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Today's Daf Yomi

January 1, 2022 | 讻状讞 讘讟讘转 转砖驻状讘

  • This month's learning is sponsored by the Hadran Women of Silver Spring in memory of Nicki Toys, Nechama bat Shmuel Tzadok.

  • This month鈥檚 learning is sponsored by Shlomo and Amalia Klapper in honor of the birth of Chiyenna Yochana, named after her great-great-grandmother, Chiyenna Kossovsky.

  • This month's learning is sponsored by Elaine Hochberg in honor of her husband, Arie Hochberg, who continues to journey through Daf Yomi with her. 鈥淎nd with thanks to Rabbanit Farber and Hadran who have made our learning possible.鈥

Megillah 20

Does Rabbi Yehuda think that ideally a deaf person can鈥檛 read the Megillah, but if one did not, one can still fulfill one鈥檚 obligation? Or is a deaf person able to read it ab initio? One suggestion is that he himself holds the latter and the former was said by him but in the name of Rabbi Elazar ben Azaria. The other option is that he holds the former and the sources that indicate one does not need to hear at all what one is saying, is the opinion of Rabbi Meir as appears in a braita regarding Shema. Rabbi Yehuda holds that a minor can read the Megillah and brings a proof that he read when he was young. However, since testimony cannot be accepted from minors, the rabbis refuse to accept his testimony regarding when he was young. Another attempt to prove Rabbi Yehuda from a story is brought but it too is rejected. The Mishna lists mitzvot that need to be done during the day and their obligation begins at sunrise. However, if one did it from the time the sun began to rise, amud hashachar, one fulfilled one鈥檚 obligation. The Gemara finds a source for each item on the list and how one knows that the obligation is during the day. Why does the Mishna list both those who go to the mikveh and a zava ketana who also needs to go to the mikveh? The next Mishna lists mitzvot that one is obligated to do during the day and one can do it all day long. Likewise, mitzvot that are done at night can be performed all night long. The Gemara goes through the list proving how one knows one needs to perform each of these mitzvot during the day.

诇注讜诇诐 专讘讬 讬讛讜讚讛 讜讗驻讬诇讜 诇讻转讞讬诇讛 讜诇讗 拽砖讬讗 讛讗 讚讬讚讬讛 讛讗 讚专讘讬讛

The Gemara answers: Actually, you can indeed say that the baraita about teruma was taught in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Yehuda, and that Rabbi Yehuda permits a deaf person to read even ab initio, while Rabbi Yosei disqualifies a deaf person even after the fact. And the baraita that teaches that one should not recite the Grace after Meals in his heart, but if he did he has fulfilled his obligation, is not difficult, as that baraita was taught by Rabbi Yehuda as well. The explanation for this is that in this baraita, about teruma, he was teaching his own opinion, that it is permitted even ab initio, whereas in that baraita, concerning the Grace after Meals, he was teaching the opinion of his master, Rabbi Elazar ben Azarya, that one is required to hear what he is saying when he recites blessings.

讚转谞讬讗 专讘讬 讬讛讜讚讛 讗讜诪专 诪砖讜诐 专讘讬 讗诇注讝专 讘谉 注讝专讬讛 讛拽讜专讗 讗转 砖诪注 爪专讬讱 砖讬砖诪讬注 诇讗讝谞讜 砖谞讗诪专 砖诪注 讬砖专讗诇 讛壮 讗诇讛讬谞讜 讛壮 讗讞讚 讛砖诪注 诇讗讝谞讬讱 诪讛 砖讗转讛 诪讜爪讬讗 诪驻讬讱 专讘讬 诪讗讬专 讗讜诪专 讗砖专 讗谞讻讬 诪爪讜讱 讛讬讜诐 注诇 诇讘讘讱 讗讞专 讻讜讜谞转 讛诇讘 讛谉 讛谉 讛讚讘专讬诐

As it is taught in a baraita: Rabbi Yehuda said in the name of Rabbi Elazar ben Azarya: One who recites the Shema must make it audible to his ears, as it is stated: 鈥淗ear O Israel, the Lord our God; the Lord is One鈥 (Deuteronomy 6:4), the word 鈥渉ear鈥 indicating that you should allow your ears to hear the words you are expressing with your mouth. Rabbi Meir disagrees and says: This is not necessary, as it is also stated there: 鈥淎nd these words, which I command you this day shall be in your heart鈥 (Deuteronomy 6:6), indicating that 鈥渢hese words,鈥 the words of the Shema, go after the intent of the heart, as it is unnecessary to pronounce them out loud. We see that according to Rabbi Elazar ben Azarya, as cited by Rabbi Yehuda, the words must be audible to one鈥檚 ears ab initio.

讛砖转讗 讚讗转讬转 诇讛讻讬 讗驻讬诇讜 转讬诪讗 专讘讬 讬讛讜讚讛 讻专讘讬讛 住讘讬专讗 诇讬讛 讜讛讗 讚转谞讬 讬讛讜讚讛 讘专讬讛 讚专讘讬 砖诪注讜谉 讘谉 驻讝讬 专讘讬 诪讗讬专 讛讬讗

The Gemara proposes a second solution: Now that you have arrived at this point and cited this baraita, you can even say that Rabbi Yehuda holds in accordance with his teacher, Rabbi Elazar ben Azarya, that a deaf person is disqualified ab initio, and it is only after the fact that his reading is valid. And as for that baraita that Rabbi Yehuda, son of Rabbi Shimon ben Pazi, taught stating that a deaf person may set aside teruma even ab initio, this was taught in accordance with the other opinion cited in the baraita, i.e., that of Rabbi Meir, who maintains that everything depends on the intent of one鈥檚 heart, and that it is not necessary to pronounce words audibly, even ab initio.

专讘讬 讬讛讜讚讛 诪讻砖讬专 讘拽讟谉 (讚转谞讬讗) 讗诪专 专讘讬 讬讛讜讚讛 拽讟谉 讛讬讬转讬 讜拽专讬转讬讛 诇诪注诇讛 诪专讘讬 讟专驻讜谉 讜讝拽谞讬诐 讘诇讜讚 讗诪专讜 诇讜 讗讬谉 诪讘讬讗讬谉 专讗讬讛 诪谉 讛拽讟谉

搂 It was taught in the mishna: Rabbi Yehuda says that a minor is fit to read the Megilla. It is taught in a baraita: Rabbi Yehuda said: I can offer proof to my opinion, as when I was a minor I myself read the Megilla before Rabbi Tarfon and the other Elders in Lod. They said to him in response: One cannot bring a proof from the testimony of a minor. Since at the time of the supposed incident you were a minor, you are not qualified now to testify about it.

转谞讬讗 讗诪专 专讘讬 拽讟谉 讛讬讬转讬 讜拽专讬转讬讛 诇诪注诇讛 诪专讘讬 讬讛讜讚讛 讗诪专讜 诇讜 讗讬谉 诪讘讬讗讬谉 专讗讬讛 诪谉 讛诪转讬专

It is taught in a different baraita: Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi said: When I was a minor I read the Megilla before Rabbi Yehuda. They said to him: One cannot bring a proof that an act is permitted from the behavior of the very one who permits it. We know that Rabbi Yehuda maintains that a minor is fit to read the Megilla, and the fact that he acted in accordance with his own opinion does not prove that this is the accepted halakha.

