, both men and women are obligated to perform them. The mishna notes an additional difference between the obligations of men and women in the performance of mitzvot: With regard to all positive, time-bound mitzvot, i.e., those which must be performed at specific times, men are obligated to perform them and women are exempt. And with regard to all positive mitzvot that are not time bound, both men and women are obligated to perform them.


ื•ื›ืœ ืžืฆื•ืช ืœื ืชืขืฉื” ื‘ื™ืŸ ืฉื”ื–ืžืŸ ื’ืจืžื ื‘ื™ืŸ ืฉืœื ื”ื–ืžืŸ ื’ืจืžื ืื—ื“ ื”ืื ืฉื™ื ื•ืื—ื“ ื”ื ืฉื™ื ื—ื™ื™ื‘ื™ืŸ ื—ื•ืฅ ืžื‘ืœ ืชืงื™ืฃ ื•ื‘ืœ ืชืฉื—ื™ืช ื•ื‘ืœ ืชื˜ืžื ืœืžืชื™ื:


And with regard to all prohibitions, whether they are time-bound or whether they are not time-bound, both men and women are obligated to observe them, except for the prohibitions of: Do not round the corners of your head, and: Do not destroy the corners of your beard, which are derived from the verse: โ€œYou shall not round the corners of your head and you shall not destroy the corners of your beardโ€ (Leviticus 19:27), and a prohibition that concerns only priests: Do not contract ritual impurity from a corpse (see Leviticus 21:1). These mitzvot apply only to men, not women, despite the fact that they are prohibitions.


ื’ืžืณ ืžืื™ ื›ืœ ืžืฆื•ืช ื”ื‘ืŸ ืขืœ ื”ืื‘ ืื™ืœื™ืžื ื›ืœ ืžืฆื•ืช ื“ืžื™ื—ื™ื™ื‘ ื‘ืจื ืœืžื™ืขื‘ื“ ืœืื‘ื ื ืฉื™ื ืคื˜ื•ืจื•ืช ื•ื”ืชื ื™ื ืื™ืฉ ืื™ืŸ ืœื™ ืืœื ืื™ืฉ ืืฉื” ืžื ื™ืŸ ื›ืฉื”ื•ื ืื•ืžืจ ืื™ืฉ ืืžื• ื•ืื‘ื™ื• ืชื™ืจืื• ื”ืจื™ ื›ืืŸ ืฉื ื™ื


GEMARA: The Gemara asks: What is the meaning of the phrase: All mitzvot of a son with regard to his father? If we say that it is referring to all mitzvot that the son is obligated to perform with regard to his father, are women exempt from obligations of this kind? But isnโ€™t it taught in a baraita concerning a verse that deals with the mitzva of honoring oneโ€™s father and mother: โ€œA man shall fear [tiraโ€™u] his mother and his fatherโ€ (Leviticus 19:3)? I have derived only that a man is obligated in this mitzva. From where do I derive that a woman is also obligated? When it says in the same verse: โ€œA man shall fear [tiraโ€™u] his mother and his fatherโ€ (Leviticus 19:3), employing the plural form of the verb, this indicates that there are two that are obligated here, both a man and a woman.


ืืžืจ ืจื‘ ื™ื”ื•ื“ื” ื”ื›ื™ ืงืืžืจ ื›ืœ ืžืฆื•ืช ื”ื‘ืŸ ื”ืžื•ื˜ืœื•ืช ืขืœ ื”ืื‘ ืœืขืฉื•ืช ืœื‘ื ื• ืื ืฉื™ื ื—ื™ื™ื‘ื™ืŸ ื•ื ืฉื™ื ืคื˜ื•ืจื•ืช


Rav Yehuda said that this is what the mishna is saying: With regard to all mitzvot of a son that are incumbent upon his father to perform for his son, men are obligated in them and women are exempt.


ืชื ื™ื ื ืœื”ื ื“ืชื ื• ืจื‘ื ืŸ ื”ืื‘ ื—ื™ื™ื‘ ื‘ื‘ื ื• ืœืžื•ืœื• ื•ืœืคื“ื•ืชื• ื•ืœืœืžื“ื• ืชื•ืจื” ื•ืœื”ืฉื™ืื• ืืฉื” ื•ืœืœืžื“ื• ืื•ืžื ื•ืช ื•ื™ืฉ ืื•ืžืจื™ื ืืฃ ืœื”ืฉื™ื˜ื• ื‘ืžื™ื ืจื‘ื™ ื™ื”ื•ื“ื” ืื•ืžืจ ื›ืœ ืฉืื™ื ื• ืžืœืžื“ ืืช ื‘ื ื• ืื•ืžื ื•ืช ืžืœืžื“ื• ืœื™ืกื˜ื•ืช ืœื™ืกื˜ื•ืช ืกืœืงื ื“ืขืชืš ืืœื ื›ืื™ืœื• ืžืœืžื“ื• ืœื™ืกื˜ื•ืช:


The Gemara comments: According to this interpretation, we learn in this mishna that which the Sages taught in a baraita: A father is obligated with regard to his son to circumcise him, and to redeem him if he is a firstborn son who must be redeemed by payment to a priest, and to teach him Torah, and to marry him to a woman, and to teach him a trade. And some say: A father is also obligated to teach his son to swim. Rabbi Yehuda says: Any father who does not teach his son a trade teaches him banditry [listut]. The Gemara expresses surprise at this statement: Can it enter your mind that he actually teaches him banditry? Rather, the baraita means that it is as though he teaches him banditry. Since the son has no profession with which to support himself, he is likely to turn to theft for a livelihood. This baraita accords with Rav Yehudaโ€™s interpretation of the mishna.


ืœืžื•ืœื• ืžื ืœืŸ ื“ื›ืชื™ื‘ ื•ื™ืžืœ ืื‘ืจื”ื ืืช ื™ืฆื—ืง ื‘ื ื• ื•ื”ื™ื›ื ื“ืœื ืžื”ืœื™ื” ืื‘ื•ื” ืžื™ื—ื™ื™ื‘ื™ ื‘ื™ ื“ื™ื ื ืœืžื™ืžื”ืœื™ื” ื“ื›ืชื™ื‘ ื”ืžื•ืœ ืœื›ื ื›ืœ ื–ื›ืจ ื•ื”ื™ื›ื ื“ืœื ืžื”ืœื™ื” ื‘ื™ ื“ื™ื ื ืžื™ื—ื™ื™ื‘ ืื™ื”ื• ืœืžื™ืžื”ืœ ื ืคืฉื™ื” ื“ื›ืชื™ื‘ ื•ืขืจืœ ื–ื›ืจ ืืฉืจ ืœื ื™ืžื•ืœ ืืช ื‘ืฉืจ ืขืจืœืชื• ื•ื ื›ืจืชื”


ยง The baraita teaches that a father is obligated to circumcise his son. The Gemara asks: From where do we derive this? The Gemara answers that this is as it is written: โ€œAnd Abraham circumcised his son Isaacโ€ (Genesis 21:4). The Gemara comments: And in a case where oneโ€™s father did not circumcise him the court is obligated to circumcise him, i.e., if this obligation is not fulfilled by the father it applies to the community as a whole, as it is written: โ€œEvery male among you shall be circumcisedโ€ (Genesis 17:10), in the form of a general mitzva that does not apply only to the father. And in a case where the court did not circumcise him the son is obligated to circumcise himself when he reaches adulthood, as it is written: โ€œAnd the uncircumcised male, who is not circumcised in the flesh of his foreskin, that soul shall be cut off from his peopleโ€ (Genesis 17:14).


ืื™ื”ื™ ืžื ืœืŸ ื“ืœื ืžื™ื—ื™ื™ื‘ื ื“ื›ืชื™ื‘ ื›ืืฉืจ ืฆื•ื” ืืชื• ืืœื”ื™ื ืื•ืชื• ื•ืœื ืื•ืชื”


From where do we derive that his mother is not obligated to circumcise her son? As it is written: โ€œAnd Abraham circumcised his son Isaac when he was eight days old, as God commanded himโ€ (Genesis 21:4). The verse emphasizes that God commanded him, and not her.


ืืฉื›ื—ืŸ ืžื™ื“ ืœื“ื•ืจื•ืช ืžื ืœืŸ ืชื ื ื“ื‘ื™ ืจื‘ื™ ื™ืฉืžืขืืœ ื›ืœ ืžืงื•ื ืฉื ืืžืจ ืฆื• ืื™ื ื• ืืœื ื–ื™ืจื•ื– ืžื™ื“ ื•ืœื“ื•ืจื•ืช


We found a source for this mitzva immediately, i.e., when it was given to Abraham; from where do we derive that this is the halakha for the men of all generations? The school of Rabbi Yishmael taught that any place where it is stated: โ€œCommand,โ€ it is nothing other than an expression of galvanization both immediately and for generations. The mitzva of circumcision is presented by means of this term.


ื–ื™ืจื•ื– ื“ื›ืชื™ื‘ ื•ืฆื• ืืช ื™ื”ื•ืฉืข ื•ื—ื–ืงื”ื• ื•ืืžืฆื”ื• ืžื™ื“ ื•ืœื“ื•ืจื•ืช ื“ื›ืชื™ื‘ ืžืŸ ื”ื™ื•ื ืืฉืจ ืฆื•ื” ื”ืณ ื•ื”ืœืื” ืœื“ืจืชื™ื›ื:


The Gemara elaborates: From where is it derived that the term โ€œcommandโ€ indicates a galvanization? As it is written: โ€œAnd command Joshua, and encourage him and strengthen himโ€ (Deuteronomy 3:28). In this context, the term โ€œcommandโ€ is not referring to a specific command but is a general expression of galvanization. From where is it derived that this applies immediately and for generations? As it is written: โ€œFrom the day that the Lord commanded and onward throughout your generationsโ€ (Numbers 15:23). This shows that whenever the word โ€œcommandโ€ is used it is referring to that day onward for all generations.


