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Today's Daf Yomi

September 21, 2023 | 讜壮 讘转砖专讬 转砖驻状讚

  • Masechet Kiddushin is sponsored by Julie and Martin Mendelsohn in honor of their two children who were recently married

Kiddushin 39

Different opinions are offered regarding whether or not laws of orla apply outside of Israel and if they do apply, does it apply to produce that is safek orla? Rabbi Yochanan ruled strictly both about orla and diverse kinds (kelaim) outside of Israel to the extent that he said that one who transgresses the prohibition of diverse kinds receives lashes. How could this be if diverse kinds outside of Israel are only forbidden by rabbinic law? To resolve this, they distinguish between tree grafting and planting seeds of diverse kinds. Rav Yosef was mixing seeds together and planting them. They raise a difficulty against this from the Mishna that holds that diverse kinds are forbidden by rabbinic law outside of Israel. To resolve this, they distinguish between diverse kinds in a vineyard (forbidden) and diverse seeds planted together (permitted). The Mishna states that one who performs one mitzva is rewarded with good things, long life and inherits the land. One who does not perform one mitzva, does not receive these blessings and does not inherit the land. How is this Mishna reconciled with the Mishna in Peah 1:1 that there are specific mitzvot for which one receives reward in this world? There are several ways to understand our Mishna – is it referring to reward in this world or the next world? Rabbi Yaakov, after seeing a child fulfilling both the mitzva of honoring his father and sending off the mother bird, both of which promise long life, and falling and dying on his way down the tree, he concluded that righteous people suffer in this world in order to receive more reward in the World-to-Come. This same story caused Elisha ben Avuya to leave the religion. Some suggest it was a different incident – that he saw the tongue of Chutzpit the translator being dragged on the floor by a pig after he was killed by the Romans.

谞讬转谞讬 讗讜 讝讛 讜讝讛 讬讜专讚 讜诇讜拽讞 讗讜 讝讛 讜讝讛 讬讜专讚 讜诇讜拽讟 讛讗诪专 诇讬讛 砖诪讜讗诇 诇专讘 注谞谉 转谞讬 讗讜 讝讛 讜讝讛 讬讜专讚 讜诇讜拽讞 讗讜 讝讛 讜讝讛 讬讜专讚 讜诇讜拽讟 诪专 讘专讬讛 讚专讘谞讗 诪转谞讬 诇讬讛 诇拽讜诇讗 讝讛 讜讝讛 讬讜专讚 讜诇讜拽讟 讜讘诇讘讚 砖诇讗 讬诇拽讜讟 讘讬讚


let the mishna teach in the same manner in both cases, either by stating in both this case and that case that one may go down and purchase the produce, or by stating in both this case and that case that one may go down and gather the produce. The Gemara answers: Didn鈥檛 Shmuel say to Rav Anan that one should teach it either as stating in both this case and that case that one may go down and purchase the produce, or in both this case and that case that one may go down and gather the produce? Mar, son of Rabbana, taught this mishna according to the following lenient version: In both this case and that case one may go down and gather the produce, provided that he does not gather it with his own hand.


讗诪专 诇讬讛 诇讜讬 诇砖诪讜讗诇 讗专讬讜讱 住驻拽 诇讬 讜讗谞讗 讗讬讻讜诇 专讘 讗讜讬讗 讜专讘讛 讘专 专讘 讞谞谉 诪住驻拽讜 住驻讜拽讬 诇讛讚讚讬 讗诪专讬 讞专讬驻讬 讚驻讜诪讘讚讬转讗 讗讬谉 注专诇讛 讘讞讜爪讛 诇讗专抓


搂 With regard to the prohibition of orla outside of Eretz Yisrael, the Gemara relates that Levi said to Shmuel: Aryokh, Shmuel鈥檚 nickname, supply me with such food, as I will not pick it on my own, and if you do so I will eat it. There is no reason for concern with regard to orla outside of Eretz Yisrael. Rav Avya and Rabba bar Rav 岣nan would supply produce whose orla status was uncertain for each other, as it is forbidden only if one takes the orla on his own. The sharp Sages of Pumbedita said: The prohibition of orla does not apply at all outside of Eretz Yisrael.


砖诇讞讛 专讘 讬讛讜讚讛 诇拽诪讬讛 讚专讘讬 讬讜讞谞谉 砖诇讞 诇讬讛 住转讜诐 住驻讬拽讗 讜讗讘讚 讜讚讗讛 讜讛讻专讝 注诇 驻讬专讜转讬讛谉 砖讟注讜谞讬诐 讙谞讬讝讛 讜讻诇 讛讗讜诪专 讗讬谉 注专诇讛 讘讞讜爪讛 诇讗专抓 诇讗 讬讛讗 诇讜 谞讬谉 讜谞讻讚 诪砖诇讬讱 讞讘诇 讘讙讜专诇 讘拽讛诇 讛壮


Rav Yehuda sent a question to Rabbi Yo岣nan concerning the halakha with regard to orla outside of Eretz Yisrael. Rabbi Yo岣nan sent him the following response: Conceal, i.e., do not publicize, the halakha that produce whose orla status is uncertain is permitted; and destroy, i.e., prohibit entirely, produce whose orla status is certain; and with regard to the produce of those who are lenient in this halakha, declare that it requires interment, as it is prohibited to derive benefit from such produce. And whoever says that there is no prohibition of orla outside of Eretz Yisrael will have neither a child nor a grandchild 鈥渨ho shall cast the line by lot in the congregation of the Lord鈥 (Micah 2:5).


讜讗讬谞讛讜 讻诪讗谉 住讘专讜讛 讻讬 讛讗 讚转谞讬讗 专讘讬 讗诇注讝专 讘专讘讬 讬讜住讬 讗讜诪专 诪砖讜诐 专讘讬 讬讜住讬 讘谉 讚讜专诪住拽讛 砖讗诪专 诪砖讜诐 专讘讬 讬讜住讬 讛讙诇讬诇讬 砖讗诪专 诪砖讜诐 专讘讬 讬讜讞谞谉 讘谉 谞讜专讬 砖讗诪专 诪砖讜诐 专讘讬 讗诇讬注讝专 讛讙讚讜诇 讗讬谉 注专诇讛 讘讞讜爪讛 诇讗专抓


The Gemara asks: And in accordance with whose opinion do the sharp Sages of Pumbedita hold when they state this halakha? The Gemara answers: They hold in accordance with that which is taught in a baraita: Rabbi Elazar, son of Rabbi Yosei, says in the name of Rabbi Yosei ben Durmaska, who said in the name of Rabbi Yosei HaGelili, who said in the name of Rabbi Yo岣nan ben Nuri, who said in the name of Rabbi Eliezer the Great: The prohibition of orla does not apply outside of Eretz Yisrael.


讜诇讗 讜讛讗谞谉 转谞谉 专讘讬 讗诇讬注讝专 讗讜诪专 讗祝 讛讞讚砖 转谞讬 讞讚砖


The Gemara expresses surprise at this ruling: But does it not apply? Does Rabbi Eliezer maintain that the prohibition of orla does not apply outside of Eretz Yisrael? But didn鈥檛 we learn in the mishna that Rabbi Eliezer says: Even the new crop, which indicates that he agrees that orla and diverse kinds are forbidden outside of Eretz Yisrael? The Gemara answers that one should not teach that Rabbi Eliezer said: Even the new crop, but rather teach only the words: The new crop, i.e., Rabbi Eliezer maintains that only this prohibition applies outside of Eretz Yisrael.


讗诪专 专讘讬 讗住讬 讗诪专 专讘讬 讬讜讞谞谉 注专诇讛 讘讞讜爪讛 诇讗专抓 讛诇讻讛 诇诪砖讛 诪住讬谞讬 讗诪专 诇讬讛 专讘讬 讝讬专讗 诇专讘讬 讗住讬 讜讛转谞讬讗 住驻拽 注专诇讛 讘讗专抓 讗住讜专 讘住讜专讬讗 诪讜转专 讘讞讜爪讛 诇讗专抓 讬讜专讚 讜诇讜拽讟 讗砖转讜诪诐 讻砖注讛 讞讚讛 讗诪专 诇讬讛 讗讬诪讗 讻讱 谞讗诪专 住驻讬拽讗 诪讜转专 讜讚讗讛 讗住讜专


Rabbi Asi says that Rabbi Yo岣nan says: Orla is forbidden outside of Eretz Yisrael by a halakha transmitted to Moses from Sinai. Rabbi Zeira said to Rabbi Asi: But isn鈥檛 it taught in a baraita: With regard to produce whose status concerning orla is uncertain, in Eretz Yisrael it is forbidden, in Syria it is permitted, and outside of Eretz Yisrael one goes down and gathers it? And if orla is forbidden outside of Eretz Yisrael by a halakha transmitted to Moses from Sinai, why is produce whose status concerning orla is uncertain permitted in Syria? Rabbi Zeira 鈥渨as dismayed for a while鈥 (Daniel 4:16), and then Rabbi Asi said to him: Say that it is stated like this, i.e., explain that the halakha transmitted to Moses from Sinai was that outside of Eretz Yisrael produce whose status concerning orla is uncertain is permitted, and produce whose status concerning orla is certain is forbidden.