讜诇讬诪专讜 诇讬讛 讗讬谉 诪讘讬讗讬谉 专讗讬讛 诪谉 讛拽讟谉 讞讚讗 讜注讜讚 拽讗诪专讜 诇讬讛 讞讚讗 讚拽讟谉 讛讬讬转 讜注讜讚 讗驻讬诇讜 讙讚讜诇 讛讬讬转 讗讬谉 诪讘讬讗讬谉 专讗讬讛 诪谉 讛诪转讬专

The Gemara asks: And let them say to him, as the Sages said to Rabbi Yehuda in the previous baraita, that one cannot bring a proof from the testimony of a minor. The Gemara answers: They said one thing to him and then another; i.e., they rejected him with a twofold argument: One objection is that you were a minor at that time, and therefore your testimony is disqualified. And furthermore, even if you had been an adult at that time and you had testified that you saw some other minor read the Megilla before Rabbi Yehuda, one cannot bring a proof that an act is permitted from the behavior of the very one who permits it.

诪转谞讬壮 讗讬谉 拽讜专讬谉 讗转 讛诪讙讬诇讛 讜诇讗 诪诇讬谉 讜诇讗 讟讜讘诇讬谉 讜诇讗 诪讝讬谉 讜讻谉 砖讜诪专转 讬讜诐 讻谞讙讚 讬讜诐 诇讗 转讟讘讜诇 注讚 砖转谞抓 讛讞诪讛 讜讻讜诇谉 砖注砖讜 诪砖注诇讛 注诪讜讚 讛砖讞专 讻砖专

MISHNA: One may not read the Megilla, nor perform a circumcision, nor immerse himself in a ritual bath, nor sprinkle water of purification to purify people and objects that had contracted ritual impurity through contact with a corpse until after sunrise. And also a woman who observes a clean day for each day she experiences a discharge, i.e., a woman who experienced one or two days of non-menstrual bleeding, and must now wait until a day has passed without any discharge of blood before regaining ritual purity, she too may not immerse herself until the sun has risen. And with regard to all these activities that are supposed to be performed during the day, if one did them after daybreak, i.e., after the appearance of the first light of the sun, even before sunrise, they are valid, as at this point it is already considered daytime.

讙诪壮 诪谞诇谉 讚讗诪专 拽专讗 讜讛讬诪讬诐 讛讗诇讛 谞讝讻专讬诐 讜谞注砖讬诐 讘讬讜诐 讗讬谉 讘诇讬诇讛 诇讗 诇讬诪讗 转讬讛讜讬 转讬讜讘转讗 讚专讘讬 讬讛讜砖注 讘谉 诇讜讬 讚讗诪专 专讘讬 讬讛讜砖注 讘谉 诇讜讬 讞讬讬讘 讗讚诐 诇拽专讜转 讗转 讛诪讙讬诇讛 讘诇讬诇讛 讜诇砖谞讜转讛 讘讬讜诐 讻讬 拽转谞讬 讗讚讬讜诐

GEMARA: The Gemara asks: From where do we derive the halakha taught in the mishna that the Megilla may be read only during the day? The Gemara answers: As the verse states: 鈥淎nd that these days should be remembered and kept鈥 (Esther 9:28). The word 鈥渄ays鈥 indicates during the day, yes, but at night, no. The Gemara asks: Let us say that this is a conclusive refutation of the opinion of Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi, as Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi said: A person is obligated to read the Megilla at night and then repeat it during the day. The Gemara rejects this: There is no proof from here, as when the mishna teaches that the Megilla may be read only during the day, it was referring to the daytime reading, but the nighttime reading is not considered here at all.

讜诇讗 诪诇讬谉 讜讻讜壮 讚讻转讬讘 讜讘讬讜诐 讛砖诪讬谞讬 讬诪讜诇

搂 The mishna continues: And one may not perform a circumcision until after sunrise, as it is written: 鈥淎nd on the eighth day he shall be circumcised鈥 (Leviticus 12:3). This indicates that the circumcision must be during the day, not at night.

讜诇讗 讟讜讘诇讬谉 讜诇讗 诪讝讬谉 讜讻讜壮 讚讻转讬讘 讜讛讝讛 讛讟讛讜专 注诇 讛讟诪讗 [讜讙讜壮] 讘讬讜诐 讛砖讘讬注讬 讜讗讬转拽砖 讟讘讬诇讛 诇讛讝讬讛

搂 It is further taught in the mishna: And one may not immerse himself in a ritual bath, or sprinkle waters of purification until after sunrise. This too is derived from a verse, as it is written: 鈥淎nd the pure person shall sprinkle upon the impure on the third day and on the seventh day; and on the seventh day he shall purify himself and wash his clothes, and bathe himself in water, and shall be pure at evening鈥 (Numbers 19:19), which teaches that the sprinkling must take place during the day and not at night. And immersion is likened to sprinkling, as it too is mentioned in the verse, 鈥渁nd bathe himself in water,鈥 so that whatever is invalid with respect to sprinkling is also invalid with respect to immersion.

讜讻谉 砖讜诪专转 讬讜诐 讻谞讙讚 讬讜诐 诇讗 转讟讘讜诇 注讚 砖转谞抓 讛讞诪讛 讜讻讜壮 驻砖讬讟讗 诪讗讬 砖谞讗 砖讜诪专转 讬讜诐 讻谞讙讚 讬讜诐 诪讻诇 讞讬讬讘讬 讟讘讬诇讜转

搂 The mishna states: And also a woman who observes a day for a day may not immerse herself until the sun has risen. The Gemara asks: This is obvious. What is different about a woman who observes a day for a day, who must immerse herself in a ritual bath, from all the others who are obligated to immerse themselves, as it was already taught that one may not immerse himself in a ritual bath until it is day?

讗讬爪讟专讬讱 住诇拽讗 讚注转讱 讗诪讬谞讗 转讬讛讜讬 讻专讗讬讛 专讗砖讜谞讛 砖诇 讝讘 讜专讗讬讛 专讗砖讜谞讛 砖诇 讝讘 讗讬转拽砖 诇讘注诇 拽专讬 讚讻转讬讘 讝讗转 转讜专转 讛讝讘 讜讗砖专 转爪讗 诪诪谞讜 砖讻讘转 讝专注 诪讛 讘注诇 拽专讬 讟讜讘诇 讘讬讜诐 讛讗讬 谞诪讬 诇讬讟讘讜诇 讘讬讜诪讬讛

The Gemara answers: It is nevertheless necessary to mention separately the case of a woman who observes a day for a day. As, it might enter your mind to say that this woman鈥檚 bleeding should be treated like the first emission of a zav, a man who experiences a gonorrhea-like secretion, in that just as a man attains the status of a full-fledged zav once he has three such emissions, so too, a woman attains the status of a full-fledged zava once she experiences three days of bleeding. And the first emission of a zav is likened to one who experienced a seminal discharge, as it is written: 鈥淭his is the halakha of him that has an issue and of him whose semen goes from him鈥 (Leviticus 15:32). From this it is learned: Just as one who experienced a seminal discharge immerses on the same day that he had the discharge, so too, that one, the zav, may immerse himself on the same day that he had the emission.

