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Today's Daf Yomi

January 1, 2022 | ื›ืดื— ื‘ื˜ื‘ืช ืชืฉืคืดื‘

This month's shiurim are dedicated by Jordana and Kalman Schoor on behalf of their daughter Daria who is learning Masechet Megilla for her bat mitzvah.ย 

This month's shiurim are dedicated by the Hadran Women of Minneapolis in memory of the father of their organizer Shira Krebs, Jerry Katz, Gershon Pinya ben Yitzchak Lev haCohen zโ€l who will be greatly missed.

  • This month's learning is dedicated by Debbie and Yossi Gevir to Rabbanit Michelle and the Hadran Zoom group for their kindness, support, and care during a medically challenging year.

Megillah 20 – Shabbat January 1

This is the daf for Shabbat. For Friday’s daf, click here.

Does Rabbi Yehuda think that ideally a deaf person canโ€™t read the Megillah, but if one did not, one can still fulfill oneโ€™s obligation? Or is a deaf person able to read it ab initio? One suggestion is that he himself holds the latter and the former was said by him but in the name of Rabbi Elazar ben Azaria. The other option is that he holds the former and the sources that indicate one does not need to hear at all what one is saying, is the opinion of Rabbi Meir as appears in a braita regarding Shema. Rabbi Yehuda holds that a minor can read the Megillah and brings a proof that he read when he was young. However, since testimony cannot be accepted from minors, the rabbis refuse to accept his testimony regarding when he was young. Another attempt to prove Rabbi Yehuda from a story is brought but it too is rejected. The Mishna lists mitzvot that need to be done during the day and their obligation begins at sunrise. However, if one did it from the time the sun began to rise, amud hashachar, one fulfilled oneโ€™s obligation. The Gemara finds a source for each item on the list and how one knows that the obligation is during the day. Why does the Mishna list both those who go to the mikveh and a zava ketana who also needs to go to the mikveh? The next Mishna lists mitzvot that one is obligated to do during the day and one can do it all day long. Likewise, mitzvot that are done at night can be performed all night long. The Gemara goes through the list proving how one knows one needs to perform each of these mitzvot during the day.

ืœืขื•ืœื ืจื‘ื™ ื™ื”ื•ื“ื” ื•ืืคื™ืœื• ืœื›ืชื—ื™ืœื” ื•ืœื ืงืฉื™ื ื”ื ื“ื™ื“ื™ื” ื”ื ื“ืจื‘ื™ื”

The Gemara answers: Actually, you can indeed say that the baraita about teruma was taught in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Yehuda, and that Rabbi Yehuda permits a deaf person to read even ab initio, while Rabbi Yosei disqualifies a deaf person even after the fact. And the baraita that teaches that one should not recite the Grace after Meals in his heart, but if he did he has fulfilled his obligation, is not difficult, as that baraita was taught by Rabbi Yehuda as well. The explanation for this is that in this baraita, about teruma, he was teaching his own opinion, that it is permitted even ab initio, whereas in that baraita, concerning the Grace after Meals, he was teaching the opinion of his master, Rabbi Elazar ben Azarya, that one is required to hear what he is saying when he recites blessings.

ื“ืชื ื™ื ืจื‘ื™ ื™ื”ื•ื“ื” ืื•ืžืจ ืžืฉื•ื ืจื‘ื™ ืืœืขื–ืจ ื‘ืŸ ืขื–ืจื™ื” ื”ืงื•ืจื ืืช ืฉืžืข ืฆืจื™ืš ืฉื™ืฉืžื™ืข ืœืื–ื ื• ืฉื ืืžืจ ืฉืžืข ื™ืฉืจืืœ ื”ืณ ืืœื”ื™ื ื• ื”ืณ ืื—ื“ ื”ืฉืžืข ืœืื–ื ื™ืš ืžื” ืฉืืชื” ืžื•ืฆื™ื ืžืคื™ืš ืจื‘ื™ ืžืื™ืจ ืื•ืžืจ ืืฉืจ ืื ื›ื™ ืžืฆื•ืš ื”ื™ื•ื ืขืœ ืœื‘ื‘ืš ืื—ืจ ื›ื•ื•ื ืช ื”ืœื‘ ื”ืŸ ื”ืŸ ื”ื“ื‘ืจื™ื

As it is taught in a baraita: Rabbi Yehuda said in the name of Rabbi Elazar ben Azarya: One who recites the Shema must make it audible to his ears, as it is stated: โ€œHear O Israel, the Lord our God; the Lord is Oneโ€ (Deuteronomy 6:4), the word โ€œhearโ€ indicating that you should allow your ears to hear the words you are expressing with your mouth. Rabbi Meir disagrees and says: This is not necessary, as it is also stated there: โ€œAnd these words, which I command you this day shall be in your heartโ€ (Deuteronomy 6:6), indicating that โ€œthese words,โ€ the words of the Shema, go after the intent of the heart, as it is unnecessary to pronounce them out loud. We see that according to Rabbi Elazar ben Azarya, as cited by Rabbi Yehuda, the words must be audible to oneโ€™s ears ab initio.

ื”ืฉืชื ื“ืืชื™ืช ืœื”ื›ื™ ืืคื™ืœื• ืชื™ืžื ืจื‘ื™ ื™ื”ื•ื“ื” ื›ืจื‘ื™ื” ืกื‘ื™ืจื ืœื™ื” ื•ื”ื ื“ืชื ื™ ื™ื”ื•ื“ื” ื‘ืจื™ื” ื“ืจื‘ื™ ืฉืžืขื•ืŸ ื‘ืŸ ืคื–ื™ ืจื‘ื™ ืžืื™ืจ ื”ื™ื

The Gemara proposes a second solution: Now that you have arrived at this point and cited this baraita, you can even say that Rabbi Yehuda holds in accordance with his teacher, Rabbi Elazar ben Azarya, that a deaf person is disqualified ab initio, and it is only after the fact that his reading is valid. And as for that baraita that Rabbi Yehuda, son of Rabbi Shimon ben Pazi, taught stating that a deaf person may set aside teruma even ab initio, this was taught in accordance with the other opinion cited in the baraita, i.e., that of Rabbi Meir, who maintains that everything depends on the intent of oneโ€™s heart, and that it is not necessary to pronounce words audibly, even ab initio.

ืจื‘ื™ ื™ื”ื•ื“ื” ืžื›ืฉื™ืจ ื‘ืงื˜ืŸ (ื“ืชื ื™ื) ืืžืจ ืจื‘ื™ ื™ื”ื•ื“ื” ืงื˜ืŸ ื”ื™ื™ืชื™ ื•ืงืจื™ืชื™ื” ืœืžืขืœื” ืžืจื‘ื™ ื˜ืจืคื•ืŸ ื•ื–ืงื ื™ื ื‘ืœื•ื“ ืืžืจื• ืœื• ืื™ืŸ ืžื‘ื™ืื™ืŸ ืจืื™ื” ืžืŸ ื”ืงื˜ืŸ

ยง It was taught in the mishna: Rabbi Yehuda says that a minor is fit to read the Megilla. It is taught in a baraita: Rabbi Yehuda said: I can offer proof to my opinion, as when I was a minor I myself read the Megilla before Rabbi Tarfon and the other Elders in Lod. They said to him in response: One cannot bring a proof from the testimony of a minor. Since at the time of the supposed incident you were a minor, you are not qualified now to testify about it.

ืชื ื™ื ืืžืจ ืจื‘ื™ ืงื˜ืŸ ื”ื™ื™ืชื™ ื•ืงืจื™ืชื™ื” ืœืžืขืœื” ืžืจื‘ื™ ื™ื”ื•ื“ื” ืืžืจื• ืœื• ืื™ืŸ ืžื‘ื™ืื™ืŸ ืจืื™ื” ืžืŸ ื”ืžืชื™ืจ

It is taught in a different baraita: Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi said: When I was a minor I read the Megilla before Rabbi Yehuda. They said to him: One cannot bring a proof that an act is permitted from the behavior of the very one who permits it. We know that Rabbi Yehuda maintains that a minor is fit to read the Megilla, and the fact that he acted in accordance with his own opinion does not prove that this is the accepted halakha.

ื•ืœื™ืžืจื• ืœื™ื” ืื™ืŸ ืžื‘ื™ืื™ืŸ ืจืื™ื” ืžืŸ ื”ืงื˜ืŸ ื—ื“ื ื•ืขื•ื“ ืงืืžืจื• ืœื™ื” ื—ื“ื ื“ืงื˜ืŸ ื”ื™ื™ืช ื•ืขื•ื“ ืืคื™ืœื• ื’ื“ื•ืœ ื”ื™ื™ืช ืื™ืŸ ืžื‘ื™ืื™ืŸ ืจืื™ื” ืžืŸ ื”ืžืชื™ืจ

The Gemara asks: And let them say to him, as the Sages said to Rabbi Yehuda in the previous baraita, that one cannot bring a proof from the testimony of a minor. The Gemara answers: They said one thing to him and then another; i.e., they rejected him with a twofold argument: One objection is that you were a minor at that time, and therefore your testimony is disqualified. And furthermore, even if you had been an adult at that time and you had testified that you saw some other minor read the Megilla before Rabbi Yehuda, one cannot bring a proof that an act is permitted from the behavior of the very one who permits it.