ืœืคื“ื•ืชื•: ืžื ืœืŸ ื“ื›ืชื™ื‘ ื›ืœ ื‘ื›ื•ืจ ื‘ื ื™ืš ืชืคื“ื” ื•ื”ื™ื›ื ื“ืœื ืคืจืงื™ื” ืื‘ื•ื” ืžื™ื—ื™ื™ื‘ ืื™ื”ื• ืœืžืคืจืงื™ื” ื“ื›ืชื™ื‘ ืคื“ื” ืชืคื“ื”


ยง The baraita teaches that a father is obligated to redeem his son. The Gemara asks: From where do we derive this? The Gemara answers that this is as it is written: โ€œAll the firstborn of your sons you shall redeemโ€ (Exodus 34:20). And in a case where oneโ€™s father does not redeem him he is obligated to redeem himself, as it is written: โ€œYou shall redeem [pado tifde]โ€ (Numbers 18:15). The repetition of the verb indicates that a firstborn is required to be redeemed in any case, even if his father neglects to do so.


ื•ืื™ื”ื™ ืžื ืœืŸ ื“ืœื ืžื™ืคืงื“ื” ื“ื›ืชื™ื‘ ืชื™ืคื“ื” ืชืคื“ื” ื›ืœ ืฉืžืฆื•ื•ื” ืœืคื“ื•ืช ืืช ืขืฆืžื• ืžืฆื•ื•ื” ืœืคื“ื•ืช ืืช ืื—ืจื™ื ื•ื›ืœ ืฉืื™ื ื• ืžืฆื•ื•ื” ืœืคื“ื•ืช ืืช ืขืฆืžื• ืื™ื ื• ืžืฆื•ื•ื” ืœืคื“ื•ืช ืื—ืจื™ื


And from where do we derive that a mother is not commanded to redeem her son? As it is written: โ€œYou shall redeem [tifde]โ€ which can be read as: You shall be redeemed [tippadeh]. This indicates that whoever is commanded to redeem himself is commanded to redeem others, and whoever is not commanded to redeem himself is not commanded to redeem others. Since a woman is not commanded to redeem herself, she is not commanded to redeem her son either.


ื•ืื™ื”ื™ ืžื ืœืŸ ื“ืœื ืžื™ื—ื™ื™ื‘ื ืœืžื™ืคืจืง ื ืคืฉื” ื“ื›ืชื™ื‘ ืชืคื“ื” ืชื™ืคื“ื” ื›ืœ ืฉืื—ืจื™ื ืžืฆื•ื•ื™ื ืœืคื“ื•ืชื• ืžืฆื•ื•ื” ืœืคื“ื•ืช ืืช ืขืฆืžื• ื•ื›ืœ ืฉืื™ืŸ ืื—ืจื™ื ืžืฆื•ื•ื™ื ืœืคื“ื•ืชื• ืื™ืŸ ืžืฆื•ื•ื” ืœืคื“ื•ืช ืืช ืขืฆืžื• ื•ืžื ื™ืŸ ืฉืื™ืŸ ืื—ืจื™ื ืžืฆื•ื•ื™ืŸ ืœืคื“ื•ืชื” ื“ืืžืจ ืงืจื ื›ืœ ื‘ื›ื•ืจ ื‘ื ื™ืš ืชืคื“ื” ื‘ื ื™ืš ื•ืœื ื‘ื ื•ืชื™ืš


The Gemara asks: And from where do we derive that she is not obligated to redeem herself? The Gemara answers that this is as it is written: โ€œYou shall redeem [tifde],โ€ which can be read as: You shall be redeemed [tippadeh]. This indicates that any person whom others are commanded to redeem is commanded to redeem himself, and any person whom others are not commanded to redeem is not commanded to redeem himself. Since there is no mitzva for a parent to redeem his daughter, there is similarly no mitzva for a daughter to redeem herself. And from where is it derived that others are not commanded to redeem a daughter? As the verse states: โ€œAll the firstborn of your sons you shall redeemโ€ (Exodus 34:20), i.e., your sons and not your daughters.


ืชื ื• ืจื‘ื ืŸ ื”ื•ื ืœืคื“ื•ืช ื•ื‘ื ื• ืœืคื“ื•ืช ื”ื•ื ืงื•ื“ื ืœื‘ื ื• ืจื‘ื™ ื™ื”ื•ื“ื” ืื•ืžืจ ื‘ื ื• ืงื•ื“ืžื• ืฉื–ื” ืžืฆื•ืชื• ืขืœ ืื‘ื™ื• ื•ื–ื” ืžืฆื•ืช ื‘ื ื• ืขืœื™ื•


The Sages taught: If a firstborn has not yet been redeemed and he himself has a firstborn son, he is obligated to redeem himself and he is also obligated to redeem his firstborn son, and he takes precedence over his son. If he does not have enough money to redeem both of them, he redeems himself. Rabbi Yehuda says: His son takes precedence over him. Rabbi Yehudaโ€™s reasoning is that with regard to this one, the father, the mitzva of his redemption was upon his father, and only when his father did not observe the mitzva did it apply to the adult son. And that mitzva of the redemption of his firstborn son applies to him directly. Consequently, he should first fulfill the mitzva that applies to him by redeeming his son.


ืืžืจ ืจื‘ื™ ื™ืจืžื™ื” ื”ื›ืœ ืžื•ื“ื™ืŸ


Rabbi Yirmeya says: Everyone agrees


ื›ืœ ื”ื™ื›ื ื“ืœื™ื›ื ืืœื ื—ืžืฉ ืกืœืขื™ื ื”ื•ื ืงื•ื“ื ืœื‘ื ื• ืžืื™ ื˜ืขืžื ืžืฆื•ื” ื“ื’ื•ืคื™ื” ืขื“ื™ืคื ื›ื™ ืคืœื™ื’ื™ ื”ื™ื›ื ื“ืื™ื›ื ื—ืžืฉ ืžืฉื•ืขื‘ื“ื™ื ื•ื—ืžืฉ ื‘ื ื™ ื—ื•ืจื™ืŸ


that anywhere that there are only five sela available, i.e., enough to redeem only one man, and one is obligated to redeem both himself and his son, he, the father, takes precedence over his son. What is the reason? It is that his own mitzva is preferable to one that he performs on behalf of others. When they disagree is in a case where there is land worth five sela that is liened property that has been sold, i.e., he sold this land to other people but it can be reclaimed by his prior creditor, and five sela which is entirely unsold property.


ืจื‘ื™ ื™ื”ื•ื“ื” ืกื‘ืจ ืžืœื•ื” ื“ื›ืชื™ื‘ ื‘ืชื•ืจื” ื›ื›ืชื•ื‘ื” ื‘ืฉื˜ืจ ื“ืžื™ื ื‘ื”ื ื™ ื—ืžืฉ ืคืจื™ืง ืœื‘ืจื™ื” ื•ืื–ื™ืœ ื›ื”ืŸ ื•ื˜ืจื™ืฃ ืœื™ื” ืœื—ืžืฉ ืžืฉื•ืขื‘ื“ื™ื ืœื“ื™ื“ื™ื”


And the reasoning behind the dispute is as follows: Rabbi Yehuda maintains that a loan that is written in the Torah, i.e., any financial obligation that applies by Torah law, is considered as though it is written in a document, and therefore it can be collected from liened property, like any loan recorded in a document. This means that the liened property worth five sela is available for oneโ€™s own redemption, but not for that of his son, as the sale of the property occurred before the birth of his firstborn. Consequently, with these five sela upon which there is no lien he redeems his son, and the priest goes and repossesses the land worth five sela that is liened property for his own redemption. In this manner one can fulfill both mitzvot.


ื•ืจื‘ื ืŸ ืกื‘ืจื™ ืžืœื•ื” ื“ื›ืชื™ื‘ ื‘ืื•ืจื™ื™ืชื ืœืื• ื›ื›ืชื•ื‘ื” ื‘ืฉื˜ืจ ื“ืžื™ื ื•ื”ื™ืœื›ืš ืžืฆื•ื” ื“ื’ื•ืคื™ื” ืขื“ื™ืฃ


And the Rabbis maintain: A loan that is written in the Torah is not considered as though it is written in a document, since buyers will not be aware of this obligation, so that they should be aware that the land may be repossessed. And therefore there is no advantage for this man to redeem his son with the five sela upon which there is no lien, and his own mitzva is preferable, which means he redeems himself with the free land. With the liened property that is left he cannot redeem his son, as the land was sold before the birth of his firstborn.


ืชื ื• ืจื‘ื ืŸ ืœืคื“ื•ืช ืืช ื‘ื ื• ื•ืœืขืœื•ืช ืœืจื’ืœ ืคื•ื“ื” ืืช ื‘ื ื• ื•ืื—ืจ ื›ืš ืขื•ืœื” ืœืจื’ืœ ืจื‘ื™ ื™ื”ื•ื“ื” ืื•ืžืจ ืขื•ืœื” ืœืจื’ืœ ื•ืื—ืจ ื›ืš ืคื•ื“ื” ืืช ื‘ื ื• ืฉื–ื• ืžืฆื•ื” ืขื•ื‘ืจืช ื•ื–ื• ืžืฆื•ื” ืฉืื™ื ื” ืขื•ื‘ืจืช


The Sages taught: If one has money to redeem his son and to ascend to Jerusalem on the pilgrimage Festival, he redeems his son and then ascends to Jerusalem on the pilgrimage Festival. Rabbi Yehuda says: He ascends to Jerusalem on the pilgrimage Festival and then redeems his son. His reasoning is that this trip to Jerusalem for the pilgrimage Festival is a mitzva whose time soon passes, and this, the redemption of the firstborn son, is a mitzva whose time does not soon pass, as it can be fulfilled later.