讜讛讗 讘讬诪诪讗 诇讗 诪爪讬 讟讘诇讛 讚讻转讬讘 讻诇 讬诪讬 讝讜讘讛 讻诪砖讻讘 谞讚转讛 讬讛讬讛 诇讛 讘诇讬诇讬讗 诪讬讛转 诇讬注讘讬讚 诪拽爪转 砖讬诪讜专 讜转讬讟讘讜诇 拽讗 诪砖诪注 诇谉 讻讬讜谉 讚讘注讬讗 住驻讬专讛

And although this one, i.e., a woman who observes a day for a day, cannot immerse on the same day that she experienced the bleeding, as it is written: 鈥淎ll the days of her issue shall be to her as the bed of her menstruation鈥 (Leviticus 15:26), which teaches that she remains the entire day of her issue in her impure state and must wait until the day is over before she can immerse herself, nevertheless, one might have said that at least during the night following the day of her issue she should be able to perform a partial observation, i.e., she should verify that part of the night has gone by without bleeding, and then immerse herself at night, without waiting until morning. Therefore, the mishna teaches us that since she is required to count one day of purity after her day of impurity,

住驻讬专讛 讘讬诪诪讗 讛讬讗

and counting can only be done during the day and not at night, as it says: 鈥淎nd she shall count for herself seven days鈥 (Leviticus 15:28), she cannot immerse herself until after sunrise, although here she has to count only one day.

讜讻讜诇谉 砖注砖讜 诪砖注诇讛 注诪讜讚 讛砖讞专 讻砖专 诪谞讛谞讬 诪讬诇讬 讗诪专 专讘讗 讚讗诪专 拽专讗 讜讬拽专讗 讗诇讛讬诐 诇讗讜专 讬讜诐 诇诪讗讬专 讜讘讗 拽专讗讜 讬讜诐

搂 The mishna concludes: And with regard to all these things, if one did them after daybreak they are valid. The Gemara asks: From where is this matter derived, that from daybreak it is already considered daytime? Rava said: As the verse states: 鈥淎nd God called the light [or] day鈥 (Genesis 1:5), meaning: To that which was becoming lighter and lighter he called day. The Hebrew word or is not to be understood in its usual sense of light, but as a verbal noun: that which is becoming lighter and lighter. It teaches that as soon as light begins to appear in the sky it is called daytime.

讗诇讗 诪注转讛 讜诇讞砖讱 拽专讗 诇讬诇讛 [诇诪讞砖讬讱 讜讘讗 拽专讗 诇讬诇讛] 讛讗 拽讬讬诪讗 诇谉 讚注讚 爪讗转 讛讻讜讻讘讬诐 诇讗讜 诇讬诇讛 讛讜讗

The Gemara raises a difficulty with this interpretation: However, if it is so that Rava鈥檚 interpretation of this phrase is correct, the following phrase: 鈥淎nd the darkness [岣shekh] He called night鈥 (Genesis 1:5), should be interpreted in a similar fashion: That which was becoming darker and darker He called night, so that immediately after sunset it would be considered nighttime. But don鈥檛 we maintain that until the stars come out it is not nighttime? We are forced to say that 岣shekh literally means darkness, and similarly, or in the first part of the verse literally means light.

讗诇讗 讗诪专 专讘讬 讝讬专讗 诪讛讻讗 讜讗谞讞谞讜 注讜砖讬诐 讘诪诇讗讻讛 讜讞爪讬诐 诪讞讝讬拽讬诐 讘专诪讞讬诐 诪注诇讜转 讛砖讞专 注讚 爪讗转 讛讻讜讻讘讬诐 讜讗讜诪专 (讜讛讬讛) 诇谞讜 讛诇讬诇讛 (诇诪砖诪专)

Rather, Rabbi Zeira said: We derive this halakha from here, as it is stated: 鈥淪o we labored in the work; and half of them held the spears from the rising of the morning till the stars appeared鈥 (Nehemiah 4:15), where 鈥渞ising of the morning鈥 means daybreak, and the next verse states: 鈥淪o that in the night they may be a guard to us; and labor in the day鈥 (Nehemiah 4:16). This demonstrates that the day begins with the dawn.

诪讗讬 讜讗讜诪专 讜讻讬 转讬诪讗 诪砖注诇讛 注诪讜讚 讛砖讞专 诇讗讜 讬诪诪讗 讜诪讻讬 注专讘讗 砖诪砖讗 诇讬诇讬讗 讜讗讬谞讛讜 诪拽讚诪讬 讜诪讞砖讻讬 转讗 砖诪注 (讜讛讬讛) 诇谞讜 讛诇讬诇讛 诪砖诪专 讜讛讬讜诐 诪诇讗讻讛

The Gemara clarifies Rabbi Zeira鈥檚 statement: What need is there for the additional verse introduced by the words 鈥渁nd it states鈥? Why does the first proof-text not suffice? The Gemara explains: The second verse comes to deflect the following possible objection: You might say that even after 鈥渢he rising of the morning鈥 it is not yet considered day, and that from the time when the sun sets it is already considered night, and in this particular incident it happened that they began their work early, before the official beginning of daytime, and remained working late, after the official end of daytime. Therefore, Rabbi Zeira continued and said: Come and hear that which is stated in the next verse: 鈥淪o that in the night they may be a guard to us; and labor in the day.鈥 The entire time during which they worked is referred to as 鈥渄ay,鈥 which proves that the day begins at daybreak.

诪转谞讬壮 讻诇 讛讬讜诐 讻砖专 诇拽专讬讗转 讛诪讙讬诇讛 讜诇拽专讬讗转 讛讛诇诇 讜诇转拽讬注转 砖讜驻专 讜诇谞讟讬诇转 诇讜诇讘 讜诇转驻诇转 讛诪讜住驻讬谉 讜诇诪讜住驻讬谉

MISHNA: Although it is preferable to fulfill a particular day鈥檚 mitzva at the earliest possible hour, the entire day is a valid time for reading the Megilla; for reciting hallel; for sounding the shofar on Rosh HaShana; for taking the lulav and the other species on Sukkot; for the additional prayer recited on Shabbat and other occasions; and for the additional offerings sacrificed in the Temple on these occasions.

讜诇讜讬讚讜讬 讛驻专讬诐 讜诇讜讬讚讜讬 诪注砖专 讜诇讜讬讚讜讬 讬讜诐 讛讻驻讜专讬诐

And the entire day is also a valid time for the confession over the bulls brought by the Sanhedrin or by the High Priest to atone for mistakes they had made in their instruction to the people; for the declaration made on the last day of Passover in the fourth and seventh year of the Sabbatical cycle, stating that one鈥檚 obligations with regard to tithes have been properly fulfilled (see Deuteronomy 26:12鈥15); and for the confession of sins made by the High Priest on Yom Kippur over the special offerings brought on that day.