讗诪专 专讘讬 讗住讬 讗诪专 专讘讬 讬讜讞谞谉 诇讜拽讬谉 注诇 讛讻诇讗讬诐 讚讘专 转讜专讛 讗诪专 诇讬讛 专讘讬 讗诇注讝专 讘专讘讬 讬讜住讬 讜讛讗谞谉 转谞谉 讛讻诇讗讬诐 诪讚讘专讬 住讜驻专讬诐 诇讗 拽砖讬讗 讻讗谉 讘讻诇讗讬 讛讻专诐 讻讗谉 讘讛专讻讘转 讛讗讬诇谉


Rabbi Asi says that Rabbi Yo岣nan says: Offenders are flogged for transgressing the prohibition of diverse kinds outside of Eretz Yisrael by Torah law. Rabbi Elazar, son of Rabbi Yosei, said to him: But didn鈥檛 we learn in the mishna (Orla 3:9) that the prohibition of diverse kinds applies by rabbinic law outside of Eretz Yisrael? The Gemara answers: This is not difficult. The mishna here is referring to diverse kinds in a vineyard, which is prohibited outside of Eretz Yisrael by rabbinic law, whereas there, Rabbi Yo岣nan鈥檚 statement is referring to the grafting of a tree onto a different species.


讻讚砖诪讜讗诇 讚讗诪专 砖诪讜讗诇 讗转 讞拽转讬 转砖诪专讜 讞讜拽讬诐 砖讞拽拽转讬 诇讱 讻讘专 讘讛诪转讱 诇讗 转专讘讬注 讻诇讗讬诐 砖讚讱 诇讗 转讝专注


The Gemara adds that this halakha is in accordance with the opinion of Shmuel. As Shmuel says: The verse states: 鈥淵ou shall keep My statutes鈥 (Leviticus 19:19), which means that one must keep even the statutes that I have already instituted for you when you were merely descendants of Noah, before the giving of the Torah. Shmuel elaborates: This is referring to the prohibitions stated in that same verse: 鈥淵ou shall not let your cattle gender with a diverse kind; you shall not sow your field with two kinds of seed鈥 (Leviticus 19:19).


诪讛 讘讛诪转讱 讘讛专讘注讛 讗祝 砖讚讱 讘讛专讻讘讛 讜诪讛 讘讛诪转讱 谞讜讛讙 讘讬谉 讘讗专抓 讘讬谉 讘讞讜爪讛 诇讗专抓 讗祝 砖讚讱 谞讜讛讙 讘讬谉 讘讗专抓 讘讬谉 讘讞讜爪讛 诇讗专抓


Additionally, the juxtaposition of these prohibitions teaches that just as the prohibition of diverse kinds stated with regard to your animal applies only to mating one species with another, so too, the prohibition of diverse kinds with regard to your field is referring only to grafting one type of tree to another type, and it does not apply to planting two species together. Furthermore, just as the prohibition of diverse kinds with regard to your animal applies both in Eretz Yisrael and outside of Eretz Yisrael, as this prohibition does not relate to the land, so too, the prohibition against grafting your field applies both in Eretz Yisrael and outside of Eretz Yisrael.


讜讗诇讗 讛讻转讬讘 砖讚讱 讛讛讜讗 诇诪注讜讟讬 讝专注讬诐 砖讘讞讜爪讛 诇讗专抓


The Gemara asks: But isn鈥檛 it written: 鈥淵our field,鈥 which indicates that the field belongs to you in your portion of Eretz Yisrael? The Gemara answers: That verse serves to exclude the prohibition of diverse kinds of seeds, which does not apply outside of Eretz Yisrael. Planting different types of seeds together is prohibited only in Eretz Yisrael.


专讘 讞谞谉 讜专讘 注谞谉 讛讜讜 砖拽诇讬 讜讗讝诇讬 讘讗讜专讞讗 讞讝讬讜讛讜 诇讛讛讜讗 讙讘专讗 讚拽讗 讝专注 讝专注讬诐 讘讛讚讬 讛讚讚讬 讗诪专 诇讬讛 谞讬转讬 诪专 谞砖诪转讬讛 讗诪专 诇讬讛 诇讗 讞讜讜专讬转讜


搂 The Gemara relates: Rav 岣nan and Rav Anan were once going together on a road outside of Eretz Yisrael and they saw a certain man planting seeds of diverse kinds together. One of them said to the other: Let the Master come and ostracize him, as he is performing a prohibited act. The other said to him: These halakhot are not understood by you.


讜转讜 讞讝讬讜讛讜 诇讛讛讜讗 讙讘专讗 讚拽讗 讝专注 讞讟讬 讜砖注专讬 讘讬 讙讜驻谞讬 讗诪专 诇讬讛 谞讬转讬 诪专 谞砖诪转讬讛 讗诪专 诇讬讛 诇讗 爪讛专讬转讜 诇讗 拽讬讬诪讗 诇谉 讻专讘讬 讬讗砖讬讛 讚讗诪专 注讚 砖讬讝专注 讞讟讛 讜砖注讜专讛 讜讞专爪谉 讘诪驻讜诇转 讬讚


And furthermore, they also saw a certain man who was planting wheat and barley between grapevines. One of them said to the other: Let the Master come and ostracize him. He again said to him: These halakhot are not clear to you. He explained: Don鈥檛 we hold in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Yoshiya, who says: One who sows diverse kinds is not liable by Torah law until he sows wheat, and barley, and a grape seed with a single hand motion, i.e., by sowing in the vineyard he violates the prohibition of diverse kinds that applies to seeds and to the vineyard simultaneously. Since this man was not planting in that manner, he should not be ostracized.


专讘 讬讜住祝 诪注专讘 讘讬讝专谞讬 讜讝专注 讗诪专 诇讬讛 讗讘讬讬 讜讛讗谞谉 转谞谉 讛讻诇讗讬诐 诪讚讘专讬 住讜驻专讬诐 讗诪专 诇讬讛 诇讗 拽砖讬讗 讻讗谉 讘讻诇讗讬 讛讻专诐 讻讗谉 讘讻诇讗讬 讝专注讬诐 讻诇讗讬 讛讻专诐 讚讘讗专抓 讗住讜专讬诐 讘讛谞讗讛 讘讞讜爪讛 诇讗专抓 谞诪讬 讙讝专讜 讘讛讜 专讘谞谉 讻诇讗讬 讝专注讬诐 讚讘讗专抓 诇讗 讗住讬专讬 讘讛谞讗讛 讘讞讜爪讛 诇讗专抓 谞诪讬 诇讗 讙讝专讜 讘讛讜 专讘谞谉


The Gemara relates: Rav Yosef was mixing diverse seeds and planting them. Abaye said to him: But didn鈥檛 we learn in the mishna that mixing diverse kinds is prohibited outside of Eretz Yisrael by rabbinic law? Rav Yosef said to him: This is not difficult, as here, the mishna is referring to diverse kinds in a vineyard, and there, I am planting legally because I am planting only diverse kinds of seeds. The reason for the difference between these two cases is as follows: With regard to planting diverse kinds in a vineyard, which in Eretz Yisrael is prohibited even with regard to deriving benefit, the Sages issued a decree prohibiting this mixture outside of Eretz Yisrael as well. Conversely, with regard to planting diverse kinds of seeds, which in Eretz Yisrael is not prohibited with regard to deriving benefit, the Sages did not issue a decree prohibiting them outside of Eretz Yisrael.