ืžืชื ื™ืณ ืื™ืŸ ืงื•ืจื™ืŸ ืืช ื”ืžื’ื™ืœื” ื•ืœื ืžืœื™ืŸ ื•ืœื ื˜ื•ื‘ืœื™ืŸ ื•ืœื ืžื–ื™ืŸ ื•ื›ืŸ ืฉื•ืžืจืช ื™ื•ื ื›ื ื’ื“ ื™ื•ื ืœื ืชื˜ื‘ื•ืœ ืขื“ ืฉืชื ืฅ ื”ื—ืžื” ื•ื›ื•ืœืŸ ืฉืขืฉื• ืžืฉืขืœื” ืขืžื•ื“ ื”ืฉื—ืจ ื›ืฉืจ

MISHNA: One may not read the Megilla, nor perform a circumcision, nor immerse himself in a ritual bath, nor sprinkle water of purification to purify people and objects that had contracted ritual impurity through contact with a corpse until after sunrise. And also a woman who observes a clean day for each day she experiences a discharge, i.e., a woman who experienced one or two days of non-menstrual bleeding, and must now wait until a day has passed without any discharge of blood before regaining ritual purity, she too may not immerse herself until the sun has risen. And with regard to all these activities that are supposed to be performed during the day, if one did them after daybreak, i.e., after the appearance of the first light of the sun, even before sunrise, they are valid, as at this point it is already considered daytime.

ื’ืžืณ ืžื ืœืŸ ื“ืืžืจ ืงืจื ื•ื”ื™ืžื™ื ื”ืืœื” ื ื–ื›ืจื™ื ื•ื ืขืฉื™ื ื‘ื™ื•ื ืื™ืŸ ื‘ืœื™ืœื” ืœื ืœื™ืžื ืชื™ื”ื•ื™ ืชื™ื•ื‘ืชื ื“ืจื‘ื™ ื™ื”ื•ืฉืข ื‘ืŸ ืœื•ื™ ื“ืืžืจ ืจื‘ื™ ื™ื”ื•ืฉืข ื‘ืŸ ืœื•ื™ ื—ื™ื™ื‘ ืื“ื ืœืงืจื•ืช ืืช ื”ืžื’ื™ืœื” ื‘ืœื™ืœื” ื•ืœืฉื ื•ืชื” ื‘ื™ื•ื ื›ื™ ืงืชื ื™ ืื“ื™ื•ื

GEMARA: The Gemara asks: From where do we derive the halakha taught in the mishna that the Megilla may be read only during the day? The Gemara answers: As the verse states: โ€œAnd that these days should be remembered and keptโ€ (Esther 9:28). The word โ€œdaysโ€ indicates during the day, yes, but at night, no. The Gemara asks: Let us say that this is a conclusive refutation of the opinion of Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi, as Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi said: A person is obligated to read the Megilla at night and then repeat it during the day. The Gemara rejects this: There is no proof from here, as when the mishna teaches that the Megilla may be read only during the day, it was referring to the daytime reading, but the nighttime reading is not considered here at all.

ื•ืœื ืžืœื™ืŸ ื•ื›ื•ืณ ื“ื›ืชื™ื‘ ื•ื‘ื™ื•ื ื”ืฉืžื™ื ื™ ื™ืžื•ืœ

ยง The mishna continues: And one may not perform a circumcision until after sunrise, as it is written: โ€œAnd on the eighth day he shall be circumcisedโ€ (Leviticus 12:3). This indicates that the circumcision must be during the day, not at night.

ื•ืœื ื˜ื•ื‘ืœื™ืŸ ื•ืœื ืžื–ื™ืŸ ื•ื›ื•ืณ ื“ื›ืชื™ื‘ ื•ื”ื–ื” ื”ื˜ื”ื•ืจ ืขืœ ื”ื˜ืžื [ื•ื’ื•ืณ] ื‘ื™ื•ื ื”ืฉื‘ื™ืขื™ ื•ืื™ืชืงืฉ ื˜ื‘ื™ืœื” ืœื”ื–ื™ื”

ยง It is further taught in the mishna: And one may not immerse himself in a ritual bath, or sprinkle waters of purification until after sunrise. This too is derived from a verse, as it is written: โ€œAnd the pure person shall sprinkle upon the impure on the third day and on the seventh day; and on the seventh day he shall purify himself and wash his clothes, and bathe himself in water, and shall be pure at eveningโ€ (Numbers 19:19), which teaches that the sprinkling must take place during the day and not at night. And immersion is likened to sprinkling, as it too is mentioned in the verse, โ€œand bathe himself in water,โ€ so that whatever is invalid with respect to sprinkling is also invalid with respect to immersion.

ื•ื›ืŸ ืฉื•ืžืจืช ื™ื•ื ื›ื ื’ื“ ื™ื•ื ืœื ืชื˜ื‘ื•ืœ ืขื“ ืฉืชื ืฅ ื”ื—ืžื” ื•ื›ื•ืณ ืคืฉื™ื˜ื ืžืื™ ืฉื ื ืฉื•ืžืจืช ื™ื•ื ื›ื ื’ื“ ื™ื•ื ืžื›ืœ ื—ื™ื™ื‘ื™ ื˜ื‘ื™ืœื•ืช

ยง The mishna states: And also a woman who observes a day for a day may not immerse herself until the sun has risen. The Gemara asks: This is obvious. What is different about a woman who observes a day for a day, who must immerse herself in a ritual bath, from all the others who are obligated to immerse themselves, as it was already taught that one may not immerse himself in a ritual bath until it is day?

ืื™ืฆื˜ืจื™ืš ืกืœืงื ื“ืขืชืš ืืžื™ื ื ืชื™ื”ื•ื™ ื›ืจืื™ื” ืจืืฉื•ื ื” ืฉืœ ื–ื‘ ื•ืจืื™ื” ืจืืฉื•ื ื” ืฉืœ ื–ื‘ ืื™ืชืงืฉ ืœื‘ืขืœ ืงืจื™ ื“ื›ืชื™ื‘ ื–ืืช ืชื•ืจืช ื”ื–ื‘ ื•ืืฉืจ ืชืฆื ืžืžื ื• ืฉื›ื‘ืช ื–ืจืข ืžื” ื‘ืขืœ ืงืจื™ ื˜ื•ื‘ืœ ื‘ื™ื•ื ื”ืื™ ื ืžื™ ืœื™ื˜ื‘ื•ืœ ื‘ื™ื•ืžื™ื”

The Gemara answers: It is nevertheless necessary to mention separately the case of a woman who observes a day for a day. As, it might enter your mind to say that this womanโ€™s bleeding should be treated like the first emission of a zav, a man who experiences a gonorrhea-like secretion, in that just as a man attains the status of a full-fledged zav once he has three such emissions, so too, a woman attains the status of a full-fledged zava once she experiences three days of bleeding. And the first emission of a zav is likened to one who experienced a seminal discharge, as it is written: โ€œThis is the halakha of him that has an issue and of him whose semen goes from himโ€ (Leviticus 15:32). From this it is learned: Just as one who experienced a seminal discharge immerses on the same day that he had the discharge, so too, that one, the zav, may immerse himself on the same day that he had the emission.

ื•ื”ื ื‘ื™ืžืžื ืœื ืžืฆื™ ื˜ื‘ืœื” ื“ื›ืชื™ื‘ ื›ืœ ื™ืžื™ ื–ื•ื‘ื” ื›ืžืฉื›ื‘ ื ื“ืชื” ื™ื”ื™ื” ืœื” ื‘ืœื™ืœื™ื ืžื™ื”ืช ืœื™ืขื‘ื™ื“ ืžืงืฆืช ืฉื™ืžื•ืจ ื•ืชื™ื˜ื‘ื•ืœ ืงื ืžืฉืžืข ืœืŸ ื›ื™ื•ืŸ ื“ื‘ืขื™ื ืกืคื™ืจื”

And although this one, i.e., a woman who observes a day for a day, cannot immerse on the same day that she experienced the bleeding, as it is written: โ€œAll the days of her issue shall be to her as the bed of her menstruationโ€ (Leviticus 15:26), which teaches that she remains the entire day of her issue in her impure state and must wait until the day is over before she can immerse herself, nevertheless, one might have said that at least during the night following the day of her issue she should be able to perform a partial observation, i.e., she should verify that part of the night has gone by without bleeding, and then immerse herself at night, without waiting until morning. Therefore, the mishna teaches us that since she is required to count one day of purity after her day of impurity,

ืกืคื™ืจื” ื‘ื™ืžืžื ื”ื™ื

and counting can only be done during the day and not at night, as it says: โ€œAnd she shall count for herself seven daysโ€ (Leviticus 15:28), she cannot immerse herself until after sunrise, although here she has to count only one day.

