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Daf Yomi

September 15, 2023 | ื›ืดื˜ ื‘ืืœื•ืœ ืชืฉืคืดื’

  • Masechet Kiddushin is sponsored by Julie and Martin Mendelsohn in honor of their two children who were recently married

Kiddushin 33

Today’s daf is sponsored by Terri Krivosha and Rabbi Hayim Herring to mark the end of shloshim for Terri’s mother, Cheni Mindyl bat Yerachmiel HaKohen v’Shima Feiga.

Today’s daf is sponsored by Caroline Ofstein and Medinah Korn in loving memory of Helen Abelesz, z”l, on her shloshim. “She was a dearly cherished friend who gifted us with her strength, wisdom, inspiration and incredible emuna, and she is sorely missed by the many who loved her. Yehi zichrah baruch.”

The commandment to honor your elders – does this mean someone who is old, someone who is learned and old or just someone who is learned (even if they are not old)? Does one need to spend money to observe this commandment? Does one need to interrupt one’s work to stand for an elder? Does this apply to non-Jews? The elder has a responsibility not to walk in a place where too many people will need to stand up for him. Does a father need to stand for a child who is his teacher? Does that child need to stand in respect for his father?

ืžืคื ื™ ืฉื™ื‘ื” ืชืงื•ื ื•ื”ื“ืจืช ืชืงื•ื ื•ื”ื“ืจืช ืคื ื™ ื–ืงืŸ ื•ืžื“ืœื ื›ืชื‘ ื”ื›ื™ ืฉืžืข ืžื™ื ื” ื—ื“ ื”ื•ื


Before the hoary head of an elder you shall stand and revere; you shall stand and revere the face of an elder. From the fact that the Merciful One did not write this and thereby divide the two concepts, learn from it that โ€œelderโ€ and โ€œhoary headโ€ are together referring to one type of person.


ืืžืจ ืžืจ ื™ื›ื•ืœ ื™ื”ื“ืจื ื• ื‘ืžืžื•ืŸ ืชืœืžื•ื“ ืœื•ืžืจ ืชืงื•ื ื•ื”ื“ืจืช ืžื” ืงื™ืžื” ืฉืื™ืŸ ื‘ื” ื—ืกืจื•ืŸ ื›ื™ืก ืืฃ ื”ื™ื“ื•ืจ ืฉืื™ืŸ ื‘ื• ื—ืกืจื•ืŸ ื›ื™ืก ื•ืงื™ืžื” ืœื™ืช ื‘ื” ื—ืกืจื•ืŸ ื›ื™ืก ืžื™ ืœื ืขืกืงื™ื ืŸ ื“ืงื ื ืงื™ื‘ ืžืจื’ื ื™ืชื ืื“ื”ื›ื™ ื•ื”ื›ื™ ืงืื™ื ืžืงืžื™ื” ื•ื‘ื˜ื™ืœ ืžืžืœืื›ืชื•


The Master said previously in the baraita: One might have thought that he should revere him through money, i.e., he is required to give him money in his honor; therefore, the verse states: โ€œYou shall stand and you shall revereโ€ (Leviticus 19:32). Just as standing includes no monetary loss, so too, reverence is referring to an action that includes no monetary loss. The Gemara asks: And does standing include no monetary loss at all? Are we not dealing with a case where he was piercing pearls, a highly remunerative task, and in the meantime he must stand for the elder and thereby neglect his work, which causes him a loss?


ืืœื ืืงื™ืฉ ืงื™ืžื” ืœื”ื™ื“ื•ืจ ืžื” ื”ื™ื“ื•ืจ ืฉืื™ืŸ ื‘ื• ื‘ื™ื˜ื•ืœ ืืฃ ืงื™ืžื” ืฉืื™ืŸ ื‘ื” ื‘ื™ื˜ื•ืœ ื•ืืงื™ืฉ ื ืžื™ ื”ื™ื“ื•ืจ ืœืงื™ืžื” ืžื” ืงื™ืžื” ืฉืื™ืŸ ื‘ื” ื—ืกืจื•ืŸ ื›ื™ืก ืืฃ ื”ื™ื“ื•ืจ ืฉืื™ืŸ ื‘ื• ื—ืกืจื•ืŸ ื›ื™ืก ืžื›ืืŸ ืืžืจื• ืื™ืŸ ื‘ืขืœื™ ืื•ืžื ื™ื•ืช ืจืฉืื™ืŸ ืœืขืžื•ื“ ืžืคื ื™ ืชืœืžื™ื“ื™ ื—ื›ืžื™ื ื‘ืฉืขื” ืฉืขื•ืกืงื™ืŸ ื‘ืžืœืื›ืชื


Rather, the verse juxtaposes standing to reverence: Just as reverence does not include neglect of work, so too, standing does not include neglect of work; therefore, one who is engaged in work is not obligated to stand before an elder. And the verse also juxtaposes reverence to standing: Just as standing includes no monetary loss, as standing applies only when it does not entail neglect of work, as explained previously, so too, reverence is referring to an action that includes no monetary loss. From here the Sages stated: Craftsmen are not permitted to stand before Torah scholars when they are engaged in their work.


ื•ืœื ื•ื”ืชื ืŸ ื›ืœ ื‘ืขืœื™ ืื•ืžื ื™ื•ืช ืขื•ืžื“ื™ื ืžืคื ื™ื”ื ื•ืฉื•ืืœื™ื ื‘ืฉืœื•ืžื ื•ืื•ืžืจื™ื ืœื”ื ืื—ื™ื ื• ืื ืฉื™ ืžืงื•ื ืคืœื•ื ื™ ื‘ื•ืื›ื ืœืฉืœื•ื ืืžืจ ืจื‘ื™ ื™ื•ื—ื ืŸ ืžืคื ื™ื”ื ืขื•ืžื“ื™ื ืžืคื ื™ ืชืœืžื™ื“ื™ ื—ื›ืžื™ื ืื™ืŸ ืขื•ืžื“ื™ื


The Gemara asks: And are craftsmen not required to stand before Torah scholars? But didnโ€™t we learn in a mishna (Bikkurim 3:3): When farmers bring their first fruits to Jerusalem, all craftsmen stand before them, and greet them, and say to them: Our brothers from such and such a place, welcome! Since craftsmen would stand even for those engaged in a mitzva, all the more so should they stand for Torah scholars. Rabbi Yoแธฅanan says: There is no difficulty here, as indeed they stood before those bringing first fruits, and yet they would not stand before Torah scholars.


ืืžืจ ืจื‘ื™ ื™ื•ืกื™ ื‘ืจ ืื‘ื™ืŸ ื‘ื•ื ื•ืจืื” ื›ืžื” ื—ื‘ื™ื‘ื” ืžืฆื•ื” ื‘ืฉืขืชื” ืฉื”ืจื™ ืžืคื ื™ื”ื ืขื•ืžื“ื™ื ืžืคื ื™ ืชืœืžื™ื“ื™ ื—ื›ืžื™ื ืื™ืŸ ืขื•ืžื“ื™ื ื•ื“ืœืžื ืฉืื ื™ ื”ืชื ื“ืื ื›ืŸ ืืชื” ืžื›ืฉื™ืœืŸ ืœืขืชื™ื“ ืœื‘ื


Based on this Rabbi Yosei bar Avin says: Come and see how beloved is a mitzva performed in its proper time, as the craftsmen stood before those who were fulfilling a mitzva, whereas they did not stand before Torah scholars. The Gemara responds: This does not prove that the same applies to all mitzvot performed in their proper times, as perhaps it is different there, with regard to the bringing of the first fruits; for if so, i.e., if one does not treat those who bring first fruits with such honor, they will not want to come at all, and you will cause them to stumble and sin in the future. Consequently, the Sages instituted that those bringing first fruits should be treated with special honor. This reasoning does not apply to people performing other mitzvot.


ืืžืจ ืžืจ ื™ื›ื•ืœ ื™ืขืžื•ื“ ืžืคื ื™ื• ืžื‘ื™ืช ื”ื›ืกื ื•ืžื‘ื™ืช ื”ืžืจื—ืฅ ื•ืœื ื•ื”ื ืจื‘ื™ ื—ื™ื™ื ื”ื•ื” ื™ืชื™ื‘ ื‘ื™ ืžืกื—ื•ืชื ื•ื—ืœื™ืฃ ื•ืื–ื™ืœ ืจื‘ื™ ืฉืžืขื•ืŸ ื‘ืจ ืจื‘ื™ ื•ืœื ืงื ืžืงืžื™ื” ื•ืื™ืงืคื“ ื•ืืชื ืืžืจ ืœื™ื” ืœืื‘ื•ื” ืฉื ื™ ื—ื•ืžืฉื™ื ืฉื ื™ืชื™ ืœื• ื‘ืกืคืจ ืชื”ืœื™ื ื•ืœื ืขืžื“ ืžืคื ื™


The Master said previously: One might have thought that one should also stand before an Elder in the lavatory or in the bathhouse; therefore, the verse said: โ€œYou shall stand and you shall revere,โ€ which indicates that the mitzva of standing applies only in a place where there is reverence. The Gemara asks: And does one not show honor in a lavatory? But Rabbi แธคiyya was sitting in a bathhouse and Rabbi Shimon bar Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi passed by, and he did not stand before him. And Rabbi Shimon bar Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi became angry and went and said to his father, Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi: I taught Rabbi แธคiyya two of the five parts of the book of Psalms, and yet he did not stand before me. This indicates that a display of honor is appropriate even in a bathhouse.