诇住诪讬讻讛 诇砖讞讬讟讛 诇转谞讜驻讛 诇讛讙砖讛 诇拽诪讬爪讛 讜诇讛拽讟专讛 诇诪诇讬拽讛 讜诇拽讘诇讛 讜诇讛讝讬讛

The entire day is also a valid time for placing hands on the head of an offering; for slaughtering an offering; for waving those offerings that require waving in the Temple; for bringing meal-offerings near to the altar; for scooping out a fistful of flour from a meal-offering in order to burn it on the altar; and for burning the fistful of flour on the altar; for pinching the necks of the turtledoves and young pigeons sacrificed as offerings in the Temple; and for receiving the blood of an offering in a vessel; and for sprinkling blood on the altar and on the curtain separating between the Holy and the Holy of Holies.

讜诇讛砖拽讬讬转 住讜讟讛 讜诇注专讬驻转 讛注讙诇讛 讜诇讟讛专转 讛诪爪讜专注

And the entire day is also a valid time for giving a woman suspected by her husband of having been unfaithful [sota] to drink from the bitter waters (see Numbers 5:11鈥31); for breaking the neck of the heifer as part of the procedure followed when a corpse is found outside a town and it is not known who caused his death (see Deuteronomy 21:1鈥9); and for all the steps in the purification process of the leper (see Leviticus 14:1鈥20).

讻诇 讛诇讬诇讛 讻砖专 诇拽爪讬专转 讛注讜诪专 讜诇讛拽讟专 讞诇讘讬诐 讜讗讘专讬诐 讝讛 讛讻诇诇 讚讘专 砖诪爪讜转讜 讘讬讜诐 讻砖专 讻诇 讛讬讜诐 讚讘专 砖诪爪讜转讜 讘诇讬诇讛 讻砖专 讻诇 讛诇讬诇讛

Correspondingly, all the mitzvot that must be performed at night may be performed anytime during the night: The entire night is a valid time for reaping the omer of barley on the night following the first day of Passover, for burning the fats of offerings that had been brought during the preceding day, and for burning the limbs of burnt-offerings. This is the principle: Something that it is a mitzva to perform during the day is valid if performed anytime during the entire day; something that it is a mitzva to perform at night is valid if performed anytime during the entire night.

讙诪壮 诪谞诇谉 讚讗诪专 拽专讗 讜讛讬诪讬诐 讛讗诇讛 谞讝讻专讬诐 讜谞注砖讬诐 诇拽专讬讗转 讛讛诇诇 讚讻转讬讘 诪诪讝专讞 砖诪砖 注讚 诪讘讜讗讜 (专讘讬 讬讜住讬) 讗讜诪专 讝讛 讛讬讜诐 注砖讛 讛壮

GEMARA: The Gemara asks: From where do we derive that these mitzvot were commanded to be performed specifically during the day? With regard to reading the Megilla, the verse states: 鈥淭hat these days should be remembered and kept鈥 (Esther 9:28). For reciting the hallel, the proof is from that which is written in hallel: 鈥淔rom the rising of the sun to its setting, the Lord鈥檚 name is to be praised鈥 (Psalms 113:3). Rabbi Yosei said: The proof is from another verse in hallel: 鈥淭his is the day that the Lord has made鈥 (Psalms 118:24), implying that it is to be recited during the day and not at night.

讜诇谞讟讬诇转 诇讜诇讘 讚讻转讬讘 讜诇拽讞转诐 诇讻诐 讘讬讜诐 讛专讗砖讜谉 讜诇转拽讬注转 砖讜驻专 讚讻转讬讘 讬讜诐 转专讜注讛 讬讛讬讛 诇讻诐 讜诇诪讜住驻讬谉 讚讻转讬讘 讚讘专 讬讜诐 讘讬讜诪讜 讜诇转驻诇转 讛诪讜住驻讬谉 讻诪讜住驻讬谉 砖讜讬讜讛 专讘谞谉

And daytime is the time for taking the lulav, as it is written: 鈥淎nd you shall take for yourselves on the first day the fruit of a beautiful tree, branches of a date palm, and boughs of a dense-leaved tree, and willows of the brook鈥 (Leviticus 23:40). Daytime is also the time for sounding the shofar, as it is written: 鈥淚t is a day of sounding the shofar to you鈥 (Numbers 29:1). Likewise, the time for the additional offerings is day, as it is written with regard to these offerings: 鈥淭o sacrifice an offering made by fire to the Lord, a burnt-offering, and a meal-offering, a sacrifice, and libations, each on its own day鈥 (Leviticus 23:37). And this is also so for the additional prayer, because the Sages made it equivalent to those additional offerings.

讜诇讜讬讚讜讬 驻专讬诐 讚讬诇讬祝 讻驻专讛 讻驻专讛 诪讬讜诐 讛讻驻讜专讬诐 讚转谞讬讗 讙讘讬 讬讜诐 讛讻驻讜专讬诐 讜讻驻专 讘注讚讜 讜讘注讚 讘讬转讜 讘讻驻专转 讚讘专讬诐 讛讻转讜讘 诪讚讘专 讜讻驻专讛 讘讬诪诪讗 讛讜讗 讚讻转讬讘 讘讬讜诐 讛讝讛 讬讻驻专 注诇讬讻诐

And daytime is the time for the confession over the bulls, as this is derived by way of a verbal analogy between one instance of atonement in this context and another instance of atonement in the context of Yom Kippur. As it is taught in a baraita with regard to Yom Kippur, the verse states: 鈥淎nd Aaron shall present the bull of the sin-offering that is his, and atone for himself and for his household鈥 (Leviticus 16:11). The verse speaks of atonement achieved through words, i.e., the atonement here is not referring to the sacrifice of offerings and the sprinkling of blood, but rather to atonement achieved through confession. And the atonement of Yom Kippur is only during the day, as it is written: 鈥淔or on that day will He atone for you鈥 (Leviticus 16:30). Just as the atonement on Yom Kippur must take place during the day, so must the other cases of atonement, over other bulls brought as sin-offerings, take place during the day.

讜诇讜讬讚讜讬 诪注砖专 讜讻讜壮 讚讻转讬讘 讜讗诪专转 诇驻谞讬 讛壮 讗诇讛讬讱 讘注专转讬 讛拽讚砖 诪谉 讛讘讬转 讜住诪讬讱 诇讬讛 讛讬讜诐 讛讝讛 讛壮 讗诇讛讬讱 诪爪讜讱

And daytime is the time for the declaration with regard to tithes, as it is written in the formula of this declaration: 鈥淎nd you shall say before the Lord your God, I have removed the sacred things out of my house鈥 (Deuteronomy 26:13鈥15); and juxtaposed to that passage it is written: 鈥淭his day the Lord your God has commanded you to do鈥 (Deuteronomy 26:16), implying during the day and not at night.