讛讚专 讗诪专 专讘 讬讜住祝 诇讗讜 诪诇转讗 讛讬讗 讚讗诪专讬 讚专讘 讝专注 讙讬谞转讗 讚讘讬 专讘 诪砖讗专讬 诪砖讗专讬 诪讗讬 讟注诪讗 诇讗讜 诪砖讜诐 注讬专讜讘 注讬专讜讘讬 讻诇讗讬诐 讗诪专 诇讬讛 讗讘讬讬 讘砖诇诪讗 讗讬 讗砖诪注讬谞谉


Rav Yosef then said: The matter that I said, i.e., that diverse kinds of seeds are entirely permitted outside of Eretz Yisrael, is not so. The proof is that Rav planted the garden around the study hall in rows [mesharei] of different species. What is the reason that he did that rather than plant different species together? Is it not because he was concerned about mixtures of diverse kinds? Abaye said to him: That is not proof. Granted, if he taught us this halakha through his actions,


讗专讘注 注诇 讗专讘注 专讜讞讜转 讛注专讜讙讛 讜讗讞转 讘讗诪爪注 砖驻讬专 讗诇讗 讛讻讗 诪砖讜诐 谞讜讬 讜讗讬 谞诪讬 诪砖讜诐 讟专讞讗 讚砖诪注讗 讛讬讗:


and he was careful to plant four different species along the four sides of the garden bed and one in the middle, so that there would be space between them, it works out well. This would show that Rav was cautious not to plant diverse kinds together. But here, where Rav actually planted each species in its own bed, he did so due to beautification, i.e., to improve the appearance of the garden in front of the study hall. Alternatively, the reason Rav planted this way is due to the trouble that would be caused to the attendant. When his attendant would be sent to fetch a certain type of vegetable from the garden he would not need to search for it, but would know where the different vegetables were planted. Therefore, this does not prove that Rav was concerned about diverse kinds outside of Eretz Yisrael.


诪转谞讬壮 讻诇 讛注讜砖讛 诪爪讜讛 讗讞转 诪讟讬讘讬谉 诇讜 讜诪讗专讬讻讬谉 诇讜 讬诪讬讜 讜谞讜讞诇 讗转 讛讗专抓 讜讻诇 砖讗讬谞讜 注讜砖讛 诪爪讜讛 讗讞转 讗讬谉 诪讟讬讘讬谉 诇讜 讜讗讬谉 诪讗专讬讻讬谉 诇讜 讬诪讬讜 讜讗讬谞讜 谞讜讞诇 讗转 讛讗专抓:


MISHNA: Anyone who performs one mitzva has goodness bestowed upon him, his life is lengthened, and he inherits the land, i.e., life in the World-to-Come. And anyone who does not perform one mitzva does not have goodness bestowed upon him, his life is not lengthened, and he does not inherit the land of the World-to-Come.


讙诪壮 讜专诪讬谞讛讬 讗诇讜 讚讘专讬诐 砖讗讚诐 讗讜讻诇 驻讬专讜转讬讛谉 讘注讜诇诐 讛讝讛 讜讛拽专谉 拽讬讬诪转 诇讜 诇注讜诇诐 讛讘讗 讗诇讜 讛谉 讻讘讜讚 讗讘 讜讗诐 讜讙诪讬诇讜转 讞住讚讬诐 讜讛讻谞住转 讗讜专讞讬诐 讜讛讘讗转 砖诇讜诐 讘讬谉 讗讚诐 诇讞讘讬专讜 讜转诇诪讜讚 转讜专讛 讻谞讙讚 讻讜诇诐


GEMARA: And the Gemara raises a contradiction from a mishna (Pe鈥檃 1:1): These are the matters that a person engages in and enjoys their profits in this world, and the principal reward remains for him for the World-to-Come, and they are: Honoring one鈥檚 father and mother, acts of loving kindness, hospitality toward guests, and bringing peace between one person and another; and Torah study is equal to all of them. This indicates that one is rewarded in this world only for fulfilling these mitzvot, but not for fulfilling all mitzvot.


讗诪专 专讘 讬讛讜讚讛 讛讻讬 拽讗诪专 讻诇 讛注讜砖讛 诪爪讜讛 讗讞转 讬转讬专讛 注诇 讝讻讬讜转讬讜 诪讟讬讘讬诐 诇讜 讜讚讜诪讛 讻诪讬 砖诪拽讬讬诐 讻诇 讛转讜专讛 讻讜诇讛 诪讻诇诇 讚讛谞讱 讗驻讬诇讜 讘讞讚讗 谞诪讬 讗诪专 专讘 砖诪注讬讛 诇讜诪专 砖讗诐 讛讬转讛 砖拽讜诇讛 诪讻专注转


Rav Yehuda said that this is what the mishna is saying: Anyone who performs one mitzva in addition to his other merits, and thereby tips the scale of all his deeds to the side of righteousness, has goodness bestowed upon him and is compared to one who fulfills the entire Torah. The Gemara asks: One can learn by inference from here that with regard to those mitzvot listed in the mishna in Pe鈥檃 one is rewarded even for one of them, notwithstanding the fact that overall his sins are more numerous. Rav Shemaya said: The other mishna serves to say that if one鈥檚 sins and merits were of equal balance, i.e., he has accrued an equal amount of merit and sin, one of these mitzvot tilts the scale in his favor.


讜讻诇 讛注讜砖讛 诪爪讜讛 讗讞转 讬转讬专讛 注诇 讝讻讬讜转讬讜 诪讟讬讘讬谉 诇讜 讜专诪讬谞讛讜 讻诇 砖讝讻讬讜转讬讜 诪专讜讘讬谉 诪注讜谞讜转讬讜 诪专讬注讬谉 诇讜 讜讚讜诪讛 讻诪讬 砖砖专祝 讻诇 讛转讜专讛 讻讜诇讛 讜诇讗 砖讬讬专 诪诪谞讛 讗驻讬诇讜 讗讜转 讗讞转 讜讻诇 砖注讜谞讜转讬讜 诪专讜讘讬谉 诪讝讻讬讜转讬讜 诪讟讬讘讬谉 诇讜 讜讚讜诪讛 讻诪讬 砖拽讬讬诐 讻诇 讛转讜专讛 讻讜诇讛 讜诇讗 讞讬住专 讗讜转 讗讞转 诪诪谞讛


The Gemara further asks: And does anyone who performs one mitzva in addition to his other merits have goodness bestowed upon him in this world? The Gemara raises a contradiction from a baraita: Anyone whose merits are greater than his sins is punished with suffering in order to cleanse his sins in this world and enable him to merit full reward for his mitzvot in the World-to-Come. And due to this punishment he appears to observers like one who burned the entire Torah without leaving even one letter remaining of it. Conversely, anyone whose sins are greater than his merits has goodness bestowed upon him in this world, and he appears like one who has fulfilled the entire Torah without lacking the fulfillment of even one letter of it.


讗诪专 讗讘讬讬 诪转谞讬转讬谉 讚注讘讚讬谉 诇讬讛 讬讜诐 讟讘 讜讬讜诐 讘讬砖 专讘讗 讗诪专 讛讗 诪谞讬 专讘讬 讬注拽讘 讛讬讗 讚讗诪专 砖讻专 诪爪讜讛 讘讛讗讬 注诇诪讗 诇讬讻讗


Abaye said: When the mishna said that he is rewarded, it means that he has one good day and one bad day. He is rewarded for the mitzvot he performs; nevertheless, occasionally he also has bad days which cleanse him of his sins, and the baraita is referring to those days. Rava said that the mishna and this baraita represent two different opinions. In accordance with whose opinion is this baraita? It is in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Ya鈥檃kov, who says: There is no reward for performance of a mitzva in this world, as one is rewarded for mitzvot only World-to-Come.


讚转谞讬讗 专讘讬 讬注拽讘 讗讜诪专 讗讬谉 诇讱 讻诇 诪爪讜讛 讜诪爪讜讛 砖讻转讜讘讛 讘转讜专讛 砖诪转谉 砖讻专讛 讘爪讚讛 砖讗讬谉 转讞讬讬转 讛诪转讬诐 转诇讜讬讛 讘讛 讘讻讬讘讜讚 讗讘 讜讗诐 讻转讬讘 诇诪注谉 讬讗专讬讻谉 讬诪讬讱 讜诇诪注谉 讬讬讟讘 诇讱 讘砖讬诇讜讞 讛拽谉 讻转讬讘 诇诪注谉 讬讬讟讘 诇讱 讜讛讗专讻转 讬诪讬诐


As it is taught in a baraita that Rabbi Ya鈥檃kov says: There is not a single mitzva written in the Torah whose reward is stated alongside it, which is not dependent on the resurrection of the dead, i.e., the reward is actually bestowed in the World-to-Come, after the resurrection of the dead. How so? With regard to honoring one鈥檚 father and mother it is written: 鈥淭hat your days may be long, and that it may go well with you鈥 (Deuteronomy 5:16). With regard to the dispatch of the mother bird from the nest it is written: 鈥淭hat it may be well with you, and that you may prolong your days鈥 (Deuteronomy 22:7).