ื•ืชื• ื‘ืจ ืงืคืจื ื•ืืžืจื™ ืœื” ืจื‘ื™ ืฉืžื•ืืœ ื‘ืจ ืจื‘ื™ ื™ื•ืกื™ ื”ื•ื” ื™ืชื™ื‘ ื‘ื™ ืžืกื—ื•ืชื ืขืœ ื•ืื–ื™ืœ ืจื‘ื™ ืฉืžืขื•ืŸ ื‘ืจ ืจื‘ื™ ื•ืœื ืงื ืžืงืžื™ื” ื•ืื™ืงืคื“ ื•ืืชื ืืžืจ ืœื™ื” ืœืื‘ื•ื” ืฉื ื™ ืฉืœื™ืฉื™ ืฉืœื™ืฉ ืฉื ื™ืชื™ ืœื• ื‘ืชื•ืจืช ื›ื”ื ื™ื ื•ืœื ืขืžื“ ืžืคื ื™ ื•ืืžืจ ืœื• ืฉืžื ื‘ื”ืŸ ื™ื•ืฉื‘ ื•ืžื”ืจื”ืจ


And furthermore, bar Kappara, and some say it was Rabbi Shmuel bar Rabbi Yosei, was sitting in a bathhouse. Rabbi Shimon bar Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi entered and passed by, and he did not stand before him. Rabbi Shimon became angry and went and said to his father: I taught him two of the nine parts of Torat Kohanim, the halakhic midrash on Leviticus, and yet he did not stand before me. And Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi said to Rabbi Shimon: Perhaps he was sitting and contemplating what you taught him and did not see you come in.


ื˜ืขืžื ื“ื‘ื”ืŸ ื™ื•ืฉื‘ ื•ืžื”ืจื”ืจ ื”ื ืœืื• ื”ื›ื™ ืœื


The Gemara explains the proof: The fact that the reason he might have been exempt was that he was sitting and pondering the lessons indicates that if that were not so, Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi would not have justified such behavior. One must stand before a Sage even in a bathhouse.


ืœื ืงืฉื™ื ื”ื ื‘ื‘ืชื™ ื’ื•ืื™ ื”ื ื‘ื‘ืชื™ ื‘ืจืื™


The Gemara answers that this is not difficult: This halakha, that one is not required to stand in a bathhouse, applies to the inner rooms, where everyone is naked; standing in a place of this kind certainly does not bestow honor. That halakha, that one is obligated to stand in a bathhouse, applies to the outer rooms, where people are still dressed. Standing is a sign of respect in these rooms.


ื”ื›ื™ ื ืžื™ ืžืกืชื‘ืจื ื“ืืžืจ ืจื‘ื” ื‘ืจ ื‘ืจ ื—ื ื” ืืžืจ ืจื‘ื™ ื™ื•ื—ื ืŸ ื‘ื›ืœ ืžืงื•ื ืžื•ืชืจ ืœื”ืจื”ืจ ื—ื•ืฅ ืžื‘ื™ืช ื”ืžืจื—ืฅ ื•ืžื‘ื™ืช ื”ื›ืกื ื“ื™ืœืžื ืœืื•ื ืกื™ื” ืฉืื ื™


The Gemara comments: So too, it is reasonable that this is the correct explanation, as Rabba bar bar แธคana says that Rabbi Yoแธฅanan says: One is permitted to contemplate matters of Torah everywhere, except for the bathhouse and the lavatory. Since Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi suggested that the student might have been sitting and pondering his studies, it can be assumed that the episode occurred in a location where only some of the halakhot governing oneโ€™s behavior in a bathhouse apply, i.e., the outer rooms. The Gemara rejects this proof: Perhaps one whose studies are beyond his control is different; it is possible he was so absorbed in Torah study that he forgot that he was in a place where it is prohibited to think about sacred matters.


ื™ื›ื•ืœ ื™ืขืฆื™ื ืขื™ื ื™ื• ื›ืžื™ ืฉืœื ืจืื”ื• ืื˜ื• ื‘ืจืฉื™ืขื™ ืขืกืงื™ื ืŸ


It is taught in the same baraita: One might have thought that one may close his eyes like one who does not see the elder; therefore, the verse states: โ€œBefore the hoary head you shall stand, and you shall revere the face of an elder, and you shall fear your Godโ€ (Leviticus 19:32). The Gemara expresses surprise at this statement: Is that to say that we are dealing with wicked people who would intentionally act this way to avoid fulfilling a mitzva?


ืืœื ื™ื›ื•ืœ ื™ืขืฆื™ื ืขื™ื ื™ื• ืžืงืžื™ ื“ืœื™ืžื˜ื™ื” ื–ืžืŸ ื—ื™ื•ื‘ื ื“ื›ื™ ืžื˜ื ื–ืžืŸ ื—ื™ื•ื‘ื ื”ื ืœื ื—ื–ื™ ืœื™ื” ื“ืงืื™ื ืžืงืžื™ื” ืชืœืžื•ื“ ืœื•ืžืจ ืชืงื•ื ื•ื™ืจืืช


Rather, this means: One might have thought that one may close his eyes before the obligation to stand arrives, i.e., when the elder is still far off. This would mean that when the obligation does arrive he will not see him, such that he would be required to stand before him. In this manner he thinks that he can avoid the obligation altogether. Therefore the verse states: โ€œYou shall standโ€ฆand you shall fear,โ€ i.e., one should fear He who knows the secrets of oneโ€™s heart.


ืชื ื ืื™ื–ื•ื”ื™ ืงื™ืžื” ืฉื™ืฉ ื‘ื” ื”ื™ื“ื•ืจ ื”ื•ื™ ืื•ืžืจ ื–ื” ืืจื‘ืข ืืžื•ืช ืืžืจ ืื‘ื™ื™ ืœื ืืžืจืŸ ืืœื ื‘ืจื‘ื• ืฉืื™ื ื• ืžื•ื‘ื”ืง ืื‘ืœ ื‘ืจื‘ื• ื”ืžื•ื‘ื”ืง ืžืœื ืขื™ื ื™ื•


ยง A Sage taught: What is the type of standing that indicates reverence? You must say that this applies when it is clear that one is standing in the elderโ€™s honor, which is within four cubits of him. Abaye said: We said this halakha, that one must stand within four cubits of the elder, only with regard to one who is not his primary teacher; but for his primary teacher he must stand when he is within his range of vision, i.e., as soon as he sees him, even if he is more than four cubits away.


ืื‘ื™ื™ ืžื›ื™ ื”ื•ื” ื—ื–ื™ ืœื™ื” ืœืื•ื“ื ื™ื” ื“ื—ืžืจื ื“ืจื‘ ื™ื•ืกืฃ ื“ืืชื™ ื”ื•ื” ืงืื™ื ืื‘ื™ื™ ื”ื•ื” ืจื›ื™ื‘ ื—ืžืจื ื•ืงื ืžืกื’ื™ ืื’ื•ื“ื ื“ื ื”ืจ ืกื’ื™ื ื™ืชื™ื‘ ืจื‘ ืžืฉืจืฉื™ื ื•ืจื‘ื ืŸ ื‘ืื™ื“ืš ื’ื™ืกื ื•ืœื ืงืžื• ืžืงืžื™ื” ืืžืจ ืœื”ื• ื•ืœืื• ืจื‘ ืžื•ื‘ื”ืง ืื ื ืืžืจื• ืœื™ื” ืœืื• ืื“ืขืชื™ืŸ:


The Gemara likewise reports that Abaye would stand as soon as he saw the ear of Rav Yosefโ€™s donkey coming toward him. The Gemara relates: Abaye was riding a donkey along the bank of the Sagya River. Rav Mesharshiyya and other rabbis were sitting on the other bank of the river, and they did not stand before him. Abaye said to them: Am I not your primary teacher? You are therefore required to stand before me, despite the fact that I am far away. They said to him: That did not enter our minds, i.e., we did not see you at all.


ืจื‘ื™ ืฉืžืขื•ืŸ ื‘ืŸ ืืœืขื–ืจ ืื•ืžืจ ืžื ื™ืŸ ืœื–ืงืŸ ืฉืœื ื™ื˜ืจื™ื— ืชืœืžื•ื“ ืœื•ืžืจ ื–ืงืŸ ื•ื™ืจืืช ืืžืจ ืื‘ื™ื™ ื ืงื˜ื™ื ืŸ ื“ืื™ ืžืงื™ืฃ ื—ื™ื™ ืื‘ื™ื™ ืžืงื™ืฃ ืจื‘ื™ ื–ื™ืจื ืžืงื™ืฃ


ยง It was further stated in the baraita that Rabbi Shimon ben Elazar says: From where is it derived that an elder should not trouble others to honor him? The verse states: โ€œAnd you shall revere the face of an elder, and you shall fear your God.โ€ Abaye said: We have a tradition that if a Sage circumnavigates an area so that people will not have to stand before him, he will live a long life. The Gemara relates that Abaye would circumnavigate an area, and likewise Rabbi Zeira would circumnavigate an area.


ืจื‘ื™ื ื ื”ื•ื” ื™ืชื™ื‘ ืงืžื™ื” ื“ืจื‘ื™ ื™ืจืžื™ื” ืžื“ื™ืคืชื™ ื—ืœืฃ ื”ื”ื•ื ื’ื‘ืจื ืงืžื™ื” ื•ืœื ืžื™ื›ืกื™ ืจื™ืฉื ืืžืจ ื›ืžื” ื—ืฆื™ืฃ ื”ื ื’ื‘ืจื ืืžืจ ืœื™ื” ื“ืœืžื ืžืžืชื ืžื—ืกื™ื ื ื™ื”ื• ื“ื’ื™ืกื™ ื‘ื” ืจื‘ื ืŸ


The Gemara cites another incident involving honor one demonstrates for his teacher. Once, when Ravina was sitting before Rabbi Yirmeya of Difti, a certain man passed before him and did not cover his head. Ravina said: How rude is this man, who does not show respect by covering his head in honor of a rabbi. Rabbi Yirmeya of Difti said to him: Perhaps he is from the city of Mata Meแธฅasya, where rabbis are common and the people living there are consequently not as careful to display honor as those in other places.


ืื™ืกื™ ื‘ืŸ ื™ื”ื•ื“ื” ืื•ืžืจ ืณืžืคื ื™ ืฉื™ื‘ื” ืชืงื•ืืณ ื•ืืคื™ืœื• ื›ืœ ืฉื™ื‘ื” ื‘ืžืฉืžืข ืืžืจ ืจื‘ื™ ื™ื•ื—ื ืŸ ื”ืœื›ื” ื›ืื™ืกื™ ื‘ืŸ ื™ื”ื•ื“ื” ืจื‘ื™ ื™ื•ื—ื ืŸ ื”ื•ื” ืงืื™ ืžืงืžื™ ืกื‘ื™ ื“ืืจืžืื™ ืืžืจ ื›ืžื” ื”ืจืคืชืงื™ ืขื“ื• ืขืœื™ื™ื”ื• ื“ื”ื ื™ ืจื‘ื ืžื™ืงื ืœื ืงืื™ ื”ื™ื“ื•ืจ ืขื‘ื“ ืœื”ื•


ยง It was stated previously that Isi ben Yehuda says that as the verse states: โ€œBefore the hoary head you shall stand,โ€ it indicates that even anyone of hoary head is included, not only a Torah scholar. Rabbi Yoแธฅanan said: The halakha is in accordance with the opinion of Isi ben Yehuda. The Gemara relates: Rabbi Yoแธฅanan himself would stand before Aramean, i.e., gentile, elders. He said: How many experiences [harpatkei] have occurred to these individuals. It is appropriate to honor them, due to the wisdom they have garnered from their long lives. Rava would not stand before them, but he displayed reverence to them.