诇住诪讬讻讛 讜诇砖讞讬讟讛 讚讻转讬讘 讜住诪讱 讜砖讞讟 讜讻转讬讘 讘讛 讘砖讞讬讟讛 讘讬讜诐 讝讘讞讻诐 讜诇转谞讜驻讛 讚讻转讬讘 讘讬讜诐 讛谞讬驻讻诐 讗转 讛注讜诪专

For placing hands on the head of an offering and for slaughtering an offering, it is derived as it is written: 鈥淎nd he shall lay his hand upon the head of his offering, and slaughter it鈥 (Leviticus 3:8), comparing the laying of hands to slaughtering. And it is written with regard to slaughtering: 鈥淥n the day that you slaughter鈥 (Leviticus 19:6), meaning during the day and not at night. And for waving the offerings that require waving, it is derived as it is written: 鈥淎nd on the day you wave the omer (Leviticus 23:12).

讜诇讛讙砖讛 讚讗讬转拽砖 诇转谞讜驻讛 讚讻转讬讘 讜诇拽讞 讛讻讛谉 诪讬讚 讛讗砖讛 讗转 诪谞讞转 讛拽谞讗讜转 讜讛谞讬祝 讜讛拽专讬讘 讜诇诪诇讬拽讛 讜诇拽诪讬爪讛 讜诇讛拽讟专讛 讜诇讛讝讬讛 讚讻转讬讘 讘讬讜诐 爪讜讜转讜 讗转 讘谞讬 讬砖专讗诇

And with regard to bringing the meal-offerings near the altar, it is likened to waving, as it is written: 鈥淎nd the priest shall take the meal-offering of jealousy from the woman鈥檚 hand, and shall wave the offering before the Lord, and sacrifice it upon the altar鈥 (Numbers 5:25). The words 鈥渟acrifice it鈥 are referring to bringing the offering near the altar. And for scooping out a fistful of flour, and for pinching the necks of the bird-offerings, and for burning the fistful of flour on the altar, and for sprinkling the blood, these are derived as it is written: 鈥淭his is the law of the burnt-offering, of the meal-offering, and of the sin-offering, and of the guilt-offering, and of the consecration-offering, and of the sacrifice of the peace-offering; which the Lord commanded Moses on Mount Sinai on the day that he commanded the children of Israel to present their offerings鈥 (Leviticus 7:37鈥38).

讜诇讛砖拽讬讬转 住讜讟讛 讗转讬讗 转讜专讛 转讜专讛 讻转讬讘 讛讻讗 讜注砖讛 诇讛 讛讻讛谉 讗转 讻诇 讛转讜专讛 讛讝讗转 讜讻转讬讘 讛转诐 注诇 驻讬 讛转讜专讛 讗砖专 讬讜专讜讱 讜注诇 讛诪砖驻讟

And with regard to giving the sota to drink from the bitter waters, this is derived from a verbal analogy between one instance of the word 鈥淭orah鈥 and another instance of the word 鈥淭orah.鈥 It is written here with respect to a sota: 鈥淎nd the priest shall execute upon her all this Torah鈥 (Numbers 5:30), and it is written there with regard to judgment: 鈥淎ccording to the Torah, which they shall teach you, and according to the judgment, which they shall tell you鈥 (Deuteronomy 17:11).

  • This month's learning is sponsored by the Hadran Women of Silver Spring in memory of Nicki Toys, Nechama bat Shmuel Tzadok.

  • This month鈥檚 learning is sponsored by Shlomo and Amalia Klapper in honor of the birth of Chiyenna Yochana, named after her great-great-grandmother, Chiyenna Kossovsky.

  • This month's learning is sponsored by Elaine Hochberg in honor of her husband, Arie Hochberg, who continues to journey through Daf Yomi with her. 鈥淎nd with thanks to Rabbanit Farber and Hadran who have made our learning possible.鈥

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Megillah: 17-23 – Daf Yomi One Week at a Time

This week we will learn the entire second chapter of Masechet Megillah. This chapter deals with the laws of reading...

Megillah 20

The William Davidson Talmud | Powered by Sefaria

Megillah 20

诇注讜诇诐 专讘讬 讬讛讜讚讛 讜讗驻讬诇讜 诇讻转讞讬诇讛 讜诇讗 拽砖讬讗 讛讗 讚讬讚讬讛 讛讗 讚专讘讬讛

The Gemara answers: Actually, you can indeed say that the baraita about teruma was taught in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Yehuda, and that Rabbi Yehuda permits a deaf person to read even ab initio, while Rabbi Yosei disqualifies a deaf person even after the fact. And the baraita that teaches that one should not recite the Grace after Meals in his heart, but if he did he has fulfilled his obligation, is not difficult, as that baraita was taught by Rabbi Yehuda as well. The explanation for this is that in this baraita, about teruma, he was teaching his own opinion, that it is permitted even ab initio, whereas in that baraita, concerning the Grace after Meals, he was teaching the opinion of his master, Rabbi Elazar ben Azarya, that one is required to hear what he is saying when he recites blessings.

讚转谞讬讗 专讘讬 讬讛讜讚讛 讗讜诪专 诪砖讜诐 专讘讬 讗诇注讝专 讘谉 注讝专讬讛 讛拽讜专讗 讗转 砖诪注 爪专讬讱 砖讬砖诪讬注 诇讗讝谞讜 砖谞讗诪专 砖诪注 讬砖专讗诇 讛壮 讗诇讛讬谞讜 讛壮 讗讞讚 讛砖诪注 诇讗讝谞讬讱 诪讛 砖讗转讛 诪讜爪讬讗 诪驻讬讱 专讘讬 诪讗讬专 讗讜诪专 讗砖专 讗谞讻讬 诪爪讜讱 讛讬讜诐 注诇 诇讘讘讱 讗讞专 讻讜讜谞转 讛诇讘 讛谉 讛谉 讛讚讘专讬诐

As it is taught in a baraita: Rabbi Yehuda said in the name of Rabbi Elazar ben Azarya: One who recites the Shema must make it audible to his ears, as it is stated: 鈥淗ear O Israel, the Lord our God; the Lord is One鈥 (Deuteronomy 6:4), the word 鈥渉ear鈥 indicating that you should allow your ears to hear the words you are expressing with your mouth. Rabbi Meir disagrees and says: This is not necessary, as it is also stated there: 鈥淎nd these words, which I command you this day shall be in your heart鈥 (Deuteronomy 6:6), indicating that 鈥渢hese words,鈥 the words of the Shema, go after the intent of the heart, as it is unnecessary to pronounce them out loud. We see that according to Rabbi Elazar ben Azarya, as cited by Rabbi Yehuda, the words must be audible to one鈥檚 ears ab initio.

讛砖转讗 讚讗转讬转 诇讛讻讬 讗驻讬诇讜 转讬诪讗 专讘讬 讬讛讜讚讛 讻专讘讬讛 住讘讬专讗 诇讬讛 讜讛讗 讚转谞讬 讬讛讜讚讛 讘专讬讛 讚专讘讬 砖诪注讜谉 讘谉 驻讝讬 专讘讬 诪讗讬专 讛讬讗

The Gemara proposes a second solution: Now that you have arrived at this point and cited this baraita, you can even say that Rabbi Yehuda holds in accordance with his teacher, Rabbi Elazar ben Azarya, that a deaf person is disqualified ab initio, and it is only after the fact that his reading is valid. And as for that baraita that Rabbi Yehuda, son of Rabbi Shimon ben Pazi, taught stating that a deaf person may set aside teruma even ab initio, this was taught in accordance with the other opinion cited in the baraita, i.e., that of Rabbi Meir, who maintains that everything depends on the intent of one鈥檚 heart, and that it is not necessary to pronounce words audibly, even ab initio.