ื‘ืฉืœืžื ืœืจื‘ื™ ื™ื”ื•ื“ื” ื›ื“ืงืืžืจ ื˜ืขืžื ืืœื ืจื‘ื ืŸ ืžืื™ ื˜ืขืžื™ื™ื”ื• ื“ืืžืจ ืงืจื ื›ืœ ื‘ื›ื•ืจ ื‘ื ื™ืš ืชืคื“ื” ื•ื”ื“ืจ ืœื ื™ืจืื• ืคื ื™ ืจื™ืงื


The Gemara asks: Granted, according to the opinion of Rabbi Yehuda, it is as he stated in his reasoning, i.e., Rabbi Yehuda provided the rationale for his opinion. But what is the reasoning of the Rabbis, who say that he should first redeem his son? The Gemara answers that the reason is that the verse states: โ€œAll the firstborn of your sons you shall redeemโ€ (Exodus 34:20), and it then states, in the same verse: โ€œAnd none shall appear before me empty,โ€ referring to the pilgrimage Festival in Jerusalem. The order of the verse indicates that one should redeem his firstborn son before traveling to Jerusalem on the pilgrimage Festival.


ืชื ื• ืจื‘ื ืŸ ืžื ื™ืŸ ืฉืื ื”ื™ื• ืœื• ื—ืžืฉื” ื‘ื ื™ื ืžื—ืžืฉ ื ืฉื™ื ืฉื—ื™ื™ื‘ ืœืคื“ื•ืช ื›ื•ืœืŸ ืชืœืžื•ื“ ืœื•ืžืจ ื›ืœ ื‘ื›ื•ืจ ื‘ื ื™ืš ืชืคื“ื” ืคืฉื™ื˜ื ื‘ืคื˜ืจ ืจื—ื ืชืœื ืจื—ืžื ื


The Sages taught: From where is it derived that if one had five firstborn sons, from five different women, he is obligated to redeem them all? The verse states: โ€œAll the firstborn of your sons you shall redeemโ€ (Exodus 34:20), and the emphasis of โ€œallโ€ includes any of oneโ€™s firstborn sons. The Gemara asks: Isnโ€™t it obvious this is the case? After all, the Merciful One made this mitzva dependent upon the opening of the womb, as it states: โ€œSanctify to Me all the firstborn, whoever opens the wombโ€ (Exodus 13:2). Since each of these sons is the firstborn of his mother, it is clear that the father is required to redeem each of them.


ืžื”ื• ื“ืชื™ืžื ื ื™ืœืฃ ื‘ื›ื•ืจ ื‘ื›ื•ืจ ืžื ื—ืœื” ืžื” ืœื”ืœืŸ ืจืืฉื™ืช ืื ื• ืืฃ ื›ืืŸ ืจืืฉื™ืช ืื•ื ื• ืงื ืžืฉืžืข ืœืŸ:


The Gemara answers that this ruling is necessary lest you say that we should derive a verbal analogy between โ€œfirstbornโ€ stated here and โ€œfirstbornโ€ from the verses dealing with inheritance: Just as there, the verse describes a firstborn who receives a double portion of the inheritance as: โ€œThe first fruit of his strengthโ€ (Deuteronomy 21:17), i.e., he is the firstborn son to his father, and not the first child born to his mother; so too here, with regard to the redemption of the firstborn son, it is referring to the first fruit of his strength, which would mean that the father need redeem only his oldest child. Therefore, this baraita teaches us that this is not the case. Rather, every firstborn son to his mother must be redeemed.


ืœืœืžื“ื• ืชื•ืจื”: ืžื ืœืŸ ื“ื›ืชื™ื‘ ื•ืœืžื“ืชื ืืชื ืืช ื‘ื ื™ื›ื ื•ื”ื™ื›ื ื“ืœื ืื’ืžืจื™ื” ืื‘ื•ื” ืžื™ื—ื™ื™ื‘ ืื™ื”ื• ืœืžื™ื’ืžืจ ื ืคืฉื™ื” ื“ื›ืชื™ื‘ ื•ืœืžื“ืชื


ยง The baraita teaches that a father is obligated to teach his son Torah. The Gemara asks: From where do we derive this requirement? As it is written: โ€œAnd you shall teach them [velimadtem] to your sonsโ€ (Deuteronomy 11:19). And in a case where his father did not teach him he is obligated to teach himself, as it is written, i.e., the verse can be read with a different vocalization: And you shall study [ulmadtem].


ืื™ื”ื™ ืžื ืœืŸ ื“ืœื ืžื™ื—ื™ื™ื‘ื ื“ื›ืชื™ื‘ ื•ืœื™ืžื“ืชื ื•ืœืžื“ืชื ื›ืœ ืฉืžืฆื•ื•ื” ืœืœืžื•ื“ ืžืฆื•ื•ื” ืœืœืžื“ ื•ื›ืœ ืฉืื™ื ื• ืžืฆื•ื•ื” ืœืœืžื•ื“ ืื™ื ื• ืžืฆื•ื•ื” ืœืœืžื“


From where do we derive that a woman is not obligated to teach her son Torah? As it is written: โ€œAnd you shall teach [velimadtem],โ€ which can be read as: And you shall study [ulmadtem]. This indicates that whoever is commanded to study Torah is commanded to teach, and whoever is not commanded to study is not commanded to teach. Since a woman is not obligated to learn Torah, she is likewise not obligated to teach it.


ื•ืื™ื”ื™ ืžื ืœืŸ ื“ืœื ืžื™ื—ื™ื™ื‘ื” ืœืžื™ืœืฃ ื ืคืฉื” ื“ื›ืชื™ื‘ ื•ืœื™ืžื“ืชื ื•ืœืžื“ืชื ื›ืœ ืฉืื—ืจื™ื ืžืฆื•ื•ื™ืŸ ืœืœืžื“ื• ืžืฆื•ื•ื” ืœืœืžื“ ืืช ืขืฆืžื• ื•ื›ืœ ืฉืื™ืŸ ืื—ืจื™ื ืžืฆื•ื•ื™ืŸ ืœืœืžื“ื• ืื™ืŸ ืžืฆื•ื•ื” ืœืœืžื“ ืืช ืขืฆืžื• ื•ืžื ื™ืŸ ืฉืื™ืŸ ืื—ืจื™ื ืžืฆื•ื•ื™ืŸ ืœืœืžื“ื” ื“ืืžืจ ืงืจื ื•ืœืžื“ืชื ืืชื ืืช ื‘ื ื™ื›ื ืืช ื‘ื ื™ื›ื ื•ืœื ื‘ื ื•ืชื™ื›ื


The Gemara asks: And from where do we derive that she is not obligated to teach herself? The Gemara answers: As it is written: โ€œAnd you shall teach [velimadtem],โ€ which can be read as: And you shall study [ulmadtem], which indicates that whoever others are commanded to teach is commanded to teach himself, and whoever others are not commanded to teach is not commanded to teach himself. And from where is it derived that others are not commanded to teach a woman? As the verse states: โ€œAnd you shall teach them to your sonsโ€ (Deuteronomy 11:19), which emphasizes: Your sons and not your daughters.


ืชื ื• ืจื‘ื ืŸ ื”ื•ื ืœืœืžื•ื“ ื•ื‘ื ื• ืœืœืžื•ื“ ื”ื•ื ืงื•ื“ื ืœื‘ื ื• ืจื‘ื™ ื™ื”ื•ื“ื” ืื•ืžืจ ืื ื‘ื ื• ื–ืจื™ื– ื•ืžืžื•ืœื— ื•ืชืœืžื•ื“ื• ืžืชืงื™ื™ื ื‘ื™ื“ื• ื‘ื ื• ืงื•ื“ืžื• ื›ื™ ื”ื ื“ืจื‘ ื™ืขืงื‘ ื‘ืจื™ื” ื“ืจื‘ ืื—ื ื‘ืจ ื™ืขืงื‘ ืฉื“ืจื™ื” ืื‘ื•ื” ืœืงืžื™ื” ื“ืื‘ื™ื™ ื›ื™ ืืชื ื—ื–ื™ื™ื” ื“ืœื ื”ื•ื” ืžื™ื—ื“ื“ื™ืŸ ืฉืžืขืชื™ื” ืืžืจ ืœื™ื” ืื ื ืขื“ื™ืคื ืžื™ื ืš ืชื•ื‘ ืืช ื“ืื™ื–ื™ืœ ืื ื


The Sages taught: If one wishes to study Torah himself and his son also wants to study, he takes precedence over his son. Rabbi Yehuda says: If his son is diligent and sharp, and his study will endure, his son takes precedence over him. This is like that anecdote which is told about Rav Yaโ€™akov, son of Rav Aแธฅa bar Yaโ€™akov, whose father sent him to Abaye to study Torah. When the son came home, his father saw that his studies were not sharp, as he was insufficiently bright. Rav Aแธฅa bar Yaโ€™akov said to his son: I am preferable to you, and it is better that I go and study. Therefore, you sit and handle the affairs of the house so that I can go and study.


ืฉืžืข ืื‘ื™ื™ ื“ืงื ื”ื•ื” ืืชื™ ื”ื•ื” ื”ื”ื•ื ืžื–ื™ืง ื‘ื™ ืจื‘ื ืŸ ื“ืื‘ื™ื™ ื“ื›ื™ ื”ื•ื• ืขื™ื™ืœื™ ื‘ืชืจื™ืŸ ืืคื™ืœื• ื‘ื™ืžืžื ื”ื•ื• ืžื™ืชื–ืงื™ ืืžืจ ืœื”ื• ืœื ืœื™ืชื™ื‘ ืœื™ื” ืื™ื ืฉ ืื•ืฉืคื™ื–ื ืืคืฉืจ ื“ืžืชืจื—ื™ืฉ ื ื™ืกื


Abaye heard that Rav Aแธฅa bar Yaโ€™akov was coming. There was a certain demon in the study hall of Abaye, which was so powerful that when two people would enter they would be harmed, even during the day. Abaye said to the people of the town: Do not give Rav Aแธฅa bar Yaโ€™akov lodging [ushpiza] so that he will be forced to spend the night in the study hall. Since Rav Aแธฅa bar Yaโ€™akov is a righteous man, perhaps a miracle will occur on his behalf and he will kill the demon.