ืื‘ื™ื™ ื™ื”ื™ื‘ ื™ื“ื ืœืกื‘ื™ ืจื‘ื ืžืฉื“ืจ ืฉืœื•ื—ื™ื” ืจื‘ ื ื—ืžืŸ ืžืฉื“ืจ ื’ื•ื–ืื™ ืืžืจ ืื™ ืœืื• ืชื•ืจื” ื›ืžื” ื ื—ืžืŸ ื‘ืจ ืื‘ื ืื™ื›ื ื‘ืฉื•ืงื


Abaye would extend a hand to elders so that they could lean on him. Rava would send his agent to help them. Rav Naแธฅman would send officers [gozaโ€™ei], his servants, to assist elders. He said: If not for the Torah, how many people named Naแธฅman bar Abba would there be in the marketplace? In other words, I am not permitted to treat my Torah study lightly by assisting them myself, as I can perform this mitzva through others.


ืืžืจ ืจื‘ื™ ืื™ื™ื‘ื• ืืžืจ ืจื‘ื™ ื™ื ืื™


Rabbi Aivu says that Rabbi Yannai says:


ืื™ืŸ ืชืœืžื™ื“ ื—ื›ื ืจืฉืื™ ืœืขืžื•ื“ ืžืคื ื™ ืจื‘ื• ืืœื ืฉื—ืจื™ืช ื•ืขืจื‘ื™ืช ื›ื“ื™ ืฉืœื ื™ื”ื™ื” ื›ื‘ื•ื“ื• ืžืจื•ื‘ื” ืžื›ื‘ื•ื“ ืฉืžื™ื ืžื™ืชื™ื‘ื™ ืจื‘ื™ ืฉืžืขื•ืŸ ื‘ืŸ ืืœืขื–ืจ ืื•ืžืจ ืžื ื™ืŸ ืœื–ืงืŸ ืฉืœื ื™ื˜ืจื™ื— ืชืœืžื•ื“ ืœื•ืžืจ ื–ืงืŸ ื•ื™ืจืืช


A Torah scholar is permitted to stand before his teacher only once in the morning and once in the evening, so that the teacherโ€™s honor should not be greater than the honor of Heaven, as one recites the Shema, which is tantamount to greeting God, once in the morning and once in the evening. The Gemara raises an objection from an aforementioned opinion. Rabbi Shimon ben Elazar says: From where is it derived that an elder should not trouble others to honor him? The verse states: โ€œAn elder, and you shall fearโ€ (Leviticus 19:32). The collocation of these words comes to teach that the elder, too, must fear God.


ื•ืื™ ืืžืจืช ืฉื—ืจื™ืช ื•ืขืจื‘ื™ืช ื‘ืœื‘ื“ ืืžืื™ ืœื ื ื™ื˜ืจื— ื—ื™ื•ื‘ื ื”ื•ื ืืœื ืœืื• ื›ื•ืœื™ ื™ื•ืžื ืœื ืœืขื•ืœื ืฉื—ืจื™ืช ื•ืขืจื‘ื™ืช ื‘ืœื‘ื“ ื•ืืคื™ืœื• ื”ื›ื™ ื›ืžื” ื“ืืคืฉืจ ืœื™ื” ืœื ื ื™ื˜ืจื—


The Gemara explains the objection: And if you say one may stand only in the morning and evening, why does the baraita say an elder should not trouble others? Standing for an elder only twice a day is an obligation for the people, not an imposition. Rather, is it not correct to say that one is obligated to stand before oneโ€™s teacher at any point during the day? The Gemara answers: No; actually one is obligated to stand only in the morning and evening, and even so, as much as it is possible for the elder, he should not trouble the people to stand.


ืืžืจ ืจื‘ื™ ืืœืขื–ืจ ื›ืœ ืชืœืžื™ื“ ื—ื›ื ืฉืื™ืŸ ืขื•ืžื“ ืžืคื ื™ ืจื‘ื• ื ืงืจื ืจืฉืข ื•ืื™ื ื• ืžืืจื™ืš ื™ืžื™ื ื•ืชืœืžื•ื“ื• ืžืฉืชื›ื— ืฉื ืืžืจ ื•ื˜ื•ื‘ ืœื ื™ื”ื™ื” ืœืจืฉืข ื•ืœื ื™ืืจื™ืš ื™ืžื™ื ื›ืฆืœ ืืฉืจ ืื™ื ื ื• ื™ืจื ืžืœืคื ื™ ื”ืืœื”ื™ื ืžื•ืจื ื–ื• ืื™ื ื™ ื™ื•ื“ืข ืžื”ื• ื›ืฉื”ื•ื ืื•ืžืจ ื•ื™ืจืืช ืžืืœื”ื™ืš ื”ืจื™ ืžื•ืจื ื–ื• ืงื™ืžื”


ยง Rabbi Elazar said: Any Torah scholar who does not stand before his teacher is called wicked, and he will not live a long life, and his studies will be forgotten, as it is stated: โ€œBut it shall not be well for the wicked, neither shall he prolong his days, which are as a shadow, because he does not fear before [millifnei] Godโ€ (Ecclesiastes 8:13). This fear mentioned in the verse, I do not know what it is. When the verse states: โ€œAnd you shall revere the face [penei] of an elder, and you shall fear your Godโ€ (Leviticus 19:32), one can deduce that this fear mentioned in the verse is referring to standing. Consequently, this verse teaches with regard to one who does not stand that he is called wicked, he will not live a long life, and his studies will be forgotten, as indicated by the phrase: โ€œIt shall not be well.โ€


ื•ืื™ืžื ืžื•ืจืืช ืจื‘ื™ืช ื•ืžื•ืจืืช ืžืฉืงืœื•ืช ืจื‘ื™ ืืœืขื–ืจ ืคื ื™ ืคื ื™ ื’ืžืจ


The Gemara asks: But why not say that this is referring to fear of God stated with regard to interest (Leviticus 25:36), or the fear of God stated with regard to weights (Deuteronomy 25:13โ€“16), as the fear of God is mentioned with regard to these prohibitions as well. The Gemara answers: Rabbi Elazar derives this halakha through a verbal analogy of โ€œpeneiโ€ and โ€œpenei,โ€ as explained previously, not from a verbal analogy of the term โ€œfear.โ€


ืื™ื‘ืขื™ื ืœื”ื• ื‘ื ื• ื•ื”ื•ื ืจื‘ื• ืžื”ื• ืœืขืžื•ื“ ืžืคื ื™ ืื‘ื™ื• ืชื ืฉืžืข ื“ืืžืจ ืœื™ื” ืฉืžื•ืืœ ืœืจื‘ ื™ื”ื•ื“ื” ืฉื™ื ื ื ืงื•ื ืžืงืžื™ ืื‘ื•ืš ืฉืื ื™ ืจื‘ ื™ื—ื–ืงืืœ ื“ื‘ืขืœ ืžืขืฉื™ื ื”ื•ื” ื“ืืคื™ืœื• ืžืจ ืฉืžื•ืืœ ื ืžื™ ืงืื™ื ืžืงืžื™ื”


A dilemma was raised before them: With regard to one who is both a manโ€™s son and his teacher, what is the halakha as to whether that son must stand before his father? The Gemara answers: Come and hear, as Shmuel said to Rav Yehuda: Big-toothed one, stand before your father. Although Rav Yehuda was a great Torah scholar and taught his father, he was still required to stand before him. The Gemara answers: Rav Yeแธฅezkel, Rav Yehudaโ€™s father, is different, as he was a man of good deeds, and even Mar Shmuel himself would stand before him.


ืืœื ืžืื™ ืงืืžืจ ืœื™ื” ื”ื›ื™ ืงืืžืจ ืœื™ื” ื–ื™ืžื ื™ืŸ ื“ืืชื™ ืžืื—ื•ืจื™ ืงื•ื ืืช ืžืงืžื™ื” ื•ืœื ืชื™ื—ื•ืฉ ืœื™ืงืจื ื“ื™ื“ื™


The Gemara asks: Rather, what is Shmuel saying to Rav Yehuda? If he is not teaching him that one who is his fatherโ€™s teacher must stand before his father, why did Shmuel say this to Rav Yehuda? The Gemara answers that this is what Shmuel said to him: Sometimes your father comes from behind me and I do not see him or stand before him. Nevertheless, you should stand before him and do not be concerned about my honor.


ืื™ื‘ืขื™ื ืœื”ื• ื‘ื ื• ื•ื”ื•ื ืจื‘ื• ืžื”ื• ืฉื™ืขืžื•ื“ ืื‘ื™ื• ืžืคื ื™ื• ืชื ืฉืžืข ื“ืืžืจ ืจื‘ื™ ื™ื”ื•ืฉืข ื‘ืŸ ืœื•ื™ ืื ื™ ืื™ื ื™ ื›ื“ื™ ืœืขืžื•ื“ ืžืคื ื™ ื‘ื ื™ ืืœื ืžืฉื•ื ื›ื‘ื•ื“ ื‘ื™ืช ื ืฉื™ื


Another dilemma was raised before them, with regard to one who is both a manโ€™s son and his teacher, what is the halakha as to whether the father must stand before his son? The Gemara answers: Come and hear, as Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi says: It is not appropriate for me to stand before my son solely due to his greatness in Torah, as I am greater than him. But due to the honor of the household of the Nasi I do stand before him, as his son was a son-in-law of the Nasi.