专讘讬 讬讛讜讚讛 诪讻砖讬专 讘拽讟谉 (讚转谞讬讗) 讗诪专 专讘讬 讬讛讜讚讛 拽讟谉 讛讬讬转讬 讜拽专讬转讬讛 诇诪注诇讛 诪专讘讬 讟专驻讜谉 讜讝拽谞讬诐 讘诇讜讚 讗诪专讜 诇讜 讗讬谉 诪讘讬讗讬谉 专讗讬讛 诪谉 讛拽讟谉

搂 It was taught in the mishna: Rabbi Yehuda says that a minor is fit to read the Megilla. It is taught in a baraita: Rabbi Yehuda said: I can offer proof to my opinion, as when I was a minor I myself read the Megilla before Rabbi Tarfon and the other Elders in Lod. They said to him in response: One cannot bring a proof from the testimony of a minor. Since at the time of the supposed incident you were a minor, you are not qualified now to testify about it.

转谞讬讗 讗诪专 专讘讬 拽讟谉 讛讬讬转讬 讜拽专讬转讬讛 诇诪注诇讛 诪专讘讬 讬讛讜讚讛 讗诪专讜 诇讜 讗讬谉 诪讘讬讗讬谉 专讗讬讛 诪谉 讛诪转讬专

It is taught in a different baraita: Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi said: When I was a minor I read the Megilla before Rabbi Yehuda. They said to him: One cannot bring a proof that an act is permitted from the behavior of the very one who permits it. We know that Rabbi Yehuda maintains that a minor is fit to read the Megilla, and the fact that he acted in accordance with his own opinion does not prove that this is the accepted halakha.

讜诇讬诪专讜 诇讬讛 讗讬谉 诪讘讬讗讬谉 专讗讬讛 诪谉 讛拽讟谉 讞讚讗 讜注讜讚 拽讗诪专讜 诇讬讛 讞讚讗 讚拽讟谉 讛讬讬转 讜注讜讚 讗驻讬诇讜 讙讚讜诇 讛讬讬转 讗讬谉 诪讘讬讗讬谉 专讗讬讛 诪谉 讛诪转讬专

The Gemara asks: And let them say to him, as the Sages said to Rabbi Yehuda in the previous baraita, that one cannot bring a proof from the testimony of a minor. The Gemara answers: They said one thing to him and then another; i.e., they rejected him with a twofold argument: One objection is that you were a minor at that time, and therefore your testimony is disqualified. And furthermore, even if you had been an adult at that time and you had testified that you saw some other minor read the Megilla before Rabbi Yehuda, one cannot bring a proof that an act is permitted from the behavior of the very one who permits it.

诪转谞讬壮 讗讬谉 拽讜专讬谉 讗转 讛诪讙讬诇讛 讜诇讗 诪诇讬谉 讜诇讗 讟讜讘诇讬谉 讜诇讗 诪讝讬谉 讜讻谉 砖讜诪专转 讬讜诐 讻谞讙讚 讬讜诐 诇讗 转讟讘讜诇 注讚 砖转谞抓 讛讞诪讛 讜讻讜诇谉 砖注砖讜 诪砖注诇讛 注诪讜讚 讛砖讞专 讻砖专

MISHNA: One may not read the Megilla, nor perform a circumcision, nor immerse himself in a ritual bath, nor sprinkle water of purification to purify people and objects that had contracted ritual impurity through contact with a corpse until after sunrise. And also a woman who observes a clean day for each day she experiences a discharge, i.e., a woman who experienced one or two days of non-menstrual bleeding, and must now wait until a day has passed without any discharge of blood before regaining ritual purity, she too may not immerse herself until the sun has risen. And with regard to all these activities that are supposed to be performed during the day, if one did them after daybreak, i.e., after the appearance of the first light of the sun, even before sunrise, they are valid, as at this point it is already considered daytime.

讙诪壮 诪谞诇谉 讚讗诪专 拽专讗 讜讛讬诪讬诐 讛讗诇讛 谞讝讻专讬诐 讜谞注砖讬诐 讘讬讜诐 讗讬谉 讘诇讬诇讛 诇讗 诇讬诪讗 转讬讛讜讬 转讬讜讘转讗 讚专讘讬 讬讛讜砖注 讘谉 诇讜讬 讚讗诪专 专讘讬 讬讛讜砖注 讘谉 诇讜讬 讞讬讬讘 讗讚诐 诇拽专讜转 讗转 讛诪讙讬诇讛 讘诇讬诇讛 讜诇砖谞讜转讛 讘讬讜诐 讻讬 拽转谞讬 讗讚讬讜诐

GEMARA: The Gemara asks: From where do we derive the halakha taught in the mishna that the Megilla may be read only during the day? The Gemara answers: As the verse states: 鈥淎nd that these days should be remembered and kept鈥 (Esther 9:28). The word 鈥渄ays鈥 indicates during the day, yes, but at night, no. The Gemara asks: Let us say that this is a conclusive refutation of the opinion of Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi, as Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi said: A person is obligated to read the Megilla at night and then repeat it during the day. The Gemara rejects this: There is no proof from here, as when the mishna teaches that the Megilla may be read only during the day, it was referring to the daytime reading, but the nighttime reading is not considered here at all.

讜诇讗 诪诇讬谉 讜讻讜壮 讚讻转讬讘 讜讘讬讜诐 讛砖诪讬谞讬 讬诪讜诇

搂 The mishna continues: And one may not perform a circumcision until after sunrise, as it is written: 鈥淎nd on the eighth day he shall be circumcised鈥 (Leviticus 12:3). This indicates that the circumcision must be during the day, not at night.

讜诇讗 讟讜讘诇讬谉 讜诇讗 诪讝讬谉 讜讻讜壮 讚讻转讬讘 讜讛讝讛 讛讟讛讜专 注诇 讛讟诪讗 [讜讙讜壮] 讘讬讜诐 讛砖讘讬注讬 讜讗讬转拽砖 讟讘讬诇讛 诇讛讝讬讛

搂 It is further taught in the mishna: And one may not immerse himself in a ritual bath, or sprinkle waters of purification until after sunrise. This too is derived from a verse, as it is written: 鈥淎nd the pure person shall sprinkle upon the impure on the third day and on the seventh day; and on the seventh day he shall purify himself and wash his clothes, and bathe himself in water, and shall be pure at evening鈥 (Numbers 19:19), which teaches that the sprinkling must take place during the day and not at night. And immersion is likened to sprinkling, as it too is mentioned in the verse, 鈥渁nd bathe himself in water,鈥 so that whatever is invalid with respect to sprinkling is also invalid with respect to immersion.