ืขืœ ื‘ืช ื‘ื”ื”ื•ื ื‘ื™ ืจื‘ื ืŸ ืื™ื“ืžื™ ืœื™ื” ื›ืชื ื™ื ื ื“ืฉื‘ืขื” ืจื™ืฉื•ื•ืชื™ื” ื›ืœ ื›ืจื™ืขื” ื“ื›ืจืข ื ืชืจ ื—ื“ ืจื™ืฉื™ื” ืืžืจ ืœื”ื• ืœืžื—ืจ ืื™ ืœื ืื™ืชืจื—ื™ืฉ ื ื™ืกื ืกื›ื™ื ืชื™ืŸ


Rav Aแธฅa found no place to spend the night, and he entered and spent the night in that study hall of the Sages. The demon appeared to him like a serpent with seven heads. Rav Aแธฅa bar Yaโ€™akov began to pray, and with every bow that he bowed one of the demonโ€™s heads fell off, until it eventually died. The next day Rav Aแธฅa said to the townspeople: If a miracle had not occurred, you would have placed me in danger.


ืชื ื• ืจื‘ื ืŸ ืœืœืžื•ื“ ืชื•ืจื” ื•ืœื™ืฉื ืืฉื” ื™ืœืžื•ื“ ืชื•ืจื” ื•ืื—ืจ ื›ืš ื™ืฉื ืืฉื” ื•ืื ืื™ ืืคืฉืจ ืœื• ื‘ืœื ืืฉื” ื™ืฉื ืืฉื” ื•ืื—ืจ ื›ืš ื™ืœืžื•ื“ ืชื•ืจื” ืืžืจ ืจื‘ ื™ื”ื•ื“ื” ืืžืจ ืฉืžื•ืืœ ื”ืœื›ื” ื ื•ืฉื ืืฉื” ื•ืื—ืจ ื›ืš ื™ืœืžื•ื“ ืชื•ืจื”


The Sages taught: If one has to decide whether to study Torah or to marry a woman, which should he do first? He should study Torah and afterward marry a woman. And if it is impossible for him to be without a wife, he should marry a woman and then study Torah. Rav Yehuda says that Shmuel says: The halakha is that one should marry a woman and afterward study Torah.


ืจื‘ื™ ื™ื•ื—ื ืŸ ืืžืจ ืจื™ื—ื™ื™ื ื‘ืฆื•ืืจื• ื•ื™ืขืกื•ืง ื‘ืชื•ืจื” ื•ืœื ืคืœื™ื’ื™ ื”ื ืœืŸ ื•ื”ื ืœื”ื•:


Rabbi Yoแธฅanan says: How can one do this? With a millstone hanging from his neck, i.e., with the responsibility of providing for his family weighing upon him, can he engage in Torah study? The Gemara comments: And the amoraโ€™im do not disagree; this is for us and that is for them. In other words, one statement applies to the residents of Babylonia, whereas the other is referring to those living in Eretz Yisrael.


ืžืฉืชื‘ื— ืœื™ื” ืจื‘ ื—ืกื“ื ืœืจื‘ ื”ื•ื ื ื‘ื“ืจื‘ ื”ืžื ื•ื ื ื“ืื“ื ื’ื“ื•ืœ ื”ื•ื ืืžืจ ืœื™ื” ื›ืฉื™ื‘ื ืœื™ื“ืš ื”ื‘ื™ืื”ื• ืœื™ื“ื™ ื›ื™ ืืชื ื—ื–ื™ื™ื” ื“ืœื ืคืจื™ืก ืกื•ื“ืจื ืืžืจ ืœื™ื” ืžืื™ ื˜ืขืžื ืœื ืคืจื™ืกืช ืกื•ื“ืจื ืืžืจ ืœื™ื” ื“ืœื ื ืกื™ื‘ื ื ืื”ื“ืจื™ื ื”ื• ืœืืคื™ื” ืžื™ื ื™ื” ืืžืจ ืœื™ื” ื—ื–ื™ ื“ืœื ื—ื–ื™ืช ืœื”ื• ืœืืคื™ ืขื“ ื“ื ืกื‘ืช


ยง With regard to marriage, the Gemara relates: Rav แธคisda would praise Rav Hamnuna to Rav Huna by saying that he is a great man. Rav Huna said to him: When he comes to you, send him to me. When Rav Hamnuna came before him, Rav Huna saw that he did not cover his head with a cloth, as Torah scholars did. Rav Huna said to him: What is the reason that you do not cover your head with a cloth? Rav Hamnuna said to him: The reason is that I am not married, and it was not customary for unmarried men to cover their heads with a cloth. Rav Huna turned his face away from him in rebuke, and he said to him: See to it that you do not see my face until you marry.


ืจื‘ ื”ื•ื ื ืœื˜ืขืžื™ื” ื“ืืžืจ ื‘ืŸ ืขืฉืจื™ื ืฉื ื” ื•ืœื ื ืฉื ืืฉื” ื›ืœ ื™ืžื™ื• ื‘ืขื‘ื™ืจื” ื‘ืขื‘ื™ืจื” ืกืœืงื ื“ืขืชืš ืืœื ืื™ืžื ื›ืœ ื™ืžื™ื• ื‘ื”ืจื”ื•ืจ ืขื‘ื™ืจื”


The Gemara notes: Rav Huna conforms to his standard line of reasoning, as he says: If one is twenty years old and has not yet married a woman, all of his days will be in a state of sin concerning sexual matters. The Gemara asks: Can it enter your mind that he will be in a state of sin all of his days? Rather, say that this means the following: All of his days will be in a state of thoughts of sin, i.e., sexual thoughts. One who does not marry in his youth will become accustomed to thoughts of sexual matters, and the habit will remain with him the rest of his life.


ืืžืจ ืจื‘ื ื•ื›ืŸ ืชื ื ื“ื‘ื™ ืจื‘ื™ ื™ืฉืžืขืืœ ืขื“ ืขืฉืจื™ื ืฉื ื” ื™ื•ืฉื‘ ื”ืงื“ื•ืฉ ื‘ืจื•ืš ื”ื•ื ื•ืžืฆืคื” ืœืื“ื ืžืชื™ ื™ืฉื ืืฉื” ื›ื™ื•ืŸ ืฉื”ื’ื™ืข ืขืฉืจื™ื ื•ืœื ื ืฉื ืื•ืžืจ ืชื™ืคื— ืขืฆืžื•ืชื™ื•


Rava said, and similarly, the school of Rabbi Yishmael taught: Until one reaches the age of twenty years the Holy One, Blessed be He, sits and waits for a man, saying: When will he marry a woman? Once he reaches the age of twenty and has not married, He says: Let his bones swell, i.e., he is cursed and God is no longer concerned about him.


ืืžืจ ืจื‘ ื—ืกื“ื ื”ืื™ ื“ืขื“ื™ืคื ื ืžื—ื‘ืจืื™ ื“ื ืกื™ื‘ื ื ื‘ืฉื™ืชืกืจ ื•ืื™ ื”ื•ื” ื ืกื™ื‘ื ื ื‘ืืจื‘ื™ืกืจ


Rav แธคisda said: The fact that I am superior to my colleagues is because I married at the age of sixteen, and if I would have married at the age of fourteen,


  • This month's learning is sponsored by Shifra Tyberg and Rephael Wenger in loving memory of Zvi ben Yisrael Yitzhak Tyberg on his yahrzeit, and in honor of their daughter Ayelet's upcoming marriage to Ori Kinberg.

  • This month's learning is sponsored by Rabbi Hayim Herring with pride and love, in honor of his spouse, Terri Krivosha, who received this year's Sidney Barrows Lifetime Commitment Award from the Mpls. And St. Paul Federations in recognition of her distinguished contribution to the Twin Cities Legal and Jewish Communities.ย 

  • Masechet Kiddushin is sponsored by Julie and Martin Mendelsohn in honor of their two children who were recently married

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Kiddushin 29

The William Davidson Talmud | Powered by Sefaria

Kiddushin 29

ืขื“ ืฉื™ืžืฉื•ืš ื•ื™ื—ื–ื™ืง ืžืฉื›ื• ื‘ืžื ื” ื•ืœื ื”ืกืคื™ืง ืœืคื“ื•ืชื• ืขื“ ืฉืขืžื“ ื‘ืžืืชื™ื ื ื•ืชืŸ ืžืืชื™ื ืžืื™ ื˜ืขืžื ื•ื ืชืŸ ื”ื›ืกืฃ ื•ืงื ืœื•


until he pulls or takes possession of it. Additionally, the Temple treasury has the following advantage: If a commoner pulled a consecrated item for the purpose of acquiring it with one hundred dinars, and he did not manage to redeem it by paying the one hundred dinars to the Temple treasurer before the itemโ€™s price stood at two hundred dinars, he gives two hundred dinars. What is the reason for this? It states: He will give the money and it will be assured to him (see Leviticus 27:19). This indicates that one can acquire an item from the Temple treasury only by the actual transfer of money.


ืžืฉื›ื• ื‘ืžืืชื™ื ื•ืœื ื”ืกืคื™ืง ืœืคื“ื•ืชื• ืขื“ ืฉืขืžื“ ื‘ืžื ื” ื ื•ืชืŸ ืžืืชื™ื ืžืื™ ื˜ืขืžื ืœื ื™ื”ื ื›ื— ื”ื“ื™ื•ื˜ ื—ืžื•ืจ ืžื”ืงื“ืฉ


By contrast, in the reverse case, when the commoner pulled an item when it was worth two hundred dinars, and he did not manage to redeem it before the value of the item stood at one hundred dinars, he gives two hundred dinars. What is the reason for this? The power of a commoner should not be greater than that of the Temple treasury of consecrated property. Since a commoner completes his acquisition by pulling, the item is acquired by him at that price, and the Temple treasury should not suffer a loss in a case where the commoner could not have reneged on his commitment had he been dealing with another commoner.