ื˜ืขืžื ื“ืื ื ืจื‘ื™ื” ื”ื ืื™ื”ื• ืจื‘ืื™ ืงืื™ืžื ื ืžืงืžื™ื” ื”ื›ื™ ืงืืžืจ ืื ื™ ืื™ื ื™ ื›ื“ื™ ืœืขืžื•ื“ ืžืคื ื™ ื‘ื ื™ ื•ืืคื™ืœื• ื”ื•ื ืจื‘ืื™ ื“ื”ื ืื ื ืื‘ื•ื” ืืœื ืžืฉื•ื ื›ื‘ื•ื“ ื‘ื™ืช ื ืฉื™ื


It may be inferred from here that if his son were not in the household of the Nasi he would not stand for him, and the reason was that he could claim: I am his teacher and therefore I am not obligated to stand before him. Accordingly, Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi is indicating that if he were my teacher I would stand before him. The Gemara rejects this proof: This is what Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi is saying: It is not appropriate for me to stand before my son, even if he were my teacher, as I am his father. But due to the honor of the household of the Nasi I do stand before him.


ืื™ื‘ืขื™ื ืœื”ื• ืจื›ื•ื‘ ื›ืžื”ืœืš ื“ืžื™ ืื• ืœื ืืžืจ ืื‘ื™ื™ ืชื ืฉืžืข ื˜ืžื ื™ื•ืฉื‘ ืชื—ืช ื”ืื™ืœืŸ ื•ื˜ื”ื•ืจ ืขื•ืžื“ ื˜ืžื


A dilemma was raised before them: If oneโ€™s teacher is riding on an animal, is that considered like walking, and therefore one must stand before him, or is he not obligated to stand before him, since he is stationary relative to the animal? Abaye said: Come and hear a resolution from a different issue (Negaโ€™im 13:7): If a leper, who is ritually impure and transfers impurity through a tent, i.e., anyone who enters the location of the leper is rendered impure, is sitting under the branches of a tree, which form a tent over him, and a pure person is standing under that tree, the pure person is rendered impure.


ื˜ืžื ืขื•ืžื“ ืชื—ืช ื”ืื™ืœืŸ ื•ื˜ื”ื•ืจ ื™ื•ืฉื‘ ื˜ื”ื•ืจ ื•ืื ื™ืฉื‘ ื”ื˜ืžื ื”ื˜ื”ื•ืจ ื˜ืžื


If the impure person is standing under the tree and the pure person is sitting there, he remains pure. In this case, as the impure person is not settled there, he does not impart ritual impurity in a tent. But if the impure person sat and established his place there, the pure individual is rendered impure.


ื•ื›ืŸ ื‘ืื‘ืŸ ื”ืžื ื•ื’ืขืช ื•ืืžืจ ืจื‘ ื ื—ืžืŸ ื‘ืจ ื›ื”ืŸ ื–ืืช ืื•ืžืจืช ืจื›ื•ื‘ ื›ืžื”ืœืš ื“ืžื™ ืฉืžืข ืžื™ื ื”


That mishna adds: And the same halakha applies with regard to a stone afflicted with a leprous sore (see Leviticus, chapter 14), which also imparts impurity of a tent. If one carrying a stone of this kind sits under a tree, a pure person standing under the tree is rendered impure, whereas if the person carrying the stone stands, he does not render the other individual impure. And Rav Naแธฅman bar Kohen says: That is to say that riding is considered like walking, as although the stone is stationary relative to the person, it is considered to be moving. Conclude from it that in all cases riding is like walking.


ืื™ื‘ืขื™ื ืœื”ื• ืžื”ื• ืœืขืžื•ื“ ืžืคื ื™ ืกืคืจ ืชื•ืจื” ืจื‘ื™ ื—ืœืงื™ื” ื•ืจื‘ื™ ืกื™ืžื•ืŸ ื•ืจื‘ื™ ืืœืขื–ืจ ืืžืจื™ ืงืœ ื•ื—ื•ืžืจ ืžืคื ื™ ืœื•ืžื“ื™ื” ืขื•ืžื“ื™ื ืžืคื ื™ื” ืœื ื›ืœ ืฉื›ืŸ


A dilemma was raised before them: What is the halakha as to whether one should stand before a Torah scroll? Rabbi แธคilkiya and Rabbi Simon and Rabbi Elazar say that this dilemma can be resolved by an a fortiori inference: If one stands before those who study the Torah, is it not all the more so true that one should stand before the Torah itself?


ืจื‘ื™ ืืœืขื™ ื•ืจื‘ื™ ื™ืขืงื‘ ื‘ืจ ื–ื‘ื“ื™ ื”ื•ื• ื™ืชื‘ื™ ื—ืœื™ืฃ ื•ืื–ื™ืœ ืจื‘ื™ ืฉืžืขื•ืŸ ื‘ืจ ืื‘ื ื•ืงืžื• ืžืงืžื™ื” ืืžืจ ืœื”ื• ื—ื“ื ื“ืืชื•ืŸ ื—ื›ื™ืžื™ ื•ืื ื ื—ื‘ืจ ื•ืขื•ื“ ื›ืœื•ื ืชื•ืจื” ืขื•ืžื“ืช ืžืคื ื™ ืœื•ืžื“ื™ื”


The Gemara relates: Rabbi Elai and Rabbi Yaโ€™akov bar Zavdi were sitting and studying Torah. Rabbi Shimon bar Abba passed before them and they stood before him. Rabbi Shimon bar Abba said to them: You are not obligated to do this, for two reasons. One reason is that you are ordained scholars and I am only an associate, i.e., he had not been ordained. And furthermore, does the Torah stand before those who study it? Since you are engaged in Torah study at the present moment you are not required to stand before a Torah scholar.


ืกื‘ืจ ืœื” ื›ืจื‘ื™ ืืœืขื–ืจ ื“ืืžืจ ืจื‘ื™ ืืœืขื–ืจ ืื™ืŸ ืชืœืžื™ื“ ื—ื›ื ืจืฉืื™ ืœืขืžื•ื“ ืžืคื ื™ ืจื‘ื• ื‘ืฉืขื” ืฉืขื•ืกืง ื‘ืชื•ืจื” ืœื™ื™ื˜ ืขืœื” ืื‘ื™ื™


The Gemara comments: Rabbi Shimon bar Abba holds in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Elazar, as Rabbi Elazar says: A Torah scholar may not stand before his teacher when he is studying Torah, because he is engaged in honoring the Torah itself. The Gemara adds: Even so, Abaye cursed anyone who acted in accordance with this ruling, as he would give the appearance of one who disrespected his teacher.


ื•ื”ื‘ื™ื˜ื• ืื—ืจื™ ืžืฉื” ืขื“ ื‘ืื• ื”ืื”ืœื” ืจื‘ื™ ืืžื™ ื•ืจื‘ื™ ื™ืฆื—ืง ื ืคื—ื ื—ื“ ืืžืจ ืœื’ื ืื™ ื•ื—ื“ ืืžืจ ืœืฉื‘ื— ืžืืŸ ื“ืืžืจ ืœื’ื ืื™ ื›ื“ืื™ืชื ืžืืŸ ื“ืืžืจ ืœืฉื‘ื— ืืžืจ ื—ื–ืงื™ื”


ยง The Gemara continues to discuss the mitzva of standing before a Torah scholar. With regard to the verse: โ€œAnd they looked after Moses until he was gone into the tentโ€ (Exodus 33:8), Rabbi Ami and Rabbi Yitzแธฅak Nappaแธฅa disputed its correct interpretation. One said that this is stated unfavorably, and one said that it is meant favorably. The one who said it was stated unfavorably explains the verse as it is interpreted in the midrash. The one who said it was stated favorably interprets the verse in accordance with that which แธคizkiyya says.


ืืžืจ ืœื™ ืจื‘ื™ ื—ื ื™ื ื ื‘ืจื™ื” ื“ืจื‘ื™ ืื‘ื”ื• ืืžืจ ืจื‘ื™ ืื‘ื”ื• ืืžืจ ืจื‘ื™ ืื‘ื“ื™ืžื™ ื“ืžืŸ ื—ื™ืคื ื—ื›ื ืขื•ื‘ืจ ืขื•ืžื“ ืžืœืคื ื™ื• ืืจื‘ืข ืืžื•ืช ื•ื›ื™ื•ืŸ ืฉืขื‘ืจ ืืจื‘ืข ืืžื•ืช ื™ื•ืฉื‘ ืื‘ ื‘ื™ืช ื“ื™ืŸ ืขื•ื‘ืจ ืขื•ืžื“ ืžืœืคื ื™ื• ืžืœื ืขื™ื ื™ื• ื•ื›ื™ื•ืŸ ืฉืขื‘ืจ ืืจื‘ืข ืืžื•ืช ื™ื•ืฉื‘ ื ืฉื™ื ืขื•ื‘ืจ ืขื•ืžื“ ืžืœืคื ื™ื• ืžืœื ืขื™ื ื™ื• ื•ืื™ื ื• ื™ื•ืฉื‘ ืขื“ ืฉื™ืฉื‘ ื‘ืžืงื•ืžื• ืฉื ืืžืจ ื•ื”ื‘ื™ื˜ื• ืื—ืจื™ ืžืฉื” ืขื“ ื‘ืื• ื”ืื”ืœื”


As แธคizkiyya says: Rabbi แธคanina, son of Rabbi Abbahu, said to me that Rabbi Abbahu says that Rabbi Avdimi of Haifa says: If a Torah scholar is passing, one stands before him if he passes within four cubits of him, and once he passes four cubits from him he sits. If the president of the court is passing, one stands before him as soon as he comes within his range of vision. And once he passes four cubits from him, he sits. If the Nasi is passing, one stands before him as soon as he comes within his range of vision, and he does not sit until the Nasi sits in his place, as it is stated: โ€œAnd they looked after Moses until he was gone into the tent,โ€ and only afterward did they sit. According to this interpretation, the verse is praising the behavior of the Jews.