ื•ื›ื•ืœืŸ ืฉืขืฉื• ืžืฉืขืœื” ืขืžื•ื“ ื”ืฉื—ืจ ื›ืฉืจ ืžื ื”ื ื™ ืžื™ืœื™ ืืžืจ ืจื‘ื ื“ืืžืจ ืงืจื ื•ื™ืงืจื ืืœื”ื™ื ืœืื•ืจ ื™ื•ื ืœืžืื™ืจ ื•ื‘ื ืงืจืื• ื™ื•ื

ยง The mishna concludes: And with regard to all these things, if one did them after daybreak they are valid. The Gemara asks: From where is this matter derived, that from daybreak it is already considered daytime? Rava said: As the verse states: โ€œAnd God called the light [or] dayโ€ (Genesis 1:5), meaning: To that which was becoming lighter and lighter he called day. The Hebrew word or is not to be understood in its usual sense of light, but as a verbal noun: that which is becoming lighter and lighter. It teaches that as soon as light begins to appear in the sky it is called daytime.

ืืœื ืžืขืชื” ื•ืœื—ืฉืš ืงืจื ืœื™ืœื” [ืœืžื—ืฉื™ืš ื•ื‘ื ืงืจื ืœื™ืœื”] ื”ื ืงื™ื™ืžื ืœืŸ ื“ืขื“ ืฆืืช ื”ื›ื•ื›ื‘ื™ื ืœืื• ืœื™ืœื” ื”ื•ื

The Gemara raises a difficulty with this interpretation: However, if it is so that Ravaโ€™s interpretation of this phrase is correct, the following phrase: โ€œAnd the darkness [แธฅoshekh] He called nightโ€ (Genesis 1:5), should be interpreted in a similar fashion: That which was becoming darker and darker He called night, so that immediately after sunset it would be considered nighttime. But donโ€™t we maintain that until the stars come out it is not nighttime? We are forced to say that แธฅoshekh literally means darkness, and similarly, or in the first part of the verse literally means light.

ืืœื ืืžืจ ืจื‘ื™ ื–ื™ืจื ืžื”ื›ื ื•ืื ื—ื ื• ืขื•ืฉื™ื ื‘ืžืœืื›ื” ื•ื—ืฆื™ื ืžื—ื–ื™ืงื™ื ื‘ืจืžื—ื™ื ืžืขืœื•ืช ื”ืฉื—ืจ ืขื“ ืฆืืช ื”ื›ื•ื›ื‘ื™ื ื•ืื•ืžืจ (ื•ื”ื™ื”) ืœื ื• ื”ืœื™ืœื” (ืœืžืฉืžืจ)

Rather, Rabbi Zeira said: We derive this halakha from here, as it is stated: โ€œSo we labored in the work; and half of them held the spears from the rising of the morning till the stars appearedโ€ (Nehemiah 4:15), where โ€œrising of the morningโ€ means daybreak, and the next verse states: โ€œSo that in the night they may be a guard to us; and labor in the dayโ€ (Nehemiah 4:16). This demonstrates that the day begins with the dawn.

ืžืื™ ื•ืื•ืžืจ ื•ื›ื™ ืชื™ืžื ืžืฉืขืœื” ืขืžื•ื“ ื”ืฉื—ืจ ืœืื• ื™ืžืžื ื•ืžื›ื™ ืขืจื‘ื ืฉืžืฉื ืœื™ืœื™ื ื•ืื™ื ื”ื• ืžืงื“ืžื™ ื•ืžื—ืฉื›ื™ ืชื ืฉืžืข (ื•ื”ื™ื”) ืœื ื• ื”ืœื™ืœื” ืžืฉืžืจ ื•ื”ื™ื•ื ืžืœืื›ื”

The Gemara clarifies Rabbi Zeiraโ€™s statement: What need is there for the additional verse introduced by the words โ€œand it statesโ€? Why does the first proof-text not suffice? The Gemara explains: The second verse comes to deflect the following possible objection: You might say that even after โ€œthe rising of the morningโ€ it is not yet considered day, and that from the time when the sun sets it is already considered night, and in this particular incident it happened that they began their work early, before the official beginning of daytime, and remained working late, after the official end of daytime. Therefore, Rabbi Zeira continued and said: Come and hear that which is stated in the next verse: โ€œSo that in the night they may be a guard to us; and labor in the day.โ€ The entire time during which they worked is referred to as โ€œday,โ€ which proves that the day begins at daybreak.

ืžืชื ื™ืณ ื›ืœ ื”ื™ื•ื ื›ืฉืจ ืœืงืจื™ืืช ื”ืžื’ื™ืœื” ื•ืœืงืจื™ืืช ื”ื”ืœืœ ื•ืœืชืงื™ืขืช ืฉื•ืคืจ ื•ืœื ื˜ื™ืœืช ืœื•ืœื‘ ื•ืœืชืคืœืช ื”ืžื•ืกืคื™ืŸ ื•ืœืžื•ืกืคื™ืŸ

MISHNA: Although it is preferable to fulfill a particular dayโ€™s mitzva at the earliest possible hour, the entire day is a valid time for reading the Megilla; for reciting hallel; for sounding the shofar on Rosh HaShana; for taking the lulav and the other species on Sukkot; for the additional prayer recited on Shabbat and other occasions; and for the additional offerings sacrificed in the Temple on these occasions.

ื•ืœื•ื™ื“ื•ื™ ื”ืคืจื™ื ื•ืœื•ื™ื“ื•ื™ ืžืขืฉืจ ื•ืœื•ื™ื“ื•ื™ ื™ื•ื ื”ื›ืคื•ืจื™ื

And the entire day is also a valid time for the confession over the bulls brought by the Sanhedrin or by the High Priest to atone for mistakes they had made in their instruction to the people; for the declaration made on the last day of Passover in the fourth and seventh year of the Sabbatical cycle, stating that oneโ€™s obligations with regard to tithes have been properly fulfilled (see Deuteronomy 26:12โ€“15); and for the confession of sins made by the High Priest on Yom Kippur over the special offerings brought on that day.

ืœืกืžื™ื›ื” ืœืฉื—ื™ื˜ื” ืœืชื ื•ืคื” ืœื”ื’ืฉื” ืœืงืžื™ืฆื” ื•ืœื”ืงื˜ืจื” ืœืžืœื™ืงื” ื•ืœืงื‘ืœื” ื•ืœื”ื–ื™ื”

The entire day is also a valid time for placing hands on the head of an offering; for slaughtering an offering; for waving those offerings that require waving in the Temple; for bringing meal-offerings near to the altar; for scooping out a fistful of flour from a meal-offering in order to burn it on the altar; and for burning the fistful of flour on the altar; for pinching the necks of the turtledoves and young pigeons sacrificed as offerings in the Temple; and for receiving the blood of an offering in a vessel; and for sprinkling blood on the altar and on the curtain separating between the Holy and the Holy of Holies.

ื•ืœื”ืฉืงื™ื™ืช ืกื•ื˜ื” ื•ืœืขืจื™ืคืช ื”ืขื’ืœื” ื•ืœื˜ื”ืจืช ื”ืžืฆื•ืจืข

And the entire day is also a valid time for giving a woman suspected by her husband of having been unfaithful [sota] to drink from the bitter waters (see Numbers 5:11โ€“31); for breaking the neck of the heifer as part of the procedure followed when a corpse is found outside a town and it is not known who caused his death (see Deuteronomy 21:1โ€“9); and for all the steps in the purification process of the leper (see Leviticus 14:1โ€“20).

ื›ืœ ื”ืœื™ืœื” ื›ืฉืจ ืœืงืฆื™ืจืช ื”ืขื•ืžืจ ื•ืœื”ืงื˜ืจ ื—ืœื‘ื™ื ื•ืื‘ืจื™ื ื–ื” ื”ื›ืœืœ ื“ื‘ืจ ืฉืžืฆื•ืชื• ื‘ื™ื•ื ื›ืฉืจ ื›ืœ ื”ื™ื•ื ื“ื‘ืจ ืฉืžืฆื•ืชื• ื‘ืœื™ืœื” ื›ืฉืจ ื›ืœ ื”ืœื™ืœื”

Correspondingly, all the mitzvot that must be performed at night may be performed anytime during the night: The entire night is a valid time for reaping the omer of barley on the night following the first day of Passover, for burning the fats of offerings that had been brought during the preceding day, and for burning the limbs of burnt-offerings. This is the principle: Something that it is a mitzva to perform during the day is valid if performed anytime during the entire day; something that it is a mitzva to perform at night is valid if performed anytime during the entire night.