ืคื“ืื• ื‘ืžืืชื™ื ื•ืœื ื”ืกืคื™ืง ืœืžื•ืฉื›ื• ืขื“ ืฉืขืžื“ ื‘ืžื ื” ื ื•ืชืŸ ืžืืชื™ื ืžืื™ ื˜ืขืžื ื•ื ืชืŸ ื”ื›ืกืฃ ื•ืงื ืœื• ืคื“ืื• ื‘ืžื ื” ื•ืœื ื”ืกืคื™ืง ืœืžื•ืฉื›ื• ืขื“ ืฉืขืžื“ ื‘ืžืืชื™ื ืžื” ืฉืคื“ื” ืคื“ื•ื™ ื•ืื™ืŸ ื ื•ืชืŸ ืืœื ืžื ื”


Similarly, if the commoner redeemed it at two hundred dinars, but he did not manage to pull it before its value stood at one hundred dinars, he gives two hundred dinars. What is the reason? It states: He will give the money and it will be assured to him, which indicates that the redemption of consecrated property is effected with money. By contrast, if he redeemed it at one hundred dinars and did not manage to pull it before it stood at two hundred dinars, what he redeemed is redeemed, and he gives only one hundred dinars.


ืืžืื™ ื”ื›ื™ ื ืžื™ ื ื™ืžื ืœื ื™ื”ื ื›ื— ื”ื“ื™ื•ื˜ ื—ืžื•ืจ ืžื”ืงื“ืฉ


The Gemara asks: Why is this the halakha? So too, let us say: The power of a commoner should not be greater than that of the Temple treasury of consecrated property, and if this occurred in a case where he was dealing with another commoner he would need to pay the full two hundred dinars, which was the value of the item when he pulled it. Shouldnโ€™t the Temple treasury have as much power as a common person?


ืื˜ื• ื”ื“ื™ื•ื˜ ืœืื• ื‘ืžื™ ืฉืคืจืข ืงืื™:


The Gemara answers: There is an additional impediment to reneging on an agreement with another commoner. Is that to say that a commoner who gave a seller money and changed his mind before acquiring the item is not forced to accept upon himself the curse of: He Who exacted payment from the generation of the flood (see Genesis, chapter 7) and the generation of the dispersion (see Genesis, chapter 11) will punish one who does not keep his word? Although a commoner can legally renege on his agreement at this stage, the Sages disapproved of such dishonest conduct, and one who did so would be cursed in this manner. Consequently, the power of a commoner is not greater than that of the Temple treasury, as it is not a simple matter to renege on an agreement with another commoner.


ืžืชื ื™ืณ ื›ืœ ืžืฆื•ืช ื”ื‘ืŸ ืขืœ ื”ืื‘ ืื ืฉื™ื ื—ื™ื™ื‘ื™ืŸ ื•ื ืฉื™ื ืคื˜ื•ืจื•ืช ื•ื›ืœ ืžืฆื•ืช ื”ืื‘ ืขืœ ื”ื‘ืŸ ืื—ื“ ืื ืฉื™ื ื•ืื—ื“ ื ืฉื™ื ื—ื™ื™ื‘ื™ืŸ ื•ื›ืœ ืžืฆื•ืช ืขืฉื” ืฉื”ื–ืžืŸ ื’ืจืžื ืื ืฉื™ื ื—ื™ื™ื‘ื™ืŸ ื•ื ืฉื™ื ืคื˜ื•ืจื•ืช ื•ื›ืœ ืžืฆื•ืช ืขืฉื” ืฉืœื ื”ื–ืžืŸ ื’ืจืžื ืื—ื“ ื”ืื ืฉื™ื ื•ืื—ื“ ื”ื ืฉื™ื ื—ื™ื™ื‘ื™ืŸ


MISHNA: With regard to all mitzvot of a son with regard to his father, men are obligated to perform them and women are exempt. And with regard to all mitzvot of a father with regard to his son, both men and women are obligated to perform them. The mishna notes an additional difference between the obligations of men and women in the performance of mitzvot: With regard to all positive, time-bound mitzvot, i.e., those which must be performed at specific times, men are obligated to perform them and women are exempt. And with regard to all positive mitzvot that are not time bound, both men and women are obligated to perform them.


ื•ื›ืœ ืžืฆื•ืช ืœื ืชืขืฉื” ื‘ื™ืŸ ืฉื”ื–ืžืŸ ื’ืจืžื ื‘ื™ืŸ ืฉืœื ื”ื–ืžืŸ ื’ืจืžื ืื—ื“ ื”ืื ืฉื™ื ื•ืื—ื“ ื”ื ืฉื™ื ื—ื™ื™ื‘ื™ืŸ ื—ื•ืฅ ืžื‘ืœ ืชืงื™ืฃ ื•ื‘ืœ ืชืฉื—ื™ืช ื•ื‘ืœ ืชื˜ืžื ืœืžืชื™ื:


And with regard to all prohibitions, whether they are time-bound or whether they are not time-bound, both men and women are obligated to observe them, except for the prohibitions of: Do not round the corners of your head, and: Do not destroy the corners of your beard, which are derived from the verse: โ€œYou shall not round the corners of your head and you shall not destroy the corners of your beardโ€ (Leviticus 19:27), and a prohibition that concerns only priests: Do not contract ritual impurity from a corpse (see Leviticus 21:1). These mitzvot apply only to men, not women, despite the fact that they are prohibitions.


ื’ืžืณ ืžืื™ ื›ืœ ืžืฆื•ืช ื”ื‘ืŸ ืขืœ ื”ืื‘ ืื™ืœื™ืžื ื›ืœ ืžืฆื•ืช ื“ืžื™ื—ื™ื™ื‘ ื‘ืจื ืœืžื™ืขื‘ื“ ืœืื‘ื ื ืฉื™ื ืคื˜ื•ืจื•ืช ื•ื”ืชื ื™ื ืื™ืฉ ืื™ืŸ ืœื™ ืืœื ืื™ืฉ ืืฉื” ืžื ื™ืŸ ื›ืฉื”ื•ื ืื•ืžืจ ืื™ืฉ ืืžื• ื•ืื‘ื™ื• ืชื™ืจืื• ื”ืจื™ ื›ืืŸ ืฉื ื™ื


GEMARA: The Gemara asks: What is the meaning of the phrase: All mitzvot of a son with regard to his father? If we say that it is referring to all mitzvot that the son is obligated to perform with regard to his father, are women exempt from obligations of this kind? But isnโ€™t it taught in a baraita concerning a verse that deals with the mitzva of honoring oneโ€™s father and mother: โ€œA man shall fear [tiraโ€™u] his mother and his fatherโ€ (Leviticus 19:3)? I have derived only that a man is obligated in this mitzva. From where do I derive that a woman is also obligated? When it says in the same verse: โ€œA man shall fear [tiraโ€™u] his mother and his fatherโ€ (Leviticus 19:3), employing the plural form of the verb, this indicates that there are two that are obligated here, both a man and a woman.


ืืžืจ ืจื‘ ื™ื”ื•ื“ื” ื”ื›ื™ ืงืืžืจ ื›ืœ ืžืฆื•ืช ื”ื‘ืŸ ื”ืžื•ื˜ืœื•ืช ืขืœ ื”ืื‘ ืœืขืฉื•ืช ืœื‘ื ื• ืื ืฉื™ื ื—ื™ื™ื‘ื™ืŸ ื•ื ืฉื™ื ืคื˜ื•ืจื•ืช


Rav Yehuda said that this is what the mishna is saying: With regard to all mitzvot of a son that are incumbent upon his father to perform for his son, men are obligated in them and women are exempt.


ืชื ื™ื ื ืœื”ื ื“ืชื ื• ืจื‘ื ืŸ ื”ืื‘ ื—ื™ื™ื‘ ื‘ื‘ื ื• ืœืžื•ืœื• ื•ืœืคื“ื•ืชื• ื•ืœืœืžื“ื• ืชื•ืจื” ื•ืœื”ืฉื™ืื• ืืฉื” ื•ืœืœืžื“ื• ืื•ืžื ื•ืช ื•ื™ืฉ ืื•ืžืจื™ื ืืฃ ืœื”ืฉื™ื˜ื• ื‘ืžื™ื ืจื‘ื™ ื™ื”ื•ื“ื” ืื•ืžืจ ื›ืœ ืฉืื™ื ื• ืžืœืžื“ ืืช ื‘ื ื• ืื•ืžื ื•ืช ืžืœืžื“ื• ืœื™ืกื˜ื•ืช ืœื™ืกื˜ื•ืช ืกืœืงื ื“ืขืชืš ืืœื ื›ืื™ืœื• ืžืœืžื“ื• ืœื™ืกื˜ื•ืช:


The Gemara comments: According to this interpretation, we learn in this mishna that which the Sages taught in a baraita: A father is obligated with regard to his son to circumcise him, and to redeem him if he is a firstborn son who must be redeemed by payment to a priest, and to teach him Torah, and to marry him to a woman, and to teach him a trade. And some say: A father is also obligated to teach his son to swim. Rabbi Yehuda says: Any father who does not teach his son a trade teaches him banditry [listut]. The Gemara expresses surprise at this statement: Can it enter your mind that he actually teaches him banditry? Rather, the baraita means that it is as though he teaches him banditry. Since the son has no profession with which to support himself, he is likely to turn to theft for a livelihood. This baraita accords with Rav Yehudaโ€™s interpretation of the mishna.


ืœืžื•ืœื• ืžื ืœืŸ ื“ื›ืชื™ื‘ ื•ื™ืžืœ ืื‘ืจื”ื ืืช ื™ืฆื—ืง ื‘ื ื• ื•ื”ื™ื›ื ื“ืœื ืžื”ืœื™ื” ืื‘ื•ื” ืžื™ื—ื™ื™ื‘ื™ ื‘ื™ ื“ื™ื ื ืœืžื™ืžื”ืœื™ื” ื“ื›ืชื™ื‘ ื”ืžื•ืœ ืœื›ื ื›ืœ ื–ื›ืจ ื•ื”ื™ื›ื ื“ืœื ืžื”ืœื™ื” ื‘ื™ ื“ื™ื ื ืžื™ื—ื™ื™ื‘ ืื™ื”ื• ืœืžื™ืžื”ืœ ื ืคืฉื™ื” ื“ื›ืชื™ื‘ ื•ืขืจืœ ื–ื›ืจ ืืฉืจ ืœื ื™ืžื•ืœ ืืช ื‘ืฉืจ ืขืจืœืชื• ื•ื ื›ืจืชื”


ยง The baraita teaches that a father is obligated to circumcise his son. The Gemara asks: From where do we derive this? The Gemara answers that this is as it is written: โ€œAnd Abraham circumcised his son Isaacโ€ (Genesis 21:4). The Gemara comments: And in a case where oneโ€™s father did not circumcise him the court is obligated to circumcise him, i.e., if this obligation is not fulfilled by the father it applies to the community as a whole, as it is written: โ€œEvery male among you shall be circumcisedโ€ (Genesis 17:10), in the form of a general mitzva that does not apply only to the father. And in a case where the court did not circumcise him the son is obligated to circumcise himself when he reaches adulthood, as it is written: โ€œAnd the uncircumcised male, who is not circumcised in the flesh of his foreskin, that soul shall be cut off from his peopleโ€ (Genesis 17:14).