ื›ืœ ืžืฆื•ืช ืขืฉื” ืฉื”ื–ืžืŸ ื’ืจืžื ื•ื›ื•ืณ: ืชื ื• ืจื‘ื ืŸ ืื™ื–ื•ื”ื™ ืžืฆื•ืช ืขืฉื” ืฉื”ื–ืžืŸ ื’ืจืžื ืกื•ื›ื” ื•ืœื•ืœื‘ ืฉื•ืคืจ ื•ืฆื™ืฆื™ืช


ยง The mishna teaches that women are exempt from all positive, time-bound mitzvot. The Sages taught: What is a positive, time-bound mitzva? Examples include residing in a sukka, and taking the lulav, and blowing the shofar on Rosh HaShana, all of which can be performed only at specific times of the year. And another example is donning ritual fringes, as the mitzva applies only during the daytime due to the verse which states: โ€œFringes, that you may look upon themโ€ (Numbers 15:39), indicating that the fringes should be seen.


  • Masechet Kiddushin is sponsored by Julie and Martin Mendelsohn in honor of their two children who were recently married

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Kiddushin 33

The William Davidson Talmud | Powered by Sefaria

Kiddushin 33

ืžืคื ื™ ืฉื™ื‘ื” ืชืงื•ื ื•ื”ื“ืจืช ืชืงื•ื ื•ื”ื“ืจืช ืคื ื™ ื–ืงืŸ ื•ืžื“ืœื ื›ืชื‘ ื”ื›ื™ ืฉืžืข ืžื™ื ื” ื—ื“ ื”ื•ื


Before the hoary head of an elder you shall stand and revere; you shall stand and revere the face of an elder. From the fact that the Merciful One did not write this and thereby divide the two concepts, learn from it that โ€œelderโ€ and โ€œhoary headโ€ are together referring to one type of person.


ืืžืจ ืžืจ ื™ื›ื•ืœ ื™ื”ื“ืจื ื• ื‘ืžืžื•ืŸ ืชืœืžื•ื“ ืœื•ืžืจ ืชืงื•ื ื•ื”ื“ืจืช ืžื” ืงื™ืžื” ืฉืื™ืŸ ื‘ื” ื—ืกืจื•ืŸ ื›ื™ืก ืืฃ ื”ื™ื“ื•ืจ ืฉืื™ืŸ ื‘ื• ื—ืกืจื•ืŸ ื›ื™ืก ื•ืงื™ืžื” ืœื™ืช ื‘ื” ื—ืกืจื•ืŸ ื›ื™ืก ืžื™ ืœื ืขืกืงื™ื ืŸ ื“ืงื ื ืงื™ื‘ ืžืจื’ื ื™ืชื ืื“ื”ื›ื™ ื•ื”ื›ื™ ืงืื™ื ืžืงืžื™ื” ื•ื‘ื˜ื™ืœ ืžืžืœืื›ืชื•


The Master said previously in the baraita: One might have thought that he should revere him through money, i.e., he is required to give him money in his honor; therefore, the verse states: โ€œYou shall stand and you shall revereโ€ (Leviticus 19:32). Just as standing includes no monetary loss, so too, reverence is referring to an action that includes no monetary loss. The Gemara asks: And does standing include no monetary loss at all? Are we not dealing with a case where he was piercing pearls, a highly remunerative task, and in the meantime he must stand for the elder and thereby neglect his work, which causes him a loss?


ืืœื ืืงื™ืฉ ืงื™ืžื” ืœื”ื™ื“ื•ืจ ืžื” ื”ื™ื“ื•ืจ ืฉืื™ืŸ ื‘ื• ื‘ื™ื˜ื•ืœ ืืฃ ืงื™ืžื” ืฉืื™ืŸ ื‘ื” ื‘ื™ื˜ื•ืœ ื•ืืงื™ืฉ ื ืžื™ ื”ื™ื“ื•ืจ ืœืงื™ืžื” ืžื” ืงื™ืžื” ืฉืื™ืŸ ื‘ื” ื—ืกืจื•ืŸ ื›ื™ืก ืืฃ ื”ื™ื“ื•ืจ ืฉืื™ืŸ ื‘ื• ื—ืกืจื•ืŸ ื›ื™ืก ืžื›ืืŸ ืืžืจื• ืื™ืŸ ื‘ืขืœื™ ืื•ืžื ื™ื•ืช ืจืฉืื™ืŸ ืœืขืžื•ื“ ืžืคื ื™ ืชืœืžื™ื“ื™ ื—ื›ืžื™ื ื‘ืฉืขื” ืฉืขื•ืกืงื™ืŸ ื‘ืžืœืื›ืชื


Rather, the verse juxtaposes standing to reverence: Just as reverence does not include neglect of work, so too, standing does not include neglect of work; therefore, one who is engaged in work is not obligated to stand before an elder. And the verse also juxtaposes reverence to standing: Just as standing includes no monetary loss, as standing applies only when it does not entail neglect of work, as explained previously, so too, reverence is referring to an action that includes no monetary loss. From here the Sages stated: Craftsmen are not permitted to stand before Torah scholars when they are engaged in their work.


ื•ืœื ื•ื”ืชื ืŸ ื›ืœ ื‘ืขืœื™ ืื•ืžื ื™ื•ืช ืขื•ืžื“ื™ื ืžืคื ื™ื”ื ื•ืฉื•ืืœื™ื ื‘ืฉืœื•ืžื ื•ืื•ืžืจื™ื ืœื”ื ืื—ื™ื ื• ืื ืฉื™ ืžืงื•ื ืคืœื•ื ื™ ื‘ื•ืื›ื ืœืฉืœื•ื ืืžืจ ืจื‘ื™ ื™ื•ื—ื ืŸ ืžืคื ื™ื”ื ืขื•ืžื“ื™ื ืžืคื ื™ ืชืœืžื™ื“ื™ ื—ื›ืžื™ื ืื™ืŸ ืขื•ืžื“ื™ื


The Gemara asks: And are craftsmen not required to stand before Torah scholars? But didnโ€™t we learn in a mishna (Bikkurim 3:3): When farmers bring their first fruits to Jerusalem, all craftsmen stand before them, and greet them, and say to them: Our brothers from such and such a place, welcome! Since craftsmen would stand even for those engaged in a mitzva, all the more so should they stand for Torah scholars. Rabbi Yoแธฅanan says: There is no difficulty here, as indeed they stood before those bringing first fruits, and yet they would not stand before Torah scholars.


ืืžืจ ืจื‘ื™ ื™ื•ืกื™ ื‘ืจ ืื‘ื™ืŸ ื‘ื•ื ื•ืจืื” ื›ืžื” ื—ื‘ื™ื‘ื” ืžืฆื•ื” ื‘ืฉืขืชื” ืฉื”ืจื™ ืžืคื ื™ื”ื ืขื•ืžื“ื™ื ืžืคื ื™ ืชืœืžื™ื“ื™ ื—ื›ืžื™ื ืื™ืŸ ืขื•ืžื“ื™ื ื•ื“ืœืžื ืฉืื ื™ ื”ืชื ื“ืื ื›ืŸ ืืชื” ืžื›ืฉื™ืœืŸ ืœืขืชื™ื“ ืœื‘ื


Based on this Rabbi Yosei bar Avin says: Come and see how beloved is a mitzva performed in its proper time, as the craftsmen stood before those who were fulfilling a mitzva, whereas they did not stand before Torah scholars. The Gemara responds: This does not prove that the same applies to all mitzvot performed in their proper times, as perhaps it is different there, with regard to the bringing of the first fruits; for if so, i.e., if one does not treat those who bring first fruits with such honor, they will not want to come at all, and you will cause them to stumble and sin in the future. Consequently, the Sages instituted that those bringing first fruits should be treated with special honor. This reasoning does not apply to people performing other mitzvot.


ืืžืจ ืžืจ ื™ื›ื•ืœ ื™ืขืžื•ื“ ืžืคื ื™ื• ืžื‘ื™ืช ื”ื›ืกื ื•ืžื‘ื™ืช ื”ืžืจื—ืฅ ื•ืœื ื•ื”ื ืจื‘ื™ ื—ื™ื™ื ื”ื•ื” ื™ืชื™ื‘ ื‘ื™ ืžืกื—ื•ืชื ื•ื—ืœื™ืฃ ื•ืื–ื™ืœ ืจื‘ื™ ืฉืžืขื•ืŸ ื‘ืจ ืจื‘ื™ ื•ืœื ืงื ืžืงืžื™ื” ื•ืื™ืงืคื“ ื•ืืชื ืืžืจ ืœื™ื” ืœืื‘ื•ื” ืฉื ื™ ื—ื•ืžืฉื™ื ืฉื ื™ืชื™ ืœื• ื‘ืกืคืจ ืชื”ืœื™ื ื•ืœื ืขืžื“ ืžืคื ื™


The Master said previously: One might have thought that one should also stand before an Elder in the lavatory or in the bathhouse; therefore, the verse said: โ€œYou shall stand and you shall revere,โ€ which indicates that the mitzva of standing applies only in a place where there is reverence. The Gemara asks: And does one not show honor in a lavatory? But Rabbi แธคiyya was sitting in a bathhouse and Rabbi Shimon bar Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi passed by, and he did not stand before him. And Rabbi Shimon bar Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi became angry and went and said to his father, Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi: I taught Rabbi แธคiyya two of the five parts of the book of Psalms, and yet he did not stand before me. This indicates that a display of honor is appropriate even in a bathhouse.


ื•ืชื• ื‘ืจ ืงืคืจื ื•ืืžืจื™ ืœื” ืจื‘ื™ ืฉืžื•ืืœ ื‘ืจ ืจื‘ื™ ื™ื•ืกื™ ื”ื•ื” ื™ืชื™ื‘ ื‘ื™ ืžืกื—ื•ืชื ืขืœ ื•ืื–ื™ืœ ืจื‘ื™ ืฉืžืขื•ืŸ ื‘ืจ ืจื‘ื™ ื•ืœื ืงื ืžืงืžื™ื” ื•ืื™ืงืคื“ ื•ืืชื ืืžืจ ืœื™ื” ืœืื‘ื•ื” ืฉื ื™ ืฉืœื™ืฉื™ ืฉืœื™ืฉ ืฉื ื™ืชื™ ืœื• ื‘ืชื•ืจืช ื›ื”ื ื™ื ื•ืœื ืขืžื“ ืžืคื ื™ ื•ืืžืจ ืœื• ืฉืžื ื‘ื”ืŸ ื™ื•ืฉื‘ ื•ืžื”ืจื”ืจ


And furthermore, bar Kappara, and some say it was Rabbi Shmuel bar Rabbi Yosei, was sitting in a bathhouse. Rabbi Shimon bar Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi entered and passed by, and he did not stand before him. Rabbi Shimon became angry and went and said to his father: I taught him two of the nine parts of Torat Kohanim, the halakhic midrash on Leviticus, and yet he did not stand before me. And Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi said to Rabbi Shimon: Perhaps he was sitting and contemplating what you taught him and did not see you come in.