ื’ืžืณ ืžื ืœืŸ ื“ืืžืจ ืงืจื ื•ื”ื™ืžื™ื ื”ืืœื” ื ื–ื›ืจื™ื ื•ื ืขืฉื™ื ืœืงืจื™ืืช ื”ื”ืœืœ ื“ื›ืชื™ื‘ ืžืžื–ืจื— ืฉืžืฉ ืขื“ ืžื‘ื•ืื• (ืจื‘ื™ ื™ื•ืกื™) ืื•ืžืจ ื–ื” ื”ื™ื•ื ืขืฉื” ื”ืณ

GEMARA: The Gemara asks: From where do we derive that these mitzvot were commanded to be performed specifically during the day? With regard to reading the Megilla, the verse states: โ€œThat these days should be remembered and keptโ€ (Esther 9:28). For reciting the hallel, the proof is from that which is written in hallel: โ€œFrom the rising of the sun to its setting, the Lordโ€™s name is to be praisedโ€ (Psalms 113:3). Rabbi Yosei said: The proof is from another verse in hallel: โ€œThis is the day that the Lord has madeโ€ (Psalms 118:24), implying that it is to be recited during the day and not at night.

ื•ืœื ื˜ื™ืœืช ืœื•ืœื‘ ื“ื›ืชื™ื‘ ื•ืœืงื—ืชื ืœื›ื ื‘ื™ื•ื ื”ืจืืฉื•ืŸ ื•ืœืชืงื™ืขืช ืฉื•ืคืจ ื“ื›ืชื™ื‘ ื™ื•ื ืชืจื•ืขื” ื™ื”ื™ื” ืœื›ื ื•ืœืžื•ืกืคื™ืŸ ื“ื›ืชื™ื‘ ื“ื‘ืจ ื™ื•ื ื‘ื™ื•ืžื• ื•ืœืชืคืœืช ื”ืžื•ืกืคื™ืŸ ื›ืžื•ืกืคื™ืŸ ืฉื•ื™ื•ื” ืจื‘ื ืŸ

And daytime is the time for taking the lulav, as it is written: โ€œAnd you shall take for yourselves on the first day the fruit of a beautiful tree, branches of a date palm, and boughs of a dense-leaved tree, and willows of the brookโ€ (Leviticus 23:40). Daytime is also the time for sounding the shofar, as it is written: โ€œIt is a day of sounding the shofar to youโ€ (Numbers 29:1). Likewise, the time for the additional offerings is day, as it is written with regard to these offerings: โ€œTo sacrifice an offering made by fire to the Lord, a burnt-offering, and a meal-offering, a sacrifice, and libations, each on its own dayโ€ (Leviticus 23:37). And this is also so for the additional prayer, because the Sages made it equivalent to those additional offerings.

ื•ืœื•ื™ื“ื•ื™ ืคืจื™ื ื“ื™ืœื™ืฃ ื›ืคืจื” ื›ืคืจื” ืžื™ื•ื ื”ื›ืคื•ืจื™ื ื“ืชื ื™ื ื’ื‘ื™ ื™ื•ื ื”ื›ืคื•ืจื™ื ื•ื›ืคืจ ื‘ืขื“ื• ื•ื‘ืขื“ ื‘ื™ืชื• ื‘ื›ืคืจืช ื“ื‘ืจื™ื ื”ื›ืชื•ื‘ ืžื“ื‘ืจ ื•ื›ืคืจื” ื‘ื™ืžืžื ื”ื•ื ื“ื›ืชื™ื‘ ื‘ื™ื•ื ื”ื–ื” ื™ื›ืคืจ ืขืœื™ื›ื

And daytime is the time for the confession over the bulls, as this is derived by way of a verbal analogy between one instance of atonement in this context and another instance of atonement in the context of Yom Kippur. As it is taught in a baraita with regard to Yom Kippur, the verse states: โ€œAnd Aaron shall present the bull of the sin-offering that is his, and atone for himself and for his householdโ€ (Leviticus 16:11). The verse speaks of atonement achieved through words, i.e., the atonement here is not referring to the sacrifice of offerings and the sprinkling of blood, but rather to atonement achieved through confession. And the atonement of Yom Kippur is only during the day, as it is written: โ€œFor on that day will He atone for youโ€ (Leviticus 16:30). Just as the atonement on Yom Kippur must take place during the day, so must the other cases of atonement, over other bulls brought as sin-offerings, take place during the day.

ื•ืœื•ื™ื“ื•ื™ ืžืขืฉืจ ื•ื›ื•ืณ ื“ื›ืชื™ื‘ ื•ืืžืจืช ืœืคื ื™ ื”ืณ ืืœื”ื™ืš ื‘ืขืจืชื™ ื”ืงื“ืฉ ืžืŸ ื”ื‘ื™ืช ื•ืกืžื™ืš ืœื™ื” ื”ื™ื•ื ื”ื–ื” ื”ืณ ืืœื”ื™ืš ืžืฆื•ืš

And daytime is the time for the declaration with regard to tithes, as it is written in the formula of this declaration: โ€œAnd you shall say before the Lord your God, I have removed the sacred things out of my houseโ€ (Deuteronomy 26:13โ€“15); and juxtaposed to that passage it is written: โ€œThis day the Lord your God has commanded you to doโ€ (Deuteronomy 26:16), implying during the day and not at night.

ืœืกืžื™ื›ื” ื•ืœืฉื—ื™ื˜ื” ื“ื›ืชื™ื‘ ื•ืกืžืš ื•ืฉื—ื˜ ื•ื›ืชื™ื‘ ื‘ื” ื‘ืฉื—ื™ื˜ื” ื‘ื™ื•ื ื–ื‘ื—ื›ื ื•ืœืชื ื•ืคื” ื“ื›ืชื™ื‘ ื‘ื™ื•ื ื”ื ื™ืคื›ื ืืช ื”ืขื•ืžืจ

For placing hands on the head of an offering and for slaughtering an offering, it is derived as it is written: โ€œAnd he shall lay his hand upon the head of his offering, and slaughter itโ€ (Leviticus 3:8), comparing the laying of hands to slaughtering. And it is written with regard to slaughtering: โ€œOn the day that you slaughterโ€ (Leviticus 19:6), meaning during the day and not at night. And for waving the offerings that require waving, it is derived as it is written: โ€œAnd on the day you wave the omerโ€ (Leviticus 23:12).

ื•ืœื”ื’ืฉื” ื“ืื™ืชืงืฉ ืœืชื ื•ืคื” ื“ื›ืชื™ื‘ ื•ืœืงื— ื”ื›ื”ืŸ ืžื™ื“ ื”ืืฉื” ืืช ืžื ื—ืช ื”ืงื ืื•ืช ื•ื”ื ื™ืฃ ื•ื”ืงืจื™ื‘ ื•ืœืžืœื™ืงื” ื•ืœืงืžื™ืฆื” ื•ืœื”ืงื˜ืจื” ื•ืœื”ื–ื™ื” ื“ื›ืชื™ื‘ ื‘ื™ื•ื ืฆื•ื•ืชื• ืืช ื‘ื ื™ ื™ืฉืจืืœ

And with regard to bringing the meal-offerings near the altar, it is likened to waving, as it is written: โ€œAnd the priest shall take the meal-offering of jealousy from the womanโ€™s hand, and shall wave the offering before the Lord, and sacrifice it upon the altarโ€ (Numbers 5:25). The words โ€œsacrifice itโ€ are referring to bringing the offering near the altar. And for scooping out a fistful of flour, and for pinching the necks of the bird-offerings, and for burning the fistful of flour on the altar, and for sprinkling the blood, these are derived as it is written: โ€œThis is the law of the burnt-offering, of the meal-offering, and of the sin-offering, and of the guilt-offering, and of the consecration-offering, and of the sacrifice of the peace-offering; which the Lord commanded Moses on Mount Sinai on the day that he commanded the children of Israel to present their offeringsโ€ (Leviticus 7:37โ€“38).