讛专讬 砖讗诪专 诇讜 讗讘讬讜 注诇讛 诇讘讬专讛 讜讛讘讗 诇讬 讙讜讝诇讜转 讜注诇讛 诇讘讬专讛 讜砖诇讞 讗转 讛讗诐 讜谞讟诇 讗转 讛讘谞讬诐 讜讘讞讝讬专转讜 谞驻诇 讜诪转 讛讬讻谉 讟讜讘转 讬诪讬讜 砖诇 讝讛 讜讛讬讻谉 讗专讬讻讜转 讬诪讬讜 砖诇 讝讛 讗诇讗 诇诪注谉 讬讬讟讘 诇讱 诇注讜诇诐 砖讻讜诇讜 讟讜讘 讜诇诪注谉 讬讗专讬讻谉 讬诪讬讱 诇注讜诇诐 砖讻讜诇讜 讗专讜讱


Despite this, it occurred that there was one whose father said to him: Climb to the top of the building and fetch me chicks. And he climbed to the top of the building and dispatched the mother bird and took the young, thereby simultaneously fulfilling the mitzva to dispatch the mother bird from the nest and the mitzva to honor one鈥檚 parents, but upon his return he fell and died. Where is the goodness of the days of this one, and where is the length of days of this one? Rather, the verse 鈥渢hat it may be well with you鈥 means in the world where all is well, and 鈥渢hat your days may be long鈥 is referring to the world that is entirely long.


讜讚诇诪讗 诇讗讜 讛讻讬 讛讜讛 专讘讬 讬注拽讘 诪注砖讛 讞讝讗 讜讚诇诪讗 诪讛专讛专 讘注讘讬专讛 讛讜讛 诪讞砖讘讛 专注讛 讗讬谉 讛拽讚讜砖 讘专讜讱 讛讜讗 诪爪专驻讛 诇诪注砖讛


The Gemara asks: But perhaps this incident never occurred? It is possible that everyone who performs these mitzvot is rewarded in this world, and the situation described by Rabbi Ya鈥檃kov never happened. The Gemara answers: Rabbi Ya鈥檃kov himself saw an incident of this kind. The Gemara asks: But perhaps that man was contemplating sin at the time, and he was punished for his thoughts? The Gemara answers that there is a principle that the Holy One, Blessed be He, does not link a bad thought to an action, i.e., one is not punished for thoughts alone.


讜讚诇诪讗 诪讛专讛专 讘注讘讜讚讛 讝专讛 讛讜讛 讜讻转讬讘 诇诪注谉 转驻砖 讗转 讘讬转 讬砖专讗诇 讘诇讘诐 讗讬讛讜 谞诪讬 讛讻讬 拽讗诪专 讗讬 住诇拽讗 讚注转讱 砖讻专 诪爪讜讛 讘讛讗讬 注诇诪讗 讗诪讗讬 诇讗 讗讙讬谉 诪爪讜转 注诇讬讛 讻讬 讛讬讻讬 讚诇讗 诇讬转讬 诇讬讚讬 讛专讛讜专


The Gemara asks: But perhaps he was contemplating idol worship at the time, and it is written with regard to idol worship: 鈥淪o I may take the house of Israel in their own heart鈥 (Ezekiel 14:5), which indicates that one is punished for idolatrous thoughts. The Gemara answers: Rabbi Ya鈥檃kov was saying this as well: If it enters your mind that there is reward for performing a mitzva in this world, why didn鈥檛 these mitzvot protect him so that he should not come to contemplate idol worship? Since that man was not protected from thoughts of idol worship at the time, this indicates that the performance of mitzvot does not entitle one to merit reward in this world.


讜讛讗 讗诪专 专讘讬 讗诇注讝专 砖诇讜讞讬 诪爪讜讛 讗讬谉 谞讝讜拽讬谉 讛转诐 讘讛诇讬讻转谉 砖讗谞讬


The Gemara asks: But didn鈥檛 Rabbi Elazar say that those on the path to perform a mitzva are not susceptible to harm? How is it possible that this individual, who was sent by his father to perform a mitzva, could have died? The Gemara answers: There, Rabbi Elazar is referring those on their way to perform a mitzva, which is different, as one is not susceptible to harm when he is on his way to fulfill a mitzva. In this case the individual was harmed on his return, and one is not afforded protection after having performed a mitzva.


讜讛讗 讗诪专 专讘讬 讗诇注讝专 砖诇讜讞讬 诪爪讜讛 讗讬谞谉 谞讝讜拽讬谉 诇讗 讘讛诇讬讻转谉 讜诇讗 讘讞讝讬专转谉 住讜诇诐 专注讜注 讛讜讛 讚拽讘讬注 讛讬讝讬拽讗 讜讻诇 讛讬讻讗 讚拽讘讬注 讛讬讝讬拽讗 诇讗 住诪讻讬谞谉 讗谞讬住讗 讚讻转讬讘 讜讬讗诪专 砖诪讜讗诇 讗讬讱 讗诇讱 讜砖诪注 砖讗讜诇 讜讛专讙谞讬


The Gemara asks: But didn鈥檛 Rabbi Elazar say that those on the path to perform a mitzva are not susceptible to harm, neither when they are on their way to perform the mitzva nor when they are returning from performing the mitzva? The Gemara answers: In that case it was a rickety ladder, and therefore the danger was established; and anywhere that the danger is established one may not rely on a miracle, as it is written with regard to God鈥檚 command to Samuel to anoint David as king in place of Saul: 鈥淎nd Samuel said: How will I go, and Saul will hear and kill me; and God said: Take in your hand a calf and say: I have come to sacrifice an offering to God鈥 (I聽Samuel 16:2). Although God Himself issued the command, there was concern with regard to the established dangers.


讗诪专 专讘 讬讜住祝 讗讬诇诪诇讬 讚专砖讬讛 讗讞专 诇讛讗讬 拽专讗 讻专讘讬 讬注拽讘 讘专 讘专转讬讛 诇讗 讞讟讗 讜讗讞专 诪讗讬 讛讜讗 讗讬讻讗 讚讗诪专讬 讻讬 讛讗讬 讙讜讜谞讗 讞讝讗


Rav Yosef said: Had A岣r, literally Other, the appellation of the former Sage Elisha ben Avuya, interpreted this aforementioned verse: 鈥淭hat it may go well with you鈥 (Deuteronomy 5:16), homiletically, as referring to the World-to-Come, as did Rabbi Ya鈥檃kov, son of his daughter, he would not have sinned. The Gemara asks: And what caused A岣r to sin? There are those who say he saw a case like this, where a son went up to the roof on his father鈥檚 command, dispatched the mother bird, and then died. It was witnessing this episode that led Elisha ben Avuya astray.


讜讗讬讻讗 讚讗诪专讬 诇讬砖谞讗 讚讞讜爪驻讬转 讛诪转讜专讙诪谉 讞讝讗 讚讛讜讛 讙专讬专 诇讬讛 讚讘专 讗讞专 讗诪专 驻讛 砖讛驻讬拽 诪专讙诇讬讜转 讬诇讞讱 注驻专 谞驻拽 讞讟讗


And there are those who say that he saw the tongue of 岣tzpit the disseminator after the latter was executed by the government, thrown in the street, and dragged along by something else, a euphemism for a pig. He said: Shall a mouth that produced pearls lap up dirt? For this reason he went out and sinned.


专诪讬 专讘 讟讜讘讬 讘专 专讘 拽讬住谞讗 诇专讘讗 转谞谉 讻诇 讛注讜砖讛 诪爪讜讛 讗讞转 诪讟讬讘讬谉 诇讜 注砖讛 讗讬谉 诇讗 注砖讛 诇讗 讜专诪讬谞讛讬 讬砖讘 讜诇讗 注讘专 注讘讬专讛 谞讜转谞讬诐 诇讜 砖讻专 讻注讜砖讛 诪爪讜讛 讗诪专 诇讬讛 讛转诐 讻讙讜谉 砖讘讗 讚讘专 注讘讬专讛 诇讬讚讜 讜谞讬爪讜诇 讛讬诪谞讛


Rav Tuvi bar Rav Kisna raises a contradiction to Rava and asked: We learned in the mishna that anyone who performs one mitzva has goodness bestowed upon him. This indicates that if one actually performed the mitzva, yes, he is rewarded, but if he did not perform the mitzva, no, he does not receive a reward. He raises a contradiction based on the following statement: If one sits and does not transgress, he receives a reward as one who performs a mitzva, despite the fact that he does not actually perform a mitzva. Rava said to him: There, when it is referring to one who sits and does not transgress, it does not mean that he was merely sitting; rather, it is speaking of a case where an opportunity to commit a sinful act presents itself to him and he is saved from it.