讜讻谉 砖讜诪专转 讬讜诐 讻谞讙讚 讬讜诐 诇讗 转讟讘讜诇 注讚 砖转谞抓 讛讞诪讛 讜讻讜壮 驻砖讬讟讗 诪讗讬 砖谞讗 砖讜诪专转 讬讜诐 讻谞讙讚 讬讜诐 诪讻诇 讞讬讬讘讬 讟讘讬诇讜转

搂 The mishna states: And also a woman who observes a day for a day may not immerse herself until the sun has risen. The Gemara asks: This is obvious. What is different about a woman who observes a day for a day, who must immerse herself in a ritual bath, from all the others who are obligated to immerse themselves, as it was already taught that one may not immerse himself in a ritual bath until it is day?

讗讬爪讟专讬讱 住诇拽讗 讚注转讱 讗诪讬谞讗 转讬讛讜讬 讻专讗讬讛 专讗砖讜谞讛 砖诇 讝讘 讜专讗讬讛 专讗砖讜谞讛 砖诇 讝讘 讗讬转拽砖 诇讘注诇 拽专讬 讚讻转讬讘 讝讗转 转讜专转 讛讝讘 讜讗砖专 转爪讗 诪诪谞讜 砖讻讘转 讝专注 诪讛 讘注诇 拽专讬 讟讜讘诇 讘讬讜诐 讛讗讬 谞诪讬 诇讬讟讘讜诇 讘讬讜诪讬讛

The Gemara answers: It is nevertheless necessary to mention separately the case of a woman who observes a day for a day. As, it might enter your mind to say that this woman鈥檚 bleeding should be treated like the first emission of a zav, a man who experiences a gonorrhea-like secretion, in that just as a man attains the status of a full-fledged zav once he has three such emissions, so too, a woman attains the status of a full-fledged zava once she experiences three days of bleeding. And the first emission of a zav is likened to one who experienced a seminal discharge, as it is written: 鈥淭his is the halakha of him that has an issue and of him whose semen goes from him鈥 (Leviticus 15:32). From this it is learned: Just as one who experienced a seminal discharge immerses on the same day that he had the discharge, so too, that one, the zav, may immerse himself on the same day that he had the emission.

讜讛讗 讘讬诪诪讗 诇讗 诪爪讬 讟讘诇讛 讚讻转讬讘 讻诇 讬诪讬 讝讜讘讛 讻诪砖讻讘 谞讚转讛 讬讛讬讛 诇讛 讘诇讬诇讬讗 诪讬讛转 诇讬注讘讬讚 诪拽爪转 砖讬诪讜专 讜转讬讟讘讜诇 拽讗 诪砖诪注 诇谉 讻讬讜谉 讚讘注讬讗 住驻讬专讛

And although this one, i.e., a woman who observes a day for a day, cannot immerse on the same day that she experienced the bleeding, as it is written: 鈥淎ll the days of her issue shall be to her as the bed of her menstruation鈥 (Leviticus 15:26), which teaches that she remains the entire day of her issue in her impure state and must wait until the day is over before she can immerse herself, nevertheless, one might have said that at least during the night following the day of her issue she should be able to perform a partial observation, i.e., she should verify that part of the night has gone by without bleeding, and then immerse herself at night, without waiting until morning. Therefore, the mishna teaches us that since she is required to count one day of purity after her day of impurity,

住驻讬专讛 讘讬诪诪讗 讛讬讗

and counting can only be done during the day and not at night, as it says: 鈥淎nd she shall count for herself seven days鈥 (Leviticus 15:28), she cannot immerse herself until after sunrise, although here she has to count only one day.

讜讻讜诇谉 砖注砖讜 诪砖注诇讛 注诪讜讚 讛砖讞专 讻砖专 诪谞讛谞讬 诪讬诇讬 讗诪专 专讘讗 讚讗诪专 拽专讗 讜讬拽专讗 讗诇讛讬诐 诇讗讜专 讬讜诐 诇诪讗讬专 讜讘讗 拽专讗讜 讬讜诐

搂 The mishna concludes: And with regard to all these things, if one did them after daybreak they are valid. The Gemara asks: From where is this matter derived, that from daybreak it is already considered daytime? Rava said: As the verse states: 鈥淎nd God called the light [or] day鈥 (Genesis 1:5), meaning: To that which was becoming lighter and lighter he called day. The Hebrew word or is not to be understood in its usual sense of light, but as a verbal noun: that which is becoming lighter and lighter. It teaches that as soon as light begins to appear in the sky it is called daytime.

讗诇讗 诪注转讛 讜诇讞砖讱 拽专讗 诇讬诇讛 [诇诪讞砖讬讱 讜讘讗 拽专讗 诇讬诇讛] 讛讗 拽讬讬诪讗 诇谉 讚注讚 爪讗转 讛讻讜讻讘讬诐 诇讗讜 诇讬诇讛 讛讜讗

The Gemara raises a difficulty with this interpretation: However, if it is so that Rava鈥檚 interpretation of this phrase is correct, the following phrase: 鈥淎nd the darkness [岣shekh] He called night鈥 (Genesis 1:5), should be interpreted in a similar fashion: That which was becoming darker and darker He called night, so that immediately after sunset it would be considered nighttime. But don鈥檛 we maintain that until the stars come out it is not nighttime? We are forced to say that 岣shekh literally means darkness, and similarly, or in the first part of the verse literally means light.

讗诇讗 讗诪专 专讘讬 讝讬专讗 诪讛讻讗 讜讗谞讞谞讜 注讜砖讬诐 讘诪诇讗讻讛 讜讞爪讬诐 诪讞讝讬拽讬诐 讘专诪讞讬诐 诪注诇讜转 讛砖讞专 注讚 爪讗转 讛讻讜讻讘讬诐 讜讗讜诪专 (讜讛讬讛) 诇谞讜 讛诇讬诇讛 (诇诪砖诪专)

Rather, Rabbi Zeira said: We derive this halakha from here, as it is stated: 鈥淪o we labored in the work; and half of them held the spears from the rising of the morning till the stars appeared鈥 (Nehemiah 4:15), where 鈥渞ising of the morning鈥 means daybreak, and the next verse states: 鈥淪o that in the night they may be a guard to us; and labor in the day鈥 (Nehemiah 4:16). This demonstrates that the day begins with the dawn.

诪讗讬 讜讗讜诪专 讜讻讬 转讬诪讗 诪砖注诇讛 注诪讜讚 讛砖讞专 诇讗讜 讬诪诪讗 讜诪讻讬 注专讘讗 砖诪砖讗 诇讬诇讬讗 讜讗讬谞讛讜 诪拽讚诪讬 讜诪讞砖讻讬 转讗 砖诪注 (讜讛讬讛) 诇谞讜 讛诇讬诇讛 诪砖诪专 讜讛讬讜诐 诪诇讗讻讛

The Gemara clarifies Rabbi Zeira鈥檚 statement: What need is there for the additional verse introduced by the words 鈥渁nd it states鈥? Why does the first proof-text not suffice? The Gemara explains: The second verse comes to deflect the following possible objection: You might say that even after 鈥渢he rising of the morning鈥 it is not yet considered day, and that from the time when the sun sets it is already considered night, and in this particular incident it happened that they began their work early, before the official beginning of daytime, and remained working late, after the official end of daytime. Therefore, Rabbi Zeira continued and said: Come and hear that which is stated in the next verse: 鈥淪o that in the night they may be a guard to us; and labor in the day.鈥 The entire time during which they worked is referred to as 鈥渄ay,鈥 which proves that the day begins at daybreak.