ื•ืœื”ืฉืงื™ื™ืช ืกื•ื˜ื” ืืชื™ื ืชื•ืจื” ืชื•ืจื” ื›ืชื™ื‘ ื”ื›ื ื•ืขืฉื” ืœื” ื”ื›ื”ืŸ ืืช ื›ืœ ื”ืชื•ืจื” ื”ื–ืืช ื•ื›ืชื™ื‘ ื”ืชื ืขืœ ืคื™ ื”ืชื•ืจื” ืืฉืจ ื™ื•ืจื•ืš ื•ืขืœ ื”ืžืฉืคื˜

And with regard to giving the sota to drink from the bitter waters, this is derived from a verbal analogy between one instance of the word โ€œTorahโ€ and another instance of the word โ€œTorah.โ€ It is written here with respect to a sota: โ€œAnd the priest shall execute upon her all this Torahโ€ (Numbers 5:30), and it is written there with regard to judgment: โ€œAccording to the Torah, which they shall teach you, and according to the judgment, which they shall tell youโ€ (Deuteronomy 17:11).

This month's shiurim are dedicatedย by Jordana and Kalman Schoor on behalf of their daughter Daria who is learning Masechet Megilla for her bat mitzvah. Mazal tov Daria!

This month's shiurim are dedicated by the Hadran Women of Minneapolis in memory of the father of their organizer Shira Krebs, Jerry Katz, Gershon Pinya ben Yitzchak Lev haCohen zโ€l who will be greatly missed.

  • This month's learning is dedicated by Debbie and Yossi Gevir to Rabbanit Michelle and the Hadran Zoom group for their kindness, support, and care during a medically challenging year.

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Megillah 20 – Shabbat January 1

The William Davidson Talmud | Powered by Sefaria

Megillah 20 – Shabbat January 1

ืœืขื•ืœื ืจื‘ื™ ื™ื”ื•ื“ื” ื•ืืคื™ืœื• ืœื›ืชื—ื™ืœื” ื•ืœื ืงืฉื™ื ื”ื ื“ื™ื“ื™ื” ื”ื ื“ืจื‘ื™ื”

The Gemara answers: Actually, you can indeed say that the baraita about teruma was taught in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Yehuda, and that Rabbi Yehuda permits a deaf person to read even ab initio, while Rabbi Yosei disqualifies a deaf person even after the fact. And the baraita that teaches that one should not recite the Grace after Meals in his heart, but if he did he has fulfilled his obligation, is not difficult, as that baraita was taught by Rabbi Yehuda as well. The explanation for this is that in this baraita, about teruma, he was teaching his own opinion, that it is permitted even ab initio, whereas in that baraita, concerning the Grace after Meals, he was teaching the opinion of his master, Rabbi Elazar ben Azarya, that one is required to hear what he is saying when he recites blessings.

ื“ืชื ื™ื ืจื‘ื™ ื™ื”ื•ื“ื” ืื•ืžืจ ืžืฉื•ื ืจื‘ื™ ืืœืขื–ืจ ื‘ืŸ ืขื–ืจื™ื” ื”ืงื•ืจื ืืช ืฉืžืข ืฆืจื™ืš ืฉื™ืฉืžื™ืข ืœืื–ื ื• ืฉื ืืžืจ ืฉืžืข ื™ืฉืจืืœ ื”ืณ ืืœื”ื™ื ื• ื”ืณ ืื—ื“ ื”ืฉืžืข ืœืื–ื ื™ืš ืžื” ืฉืืชื” ืžื•ืฆื™ื ืžืคื™ืš ืจื‘ื™ ืžืื™ืจ ืื•ืžืจ ืืฉืจ ืื ื›ื™ ืžืฆื•ืš ื”ื™ื•ื ืขืœ ืœื‘ื‘ืš ืื—ืจ ื›ื•ื•ื ืช ื”ืœื‘ ื”ืŸ ื”ืŸ ื”ื“ื‘ืจื™ื

As it is taught in a baraita: Rabbi Yehuda said in the name of Rabbi Elazar ben Azarya: One who recites the Shema must make it audible to his ears, as it is stated: โ€œHear O Israel, the Lord our God; the Lord is Oneโ€ (Deuteronomy 6:4), the word โ€œhearโ€ indicating that you should allow your ears to hear the words you are expressing with your mouth. Rabbi Meir disagrees and says: This is not necessary, as it is also stated there: โ€œAnd these words, which I command you this day shall be in your heartโ€ (Deuteronomy 6:6), indicating that โ€œthese words,โ€ the words of the Shema, go after the intent of the heart, as it is unnecessary to pronounce them out loud. We see that according to Rabbi Elazar ben Azarya, as cited by Rabbi Yehuda, the words must be audible to oneโ€™s ears ab initio.

ื”ืฉืชื ื“ืืชื™ืช ืœื”ื›ื™ ืืคื™ืœื• ืชื™ืžื ืจื‘ื™ ื™ื”ื•ื“ื” ื›ืจื‘ื™ื” ืกื‘ื™ืจื ืœื™ื” ื•ื”ื ื“ืชื ื™ ื™ื”ื•ื“ื” ื‘ืจื™ื” ื“ืจื‘ื™ ืฉืžืขื•ืŸ ื‘ืŸ ืคื–ื™ ืจื‘ื™ ืžืื™ืจ ื”ื™ื

The Gemara proposes a second solution: Now that you have arrived at this point and cited this baraita, you can even say that Rabbi Yehuda holds in accordance with his teacher, Rabbi Elazar ben Azarya, that a deaf person is disqualified ab initio, and it is only after the fact that his reading is valid. And as for that baraita that Rabbi Yehuda, son of Rabbi Shimon ben Pazi, taught stating that a deaf person may set aside teruma even ab initio, this was taught in accordance with the other opinion cited in the baraita, i.e., that of Rabbi Meir, who maintains that everything depends on the intent of oneโ€™s heart, and that it is not necessary to pronounce words audibly, even ab initio.

ืจื‘ื™ ื™ื”ื•ื“ื” ืžื›ืฉื™ืจ ื‘ืงื˜ืŸ (ื“ืชื ื™ื) ืืžืจ ืจื‘ื™ ื™ื”ื•ื“ื” ืงื˜ืŸ ื”ื™ื™ืชื™ ื•ืงืจื™ืชื™ื” ืœืžืขืœื” ืžืจื‘ื™ ื˜ืจืคื•ืŸ ื•ื–ืงื ื™ื ื‘ืœื•ื“ ืืžืจื• ืœื• ืื™ืŸ ืžื‘ื™ืื™ืŸ ืจืื™ื” ืžืŸ ื”ืงื˜ืŸ

ยง It was taught in the mishna: Rabbi Yehuda says that a minor is fit to read the Megilla. It is taught in a baraita: Rabbi Yehuda said: I can offer proof to my opinion, as when I was a minor I myself read the Megilla before Rabbi Tarfon and the other Elders in Lod. They said to him in response: One cannot bring a proof from the testimony of a minor. Since at the time of the supposed incident you were a minor, you are not qualified now to testify about it.

ืชื ื™ื ืืžืจ ืจื‘ื™ ืงื˜ืŸ ื”ื™ื™ืชื™ ื•ืงืจื™ืชื™ื” ืœืžืขืœื” ืžืจื‘ื™ ื™ื”ื•ื“ื” ืืžืจื• ืœื• ืื™ืŸ ืžื‘ื™ืื™ืŸ ืจืื™ื” ืžืŸ ื”ืžืชื™ืจ

It is taught in a different baraita: Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi said: When I was a minor I read the Megilla before Rabbi Yehuda. They said to him: One cannot bring a proof that an act is permitted from the behavior of the very one who permits it. We know that Rabbi Yehuda maintains that a minor is fit to read the Megilla, and the fact that he acted in accordance with his own opinion does not prove that this is the accepted halakha.

ื•ืœื™ืžืจื• ืœื™ื” ืื™ืŸ ืžื‘ื™ืื™ืŸ ืจืื™ื” ืžืŸ ื”ืงื˜ืŸ ื—ื“ื ื•ืขื•ื“ ืงืืžืจื• ืœื™ื” ื—ื“ื ื“ืงื˜ืŸ ื”ื™ื™ืช ื•ืขื•ื“ ืืคื™ืœื• ื’ื“ื•ืœ ื”ื™ื™ืช ืื™ืŸ ืžื‘ื™ืื™ืŸ ืจืื™ื” ืžืŸ ื”ืžืชื™ืจ

The Gemara asks: And let them say to him, as the Sages said to Rabbi Yehuda in the previous baraita, that one cannot bring a proof from the testimony of a minor. The Gemara answers: They said one thing to him and then another; i.e., they rejected him with a twofold argument: One objection is that you were a minor at that time, and therefore your testimony is disqualified. And furthermore, even if you had been an adult at that time and you had testified that you saw some other minor read the Megilla before Rabbi Yehuda, one cannot bring a proof that an act is permitted from the behavior of the very one who permits it.