讻讬 讛讗 讚专讘讬 讞谞讬谞讗 讘专 驻驻讬 转讘注转讬讛 讛讛讬讗 诪讟专讜谞讬转讗 讗诪专 诪诇转讗 讜诪诇讬 谞驻砖讬讛 砖讬讞谞讗 讜讻讬讘讗 注讘讚讛 讛讬讗 诪讬诇转讗 讜讗讬转住讬 注专拽 讟砖讗 讘讛讛讜讗 讘讬 讘谞讬 讚讻讬 讛讜讜 注讬讬诇讬谉 讘转专讬谉 讗驻讬诇讜 讘讬诪诪讗 讛讜讜 诪讬转讝拽讬 诇诪讞专 讗诪专讜 诇讬讛 专讘谞谉 诪讗谉 谞讟专讱 讗诪专 诇讛讜 砖谞讬


This is like an incident involving Rabbi 岣nina bar Pappi, who was enticed by a certain noblewoman [matronita] to engage in sexual intercourse with her. He said a formula of an incantation and was covered with boils and scabs so as to render himself unattractive to her. She performed an act of magic and he was healed. He fled and hid in a bathhouse that was so dangerous, due to the demons that frequented the place, that when two people entered together even during the day they would be harmed. The next day the Sages said to him: Who protected you in that dangerous place? Rabbi 岣nina bar Pappi said to them: There were angels who appeared like two


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Kiddushin 39

谞讬转谞讬 讗讜 讝讛 讜讝讛 讬讜专讚 讜诇讜拽讞 讗讜 讝讛 讜讝讛 讬讜专讚 讜诇讜拽讟 讛讗诪专 诇讬讛 砖诪讜讗诇 诇专讘 注谞谉 转谞讬 讗讜 讝讛 讜讝讛 讬讜专讚 讜诇讜拽讞 讗讜 讝讛 讜讝讛 讬讜专讚 讜诇讜拽讟 诪专 讘专讬讛 讚专讘谞讗 诪转谞讬 诇讬讛 诇拽讜诇讗 讝讛 讜讝讛 讬讜专讚 讜诇讜拽讟 讜讘诇讘讚 砖诇讗 讬诇拽讜讟 讘讬讚


let the mishna teach in the same manner in both cases, either by stating in both this case and that case that one may go down and purchase the produce, or by stating in both this case and that case that one may go down and gather the produce. The Gemara answers: Didn鈥檛 Shmuel say to Rav Anan that one should teach it either as stating in both this case and that case that one may go down and purchase the produce, or in both this case and that case that one may go down and gather the produce? Mar, son of Rabbana, taught this mishna according to the following lenient version: In both this case and that case one may go down and gather the produce, provided that he does not gather it with his own hand.


讗诪专 诇讬讛 诇讜讬 诇砖诪讜讗诇 讗专讬讜讱 住驻拽 诇讬 讜讗谞讗 讗讬讻讜诇 专讘 讗讜讬讗 讜专讘讛 讘专 专讘 讞谞谉 诪住驻拽讜 住驻讜拽讬 诇讛讚讚讬 讗诪专讬 讞专讬驻讬 讚驻讜诪讘讚讬转讗 讗讬谉 注专诇讛 讘讞讜爪讛 诇讗专抓


搂 With regard to the prohibition of orla outside of Eretz Yisrael, the Gemara relates that Levi said to Shmuel: Aryokh, Shmuel鈥檚 nickname, supply me with such food, as I will not pick it on my own, and if you do so I will eat it. There is no reason for concern with regard to orla outside of Eretz Yisrael. Rav Avya and Rabba bar Rav 岣nan would supply produce whose orla status was uncertain for each other, as it is forbidden only if one takes the orla on his own. The sharp Sages of Pumbedita said: The prohibition of orla does not apply at all outside of Eretz Yisrael.


砖诇讞讛 专讘 讬讛讜讚讛 诇拽诪讬讛 讚专讘讬 讬讜讞谞谉 砖诇讞 诇讬讛 住转讜诐 住驻讬拽讗 讜讗讘讚 讜讚讗讛 讜讛讻专讝 注诇 驻讬专讜转讬讛谉 砖讟注讜谞讬诐 讙谞讬讝讛 讜讻诇 讛讗讜诪专 讗讬谉 注专诇讛 讘讞讜爪讛 诇讗专抓 诇讗 讬讛讗 诇讜 谞讬谉 讜谞讻讚 诪砖诇讬讱 讞讘诇 讘讙讜专诇 讘拽讛诇 讛壮


Rav Yehuda sent a question to Rabbi Yo岣nan concerning the halakha with regard to orla outside of Eretz Yisrael. Rabbi Yo岣nan sent him the following response: Conceal, i.e., do not publicize, the halakha that produce whose orla status is uncertain is permitted; and destroy, i.e., prohibit entirely, produce whose orla status is certain; and with regard to the produce of those who are lenient in this halakha, declare that it requires interment, as it is prohibited to derive benefit from such produce. And whoever says that there is no prohibition of orla outside of Eretz Yisrael will have neither a child nor a grandchild 鈥渨ho shall cast the line by lot in the congregation of the Lord鈥 (Micah 2:5).


讜讗讬谞讛讜 讻诪讗谉 住讘专讜讛 讻讬 讛讗 讚转谞讬讗 专讘讬 讗诇注讝专 讘专讘讬 讬讜住讬 讗讜诪专 诪砖讜诐 专讘讬 讬讜住讬 讘谉 讚讜专诪住拽讛 砖讗诪专 诪砖讜诐 专讘讬 讬讜住讬 讛讙诇讬诇讬 砖讗诪专 诪砖讜诐 专讘讬 讬讜讞谞谉 讘谉 谞讜专讬 砖讗诪专 诪砖讜诐 专讘讬 讗诇讬注讝专 讛讙讚讜诇 讗讬谉 注专诇讛 讘讞讜爪讛 诇讗专抓


The Gemara asks: And in accordance with whose opinion do the sharp Sages of Pumbedita hold when they state this halakha? The Gemara answers: They hold in accordance with that which is taught in a baraita: Rabbi Elazar, son of Rabbi Yosei, says in the name of Rabbi Yosei ben Durmaska, who said in the name of Rabbi Yosei HaGelili, who said in the name of Rabbi Yo岣nan ben Nuri, who said in the name of Rabbi Eliezer the Great: The prohibition of orla does not apply outside of Eretz Yisrael.


讜诇讗 讜讛讗谞谉 转谞谉 专讘讬 讗诇讬注讝专 讗讜诪专 讗祝 讛讞讚砖 转谞讬 讞讚砖


The Gemara expresses surprise at this ruling: But does it not apply? Does Rabbi Eliezer maintain that the prohibition of orla does not apply outside of Eretz Yisrael? But didn鈥檛 we learn in the mishna that Rabbi Eliezer says: Even the new crop, which indicates that he agrees that orla and diverse kinds are forbidden outside of Eretz Yisrael? The Gemara answers that one should not teach that Rabbi Eliezer said: Even the new crop, but rather teach only the words: The new crop, i.e., Rabbi Eliezer maintains that only this prohibition applies outside of Eretz Yisrael.


讗诪专 专讘讬 讗住讬 讗诪专 专讘讬 讬讜讞谞谉 注专诇讛 讘讞讜爪讛 诇讗专抓 讛诇讻讛 诇诪砖讛 诪住讬谞讬 讗诪专 诇讬讛 专讘讬 讝讬专讗 诇专讘讬 讗住讬 讜讛转谞讬讗 住驻拽 注专诇讛 讘讗专抓 讗住讜专 讘住讜专讬讗 诪讜转专 讘讞讜爪讛 诇讗专抓 讬讜专讚 讜诇讜拽讟 讗砖转讜诪诐 讻砖注讛 讞讚讛 讗诪专 诇讬讛 讗讬诪讗 讻讱 谞讗诪专 住驻讬拽讗 诪讜转专 讜讚讗讛 讗住讜专


Rabbi Asi says that Rabbi Yo岣nan says: Orla is forbidden outside of Eretz Yisrael by a halakha transmitted to Moses from Sinai. Rabbi Zeira said to Rabbi Asi: But isn鈥檛 it taught in a baraita: With regard to produce whose status concerning orla is uncertain, in Eretz Yisrael it is forbidden, in Syria it is permitted, and outside of Eretz Yisrael one goes down and gathers it? And if orla is forbidden outside of Eretz Yisrael by a halakha transmitted to Moses from Sinai, why is produce whose status concerning orla is uncertain permitted in Syria? Rabbi Zeira 鈥渨as dismayed for a while鈥 (Daniel 4:16), and then Rabbi Asi said to him: Say that it is stated like this, i.e., explain that the halakha transmitted to Moses from Sinai was that outside of Eretz Yisrael produce whose status concerning orla is uncertain is permitted, and produce whose status concerning orla is certain is forbidden.