ื˜ืขืžื ื“ื‘ื”ืŸ ื™ื•ืฉื‘ ื•ืžื”ืจื”ืจ ื”ื ืœืื• ื”ื›ื™ ืœื


The Gemara explains the proof: The fact that the reason he might have been exempt was that he was sitting and pondering the lessons indicates that if that were not so, Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi would not have justified such behavior. One must stand before a Sage even in a bathhouse.


ืœื ืงืฉื™ื ื”ื ื‘ื‘ืชื™ ื’ื•ืื™ ื”ื ื‘ื‘ืชื™ ื‘ืจืื™


The Gemara answers that this is not difficult: This halakha, that one is not required to stand in a bathhouse, applies to the inner rooms, where everyone is naked; standing in a place of this kind certainly does not bestow honor. That halakha, that one is obligated to stand in a bathhouse, applies to the outer rooms, where people are still dressed. Standing is a sign of respect in these rooms.


ื”ื›ื™ ื ืžื™ ืžืกืชื‘ืจื ื“ืืžืจ ืจื‘ื” ื‘ืจ ื‘ืจ ื—ื ื” ืืžืจ ืจื‘ื™ ื™ื•ื—ื ืŸ ื‘ื›ืœ ืžืงื•ื ืžื•ืชืจ ืœื”ืจื”ืจ ื—ื•ืฅ ืžื‘ื™ืช ื”ืžืจื—ืฅ ื•ืžื‘ื™ืช ื”ื›ืกื ื“ื™ืœืžื ืœืื•ื ืกื™ื” ืฉืื ื™


The Gemara comments: So too, it is reasonable that this is the correct explanation, as Rabba bar bar แธคana says that Rabbi Yoแธฅanan says: One is permitted to contemplate matters of Torah everywhere, except for the bathhouse and the lavatory. Since Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi suggested that the student might have been sitting and pondering his studies, it can be assumed that the episode occurred in a location where only some of the halakhot governing oneโ€™s behavior in a bathhouse apply, i.e., the outer rooms. The Gemara rejects this proof: Perhaps one whose studies are beyond his control is different; it is possible he was so absorbed in Torah study that he forgot that he was in a place where it is prohibited to think about sacred matters.


ื™ื›ื•ืœ ื™ืขืฆื™ื ืขื™ื ื™ื• ื›ืžื™ ืฉืœื ืจืื”ื• ืื˜ื• ื‘ืจืฉื™ืขื™ ืขืกืงื™ื ืŸ


It is taught in the same baraita: One might have thought that one may close his eyes like one who does not see the elder; therefore, the verse states: โ€œBefore the hoary head you shall stand, and you shall revere the face of an elder, and you shall fear your Godโ€ (Leviticus 19:32). The Gemara expresses surprise at this statement: Is that to say that we are dealing with wicked people who would intentionally act this way to avoid fulfilling a mitzva?


ืืœื ื™ื›ื•ืœ ื™ืขืฆื™ื ืขื™ื ื™ื• ืžืงืžื™ ื“ืœื™ืžื˜ื™ื” ื–ืžืŸ ื—ื™ื•ื‘ื ื“ื›ื™ ืžื˜ื ื–ืžืŸ ื—ื™ื•ื‘ื ื”ื ืœื ื—ื–ื™ ืœื™ื” ื“ืงืื™ื ืžืงืžื™ื” ืชืœืžื•ื“ ืœื•ืžืจ ืชืงื•ื ื•ื™ืจืืช


Rather, this means: One might have thought that one may close his eyes before the obligation to stand arrives, i.e., when the elder is still far off. This would mean that when the obligation does arrive he will not see him, such that he would be required to stand before him. In this manner he thinks that he can avoid the obligation altogether. Therefore the verse states: โ€œYou shall standโ€ฆand you shall fear,โ€ i.e., one should fear He who knows the secrets of oneโ€™s heart.


ืชื ื ืื™ื–ื•ื”ื™ ืงื™ืžื” ืฉื™ืฉ ื‘ื” ื”ื™ื“ื•ืจ ื”ื•ื™ ืื•ืžืจ ื–ื” ืืจื‘ืข ืืžื•ืช ืืžืจ ืื‘ื™ื™ ืœื ืืžืจืŸ ืืœื ื‘ืจื‘ื• ืฉืื™ื ื• ืžื•ื‘ื”ืง ืื‘ืœ ื‘ืจื‘ื• ื”ืžื•ื‘ื”ืง ืžืœื ืขื™ื ื™ื•


ยง A Sage taught: What is the type of standing that indicates reverence? You must say that this applies when it is clear that one is standing in the elderโ€™s honor, which is within four cubits of him. Abaye said: We said this halakha, that one must stand within four cubits of the elder, only with regard to one who is not his primary teacher; but for his primary teacher he must stand when he is within his range of vision, i.e., as soon as he sees him, even if he is more than four cubits away.


ืื‘ื™ื™ ืžื›ื™ ื”ื•ื” ื—ื–ื™ ืœื™ื” ืœืื•ื“ื ื™ื” ื“ื—ืžืจื ื“ืจื‘ ื™ื•ืกืฃ ื“ืืชื™ ื”ื•ื” ืงืื™ื ืื‘ื™ื™ ื”ื•ื” ืจื›ื™ื‘ ื—ืžืจื ื•ืงื ืžืกื’ื™ ืื’ื•ื“ื ื“ื ื”ืจ ืกื’ื™ื ื™ืชื™ื‘ ืจื‘ ืžืฉืจืฉื™ื ื•ืจื‘ื ืŸ ื‘ืื™ื“ืš ื’ื™ืกื ื•ืœื ืงืžื• ืžืงืžื™ื” ืืžืจ ืœื”ื• ื•ืœืื• ืจื‘ ืžื•ื‘ื”ืง ืื ื ืืžืจื• ืœื™ื” ืœืื• ืื“ืขืชื™ืŸ:


The Gemara likewise reports that Abaye would stand as soon as he saw the ear of Rav Yosefโ€™s donkey coming toward him. The Gemara relates: Abaye was riding a donkey along the bank of the Sagya River. Rav Mesharshiyya and other rabbis were sitting on the other bank of the river, and they did not stand before him. Abaye said to them: Am I not your primary teacher? You are therefore required to stand before me, despite the fact that I am far away. They said to him: That did not enter our minds, i.e., we did not see you at all.


ืจื‘ื™ ืฉืžืขื•ืŸ ื‘ืŸ ืืœืขื–ืจ ืื•ืžืจ ืžื ื™ืŸ ืœื–ืงืŸ ืฉืœื ื™ื˜ืจื™ื— ืชืœืžื•ื“ ืœื•ืžืจ ื–ืงืŸ ื•ื™ืจืืช ืืžืจ ืื‘ื™ื™ ื ืงื˜ื™ื ืŸ ื“ืื™ ืžืงื™ืฃ ื—ื™ื™ ืื‘ื™ื™ ืžืงื™ืฃ ืจื‘ื™ ื–ื™ืจื ืžืงื™ืฃ


ยง It was further stated in the baraita that Rabbi Shimon ben Elazar says: From where is it derived that an elder should not trouble others to honor him? The verse states: โ€œAnd you shall revere the face of an elder, and you shall fear your God.โ€ Abaye said: We have a tradition that if a Sage circumnavigates an area so that people will not have to stand before him, he will live a long life. The Gemara relates that Abaye would circumnavigate an area, and likewise Rabbi Zeira would circumnavigate an area.


ืจื‘ื™ื ื ื”ื•ื” ื™ืชื™ื‘ ืงืžื™ื” ื“ืจื‘ื™ ื™ืจืžื™ื” ืžื“ื™ืคืชื™ ื—ืœืฃ ื”ื”ื•ื ื’ื‘ืจื ืงืžื™ื” ื•ืœื ืžื™ื›ืกื™ ืจื™ืฉื ืืžืจ ื›ืžื” ื—ืฆื™ืฃ ื”ื ื’ื‘ืจื ืืžืจ ืœื™ื” ื“ืœืžื ืžืžืชื ืžื—ืกื™ื ื ื™ื”ื• ื“ื’ื™ืกื™ ื‘ื” ืจื‘ื ืŸ


The Gemara cites another incident involving honor one demonstrates for his teacher. Once, when Ravina was sitting before Rabbi Yirmeya of Difti, a certain man passed before him and did not cover his head. Ravina said: How rude is this man, who does not show respect by covering his head in honor of a rabbi. Rabbi Yirmeya of Difti said to him: Perhaps he is from the city of Mata Meแธฅasya, where rabbis are common and the people living there are consequently not as careful to display honor as those in other places.


ืื™ืกื™ ื‘ืŸ ื™ื”ื•ื“ื” ืื•ืžืจ ืณืžืคื ื™ ืฉื™ื‘ื” ืชืงื•ืืณ ื•ืืคื™ืœื• ื›ืœ ืฉื™ื‘ื” ื‘ืžืฉืžืข ืืžืจ ืจื‘ื™ ื™ื•ื—ื ืŸ ื”ืœื›ื” ื›ืื™ืกื™ ื‘ืŸ ื™ื”ื•ื“ื” ืจื‘ื™ ื™ื•ื—ื ืŸ ื”ื•ื” ืงืื™ ืžืงืžื™ ืกื‘ื™ ื“ืืจืžืื™ ืืžืจ ื›ืžื” ื”ืจืคืชืงื™ ืขื“ื• ืขืœื™ื™ื”ื• ื“ื”ื ื™ ืจื‘ื ืžื™ืงื ืœื ืงืื™ ื”ื™ื“ื•ืจ ืขื‘ื“ ืœื”ื•


ยง It was stated previously that Isi ben Yehuda says that as the verse states: โ€œBefore the hoary head you shall stand,โ€ it indicates that even anyone of hoary head is included, not only a Torah scholar. Rabbi Yoแธฅanan said: The halakha is in accordance with the opinion of Isi ben Yehuda. The Gemara relates: Rabbi Yoแธฅanan himself would stand before Aramean, i.e., gentile, elders. He said: How many experiences [harpatkei] have occurred to these individuals. It is appropriate to honor them, due to the wisdom they have garnered from their long lives. Rava would not stand before them, but he displayed reverence to them.