ืžืชื ื™ืณ ืื™ืŸ ืงื•ืจื™ืŸ ืืช ื”ืžื’ื™ืœื” ื•ืœื ืžืœื™ืŸ ื•ืœื ื˜ื•ื‘ืœื™ืŸ ื•ืœื ืžื–ื™ืŸ ื•ื›ืŸ ืฉื•ืžืจืช ื™ื•ื ื›ื ื’ื“ ื™ื•ื ืœื ืชื˜ื‘ื•ืœ ืขื“ ืฉืชื ืฅ ื”ื—ืžื” ื•ื›ื•ืœืŸ ืฉืขืฉื• ืžืฉืขืœื” ืขืžื•ื“ ื”ืฉื—ืจ ื›ืฉืจ

MISHNA: One may not read the Megilla, nor perform a circumcision, nor immerse himself in a ritual bath, nor sprinkle water of purification to purify people and objects that had contracted ritual impurity through contact with a corpse until after sunrise. And also a woman who observes a clean day for each day she experiences a discharge, i.e., a woman who experienced one or two days of non-menstrual bleeding, and must now wait until a day has passed without any discharge of blood before regaining ritual purity, she too may not immerse herself until the sun has risen. And with regard to all these activities that are supposed to be performed during the day, if one did them after daybreak, i.e., after the appearance of the first light of the sun, even before sunrise, they are valid, as at this point it is already considered daytime.

ื’ืžืณ ืžื ืœืŸ ื“ืืžืจ ืงืจื ื•ื”ื™ืžื™ื ื”ืืœื” ื ื–ื›ืจื™ื ื•ื ืขืฉื™ื ื‘ื™ื•ื ืื™ืŸ ื‘ืœื™ืœื” ืœื ืœื™ืžื ืชื™ื”ื•ื™ ืชื™ื•ื‘ืชื ื“ืจื‘ื™ ื™ื”ื•ืฉืข ื‘ืŸ ืœื•ื™ ื“ืืžืจ ืจื‘ื™ ื™ื”ื•ืฉืข ื‘ืŸ ืœื•ื™ ื—ื™ื™ื‘ ืื“ื ืœืงืจื•ืช ืืช ื”ืžื’ื™ืœื” ื‘ืœื™ืœื” ื•ืœืฉื ื•ืชื” ื‘ื™ื•ื ื›ื™ ืงืชื ื™ ืื“ื™ื•ื

GEMARA: The Gemara asks: From where do we derive the halakha taught in the mishna that the Megilla may be read only during the day? The Gemara answers: As the verse states: โ€œAnd that these days should be remembered and keptโ€ (Esther 9:28). The word โ€œdaysโ€ indicates during the day, yes, but at night, no. The Gemara asks: Let us say that this is a conclusive refutation of the opinion of Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi, as Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi said: A person is obligated to read the Megilla at night and then repeat it during the day. The Gemara rejects this: There is no proof from here, as when the mishna teaches that the Megilla may be read only during the day, it was referring to the daytime reading, but the nighttime reading is not considered here at all.

ื•ืœื ืžืœื™ืŸ ื•ื›ื•ืณ ื“ื›ืชื™ื‘ ื•ื‘ื™ื•ื ื”ืฉืžื™ื ื™ ื™ืžื•ืœ

ยง The mishna continues: And one may not perform a circumcision until after sunrise, as it is written: โ€œAnd on the eighth day he shall be circumcisedโ€ (Leviticus 12:3). This indicates that the circumcision must be during the day, not at night.

ื•ืœื ื˜ื•ื‘ืœื™ืŸ ื•ืœื ืžื–ื™ืŸ ื•ื›ื•ืณ ื“ื›ืชื™ื‘ ื•ื”ื–ื” ื”ื˜ื”ื•ืจ ืขืœ ื”ื˜ืžื [ื•ื’ื•ืณ] ื‘ื™ื•ื ื”ืฉื‘ื™ืขื™ ื•ืื™ืชืงืฉ ื˜ื‘ื™ืœื” ืœื”ื–ื™ื”

ยง It is further taught in the mishna: And one may not immerse himself in a ritual bath, or sprinkle waters of purification until after sunrise. This too is derived from a verse, as it is written: โ€œAnd the pure person shall sprinkle upon the impure on the third day and on the seventh day; and on the seventh day he shall purify himself and wash his clothes, and bathe himself in water, and shall be pure at eveningโ€ (Numbers 19:19), which teaches that the sprinkling must take place during the day and not at night. And immersion is likened to sprinkling, as it too is mentioned in the verse, โ€œand bathe himself in water,โ€ so that whatever is invalid with respect to sprinkling is also invalid with respect to immersion.

ื•ื›ืŸ ืฉื•ืžืจืช ื™ื•ื ื›ื ื’ื“ ื™ื•ื ืœื ืชื˜ื‘ื•ืœ ืขื“ ืฉืชื ืฅ ื”ื—ืžื” ื•ื›ื•ืณ ืคืฉื™ื˜ื ืžืื™ ืฉื ื ืฉื•ืžืจืช ื™ื•ื ื›ื ื’ื“ ื™ื•ื ืžื›ืœ ื—ื™ื™ื‘ื™ ื˜ื‘ื™ืœื•ืช

ยง The mishna states: And also a woman who observes a day for a day may not immerse herself until the sun has risen. The Gemara asks: This is obvious. What is different about a woman who observes a day for a day, who must immerse herself in a ritual bath, from all the others who are obligated to immerse themselves, as it was already taught that one may not immerse himself in a ritual bath until it is day?

ืื™ืฆื˜ืจื™ืš ืกืœืงื ื“ืขืชืš ืืžื™ื ื ืชื™ื”ื•ื™ ื›ืจืื™ื” ืจืืฉื•ื ื” ืฉืœ ื–ื‘ ื•ืจืื™ื” ืจืืฉื•ื ื” ืฉืœ ื–ื‘ ืื™ืชืงืฉ ืœื‘ืขืœ ืงืจื™ ื“ื›ืชื™ื‘ ื–ืืช ืชื•ืจืช ื”ื–ื‘ ื•ืืฉืจ ืชืฆื ืžืžื ื• ืฉื›ื‘ืช ื–ืจืข ืžื” ื‘ืขืœ ืงืจื™ ื˜ื•ื‘ืœ ื‘ื™ื•ื ื”ืื™ ื ืžื™ ืœื™ื˜ื‘ื•ืœ ื‘ื™ื•ืžื™ื”

The Gemara answers: It is nevertheless necessary to mention separately the case of a woman who observes a day for a day. As, it might enter your mind to say that this womanโ€™s bleeding should be treated like the first emission of a zav, a man who experiences a gonorrhea-like secretion, in that just as a man attains the status of a full-fledged zav once he has three such emissions, so too, a woman attains the status of a full-fledged zava once she experiences three days of bleeding. And the first emission of a zav is likened to one who experienced a seminal discharge, as it is written: โ€œThis is the halakha of him that has an issue and of him whose semen goes from himโ€ (Leviticus 15:32). From this it is learned: Just as one who experienced a seminal discharge immerses on the same day that he had the discharge, so too, that one, the zav, may immerse himself on the same day that he had the emission.

ื•ื”ื ื‘ื™ืžืžื ืœื ืžืฆื™ ื˜ื‘ืœื” ื“ื›ืชื™ื‘ ื›ืœ ื™ืžื™ ื–ื•ื‘ื” ื›ืžืฉื›ื‘ ื ื“ืชื” ื™ื”ื™ื” ืœื” ื‘ืœื™ืœื™ื ืžื™ื”ืช ืœื™ืขื‘ื™ื“ ืžืงืฆืช ืฉื™ืžื•ืจ ื•ืชื™ื˜ื‘ื•ืœ ืงื ืžืฉืžืข ืœืŸ ื›ื™ื•ืŸ ื“ื‘ืขื™ื ืกืคื™ืจื”

And although this one, i.e., a woman who observes a day for a day, cannot immerse on the same day that she experienced the bleeding, as it is written: โ€œAll the days of her issue shall be to her as the bed of her menstruationโ€ (Leviticus 15:26), which teaches that she remains the entire day of her issue in her impure state and must wait until the day is over before she can immerse herself, nevertheless, one might have said that at least during the night following the day of her issue she should be able to perform a partial observation, i.e., she should verify that part of the night has gone by without bleeding, and then immerse herself at night, without waiting until morning. Therefore, the mishna teaches us that since she is required to count one day of purity after her day of impurity,

ืกืคื™ืจื” ื‘ื™ืžืžื ื”ื™ื

and counting can only be done during the day and not at night, as it says: โ€œAnd she shall count for herself seven daysโ€ (Leviticus 15:28), she cannot immerse herself until after sunrise, although here she has to count only one day.