ืื™ื”ื™ ืžื ืœืŸ ื“ืœื ืžื™ื—ื™ื™ื‘ื ื“ื›ืชื™ื‘ ื›ืืฉืจ ืฆื•ื” ืืชื• ืืœื”ื™ื ืื•ืชื• ื•ืœื ืื•ืชื”


From where do we derive that his mother is not obligated to circumcise her son? As it is written: โ€œAnd Abraham circumcised his son Isaac when he was eight days old, as God commanded himโ€ (Genesis 21:4). The verse emphasizes that God commanded him, and not her.


ืืฉื›ื—ืŸ ืžื™ื“ ืœื“ื•ืจื•ืช ืžื ืœืŸ ืชื ื ื“ื‘ื™ ืจื‘ื™ ื™ืฉืžืขืืœ ื›ืœ ืžืงื•ื ืฉื ืืžืจ ืฆื• ืื™ื ื• ืืœื ื–ื™ืจื•ื– ืžื™ื“ ื•ืœื“ื•ืจื•ืช


We found a source for this mitzva immediately, i.e., when it was given to Abraham; from where do we derive that this is the halakha for the men of all generations? The school of Rabbi Yishmael taught that any place where it is stated: โ€œCommand,โ€ it is nothing other than an expression of galvanization both immediately and for generations. The mitzva of circumcision is presented by means of this term.


ื–ื™ืจื•ื– ื“ื›ืชื™ื‘ ื•ืฆื• ืืช ื™ื”ื•ืฉืข ื•ื—ื–ืงื”ื• ื•ืืžืฆื”ื• ืžื™ื“ ื•ืœื“ื•ืจื•ืช ื“ื›ืชื™ื‘ ืžืŸ ื”ื™ื•ื ืืฉืจ ืฆื•ื” ื”ืณ ื•ื”ืœืื” ืœื“ืจืชื™ื›ื:


The Gemara elaborates: From where is it derived that the term โ€œcommandโ€ indicates a galvanization? As it is written: โ€œAnd command Joshua, and encourage him and strengthen himโ€ (Deuteronomy 3:28). In this context, the term โ€œcommandโ€ is not referring to a specific command but is a general expression of galvanization. From where is it derived that this applies immediately and for generations? As it is written: โ€œFrom the day that the Lord commanded and onward throughout your generationsโ€ (Numbers 15:23). This shows that whenever the word โ€œcommandโ€ is used it is referring to that day onward for all generations.


ืœืคื“ื•ืชื•: ืžื ืœืŸ ื“ื›ืชื™ื‘ ื›ืœ ื‘ื›ื•ืจ ื‘ื ื™ืš ืชืคื“ื” ื•ื”ื™ื›ื ื“ืœื ืคืจืงื™ื” ืื‘ื•ื” ืžื™ื—ื™ื™ื‘ ืื™ื”ื• ืœืžืคืจืงื™ื” ื“ื›ืชื™ื‘ ืคื“ื” ืชืคื“ื”


ยง The baraita teaches that a father is obligated to redeem his son. The Gemara asks: From where do we derive this? The Gemara answers that this is as it is written: โ€œAll the firstborn of your sons you shall redeemโ€ (Exodus 34:20). And in a case where oneโ€™s father does not redeem him he is obligated to redeem himself, as it is written: โ€œYou shall redeem [pado tifde]โ€ (Numbers 18:15). The repetition of the verb indicates that a firstborn is required to be redeemed in any case, even if his father neglects to do so.


ื•ืื™ื”ื™ ืžื ืœืŸ ื“ืœื ืžื™ืคืงื“ื” ื“ื›ืชื™ื‘ ืชื™ืคื“ื” ืชืคื“ื” ื›ืœ ืฉืžืฆื•ื•ื” ืœืคื“ื•ืช ืืช ืขืฆืžื• ืžืฆื•ื•ื” ืœืคื“ื•ืช ืืช ืื—ืจื™ื ื•ื›ืœ ืฉืื™ื ื• ืžืฆื•ื•ื” ืœืคื“ื•ืช ืืช ืขืฆืžื• ืื™ื ื• ืžืฆื•ื•ื” ืœืคื“ื•ืช ืื—ืจื™ื


And from where do we derive that a mother is not commanded to redeem her son? As it is written: โ€œYou shall redeem [tifde]โ€ which can be read as: You shall be redeemed [tippadeh]. This indicates that whoever is commanded to redeem himself is commanded to redeem others, and whoever is not commanded to redeem himself is not commanded to redeem others. Since a woman is not commanded to redeem herself, she is not commanded to redeem her son either.


ื•ืื™ื”ื™ ืžื ืœืŸ ื“ืœื ืžื™ื—ื™ื™ื‘ื ืœืžื™ืคืจืง ื ืคืฉื” ื“ื›ืชื™ื‘ ืชืคื“ื” ืชื™ืคื“ื” ื›ืœ ืฉืื—ืจื™ื ืžืฆื•ื•ื™ื ืœืคื“ื•ืชื• ืžืฆื•ื•ื” ืœืคื“ื•ืช ืืช ืขืฆืžื• ื•ื›ืœ ืฉืื™ืŸ ืื—ืจื™ื ืžืฆื•ื•ื™ื ืœืคื“ื•ืชื• ืื™ืŸ ืžืฆื•ื•ื” ืœืคื“ื•ืช ืืช ืขืฆืžื• ื•ืžื ื™ืŸ ืฉืื™ืŸ ืื—ืจื™ื ืžืฆื•ื•ื™ืŸ ืœืคื“ื•ืชื” ื“ืืžืจ ืงืจื ื›ืœ ื‘ื›ื•ืจ ื‘ื ื™ืš ืชืคื“ื” ื‘ื ื™ืš ื•ืœื ื‘ื ื•ืชื™ืš


The Gemara asks: And from where do we derive that she is not obligated to redeem herself? The Gemara answers that this is as it is written: โ€œYou shall redeem [tifde],โ€ which can be read as: You shall be redeemed [tippadeh]. This indicates that any person whom others are commanded to redeem is commanded to redeem himself, and any person whom others are not commanded to redeem is not commanded to redeem himself. Since there is no mitzva for a parent to redeem his daughter, there is similarly no mitzva for a daughter to redeem herself. And from where is it derived that others are not commanded to redeem a daughter? As the verse states: โ€œAll the firstborn of your sons you shall redeemโ€ (Exodus 34:20), i.e., your sons and not your daughters.


ืชื ื• ืจื‘ื ืŸ ื”ื•ื ืœืคื“ื•ืช ื•ื‘ื ื• ืœืคื“ื•ืช ื”ื•ื ืงื•ื“ื ืœื‘ื ื• ืจื‘ื™ ื™ื”ื•ื“ื” ืื•ืžืจ ื‘ื ื• ืงื•ื“ืžื• ืฉื–ื” ืžืฆื•ืชื• ืขืœ ืื‘ื™ื• ื•ื–ื” ืžืฆื•ืช ื‘ื ื• ืขืœื™ื•


The Sages taught: If a firstborn has not yet been redeemed and he himself has a firstborn son, he is obligated to redeem himself and he is also obligated to redeem his firstborn son, and he takes precedence over his son. If he does not have enough money to redeem both of them, he redeems himself. Rabbi Yehuda says: His son takes precedence over him. Rabbi Yehudaโ€™s reasoning is that with regard to this one, the father, the mitzva of his redemption was upon his father, and only when his father did not observe the mitzva did it apply to the adult son. And that mitzva of the redemption of his firstborn son applies to him directly. Consequently, he should first fulfill the mitzva that applies to him by redeeming his son.


ืืžืจ ืจื‘ื™ ื™ืจืžื™ื” ื”ื›ืœ ืžื•ื“ื™ืŸ


Rabbi Yirmeya says: Everyone agrees


ื›ืœ ื”ื™ื›ื ื“ืœื™ื›ื ืืœื ื—ืžืฉ ืกืœืขื™ื ื”ื•ื ืงื•ื“ื ืœื‘ื ื• ืžืื™ ื˜ืขืžื ืžืฆื•ื” ื“ื’ื•ืคื™ื” ืขื“ื™ืคื ื›ื™ ืคืœื™ื’ื™ ื”ื™ื›ื ื“ืื™ื›ื ื—ืžืฉ ืžืฉื•ืขื‘ื“ื™ื ื•ื—ืžืฉ ื‘ื ื™ ื—ื•ืจื™ืŸ


that anywhere that there are only five sela available, i.e., enough to redeem only one man, and one is obligated to redeem both himself and his son, he, the father, takes precedence over his son. What is the reason? It is that his own mitzva is preferable to one that he performs on behalf of others. When they disagree is in a case where there is land worth five sela that is liened property that has been sold, i.e., he sold this land to other people but it can be reclaimed by his prior creditor, and five sela which is entirely unsold property.