ืื‘ื™ื™ ื™ื”ื™ื‘ ื™ื“ื ืœืกื‘ื™ ืจื‘ื ืžืฉื“ืจ ืฉืœื•ื—ื™ื” ืจื‘ ื ื—ืžืŸ ืžืฉื“ืจ ื’ื•ื–ืื™ ืืžืจ ืื™ ืœืื• ืชื•ืจื” ื›ืžื” ื ื—ืžืŸ ื‘ืจ ืื‘ื ืื™ื›ื ื‘ืฉื•ืงื


Abaye would extend a hand to elders so that they could lean on him. Rava would send his agent to help them. Rav Naแธฅman would send officers [gozaโ€™ei], his servants, to assist elders. He said: If not for the Torah, how many people named Naแธฅman bar Abba would there be in the marketplace? In other words, I am not permitted to treat my Torah study lightly by assisting them myself, as I can perform this mitzva through others.


ืืžืจ ืจื‘ื™ ืื™ื™ื‘ื• ืืžืจ ืจื‘ื™ ื™ื ืื™


Rabbi Aivu says that Rabbi Yannai says:


ืื™ืŸ ืชืœืžื™ื“ ื—ื›ื ืจืฉืื™ ืœืขืžื•ื“ ืžืคื ื™ ืจื‘ื• ืืœื ืฉื—ืจื™ืช ื•ืขืจื‘ื™ืช ื›ื“ื™ ืฉืœื ื™ื”ื™ื” ื›ื‘ื•ื“ื• ืžืจื•ื‘ื” ืžื›ื‘ื•ื“ ืฉืžื™ื ืžื™ืชื™ื‘ื™ ืจื‘ื™ ืฉืžืขื•ืŸ ื‘ืŸ ืืœืขื–ืจ ืื•ืžืจ ืžื ื™ืŸ ืœื–ืงืŸ ืฉืœื ื™ื˜ืจื™ื— ืชืœืžื•ื“ ืœื•ืžืจ ื–ืงืŸ ื•ื™ืจืืช


A Torah scholar is permitted to stand before his teacher only once in the morning and once in the evening, so that the teacherโ€™s honor should not be greater than the honor of Heaven, as one recites the Shema, which is tantamount to greeting God, once in the morning and once in the evening. The Gemara raises an objection from an aforementioned opinion. Rabbi Shimon ben Elazar says: From where is it derived that an elder should not trouble others to honor him? The verse states: โ€œAn elder, and you shall fearโ€ (Leviticus 19:32). The collocation of these words comes to teach that the elder, too, must fear God.


ื•ืื™ ืืžืจืช ืฉื—ืจื™ืช ื•ืขืจื‘ื™ืช ื‘ืœื‘ื“ ืืžืื™ ืœื ื ื™ื˜ืจื— ื—ื™ื•ื‘ื ื”ื•ื ืืœื ืœืื• ื›ื•ืœื™ ื™ื•ืžื ืœื ืœืขื•ืœื ืฉื—ืจื™ืช ื•ืขืจื‘ื™ืช ื‘ืœื‘ื“ ื•ืืคื™ืœื• ื”ื›ื™ ื›ืžื” ื“ืืคืฉืจ ืœื™ื” ืœื ื ื™ื˜ืจื—


The Gemara explains the objection: And if you say one may stand only in the morning and evening, why does the baraita say an elder should not trouble others? Standing for an elder only twice a day is an obligation for the people, not an imposition. Rather, is it not correct to say that one is obligated to stand before oneโ€™s teacher at any point during the day? The Gemara answers: No; actually one is obligated to stand only in the morning and evening, and even so, as much as it is possible for the elder, he should not trouble the people to stand.


ืืžืจ ืจื‘ื™ ืืœืขื–ืจ ื›ืœ ืชืœืžื™ื“ ื—ื›ื ืฉืื™ืŸ ืขื•ืžื“ ืžืคื ื™ ืจื‘ื• ื ืงืจื ืจืฉืข ื•ืื™ื ื• ืžืืจื™ืš ื™ืžื™ื ื•ืชืœืžื•ื“ื• ืžืฉืชื›ื— ืฉื ืืžืจ ื•ื˜ื•ื‘ ืœื ื™ื”ื™ื” ืœืจืฉืข ื•ืœื ื™ืืจื™ืš ื™ืžื™ื ื›ืฆืœ ืืฉืจ ืื™ื ื ื• ื™ืจื ืžืœืคื ื™ ื”ืืœื”ื™ื ืžื•ืจื ื–ื• ืื™ื ื™ ื™ื•ื“ืข ืžื”ื• ื›ืฉื”ื•ื ืื•ืžืจ ื•ื™ืจืืช ืžืืœื”ื™ืš ื”ืจื™ ืžื•ืจื ื–ื• ืงื™ืžื”


ยง Rabbi Elazar said: Any Torah scholar who does not stand before his teacher is called wicked, and he will not live a long life, and his studies will be forgotten, as it is stated: โ€œBut it shall not be well for the wicked, neither shall he prolong his days, which are as a shadow, because he does not fear before [millifnei] Godโ€ (Ecclesiastes 8:13). This fear mentioned in the verse, I do not know what it is. When the verse states: โ€œAnd you shall revere the face [penei] of an elder, and you shall fear your Godโ€ (Leviticus 19:32), one can deduce that this fear mentioned in the verse is referring to standing. Consequently, this verse teaches with regard to one who does not stand that he is called wicked, he will not live a long life, and his studies will be forgotten, as indicated by the phrase: โ€œIt shall not be well.โ€


ื•ืื™ืžื ืžื•ืจืืช ืจื‘ื™ืช ื•ืžื•ืจืืช ืžืฉืงืœื•ืช ืจื‘ื™ ืืœืขื–ืจ ืคื ื™ ืคื ื™ ื’ืžืจ


The Gemara asks: But why not say that this is referring to fear of God stated with regard to interest (Leviticus 25:36), or the fear of God stated with regard to weights (Deuteronomy 25:13โ€“16), as the fear of God is mentioned with regard to these prohibitions as well. The Gemara answers: Rabbi Elazar derives this halakha through a verbal analogy of โ€œpeneiโ€ and โ€œpenei,โ€ as explained previously, not from a verbal analogy of the term โ€œfear.โ€


ืื™ื‘ืขื™ื ืœื”ื• ื‘ื ื• ื•ื”ื•ื ืจื‘ื• ืžื”ื• ืœืขืžื•ื“ ืžืคื ื™ ืื‘ื™ื• ืชื ืฉืžืข ื“ืืžืจ ืœื™ื” ืฉืžื•ืืœ ืœืจื‘ ื™ื”ื•ื“ื” ืฉื™ื ื ื ืงื•ื ืžืงืžื™ ืื‘ื•ืš ืฉืื ื™ ืจื‘ ื™ื—ื–ืงืืœ ื“ื‘ืขืœ ืžืขืฉื™ื ื”ื•ื” ื“ืืคื™ืœื• ืžืจ ืฉืžื•ืืœ ื ืžื™ ืงืื™ื ืžืงืžื™ื”


A dilemma was raised before them: With regard to one who is both a manโ€™s son and his teacher, what is the halakha as to whether that son must stand before his father? The Gemara answers: Come and hear, as Shmuel said to Rav Yehuda: Big-toothed one, stand before your father. Although Rav Yehuda was a great Torah scholar and taught his father, he was still required to stand before him. The Gemara answers: Rav Yeแธฅezkel, Rav Yehudaโ€™s father, is different, as he was a man of good deeds, and even Mar Shmuel himself would stand before him.


ืืœื ืžืื™ ืงืืžืจ ืœื™ื” ื”ื›ื™ ืงืืžืจ ืœื™ื” ื–ื™ืžื ื™ืŸ ื“ืืชื™ ืžืื—ื•ืจื™ ืงื•ื ืืช ืžืงืžื™ื” ื•ืœื ืชื™ื—ื•ืฉ ืœื™ืงืจื ื“ื™ื“ื™


The Gemara asks: Rather, what is Shmuel saying to Rav Yehuda? If he is not teaching him that one who is his fatherโ€™s teacher must stand before his father, why did Shmuel say this to Rav Yehuda? The Gemara answers that this is what Shmuel said to him: Sometimes your father comes from behind me and I do not see him or stand before him. Nevertheless, you should stand before him and do not be concerned about my honor.


ืื™ื‘ืขื™ื ืœื”ื• ื‘ื ื• ื•ื”ื•ื ืจื‘ื• ืžื”ื• ืฉื™ืขืžื•ื“ ืื‘ื™ื• ืžืคื ื™ื• ืชื ืฉืžืข ื“ืืžืจ ืจื‘ื™ ื™ื”ื•ืฉืข ื‘ืŸ ืœื•ื™ ืื ื™ ืื™ื ื™ ื›ื“ื™ ืœืขืžื•ื“ ืžืคื ื™ ื‘ื ื™ ืืœื ืžืฉื•ื ื›ื‘ื•ื“ ื‘ื™ืช ื ืฉื™ื


Another dilemma was raised before them, with regard to one who is both a manโ€™s son and his teacher, what is the halakha as to whether the father must stand before his son? The Gemara answers: Come and hear, as Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi says: It is not appropriate for me to stand before my son solely due to his greatness in Torah, as I am greater than him. But due to the honor of the household of the Nasi I do stand before him, as his son was a son-in-law of the Nasi.


ื˜ืขืžื ื“ืื ื ืจื‘ื™ื” ื”ื ืื™ื”ื• ืจื‘ืื™ ืงืื™ืžื ื ืžืงืžื™ื” ื”ื›ื™ ืงืืžืจ ืื ื™ ืื™ื ื™ ื›ื“ื™ ืœืขืžื•ื“ ืžืคื ื™ ื‘ื ื™ ื•ืืคื™ืœื• ื”ื•ื ืจื‘ืื™ ื“ื”ื ืื ื ืื‘ื•ื” ืืœื ืžืฉื•ื ื›ื‘ื•ื“ ื‘ื™ืช ื ืฉื™ื


It may be inferred from here that if his son were not in the household of the Nasi he would not stand for him, and the reason was that he could claim: I am his teacher and therefore I am not obligated to stand before him. Accordingly, Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi is indicating that if he were my teacher I would stand before him. The Gemara rejects this proof: This is what Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi is saying: It is not appropriate for me to stand before my son, even if he were my teacher, as I am his father. But due to the honor of the household of the Nasi I do stand before him.