ื•ื›ื•ืœืŸ ืฉืขืฉื• ืžืฉืขืœื” ืขืžื•ื“ ื”ืฉื—ืจ ื›ืฉืจ ืžื ื”ื ื™ ืžื™ืœื™ ืืžืจ ืจื‘ื ื“ืืžืจ ืงืจื ื•ื™ืงืจื ืืœื”ื™ื ืœืื•ืจ ื™ื•ื ืœืžืื™ืจ ื•ื‘ื ืงืจืื• ื™ื•ื

ยง The mishna concludes: And with regard to all these things, if one did them after daybreak they are valid. The Gemara asks: From where is this matter derived, that from daybreak it is already considered daytime? Rava said: As the verse states: โ€œAnd God called the light [or] dayโ€ (Genesis 1:5), meaning: To that which was becoming lighter and lighter he called day. The Hebrew word or is not to be understood in its usual sense of light, but as a verbal noun: that which is becoming lighter and lighter. It teaches that as soon as light begins to appear in the sky it is called daytime.

ืืœื ืžืขืชื” ื•ืœื—ืฉืš ืงืจื ืœื™ืœื” [ืœืžื—ืฉื™ืš ื•ื‘ื ืงืจื ืœื™ืœื”] ื”ื ืงื™ื™ืžื ืœืŸ ื“ืขื“ ืฆืืช ื”ื›ื•ื›ื‘ื™ื ืœืื• ืœื™ืœื” ื”ื•ื

The Gemara raises a difficulty with this interpretation: However, if it is so that Ravaโ€™s interpretation of this phrase is correct, the following phrase: โ€œAnd the darkness [แธฅoshekh] He called nightโ€ (Genesis 1:5), should be interpreted in a similar fashion: That which was becoming darker and darker He called night, so that immediately after sunset it would be considered nighttime. But donโ€™t we maintain that until the stars come out it is not nighttime? We are forced to say that แธฅoshekh literally means darkness, and similarly, or in the first part of the verse literally means light.

ืืœื ืืžืจ ืจื‘ื™ ื–ื™ืจื ืžื”ื›ื ื•ืื ื—ื ื• ืขื•ืฉื™ื ื‘ืžืœืื›ื” ื•ื—ืฆื™ื ืžื—ื–ื™ืงื™ื ื‘ืจืžื—ื™ื ืžืขืœื•ืช ื”ืฉื—ืจ ืขื“ ืฆืืช ื”ื›ื•ื›ื‘ื™ื ื•ืื•ืžืจ (ื•ื”ื™ื”) ืœื ื• ื”ืœื™ืœื” (ืœืžืฉืžืจ)

Rather, Rabbi Zeira said: We derive this halakha from here, as it is stated: โ€œSo we labored in the work; and half of them held the spears from the rising of the morning till the stars appearedโ€ (Nehemiah 4:15), where โ€œrising of the morningโ€ means daybreak, and the next verse states: โ€œSo that in the night they may be a guard to us; and labor in the dayโ€ (Nehemiah 4:16). This demonstrates that the day begins with the dawn.

ืžืื™ ื•ืื•ืžืจ ื•ื›ื™ ืชื™ืžื ืžืฉืขืœื” ืขืžื•ื“ ื”ืฉื—ืจ ืœืื• ื™ืžืžื ื•ืžื›ื™ ืขืจื‘ื ืฉืžืฉื ืœื™ืœื™ื ื•ืื™ื ื”ื• ืžืงื“ืžื™ ื•ืžื—ืฉื›ื™ ืชื ืฉืžืข (ื•ื”ื™ื”) ืœื ื• ื”ืœื™ืœื” ืžืฉืžืจ ื•ื”ื™ื•ื ืžืœืื›ื”

The Gemara clarifies Rabbi Zeiraโ€™s statement: What need is there for the additional verse introduced by the words โ€œand it statesโ€? Why does the first proof-text not suffice? The Gemara explains: The second verse comes to deflect the following possible objection: You might say that even after โ€œthe rising of the morningโ€ it is not yet considered day, and that from the time when the sun sets it is already considered night, and in this particular incident it happened that they began their work early, before the official beginning of daytime, and remained working late, after the official end of daytime. Therefore, Rabbi Zeira continued and said: Come and hear that which is stated in the next verse: โ€œSo that in the night they may be a guard to us; and labor in the day.โ€ The entire time during which they worked is referred to as โ€œday,โ€ which proves that the day begins at daybreak.

ืžืชื ื™ืณ ื›ืœ ื”ื™ื•ื ื›ืฉืจ ืœืงืจื™ืืช ื”ืžื’ื™ืœื” ื•ืœืงืจื™ืืช ื”ื”ืœืœ ื•ืœืชืงื™ืขืช ืฉื•ืคืจ ื•ืœื ื˜ื™ืœืช ืœื•ืœื‘ ื•ืœืชืคืœืช ื”ืžื•ืกืคื™ืŸ ื•ืœืžื•ืกืคื™ืŸ

MISHNA: Although it is preferable to fulfill a particular dayโ€™s mitzva at the earliest possible hour, the entire day is a valid time for reading the Megilla; for reciting hallel; for sounding the shofar on Rosh HaShana; for taking the lulav and the other species on Sukkot; for the additional prayer recited on Shabbat and other occasions; and for the additional offerings sacrificed in the Temple on these occasions.

ื•ืœื•ื™ื“ื•ื™ ื”ืคืจื™ื ื•ืœื•ื™ื“ื•ื™ ืžืขืฉืจ ื•ืœื•ื™ื“ื•ื™ ื™ื•ื ื”ื›ืคื•ืจื™ื

And the entire day is also a valid time for the confession over the bulls brought by the Sanhedrin or by the High Priest to atone for mistakes they had made in their instruction to the people; for the declaration made on the last day of Passover in the fourth and seventh year of the Sabbatical cycle, stating that oneโ€™s obligations with regard to tithes have been properly fulfilled (see Deuteronomy 26:12โ€“15); and for the confession of sins made by the High Priest on Yom Kippur over the special offerings brought on that day.

ืœืกืžื™ื›ื” ืœืฉื—ื™ื˜ื” ืœืชื ื•ืคื” ืœื”ื’ืฉื” ืœืงืžื™ืฆื” ื•ืœื”ืงื˜ืจื” ืœืžืœื™ืงื” ื•ืœืงื‘ืœื” ื•ืœื”ื–ื™ื”

The entire day is also a valid time for placing hands on the head of an offering; for slaughtering an offering; for waving those offerings that require waving in the Temple; for bringing meal-offerings near to the altar; for scooping out a fistful of flour from a meal-offering in order to burn it on the altar; and for burning the fistful of flour on the altar; for pinching the necks of the turtledoves and young pigeons sacrificed as offerings in the Temple; and for receiving the blood of an offering in a vessel; and for sprinkling blood on the altar and on the curtain separating between the Holy and the Holy of Holies.

ื•ืœื”ืฉืงื™ื™ืช ืกื•ื˜ื” ื•ืœืขืจื™ืคืช ื”ืขื’ืœื” ื•ืœื˜ื”ืจืช ื”ืžืฆื•ืจืข

And the entire day is also a valid time for giving a woman suspected by her husband of having been unfaithful [sota] to drink from the bitter waters (see Numbers 5:11โ€“31); for breaking the neck of the heifer as part of the procedure followed when a corpse is found outside a town and it is not known who caused his death (see Deuteronomy 21:1โ€“9); and for all the steps in the purification process of the leper (see Leviticus 14:1โ€“20).

ื›ืœ ื”ืœื™ืœื” ื›ืฉืจ ืœืงืฆื™ืจืช ื”ืขื•ืžืจ ื•ืœื”ืงื˜ืจ ื—ืœื‘ื™ื ื•ืื‘ืจื™ื ื–ื” ื”ื›ืœืœ ื“ื‘ืจ ืฉืžืฆื•ืชื• ื‘ื™ื•ื ื›ืฉืจ ื›ืœ ื”ื™ื•ื ื“ื‘ืจ ืฉืžืฆื•ืชื• ื‘ืœื™ืœื” ื›ืฉืจ ื›ืœ ื”ืœื™ืœื”

Correspondingly, all the mitzvot that must be performed at night may be performed anytime during the night: The entire night is a valid time for reaping the omer of barley on the night following the first day of Passover, for burning the fats of offerings that had been brought during the preceding day, and for burning the limbs of burnt-offerings. This is the principle: Something that it is a mitzva to perform during the day is valid if performed anytime during the entire day; something that it is a mitzva to perform at night is valid if performed anytime during the entire night.