ืจื‘ื™ ื™ื”ื•ื“ื” ืกื‘ืจ ืžืœื•ื” ื“ื›ืชื™ื‘ ื‘ืชื•ืจื” ื›ื›ืชื•ื‘ื” ื‘ืฉื˜ืจ ื“ืžื™ื ื‘ื”ื ื™ ื—ืžืฉ ืคืจื™ืง ืœื‘ืจื™ื” ื•ืื–ื™ืœ ื›ื”ืŸ ื•ื˜ืจื™ืฃ ืœื™ื” ืœื—ืžืฉ ืžืฉื•ืขื‘ื“ื™ื ืœื“ื™ื“ื™ื”


And the reasoning behind the dispute is as follows: Rabbi Yehuda maintains that a loan that is written in the Torah, i.e., any financial obligation that applies by Torah law, is considered as though it is written in a document, and therefore it can be collected from liened property, like any loan recorded in a document. This means that the liened property worth five sela is available for oneโ€™s own redemption, but not for that of his son, as the sale of the property occurred before the birth of his firstborn. Consequently, with these five sela upon which there is no lien he redeems his son, and the priest goes and repossesses the land worth five sela that is liened property for his own redemption. In this manner one can fulfill both mitzvot.


ื•ืจื‘ื ืŸ ืกื‘ืจื™ ืžืœื•ื” ื“ื›ืชื™ื‘ ื‘ืื•ืจื™ื™ืชื ืœืื• ื›ื›ืชื•ื‘ื” ื‘ืฉื˜ืจ ื“ืžื™ื ื•ื”ื™ืœื›ืš ืžืฆื•ื” ื“ื’ื•ืคื™ื” ืขื“ื™ืฃ


And the Rabbis maintain: A loan that is written in the Torah is not considered as though it is written in a document, since buyers will not be aware of this obligation, so that they should be aware that the land may be repossessed. And therefore there is no advantage for this man to redeem his son with the five sela upon which there is no lien, and his own mitzva is preferable, which means he redeems himself with the free land. With the liened property that is left he cannot redeem his son, as the land was sold before the birth of his firstborn.


ืชื ื• ืจื‘ื ืŸ ืœืคื“ื•ืช ืืช ื‘ื ื• ื•ืœืขืœื•ืช ืœืจื’ืœ ืคื•ื“ื” ืืช ื‘ื ื• ื•ืื—ืจ ื›ืš ืขื•ืœื” ืœืจื’ืœ ืจื‘ื™ ื™ื”ื•ื“ื” ืื•ืžืจ ืขื•ืœื” ืœืจื’ืœ ื•ืื—ืจ ื›ืš ืคื•ื“ื” ืืช ื‘ื ื• ืฉื–ื• ืžืฆื•ื” ืขื•ื‘ืจืช ื•ื–ื• ืžืฆื•ื” ืฉืื™ื ื” ืขื•ื‘ืจืช


The Sages taught: If one has money to redeem his son and to ascend to Jerusalem on the pilgrimage Festival, he redeems his son and then ascends to Jerusalem on the pilgrimage Festival. Rabbi Yehuda says: He ascends to Jerusalem on the pilgrimage Festival and then redeems his son. His reasoning is that this trip to Jerusalem for the pilgrimage Festival is a mitzva whose time soon passes, and this, the redemption of the firstborn son, is a mitzva whose time does not soon pass, as it can be fulfilled later.


ื‘ืฉืœืžื ืœืจื‘ื™ ื™ื”ื•ื“ื” ื›ื“ืงืืžืจ ื˜ืขืžื ืืœื ืจื‘ื ืŸ ืžืื™ ื˜ืขืžื™ื™ื”ื• ื“ืืžืจ ืงืจื ื›ืœ ื‘ื›ื•ืจ ื‘ื ื™ืš ืชืคื“ื” ื•ื”ื“ืจ ืœื ื™ืจืื• ืคื ื™ ืจื™ืงื


The Gemara asks: Granted, according to the opinion of Rabbi Yehuda, it is as he stated in his reasoning, i.e., Rabbi Yehuda provided the rationale for his opinion. But what is the reasoning of the Rabbis, who say that he should first redeem his son? The Gemara answers that the reason is that the verse states: โ€œAll the firstborn of your sons you shall redeemโ€ (Exodus 34:20), and it then states, in the same verse: โ€œAnd none shall appear before me empty,โ€ referring to the pilgrimage Festival in Jerusalem. The order of the verse indicates that one should redeem his firstborn son before traveling to Jerusalem on the pilgrimage Festival.


ืชื ื• ืจื‘ื ืŸ ืžื ื™ืŸ ืฉืื ื”ื™ื• ืœื• ื—ืžืฉื” ื‘ื ื™ื ืžื—ืžืฉ ื ืฉื™ื ืฉื—ื™ื™ื‘ ืœืคื“ื•ืช ื›ื•ืœืŸ ืชืœืžื•ื“ ืœื•ืžืจ ื›ืœ ื‘ื›ื•ืจ ื‘ื ื™ืš ืชืคื“ื” ืคืฉื™ื˜ื ื‘ืคื˜ืจ ืจื—ื ืชืœื ืจื—ืžื ื


The Sages taught: From where is it derived that if one had five firstborn sons, from five different women, he is obligated to redeem them all? The verse states: โ€œAll the firstborn of your sons you shall redeemโ€ (Exodus 34:20), and the emphasis of โ€œallโ€ includes any of oneโ€™s firstborn sons. The Gemara asks: Isnโ€™t it obvious this is the case? After all, the Merciful One made this mitzva dependent upon the opening of the womb, as it states: โ€œSanctify to Me all the firstborn, whoever opens the wombโ€ (Exodus 13:2). Since each of these sons is the firstborn of his mother, it is clear that the father is required to redeem each of them.


ืžื”ื• ื“ืชื™ืžื ื ื™ืœืฃ ื‘ื›ื•ืจ ื‘ื›ื•ืจ ืžื ื—ืœื” ืžื” ืœื”ืœืŸ ืจืืฉื™ืช ืื ื• ืืฃ ื›ืืŸ ืจืืฉื™ืช ืื•ื ื• ืงื ืžืฉืžืข ืœืŸ:


The Gemara answers that this ruling is necessary lest you say that we should derive a verbal analogy between โ€œfirstbornโ€ stated here and โ€œfirstbornโ€ from the verses dealing with inheritance: Just as there, the verse describes a firstborn who receives a double portion of the inheritance as: โ€œThe first fruit of his strengthโ€ (Deuteronomy 21:17), i.e., he is the firstborn son to his father, and not the first child born to his mother; so too here, with regard to the redemption of the firstborn son, it is referring to the first fruit of his strength, which would mean that the father need redeem only his oldest child. Therefore, this baraita teaches us that this is not the case. Rather, every firstborn son to his mother must be redeemed.


ืœืœืžื“ื• ืชื•ืจื”: ืžื ืœืŸ ื“ื›ืชื™ื‘ ื•ืœืžื“ืชื ืืชื ืืช ื‘ื ื™ื›ื ื•ื”ื™ื›ื ื“ืœื ืื’ืžืจื™ื” ืื‘ื•ื” ืžื™ื—ื™ื™ื‘ ืื™ื”ื• ืœืžื™ื’ืžืจ ื ืคืฉื™ื” ื“ื›ืชื™ื‘ ื•ืœืžื“ืชื


ยง The baraita teaches that a father is obligated to teach his son Torah. The Gemara asks: From where do we derive this requirement? As it is written: โ€œAnd you shall teach them [velimadtem] to your sonsโ€ (Deuteronomy 11:19). And in a case where his father did not teach him he is obligated to teach himself, as it is written, i.e., the verse can be read with a different vocalization: And you shall study [ulmadtem].


ืื™ื”ื™ ืžื ืœืŸ ื“ืœื ืžื™ื—ื™ื™ื‘ื ื“ื›ืชื™ื‘ ื•ืœื™ืžื“ืชื ื•ืœืžื“ืชื ื›ืœ ืฉืžืฆื•ื•ื” ืœืœืžื•ื“ ืžืฆื•ื•ื” ืœืœืžื“ ื•ื›ืœ ืฉืื™ื ื• ืžืฆื•ื•ื” ืœืœืžื•ื“ ืื™ื ื• ืžืฆื•ื•ื” ืœืœืžื“


From where do we derive that a woman is not obligated to teach her son Torah? As it is written: โ€œAnd you shall teach [velimadtem],โ€ which can be read as: And you shall study [ulmadtem]. This indicates that whoever is commanded to study Torah is commanded to teach, and whoever is not commanded to study is not commanded to teach. Since a woman is not obligated to learn Torah, she is likewise not obligated to teach it.


ื•ืื™ื”ื™ ืžื ืœืŸ ื“ืœื ืžื™ื—ื™ื™ื‘ื” ืœืžื™ืœืฃ ื ืคืฉื” ื“ื›ืชื™ื‘ ื•ืœื™ืžื“ืชื ื•ืœืžื“ืชื ื›ืœ ืฉืื—ืจื™ื ืžืฆื•ื•ื™ืŸ ืœืœืžื“ื• ืžืฆื•ื•ื” ืœืœืžื“ ืืช ืขืฆืžื• ื•ื›ืœ ืฉืื™ืŸ ืื—ืจื™ื ืžืฆื•ื•ื™ืŸ ืœืœืžื“ื• ืื™ืŸ ืžืฆื•ื•ื” ืœืœืžื“ ืืช ืขืฆืžื• ื•ืžื ื™ืŸ ืฉืื™ืŸ ืื—ืจื™ื ืžืฆื•ื•ื™ืŸ ืœืœืžื“ื” ื“ืืžืจ ืงืจื ื•ืœืžื“ืชื ืืชื ืืช ื‘ื ื™ื›ื ืืช ื‘ื ื™ื›ื ื•ืœื ื‘ื ื•ืชื™ื›ื


The Gemara asks: And from where do we derive that she is not obligated to teach herself? The Gemara answers: As it is written: โ€œAnd you shall teach [velimadtem],โ€ which can be read as: And you shall study [ulmadtem], which indicates that whoever others are commanded to teach is commanded to teach himself, and whoever others are not commanded to teach is not commanded to teach himself. And from where is it derived that others are not commanded to teach a woman? As the verse states: โ€œAnd you shall teach them to your sonsโ€ (Deuteronomy 11:19), which emphasizes: Your sons and not your daughters.