ืื™ื‘ืขื™ื ืœื”ื• ืจื›ื•ื‘ ื›ืžื”ืœืš ื“ืžื™ ืื• ืœื ืืžืจ ืื‘ื™ื™ ืชื ืฉืžืข ื˜ืžื ื™ื•ืฉื‘ ืชื—ืช ื”ืื™ืœืŸ ื•ื˜ื”ื•ืจ ืขื•ืžื“ ื˜ืžื


A dilemma was raised before them: If oneโ€™s teacher is riding on an animal, is that considered like walking, and therefore one must stand before him, or is he not obligated to stand before him, since he is stationary relative to the animal? Abaye said: Come and hear a resolution from a different issue (Negaโ€™im 13:7): If a leper, who is ritually impure and transfers impurity through a tent, i.e., anyone who enters the location of the leper is rendered impure, is sitting under the branches of a tree, which form a tent over him, and a pure person is standing under that tree, the pure person is rendered impure.


ื˜ืžื ืขื•ืžื“ ืชื—ืช ื”ืื™ืœืŸ ื•ื˜ื”ื•ืจ ื™ื•ืฉื‘ ื˜ื”ื•ืจ ื•ืื ื™ืฉื‘ ื”ื˜ืžื ื”ื˜ื”ื•ืจ ื˜ืžื


If the impure person is standing under the tree and the pure person is sitting there, he remains pure. In this case, as the impure person is not settled there, he does not impart ritual impurity in a tent. But if the impure person sat and established his place there, the pure individual is rendered impure.


ื•ื›ืŸ ื‘ืื‘ืŸ ื”ืžื ื•ื’ืขืช ื•ืืžืจ ืจื‘ ื ื—ืžืŸ ื‘ืจ ื›ื”ืŸ ื–ืืช ืื•ืžืจืช ืจื›ื•ื‘ ื›ืžื”ืœืš ื“ืžื™ ืฉืžืข ืžื™ื ื”


That mishna adds: And the same halakha applies with regard to a stone afflicted with a leprous sore (see Leviticus, chapter 14), which also imparts impurity of a tent. If one carrying a stone of this kind sits under a tree, a pure person standing under the tree is rendered impure, whereas if the person carrying the stone stands, he does not render the other individual impure. And Rav Naแธฅman bar Kohen says: That is to say that riding is considered like walking, as although the stone is stationary relative to the person, it is considered to be moving. Conclude from it that in all cases riding is like walking.


ืื™ื‘ืขื™ื ืœื”ื• ืžื”ื• ืœืขืžื•ื“ ืžืคื ื™ ืกืคืจ ืชื•ืจื” ืจื‘ื™ ื—ืœืงื™ื” ื•ืจื‘ื™ ืกื™ืžื•ืŸ ื•ืจื‘ื™ ืืœืขื–ืจ ืืžืจื™ ืงืœ ื•ื—ื•ืžืจ ืžืคื ื™ ืœื•ืžื“ื™ื” ืขื•ืžื“ื™ื ืžืคื ื™ื” ืœื ื›ืœ ืฉื›ืŸ


A dilemma was raised before them: What is the halakha as to whether one should stand before a Torah scroll? Rabbi แธคilkiya and Rabbi Simon and Rabbi Elazar say that this dilemma can be resolved by an a fortiori inference: If one stands before those who study the Torah, is it not all the more so true that one should stand before the Torah itself?


ืจื‘ื™ ืืœืขื™ ื•ืจื‘ื™ ื™ืขืงื‘ ื‘ืจ ื–ื‘ื“ื™ ื”ื•ื• ื™ืชื‘ื™ ื—ืœื™ืฃ ื•ืื–ื™ืœ ืจื‘ื™ ืฉืžืขื•ืŸ ื‘ืจ ืื‘ื ื•ืงืžื• ืžืงืžื™ื” ืืžืจ ืœื”ื• ื—ื“ื ื“ืืชื•ืŸ ื—ื›ื™ืžื™ ื•ืื ื ื—ื‘ืจ ื•ืขื•ื“ ื›ืœื•ื ืชื•ืจื” ืขื•ืžื“ืช ืžืคื ื™ ืœื•ืžื“ื™ื”


The Gemara relates: Rabbi Elai and Rabbi Yaโ€™akov bar Zavdi were sitting and studying Torah. Rabbi Shimon bar Abba passed before them and they stood before him. Rabbi Shimon bar Abba said to them: You are not obligated to do this, for two reasons. One reason is that you are ordained scholars and I am only an associate, i.e., he had not been ordained. And furthermore, does the Torah stand before those who study it? Since you are engaged in Torah study at the present moment you are not required to stand before a Torah scholar.


ืกื‘ืจ ืœื” ื›ืจื‘ื™ ืืœืขื–ืจ ื“ืืžืจ ืจื‘ื™ ืืœืขื–ืจ ืื™ืŸ ืชืœืžื™ื“ ื—ื›ื ืจืฉืื™ ืœืขืžื•ื“ ืžืคื ื™ ืจื‘ื• ื‘ืฉืขื” ืฉืขื•ืกืง ื‘ืชื•ืจื” ืœื™ื™ื˜ ืขืœื” ืื‘ื™ื™


The Gemara comments: Rabbi Shimon bar Abba holds in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Elazar, as Rabbi Elazar says: A Torah scholar may not stand before his teacher when he is studying Torah, because he is engaged in honoring the Torah itself. The Gemara adds: Even so, Abaye cursed anyone who acted in accordance with this ruling, as he would give the appearance of one who disrespected his teacher.


ื•ื”ื‘ื™ื˜ื• ืื—ืจื™ ืžืฉื” ืขื“ ื‘ืื• ื”ืื”ืœื” ืจื‘ื™ ืืžื™ ื•ืจื‘ื™ ื™ืฆื—ืง ื ืคื—ื ื—ื“ ืืžืจ ืœื’ื ืื™ ื•ื—ื“ ืืžืจ ืœืฉื‘ื— ืžืืŸ ื“ืืžืจ ืœื’ื ืื™ ื›ื“ืื™ืชื ืžืืŸ ื“ืืžืจ ืœืฉื‘ื— ืืžืจ ื—ื–ืงื™ื”


ยง The Gemara continues to discuss the mitzva of standing before a Torah scholar. With regard to the verse: โ€œAnd they looked after Moses until he was gone into the tentโ€ (Exodus 33:8), Rabbi Ami and Rabbi Yitzแธฅak Nappaแธฅa disputed its correct interpretation. One said that this is stated unfavorably, and one said that it is meant favorably. The one who said it was stated unfavorably explains the verse as it is interpreted in the midrash. The one who said it was stated favorably interprets the verse in accordance with that which แธคizkiyya says.


ืืžืจ ืœื™ ืจื‘ื™ ื—ื ื™ื ื ื‘ืจื™ื” ื“ืจื‘ื™ ืื‘ื”ื• ืืžืจ ืจื‘ื™ ืื‘ื”ื• ืืžืจ ืจื‘ื™ ืื‘ื“ื™ืžื™ ื“ืžืŸ ื—ื™ืคื ื—ื›ื ืขื•ื‘ืจ ืขื•ืžื“ ืžืœืคื ื™ื• ืืจื‘ืข ืืžื•ืช ื•ื›ื™ื•ืŸ ืฉืขื‘ืจ ืืจื‘ืข ืืžื•ืช ื™ื•ืฉื‘ ืื‘ ื‘ื™ืช ื“ื™ืŸ ืขื•ื‘ืจ ืขื•ืžื“ ืžืœืคื ื™ื• ืžืœื ืขื™ื ื™ื• ื•ื›ื™ื•ืŸ ืฉืขื‘ืจ ืืจื‘ืข ืืžื•ืช ื™ื•ืฉื‘ ื ืฉื™ื ืขื•ื‘ืจ ืขื•ืžื“ ืžืœืคื ื™ื• ืžืœื ืขื™ื ื™ื• ื•ืื™ื ื• ื™ื•ืฉื‘ ืขื“ ืฉื™ืฉื‘ ื‘ืžืงื•ืžื• ืฉื ืืžืจ ื•ื”ื‘ื™ื˜ื• ืื—ืจื™ ืžืฉื” ืขื“ ื‘ืื• ื”ืื”ืœื”


As แธคizkiyya says: Rabbi แธคanina, son of Rabbi Abbahu, said to me that Rabbi Abbahu says that Rabbi Avdimi of Haifa says: If a Torah scholar is passing, one stands before him if he passes within four cubits of him, and once he passes four cubits from him he sits. If the president of the court is passing, one stands before him as soon as he comes within his range of vision. And once he passes four cubits from him, he sits. If the Nasi is passing, one stands before him as soon as he comes within his range of vision, and he does not sit until the Nasi sits in his place, as it is stated: โ€œAnd they looked after Moses until he was gone into the tent,โ€ and only afterward did they sit. According to this interpretation, the verse is praising the behavior of the Jews.


ื›ืœ ืžืฆื•ืช ืขืฉื” ืฉื”ื–ืžืŸ ื’ืจืžื ื•ื›ื•ืณ: ืชื ื• ืจื‘ื ืŸ ืื™ื–ื•ื”ื™ ืžืฆื•ืช ืขืฉื” ืฉื”ื–ืžืŸ ื’ืจืžื ืกื•ื›ื” ื•ืœื•ืœื‘ ืฉื•ืคืจ ื•ืฆื™ืฆื™ืช


ยง The mishna teaches that women are exempt from all positive, time-bound mitzvot. The Sages taught: What is a positive, time-bound mitzva? Examples include residing in a sukka, and taking the lulav, and blowing the shofar on Rosh HaShana, all of which can be performed only at specific times of the year. And another example is donning ritual fringes, as the mitzva applies only during the daytime due to the verse which states: โ€œFringes, that you may look upon themโ€ (Numbers 15:39), indicating that the fringes should be seen.


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