讗诪专 专讘讬 讗住讬 讗诪专 专讘讬 讬讜讞谞谉 诇讜拽讬谉 注诇 讛讻诇讗讬诐 讚讘专 转讜专讛 讗诪专 诇讬讛 专讘讬 讗诇注讝专 讘专讘讬 讬讜住讬 讜讛讗谞谉 转谞谉 讛讻诇讗讬诐 诪讚讘专讬 住讜驻专讬诐 诇讗 拽砖讬讗 讻讗谉 讘讻诇讗讬 讛讻专诐 讻讗谉 讘讛专讻讘转 讛讗讬诇谉


Rabbi Asi says that Rabbi Yo岣nan says: Offenders are flogged for transgressing the prohibition of diverse kinds outside of Eretz Yisrael by Torah law. Rabbi Elazar, son of Rabbi Yosei, said to him: But didn鈥檛 we learn in the mishna (Orla 3:9) that the prohibition of diverse kinds applies by rabbinic law outside of Eretz Yisrael? The Gemara answers: This is not difficult. The mishna here is referring to diverse kinds in a vineyard, which is prohibited outside of Eretz Yisrael by rabbinic law, whereas there, Rabbi Yo岣nan鈥檚 statement is referring to the grafting of a tree onto a different species.


讻讚砖诪讜讗诇 讚讗诪专 砖诪讜讗诇 讗转 讞拽转讬 转砖诪专讜 讞讜拽讬诐 砖讞拽拽转讬 诇讱 讻讘专 讘讛诪转讱 诇讗 转专讘讬注 讻诇讗讬诐 砖讚讱 诇讗 转讝专注


The Gemara adds that this halakha is in accordance with the opinion of Shmuel. As Shmuel says: The verse states: 鈥淵ou shall keep My statutes鈥 (Leviticus 19:19), which means that one must keep even the statutes that I have already instituted for you when you were merely descendants of Noah, before the giving of the Torah. Shmuel elaborates: This is referring to the prohibitions stated in that same verse: 鈥淵ou shall not let your cattle gender with a diverse kind; you shall not sow your field with two kinds of seed鈥 (Leviticus 19:19).


诪讛 讘讛诪转讱 讘讛专讘注讛 讗祝 砖讚讱 讘讛专讻讘讛 讜诪讛 讘讛诪转讱 谞讜讛讙 讘讬谉 讘讗专抓 讘讬谉 讘讞讜爪讛 诇讗专抓 讗祝 砖讚讱 谞讜讛讙 讘讬谉 讘讗专抓 讘讬谉 讘讞讜爪讛 诇讗专抓


Additionally, the juxtaposition of these prohibitions teaches that just as the prohibition of diverse kinds stated with regard to your animal applies only to mating one species with another, so too, the prohibition of diverse kinds with regard to your field is referring only to grafting one type of tree to another type, and it does not apply to planting two species together. Furthermore, just as the prohibition of diverse kinds with regard to your animal applies both in Eretz Yisrael and outside of Eretz Yisrael, as this prohibition does not relate to the land, so too, the prohibition against grafting your field applies both in Eretz Yisrael and outside of Eretz Yisrael.


讜讗诇讗 讛讻转讬讘 砖讚讱 讛讛讜讗 诇诪注讜讟讬 讝专注讬诐 砖讘讞讜爪讛 诇讗专抓


The Gemara asks: But isn鈥檛 it written: 鈥淵our field,鈥 which indicates that the field belongs to you in your portion of Eretz Yisrael? The Gemara answers: That verse serves to exclude the prohibition of diverse kinds of seeds, which does not apply outside of Eretz Yisrael. Planting different types of seeds together is prohibited only in Eretz Yisrael.


专讘 讞谞谉 讜专讘 注谞谉 讛讜讜 砖拽诇讬 讜讗讝诇讬 讘讗讜专讞讗 讞讝讬讜讛讜 诇讛讛讜讗 讙讘专讗 讚拽讗 讝专注 讝专注讬诐 讘讛讚讬 讛讚讚讬 讗诪专 诇讬讛 谞讬转讬 诪专 谞砖诪转讬讛 讗诪专 诇讬讛 诇讗 讞讜讜专讬转讜


搂 The Gemara relates: Rav 岣nan and Rav Anan were once going together on a road outside of Eretz Yisrael and they saw a certain man planting seeds of diverse kinds together. One of them said to the other: Let the Master come and ostracize him, as he is performing a prohibited act. The other said to him: These halakhot are not understood by you.


讜转讜 讞讝讬讜讛讜 诇讛讛讜讗 讙讘专讗 讚拽讗 讝专注 讞讟讬 讜砖注专讬 讘讬 讙讜驻谞讬 讗诪专 诇讬讛 谞讬转讬 诪专 谞砖诪转讬讛 讗诪专 诇讬讛 诇讗 爪讛专讬转讜 诇讗 拽讬讬诪讗 诇谉 讻专讘讬 讬讗砖讬讛 讚讗诪专 注讚 砖讬讝专注 讞讟讛 讜砖注讜专讛 讜讞专爪谉 讘诪驻讜诇转 讬讚


And furthermore, they also saw a certain man who was planting wheat and barley between grapevines. One of them said to the other: Let the Master come and ostracize him. He again said to him: These halakhot are not clear to you. He explained: Don鈥檛 we hold in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Yoshiya, who says: One who sows diverse kinds is not liable by Torah law until he sows wheat, and barley, and a grape seed with a single hand motion, i.e., by sowing in the vineyard he violates the prohibition of diverse kinds that applies to seeds and to the vineyard simultaneously. Since this man was not planting in that manner, he should not be ostracized.


专讘 讬讜住祝 诪注专讘 讘讬讝专谞讬 讜讝专注 讗诪专 诇讬讛 讗讘讬讬 讜讛讗谞谉 转谞谉 讛讻诇讗讬诐 诪讚讘专讬 住讜驻专讬诐 讗诪专 诇讬讛 诇讗 拽砖讬讗 讻讗谉 讘讻诇讗讬 讛讻专诐 讻讗谉 讘讻诇讗讬 讝专注讬诐 讻诇讗讬 讛讻专诐 讚讘讗专抓 讗住讜专讬诐 讘讛谞讗讛 讘讞讜爪讛 诇讗专抓 谞诪讬 讙讝专讜 讘讛讜 专讘谞谉 讻诇讗讬 讝专注讬诐 讚讘讗专抓 诇讗 讗住讬专讬 讘讛谞讗讛 讘讞讜爪讛 诇讗专抓 谞诪讬 诇讗 讙讝专讜 讘讛讜 专讘谞谉


The Gemara relates: Rav Yosef was mixing diverse seeds and planting them. Abaye said to him: But didn鈥檛 we learn in the mishna that mixing diverse kinds is prohibited outside of Eretz Yisrael by rabbinic law? Rav Yosef said to him: This is not difficult, as here, the mishna is referring to diverse kinds in a vineyard, and there, I am planting legally because I am planting only diverse kinds of seeds. The reason for the difference between these two cases is as follows: With regard to planting diverse kinds in a vineyard, which in Eretz Yisrael is prohibited even with regard to deriving benefit, the Sages issued a decree prohibiting this mixture outside of Eretz Yisrael as well. Conversely, with regard to planting diverse kinds of seeds, which in Eretz Yisrael is not prohibited with regard to deriving benefit, the Sages did not issue a decree prohibiting them outside of Eretz Yisrael.


讛讚专 讗诪专 专讘 讬讜住祝 诇讗讜 诪诇转讗 讛讬讗 讚讗诪专讬 讚专讘 讝专注 讙讬谞转讗 讚讘讬 专讘 诪砖讗专讬 诪砖讗专讬 诪讗讬 讟注诪讗 诇讗讜 诪砖讜诐 注讬专讜讘 注讬专讜讘讬 讻诇讗讬诐 讗诪专 诇讬讛 讗讘讬讬 讘砖诇诪讗 讗讬 讗砖诪注讬谞谉


Rav Yosef then said: The matter that I said, i.e., that diverse kinds of seeds are entirely permitted outside of Eretz Yisrael, is not so. The proof is that Rav planted the garden around the study hall in rows [mesharei] of different species. What is the reason that he did that rather than plant different species together? Is it not because he was concerned about mixtures of diverse kinds? Abaye said to him: That is not proof. Granted, if he taught us this halakha through his actions,


讗专讘注 注诇 讗专讘注 专讜讞讜转 讛注专讜讙讛 讜讗讞转 讘讗诪爪注 砖驻讬专 讗诇讗 讛讻讗 诪砖讜诐 谞讜讬 讜讗讬 谞诪讬 诪砖讜诐 讟专讞讗 讚砖诪注讗 讛讬讗:


and he was careful to plant four different species along the four sides of the garden bed and one in the middle, so that there would be space between them, it works out well. This would show that Rav was cautious not to plant diverse kinds together. But here, where Rav actually planted each species in its own bed, he did so due to beautification, i.e., to improve the appearance of the garden in front of the study hall. Alternatively, the reason Rav planted this way is due to the trouble that would be caused to the attendant. When his attendant would be sent to fetch a certain type of vegetable from the garden he would not need to search for it, but would know where the different vegetables were planted. Therefore, this does not prove that Rav was concerned about diverse kinds outside of Eretz Yisrael.