ืชื ื• ืจื‘ื ืŸ ื”ื•ื ืœืœืžื•ื“ ื•ื‘ื ื• ืœืœืžื•ื“ ื”ื•ื ืงื•ื“ื ืœื‘ื ื• ืจื‘ื™ ื™ื”ื•ื“ื” ืื•ืžืจ ืื ื‘ื ื• ื–ืจื™ื– ื•ืžืžื•ืœื— ื•ืชืœืžื•ื“ื• ืžืชืงื™ื™ื ื‘ื™ื“ื• ื‘ื ื• ืงื•ื“ืžื• ื›ื™ ื”ื ื“ืจื‘ ื™ืขืงื‘ ื‘ืจื™ื” ื“ืจื‘ ืื—ื ื‘ืจ ื™ืขืงื‘ ืฉื“ืจื™ื” ืื‘ื•ื” ืœืงืžื™ื” ื“ืื‘ื™ื™ ื›ื™ ืืชื ื—ื–ื™ื™ื” ื“ืœื ื”ื•ื” ืžื™ื—ื“ื“ื™ืŸ ืฉืžืขืชื™ื” ืืžืจ ืœื™ื” ืื ื ืขื“ื™ืคื ืžื™ื ืš ืชื•ื‘ ืืช ื“ืื™ื–ื™ืœ ืื ื


The Sages taught: If one wishes to study Torah himself and his son also wants to study, he takes precedence over his son. Rabbi Yehuda says: If his son is diligent and sharp, and his study will endure, his son takes precedence over him. This is like that anecdote which is told about Rav Yaโ€™akov, son of Rav Aแธฅa bar Yaโ€™akov, whose father sent him to Abaye to study Torah. When the son came home, his father saw that his studies were not sharp, as he was insufficiently bright. Rav Aแธฅa bar Yaโ€™akov said to his son: I am preferable to you, and it is better that I go and study. Therefore, you sit and handle the affairs of the house so that I can go and study.


ืฉืžืข ืื‘ื™ื™ ื“ืงื ื”ื•ื” ืืชื™ ื”ื•ื” ื”ื”ื•ื ืžื–ื™ืง ื‘ื™ ืจื‘ื ืŸ ื“ืื‘ื™ื™ ื“ื›ื™ ื”ื•ื• ืขื™ื™ืœื™ ื‘ืชืจื™ืŸ ืืคื™ืœื• ื‘ื™ืžืžื ื”ื•ื• ืžื™ืชื–ืงื™ ืืžืจ ืœื”ื• ืœื ืœื™ืชื™ื‘ ืœื™ื” ืื™ื ืฉ ืื•ืฉืคื™ื–ื ืืคืฉืจ ื“ืžืชืจื—ื™ืฉ ื ื™ืกื


Abaye heard that Rav Aแธฅa bar Yaโ€™akov was coming. There was a certain demon in the study hall of Abaye, which was so powerful that when two people would enter they would be harmed, even during the day. Abaye said to the people of the town: Do not give Rav Aแธฅa bar Yaโ€™akov lodging [ushpiza] so that he will be forced to spend the night in the study hall. Since Rav Aแธฅa bar Yaโ€™akov is a righteous man, perhaps a miracle will occur on his behalf and he will kill the demon.


ืขืœ ื‘ืช ื‘ื”ื”ื•ื ื‘ื™ ืจื‘ื ืŸ ืื™ื“ืžื™ ืœื™ื” ื›ืชื ื™ื ื ื“ืฉื‘ืขื” ืจื™ืฉื•ื•ืชื™ื” ื›ืœ ื›ืจื™ืขื” ื“ื›ืจืข ื ืชืจ ื—ื“ ืจื™ืฉื™ื” ืืžืจ ืœื”ื• ืœืžื—ืจ ืื™ ืœื ืื™ืชืจื—ื™ืฉ ื ื™ืกื ืกื›ื™ื ืชื™ืŸ


Rav Aแธฅa found no place to spend the night, and he entered and spent the night in that study hall of the Sages. The demon appeared to him like a serpent with seven heads. Rav Aแธฅa bar Yaโ€™akov began to pray, and with every bow that he bowed one of the demonโ€™s heads fell off, until it eventually died. The next day Rav Aแธฅa said to the townspeople: If a miracle had not occurred, you would have placed me in danger.


ืชื ื• ืจื‘ื ืŸ ืœืœืžื•ื“ ืชื•ืจื” ื•ืœื™ืฉื ืืฉื” ื™ืœืžื•ื“ ืชื•ืจื” ื•ืื—ืจ ื›ืš ื™ืฉื ืืฉื” ื•ืื ืื™ ืืคืฉืจ ืœื• ื‘ืœื ืืฉื” ื™ืฉื ืืฉื” ื•ืื—ืจ ื›ืš ื™ืœืžื•ื“ ืชื•ืจื” ืืžืจ ืจื‘ ื™ื”ื•ื“ื” ืืžืจ ืฉืžื•ืืœ ื”ืœื›ื” ื ื•ืฉื ืืฉื” ื•ืื—ืจ ื›ืš ื™ืœืžื•ื“ ืชื•ืจื”


The Sages taught: If one has to decide whether to study Torah or to marry a woman, which should he do first? He should study Torah and afterward marry a woman. And if it is impossible for him to be without a wife, he should marry a woman and then study Torah. Rav Yehuda says that Shmuel says: The halakha is that one should marry a woman and afterward study Torah.


ืจื‘ื™ ื™ื•ื—ื ืŸ ืืžืจ ืจื™ื—ื™ื™ื ื‘ืฆื•ืืจื• ื•ื™ืขืกื•ืง ื‘ืชื•ืจื” ื•ืœื ืคืœื™ื’ื™ ื”ื ืœืŸ ื•ื”ื ืœื”ื•:


Rabbi Yoแธฅanan says: How can one do this? With a millstone hanging from his neck, i.e., with the responsibility of providing for his family weighing upon him, can he engage in Torah study? The Gemara comments: And the amoraโ€™im do not disagree; this is for us and that is for them. In other words, one statement applies to the residents of Babylonia, whereas the other is referring to those living in Eretz Yisrael.


ืžืฉืชื‘ื— ืœื™ื” ืจื‘ ื—ืกื“ื ืœืจื‘ ื”ื•ื ื ื‘ื“ืจื‘ ื”ืžื ื•ื ื ื“ืื“ื ื’ื“ื•ืœ ื”ื•ื ืืžืจ ืœื™ื” ื›ืฉื™ื‘ื ืœื™ื“ืš ื”ื‘ื™ืื”ื• ืœื™ื“ื™ ื›ื™ ืืชื ื—ื–ื™ื™ื” ื“ืœื ืคืจื™ืก ืกื•ื“ืจื ืืžืจ ืœื™ื” ืžืื™ ื˜ืขืžื ืœื ืคืจื™ืกืช ืกื•ื“ืจื ืืžืจ ืœื™ื” ื“ืœื ื ืกื™ื‘ื ื ืื”ื“ืจื™ื ื”ื• ืœืืคื™ื” ืžื™ื ื™ื” ืืžืจ ืœื™ื” ื—ื–ื™ ื“ืœื ื—ื–ื™ืช ืœื”ื• ืœืืคื™ ืขื“ ื“ื ืกื‘ืช


ยง With regard to marriage, the Gemara relates: Rav แธคisda would praise Rav Hamnuna to Rav Huna by saying that he is a great man. Rav Huna said to him: When he comes to you, send him to me. When Rav Hamnuna came before him, Rav Huna saw that he did not cover his head with a cloth, as Torah scholars did. Rav Huna said to him: What is the reason that you do not cover your head with a cloth? Rav Hamnuna said to him: The reason is that I am not married, and it was not customary for unmarried men to cover their heads with a cloth. Rav Huna turned his face away from him in rebuke, and he said to him: See to it that you do not see my face until you marry.


ืจื‘ ื”ื•ื ื ืœื˜ืขืžื™ื” ื“ืืžืจ ื‘ืŸ ืขืฉืจื™ื ืฉื ื” ื•ืœื ื ืฉื ืืฉื” ื›ืœ ื™ืžื™ื• ื‘ืขื‘ื™ืจื” ื‘ืขื‘ื™ืจื” ืกืœืงื ื“ืขืชืš ืืœื ืื™ืžื ื›ืœ ื™ืžื™ื• ื‘ื”ืจื”ื•ืจ ืขื‘ื™ืจื”


The Gemara notes: Rav Huna conforms to his standard line of reasoning, as he says: If one is twenty years old and has not yet married a woman, all of his days will be in a state of sin concerning sexual matters. The Gemara asks: Can it enter your mind that he will be in a state of sin all of his days? Rather, say that this means the following: All of his days will be in a state of thoughts of sin, i.e., sexual thoughts. One who does not marry in his youth will become accustomed to thoughts of sexual matters, and the habit will remain with him the rest of his life.


ืืžืจ ืจื‘ื ื•ื›ืŸ ืชื ื ื“ื‘ื™ ืจื‘ื™ ื™ืฉืžืขืืœ ืขื“ ืขืฉืจื™ื ืฉื ื” ื™ื•ืฉื‘ ื”ืงื“ื•ืฉ ื‘ืจื•ืš ื”ื•ื ื•ืžืฆืคื” ืœืื“ื ืžืชื™ ื™ืฉื ืืฉื” ื›ื™ื•ืŸ ืฉื”ื’ื™ืข ืขืฉืจื™ื ื•ืœื ื ืฉื ืื•ืžืจ ืชื™ืคื— ืขืฆืžื•ืชื™ื•


Rava said, and similarly, the school of Rabbi Yishmael taught: Until one reaches the age of twenty years the Holy One, Blessed be He, sits and waits for a man, saying: When will he marry a woman? Once he reaches the age of twenty and has not married, He says: Let his bones swell, i.e., he is cursed and God is no longer concerned about him.


ืืžืจ ืจื‘ ื—ืกื“ื ื”ืื™ ื“ืขื“ื™ืคื ื ืžื—ื‘ืจืื™ ื“ื ืกื™ื‘ื ื ื‘ืฉื™ืชืกืจ ื•ืื™ ื”ื•ื” ื ืกื™ื‘ื ื ื‘ืืจื‘ื™ืกืจ


Rav แธคisda said: The fact that I am superior to my colleagues is because I married at the age of sixteen, and if I would have married at the age of fourteen,


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