ื’ืžืณ ืžื ืœืŸ ื“ืืžืจ ืงืจื ื•ื”ื™ืžื™ื ื”ืืœื” ื ื–ื›ืจื™ื ื•ื ืขืฉื™ื ืœืงืจื™ืืช ื”ื”ืœืœ ื“ื›ืชื™ื‘ ืžืžื–ืจื— ืฉืžืฉ ืขื“ ืžื‘ื•ืื• (ืจื‘ื™ ื™ื•ืกื™) ืื•ืžืจ ื–ื” ื”ื™ื•ื ืขืฉื” ื”ืณ

GEMARA: The Gemara asks: From where do we derive that these mitzvot were commanded to be performed specifically during the day? With regard to reading the Megilla, the verse states: โ€œThat these days should be remembered and keptโ€ (Esther 9:28). For reciting the hallel, the proof is from that which is written in hallel: โ€œFrom the rising of the sun to its setting, the Lordโ€™s name is to be praisedโ€ (Psalms 113:3). Rabbi Yosei said: The proof is from another verse in hallel: โ€œThis is the day that the Lord has madeโ€ (Psalms 118:24), implying that it is to be recited during the day and not at night.

ื•ืœื ื˜ื™ืœืช ืœื•ืœื‘ ื“ื›ืชื™ื‘ ื•ืœืงื—ืชื ืœื›ื ื‘ื™ื•ื ื”ืจืืฉื•ืŸ ื•ืœืชืงื™ืขืช ืฉื•ืคืจ ื“ื›ืชื™ื‘ ื™ื•ื ืชืจื•ืขื” ื™ื”ื™ื” ืœื›ื ื•ืœืžื•ืกืคื™ืŸ ื“ื›ืชื™ื‘ ื“ื‘ืจ ื™ื•ื ื‘ื™ื•ืžื• ื•ืœืชืคืœืช ื”ืžื•ืกืคื™ืŸ ื›ืžื•ืกืคื™ืŸ ืฉื•ื™ื•ื” ืจื‘ื ืŸ

And daytime is the time for taking the lulav, as it is written: โ€œAnd you shall take for yourselves on the first day the fruit of a beautiful tree, branches of a date palm, and boughs of a dense-leaved tree, and willows of the brookโ€ (Leviticus 23:40). Daytime is also the time for sounding the shofar, as it is written: โ€œIt is a day of sounding the shofar to youโ€ (Numbers 29:1). Likewise, the time for the additional offerings is day, as it is written with regard to these offerings: โ€œTo sacrifice an offering made by fire to the Lord, a burnt-offering, and a meal-offering, a sacrifice, and libations, each on its own dayโ€ (Leviticus 23:37). And this is also so for the additional prayer, because the Sages made it equivalent to those additional offerings.

ื•ืœื•ื™ื“ื•ื™ ืคืจื™ื ื“ื™ืœื™ืฃ ื›ืคืจื” ื›ืคืจื” ืžื™ื•ื ื”ื›ืคื•ืจื™ื ื“ืชื ื™ื ื’ื‘ื™ ื™ื•ื ื”ื›ืคื•ืจื™ื ื•ื›ืคืจ ื‘ืขื“ื• ื•ื‘ืขื“ ื‘ื™ืชื• ื‘ื›ืคืจืช ื“ื‘ืจื™ื ื”ื›ืชื•ื‘ ืžื“ื‘ืจ ื•ื›ืคืจื” ื‘ื™ืžืžื ื”ื•ื ื“ื›ืชื™ื‘ ื‘ื™ื•ื ื”ื–ื” ื™ื›ืคืจ ืขืœื™ื›ื

And daytime is the time for the confession over the bulls, as this is derived by way of a verbal analogy between one instance of atonement in this context and another instance of atonement in the context of Yom Kippur. As it is taught in a baraita with regard to Yom Kippur, the verse states: โ€œAnd Aaron shall present the bull of the sin-offering that is his, and atone for himself and for his householdโ€ (Leviticus 16:11). The verse speaks of atonement achieved through words, i.e., the atonement here is not referring to the sacrifice of offerings and the sprinkling of blood, but rather to atonement achieved through confession. And the atonement of Yom Kippur is only during the day, as it is written: โ€œFor on that day will He atone for youโ€ (Leviticus 16:30). Just as the atonement on Yom Kippur must take place during the day, so must the other cases of atonement, over other bulls brought as sin-offerings, take place during the day.

ื•ืœื•ื™ื“ื•ื™ ืžืขืฉืจ ื•ื›ื•ืณ ื“ื›ืชื™ื‘ ื•ืืžืจืช ืœืคื ื™ ื”ืณ ืืœื”ื™ืš ื‘ืขืจืชื™ ื”ืงื“ืฉ ืžืŸ ื”ื‘ื™ืช ื•ืกืžื™ืš ืœื™ื” ื”ื™ื•ื ื”ื–ื” ื”ืณ ืืœื”ื™ืš ืžืฆื•ืš

And daytime is the time for the declaration with regard to tithes, as it is written in the formula of this declaration: โ€œAnd you shall say before the Lord your God, I have removed the sacred things out of my houseโ€ (Deuteronomy 26:13โ€“15); and juxtaposed to that passage it is written: โ€œThis day the Lord your God has commanded you to doโ€ (Deuteronomy 26:16), implying during the day and not at night.

ืœืกืžื™ื›ื” ื•ืœืฉื—ื™ื˜ื” ื“ื›ืชื™ื‘ ื•ืกืžืš ื•ืฉื—ื˜ ื•ื›ืชื™ื‘ ื‘ื” ื‘ืฉื—ื™ื˜ื” ื‘ื™ื•ื ื–ื‘ื—ื›ื ื•ืœืชื ื•ืคื” ื“ื›ืชื™ื‘ ื‘ื™ื•ื ื”ื ื™ืคื›ื ืืช ื”ืขื•ืžืจ

For placing hands on the head of an offering and for slaughtering an offering, it is derived as it is written: โ€œAnd he shall lay his hand upon the head of his offering, and slaughter itโ€ (Leviticus 3:8), comparing the laying of hands to slaughtering. And it is written with regard to slaughtering: โ€œOn the day that you slaughterโ€ (Leviticus 19:6), meaning during the day and not at night. And for waving the offerings that require waving, it is derived as it is written: โ€œAnd on the day you wave the omerโ€ (Leviticus 23:12).

ื•ืœื”ื’ืฉื” ื“ืื™ืชืงืฉ ืœืชื ื•ืคื” ื“ื›ืชื™ื‘ ื•ืœืงื— ื”ื›ื”ืŸ ืžื™ื“ ื”ืืฉื” ืืช ืžื ื—ืช ื”ืงื ืื•ืช ื•ื”ื ื™ืฃ ื•ื”ืงืจื™ื‘ ื•ืœืžืœื™ืงื” ื•ืœืงืžื™ืฆื” ื•ืœื”ืงื˜ืจื” ื•ืœื”ื–ื™ื” ื“ื›ืชื™ื‘ ื‘ื™ื•ื ืฆื•ื•ืชื• ืืช ื‘ื ื™ ื™ืฉืจืืœ

And with regard to bringing the meal-offerings near the altar, it is likened to waving, as it is written: โ€œAnd the priest shall take the meal-offering of jealousy from the womanโ€™s hand, and shall wave the offering before the Lord, and sacrifice it upon the altarโ€ (Numbers 5:25). The words โ€œsacrifice itโ€ are referring to bringing the offering near the altar. And for scooping out a fistful of flour, and for pinching the necks of the bird-offerings, and for burning the fistful of flour on the altar, and for sprinkling the blood, these are derived as it is written: โ€œThis is the law of the burnt-offering, of the meal-offering, and of the sin-offering, and of the guilt-offering, and of the consecration-offering, and of the sacrifice of the peace-offering; which the Lord commanded Moses on Mount Sinai on the day that he commanded the children of Israel to present their offeringsโ€ (Leviticus 7:37โ€“38).

ื•ืœื”ืฉืงื™ื™ืช ืกื•ื˜ื” ืืชื™ื ืชื•ืจื” ืชื•ืจื” ื›ืชื™ื‘ ื”ื›ื ื•ืขืฉื” ืœื” ื”ื›ื”ืŸ ืืช ื›ืœ ื”ืชื•ืจื” ื”ื–ืืช ื•ื›ืชื™ื‘ ื”ืชื ืขืœ ืคื™ ื”ืชื•ืจื” ืืฉืจ ื™ื•ืจื•ืš ื•ืขืœ ื”ืžืฉืคื˜

And with regard to giving the sota to drink from the bitter waters, this is derived from a verbal analogy between one instance of the word โ€œTorahโ€ and another instance of the word โ€œTorah.โ€ It is written here with respect to a sota: โ€œAnd the priest shall execute upon her all this Torahโ€ (Numbers 5:30), and it is written there with regard to judgment: โ€œAccording to the Torah, which they shall teach you, and according to the judgment, which they shall tell youโ€ (Deuteronomy 17:11).

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