诪转谞讬壮 讻诇 讛注讜砖讛 诪爪讜讛 讗讞转 诪讟讬讘讬谉 诇讜 讜诪讗专讬讻讬谉 诇讜 讬诪讬讜 讜谞讜讞诇 讗转 讛讗专抓 讜讻诇 砖讗讬谞讜 注讜砖讛 诪爪讜讛 讗讞转 讗讬谉 诪讟讬讘讬谉 诇讜 讜讗讬谉 诪讗专讬讻讬谉 诇讜 讬诪讬讜 讜讗讬谞讜 谞讜讞诇 讗转 讛讗专抓:


MISHNA: Anyone who performs one mitzva has goodness bestowed upon him, his life is lengthened, and he inherits the land, i.e., life in the World-to-Come. And anyone who does not perform one mitzva does not have goodness bestowed upon him, his life is not lengthened, and he does not inherit the land of the World-to-Come.


讙诪壮 讜专诪讬谞讛讬 讗诇讜 讚讘专讬诐 砖讗讚诐 讗讜讻诇 驻讬专讜转讬讛谉 讘注讜诇诐 讛讝讛 讜讛拽专谉 拽讬讬诪转 诇讜 诇注讜诇诐 讛讘讗 讗诇讜 讛谉 讻讘讜讚 讗讘 讜讗诐 讜讙诪讬诇讜转 讞住讚讬诐 讜讛讻谞住转 讗讜专讞讬诐 讜讛讘讗转 砖诇讜诐 讘讬谉 讗讚诐 诇讞讘讬专讜 讜转诇诪讜讚 转讜专讛 讻谞讙讚 讻讜诇诐


GEMARA: And the Gemara raises a contradiction from a mishna (Pe鈥檃 1:1): These are the matters that a person engages in and enjoys their profits in this world, and the principal reward remains for him for the World-to-Come, and they are: Honoring one鈥檚 father and mother, acts of loving kindness, hospitality toward guests, and bringing peace between one person and another; and Torah study is equal to all of them. This indicates that one is rewarded in this world only for fulfilling these mitzvot, but not for fulfilling all mitzvot.


讗诪专 专讘 讬讛讜讚讛 讛讻讬 拽讗诪专 讻诇 讛注讜砖讛 诪爪讜讛 讗讞转 讬转讬专讛 注诇 讝讻讬讜转讬讜 诪讟讬讘讬诐 诇讜 讜讚讜诪讛 讻诪讬 砖诪拽讬讬诐 讻诇 讛转讜专讛 讻讜诇讛 诪讻诇诇 讚讛谞讱 讗驻讬诇讜 讘讞讚讗 谞诪讬 讗诪专 专讘 砖诪注讬讛 诇讜诪专 砖讗诐 讛讬转讛 砖拽讜诇讛 诪讻专注转


Rav Yehuda said that this is what the mishna is saying: Anyone who performs one mitzva in addition to his other merits, and thereby tips the scale of all his deeds to the side of righteousness, has goodness bestowed upon him and is compared to one who fulfills the entire Torah. The Gemara asks: One can learn by inference from here that with regard to those mitzvot listed in the mishna in Pe鈥檃 one is rewarded even for one of them, notwithstanding the fact that overall his sins are more numerous. Rav Shemaya said: The other mishna serves to say that if one鈥檚 sins and merits were of equal balance, i.e., he has accrued an equal amount of merit and sin, one of these mitzvot tilts the scale in his favor.


讜讻诇 讛注讜砖讛 诪爪讜讛 讗讞转 讬转讬专讛 注诇 讝讻讬讜转讬讜 诪讟讬讘讬谉 诇讜 讜专诪讬谞讛讜 讻诇 砖讝讻讬讜转讬讜 诪专讜讘讬谉 诪注讜谞讜转讬讜 诪专讬注讬谉 诇讜 讜讚讜诪讛 讻诪讬 砖砖专祝 讻诇 讛转讜专讛 讻讜诇讛 讜诇讗 砖讬讬专 诪诪谞讛 讗驻讬诇讜 讗讜转 讗讞转 讜讻诇 砖注讜谞讜转讬讜 诪专讜讘讬谉 诪讝讻讬讜转讬讜 诪讟讬讘讬谉 诇讜 讜讚讜诪讛 讻诪讬 砖拽讬讬诐 讻诇 讛转讜专讛 讻讜诇讛 讜诇讗 讞讬住专 讗讜转 讗讞转 诪诪谞讛


The Gemara further asks: And does anyone who performs one mitzva in addition to his other merits have goodness bestowed upon him in this world? The Gemara raises a contradiction from a baraita: Anyone whose merits are greater than his sins is punished with suffering in order to cleanse his sins in this world and enable him to merit full reward for his mitzvot in the World-to-Come. And due to this punishment he appears to observers like one who burned the entire Torah without leaving even one letter remaining of it. Conversely, anyone whose sins are greater than his merits has goodness bestowed upon him in this world, and he appears like one who has fulfilled the entire Torah without lacking the fulfillment of even one letter of it.


讗诪专 讗讘讬讬 诪转谞讬转讬谉 讚注讘讚讬谉 诇讬讛 讬讜诐 讟讘 讜讬讜诐 讘讬砖 专讘讗 讗诪专 讛讗 诪谞讬 专讘讬 讬注拽讘 讛讬讗 讚讗诪专 砖讻专 诪爪讜讛 讘讛讗讬 注诇诪讗 诇讬讻讗


Abaye said: When the mishna said that he is rewarded, it means that he has one good day and one bad day. He is rewarded for the mitzvot he performs; nevertheless, occasionally he also has bad days which cleanse him of his sins, and the baraita is referring to those days. Rava said that the mishna and this baraita represent two different opinions. In accordance with whose opinion is this baraita? It is in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Ya鈥檃kov, who says: There is no reward for performance of a mitzva in this world, as one is rewarded for mitzvot only World-to-Come.


讚转谞讬讗 专讘讬 讬注拽讘 讗讜诪专 讗讬谉 诇讱 讻诇 诪爪讜讛 讜诪爪讜讛 砖讻转讜讘讛 讘转讜专讛 砖诪转谉 砖讻专讛 讘爪讚讛 砖讗讬谉 转讞讬讬转 讛诪转讬诐 转诇讜讬讛 讘讛 讘讻讬讘讜讚 讗讘 讜讗诐 讻转讬讘 诇诪注谉 讬讗专讬讻谉 讬诪讬讱 讜诇诪注谉 讬讬讟讘 诇讱 讘砖讬诇讜讞 讛拽谉 讻转讬讘 诇诪注谉 讬讬讟讘 诇讱 讜讛讗专讻转 讬诪讬诐


As it is taught in a baraita that Rabbi Ya鈥檃kov says: There is not a single mitzva written in the Torah whose reward is stated alongside it, which is not dependent on the resurrection of the dead, i.e., the reward is actually bestowed in the World-to-Come, after the resurrection of the dead. How so? With regard to honoring one鈥檚 father and mother it is written: 鈥淭hat your days may be long, and that it may go well with you鈥 (Deuteronomy 5:16). With regard to the dispatch of the mother bird from the nest it is written: 鈥淭hat it may be well with you, and that you may prolong your days鈥 (Deuteronomy 22:7).


讛专讬 砖讗诪专 诇讜 讗讘讬讜 注诇讛 诇讘讬专讛 讜讛讘讗 诇讬 讙讜讝诇讜转 讜注诇讛 诇讘讬专讛 讜砖诇讞 讗转 讛讗诐 讜谞讟诇 讗转 讛讘谞讬诐 讜讘讞讝讬专转讜 谞驻诇 讜诪转 讛讬讻谉 讟讜讘转 讬诪讬讜 砖诇 讝讛 讜讛讬讻谉 讗专讬讻讜转 讬诪讬讜 砖诇 讝讛 讗诇讗 诇诪注谉 讬讬讟讘 诇讱 诇注讜诇诐 砖讻讜诇讜 讟讜讘 讜诇诪注谉 讬讗专讬讻谉 讬诪讬讱 诇注讜诇诐 砖讻讜诇讜 讗专讜讱


Despite this, it occurred that there was one whose father said to him: Climb to the top of the building and fetch me chicks. And he climbed to the top of the building and dispatched the mother bird and took the young, thereby simultaneously fulfilling the mitzva to dispatch the mother bird from the nest and the mitzva to honor one鈥檚 parents, but upon his return he fell and died. Where is the goodness of the days of this one, and where is the length of days of this one? Rather, the verse 鈥渢hat it may be well with you鈥 means in the world where all is well, and 鈥渢hat your days may be long鈥 is referring to the world that is entirely long.


讜讚诇诪讗 诇讗讜 讛讻讬 讛讜讛 专讘讬 讬注拽讘 诪注砖讛 讞讝讗 讜讚诇诪讗 诪讛专讛专 讘注讘讬专讛 讛讜讛 诪讞砖讘讛 专注讛 讗讬谉 讛拽讚讜砖 讘专讜讱 讛讜讗 诪爪专驻讛 诇诪注砖讛


The Gemara asks: But perhaps this incident never occurred? It is possible that everyone who performs these mitzvot is rewarded in this world, and the situation described by Rabbi Ya鈥檃kov never happened. The Gemara answers: Rabbi Ya鈥檃kov himself saw an incident of this kind. The Gemara asks: But perhaps that man was contemplating sin at the time, and he was punished for his thoughts? The Gemara answers that there is a principle that the Holy One, Blessed be He, does not link a bad thought to an action, i.e., one is not punished for thoughts alone.


讜讚诇诪讗 诪讛专讛专 讘注讘讜讚讛 讝专讛 讛讜讛 讜讻转讬讘 诇诪注谉 转驻砖 讗转 讘讬转 讬砖专讗诇 讘诇讘诐 讗讬讛讜 谞诪讬 讛讻讬 拽讗诪专 讗讬 住诇拽讗 讚注转讱 砖讻专 诪爪讜讛 讘讛讗讬 注诇诪讗 讗诪讗讬 诇讗 讗讙讬谉 诪爪讜转 注诇讬讛 讻讬 讛讬讻讬 讚诇讗 诇讬转讬 诇讬讚讬 讛专讛讜专


The Gemara asks: But perhaps he was contemplating idol worship at the time, and it is written with regard to idol worship: 鈥淪o I may take the house of Israel in their own heart鈥 (Ezekiel 14:5), which indicates that one is punished for idolatrous thoughts. The Gemara answers: Rabbi Ya鈥檃kov was saying this as well: If it enters your mind that there is reward for performing a mitzva in this world, why didn鈥檛 these mitzvot protect him so that he should not come to contemplate idol worship? Since that man was not protected from thoughts of idol worship at the time, this indicates that the performance of mitzvot does not entitle one to merit reward in this world.


讜讛讗 讗诪专 专讘讬 讗诇注讝专 砖诇讜讞讬 诪爪讜讛 讗讬谉 谞讝讜拽讬谉 讛转诐 讘讛诇讬讻转谉 砖讗谞讬


The Gemara asks: But didn鈥檛 Rabbi Elazar say that those on the path to perform a mitzva are not susceptible to harm? How is it possible that this individual, who was sent by his father to perform a mitzva, could have died? The Gemara answers: There, Rabbi Elazar is referring those on their way to perform a mitzva, which is different, as one is not susceptible to harm when he is on his way to fulfill a mitzva. In this case the individual was harmed on his return, and one is not afforded protection after having performed a mitzva.


讜讛讗 讗诪专 专讘讬 讗诇注讝专 砖诇讜讞讬 诪爪讜讛 讗讬谞谉 谞讝讜拽讬谉 诇讗 讘讛诇讬讻转谉 讜诇讗 讘讞讝讬专转谉 住讜诇诐 专注讜注 讛讜讛 讚拽讘讬注 讛讬讝讬拽讗 讜讻诇 讛讬讻讗 讚拽讘讬注 讛讬讝讬拽讗 诇讗 住诪讻讬谞谉 讗谞讬住讗 讚讻转讬讘 讜讬讗诪专 砖诪讜讗诇 讗讬讱 讗诇讱 讜砖诪注 砖讗讜诇 讜讛专讙谞讬


The Gemara asks: But didn鈥檛 Rabbi Elazar say that those on the path to perform a mitzva are not susceptible to harm, neither when they are on their way to perform the mitzva nor when they are returning from performing the mitzva? The Gemara answers: In that case it was a rickety ladder, and therefore the danger was established; and anywhere that the danger is established one may not rely on a miracle, as it is written with regard to God鈥檚 command to Samuel to anoint David as king in place of Saul: 鈥淎nd Samuel said: How will I go, and Saul will hear and kill me; and God said: Take in your hand a calf and say: I have come to sacrifice an offering to God鈥 (I聽Samuel 16:2). Although God Himself issued the command, there was concern with regard to the established dangers.


讗诪专 专讘 讬讜住祝 讗讬诇诪诇讬 讚专砖讬讛 讗讞专 诇讛讗讬 拽专讗 讻专讘讬 讬注拽讘 讘专 讘专转讬讛 诇讗 讞讟讗 讜讗讞专 诪讗讬 讛讜讗 讗讬讻讗 讚讗诪专讬 讻讬 讛讗讬 讙讜讜谞讗 讞讝讗


Rav Yosef said: Had A岣r, literally Other, the appellation of the former Sage Elisha ben Avuya, interpreted this aforementioned verse: 鈥淭hat it may go well with you鈥 (Deuteronomy 5:16), homiletically, as referring to the World-to-Come, as did Rabbi Ya鈥檃kov, son of his daughter, he would not have sinned. The Gemara asks: And what caused A岣r to sin? There are those who say he saw a case like this, where a son went up to the roof on his father鈥檚 command, dispatched the mother bird, and then died. It was witnessing this episode that led Elisha ben Avuya astray.


讜讗讬讻讗 讚讗诪专讬 诇讬砖谞讗 讚讞讜爪驻讬转 讛诪转讜专讙诪谉 讞讝讗 讚讛讜讛 讙专讬专 诇讬讛 讚讘专 讗讞专 讗诪专 驻讛 砖讛驻讬拽 诪专讙诇讬讜转 讬诇讞讱 注驻专 谞驻拽 讞讟讗


And there are those who say that he saw the tongue of 岣tzpit the disseminator after the latter was executed by the government, thrown in the street, and dragged along by something else, a euphemism for a pig. He said: Shall a mouth that produced pearls lap up dirt? For this reason he went out and sinned.


专诪讬 专讘 讟讜讘讬 讘专 专讘 拽讬住谞讗 诇专讘讗 转谞谉 讻诇 讛注讜砖讛 诪爪讜讛 讗讞转 诪讟讬讘讬谉 诇讜 注砖讛 讗讬谉 诇讗 注砖讛 诇讗 讜专诪讬谞讛讬 讬砖讘 讜诇讗 注讘专 注讘讬专讛 谞讜转谞讬诐 诇讜 砖讻专 讻注讜砖讛 诪爪讜讛 讗诪专 诇讬讛 讛转诐 讻讙讜谉 砖讘讗 讚讘专 注讘讬专讛 诇讬讚讜 讜谞讬爪讜诇 讛讬诪谞讛


Rav Tuvi bar Rav Kisna raises a contradiction to Rava and asked: We learned in the mishna that anyone who performs one mitzva has goodness bestowed upon him. This indicates that if one actually performed the mitzva, yes, he is rewarded, but if he did not perform the mitzva, no, he does not receive a reward. He raises a contradiction based on the following statement: If one sits and does not transgress, he receives a reward as one who performs a mitzva, despite the fact that he does not actually perform a mitzva. Rava said to him: There, when it is referring to one who sits and does not transgress, it does not mean that he was merely sitting; rather, it is speaking of a case where an opportunity to commit a sinful act presents itself to him and he is saved from it.


讻讬 讛讗 讚专讘讬 讞谞讬谞讗 讘专 驻驻讬 转讘注转讬讛 讛讛讬讗 诪讟专讜谞讬转讗 讗诪专 诪诇转讗 讜诪诇讬 谞驻砖讬讛 砖讬讞谞讗 讜讻讬讘讗 注讘讚讛 讛讬讗 诪讬诇转讗 讜讗讬转住讬 注专拽 讟砖讗 讘讛讛讜讗 讘讬 讘谞讬 讚讻讬 讛讜讜 注讬讬诇讬谉 讘转专讬谉 讗驻讬诇讜 讘讬诪诪讗 讛讜讜 诪讬转讝拽讬 诇诪讞专 讗诪专讜 诇讬讛 专讘谞谉 诪讗谉 谞讟专讱 讗诪专 诇讛讜 砖谞讬


This is like an incident involving Rabbi 岣nina bar Pappi, who was enticed by a certain noblewoman [matronita] to engage in sexual intercourse with her. He said a formula of an incantation and was covered with boils and scabs so as to render himself unattractive to her. She performed an act of magic and he was healed. He fled and hid in a bathhouse that was so dangerous, due to the demons that frequented the place, that when two people entered together even during the day they would be harmed. The next day the Sages said to him: Who protected you in that dangerous place? Rabbi 岣nina bar Pappi said to them: There were angels who appeared like two


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