诪转谞讬壮 讻诇 讛讬讜诐 讻砖专 诇拽专讬讗转 讛诪讙讬诇讛 讜诇拽专讬讗转 讛讛诇诇 讜诇转拽讬注转 砖讜驻专 讜诇谞讟讬诇转 诇讜诇讘 讜诇转驻诇转 讛诪讜住驻讬谉 讜诇诪讜住驻讬谉

MISHNA: Although it is preferable to fulfill a particular day鈥檚 mitzva at the earliest possible hour, the entire day is a valid time for reading the Megilla; for reciting hallel; for sounding the shofar on Rosh HaShana; for taking the lulav and the other species on Sukkot; for the additional prayer recited on Shabbat and other occasions; and for the additional offerings sacrificed in the Temple on these occasions.

讜诇讜讬讚讜讬 讛驻专讬诐 讜诇讜讬讚讜讬 诪注砖专 讜诇讜讬讚讜讬 讬讜诐 讛讻驻讜专讬诐

And the entire day is also a valid time for the confession over the bulls brought by the Sanhedrin or by the High Priest to atone for mistakes they had made in their instruction to the people; for the declaration made on the last day of Passover in the fourth and seventh year of the Sabbatical cycle, stating that one鈥檚 obligations with regard to tithes have been properly fulfilled (see Deuteronomy 26:12鈥15); and for the confession of sins made by the High Priest on Yom Kippur over the special offerings brought on that day.

诇住诪讬讻讛 诇砖讞讬讟讛 诇转谞讜驻讛 诇讛讙砖讛 诇拽诪讬爪讛 讜诇讛拽讟专讛 诇诪诇讬拽讛 讜诇拽讘诇讛 讜诇讛讝讬讛

The entire day is also a valid time for placing hands on the head of an offering; for slaughtering an offering; for waving those offerings that require waving in the Temple; for bringing meal-offerings near to the altar; for scooping out a fistful of flour from a meal-offering in order to burn it on the altar; and for burning the fistful of flour on the altar; for pinching the necks of the turtledoves and young pigeons sacrificed as offerings in the Temple; and for receiving the blood of an offering in a vessel; and for sprinkling blood on the altar and on the curtain separating between the Holy and the Holy of Holies.

讜诇讛砖拽讬讬转 住讜讟讛 讜诇注专讬驻转 讛注讙诇讛 讜诇讟讛专转 讛诪爪讜专注

And the entire day is also a valid time for giving a woman suspected by her husband of having been unfaithful [sota] to drink from the bitter waters (see Numbers 5:11鈥31); for breaking the neck of the heifer as part of the procedure followed when a corpse is found outside a town and it is not known who caused his death (see Deuteronomy 21:1鈥9); and for all the steps in the purification process of the leper (see Leviticus 14:1鈥20).

讻诇 讛诇讬诇讛 讻砖专 诇拽爪讬专转 讛注讜诪专 讜诇讛拽讟专 讞诇讘讬诐 讜讗讘专讬诐 讝讛 讛讻诇诇 讚讘专 砖诪爪讜转讜 讘讬讜诐 讻砖专 讻诇 讛讬讜诐 讚讘专 砖诪爪讜转讜 讘诇讬诇讛 讻砖专 讻诇 讛诇讬诇讛

Correspondingly, all the mitzvot that must be performed at night may be performed anytime during the night: The entire night is a valid time for reaping the omer of barley on the night following the first day of Passover, for burning the fats of offerings that had been brought during the preceding day, and for burning the limbs of burnt-offerings. This is the principle: Something that it is a mitzva to perform during the day is valid if performed anytime during the entire day; something that it is a mitzva to perform at night is valid if performed anytime during the entire night.

讙诪壮 诪谞诇谉 讚讗诪专 拽专讗 讜讛讬诪讬诐 讛讗诇讛 谞讝讻专讬诐 讜谞注砖讬诐 诇拽专讬讗转 讛讛诇诇 讚讻转讬讘 诪诪讝专讞 砖诪砖 注讚 诪讘讜讗讜 (专讘讬 讬讜住讬) 讗讜诪专 讝讛 讛讬讜诐 注砖讛 讛壮

GEMARA: The Gemara asks: From where do we derive that these mitzvot were commanded to be performed specifically during the day? With regard to reading the Megilla, the verse states: 鈥淭hat these days should be remembered and kept鈥 (Esther 9:28). For reciting the hallel, the proof is from that which is written in hallel: 鈥淔rom the rising of the sun to its setting, the Lord鈥檚 name is to be praised鈥 (Psalms 113:3). Rabbi Yosei said: The proof is from another verse in hallel: 鈥淭his is the day that the Lord has made鈥 (Psalms 118:24), implying that it is to be recited during the day and not at night.

讜诇谞讟讬诇转 诇讜诇讘 讚讻转讬讘 讜诇拽讞转诐 诇讻诐 讘讬讜诐 讛专讗砖讜谉 讜诇转拽讬注转 砖讜驻专 讚讻转讬讘 讬讜诐 转专讜注讛 讬讛讬讛 诇讻诐 讜诇诪讜住驻讬谉 讚讻转讬讘 讚讘专 讬讜诐 讘讬讜诪讜 讜诇转驻诇转 讛诪讜住驻讬谉 讻诪讜住驻讬谉 砖讜讬讜讛 专讘谞谉

And daytime is the time for taking the lulav, as it is written: 鈥淎nd you shall take for yourselves on the first day the fruit of a beautiful tree, branches of a date palm, and boughs of a dense-leaved tree, and willows of the brook鈥 (Leviticus 23:40). Daytime is also the time for sounding the shofar, as it is written: 鈥淚t is a day of sounding the shofar to you鈥 (Numbers 29:1). Likewise, the time for the additional offerings is day, as it is written with regard to these offerings: 鈥淭o sacrifice an offering made by fire to the Lord, a burnt-offering, and a meal-offering, a sacrifice, and libations, each on its own day鈥 (Leviticus 23:37). And this is also so for the additional prayer, because the Sages made it equivalent to those additional offerings.

讜诇讜讬讚讜讬 驻专讬诐 讚讬诇讬祝 讻驻专讛 讻驻专讛 诪讬讜诐 讛讻驻讜专讬诐 讚转谞讬讗 讙讘讬 讬讜诐 讛讻驻讜专讬诐 讜讻驻专 讘注讚讜 讜讘注讚 讘讬转讜 讘讻驻专转 讚讘专讬诐 讛讻转讜讘 诪讚讘专 讜讻驻专讛 讘讬诪诪讗 讛讜讗 讚讻转讬讘 讘讬讜诐 讛讝讛 讬讻驻专 注诇讬讻诐

And daytime is the time for the confession over the bulls, as this is derived by way of a verbal analogy between one instance of atonement in this context and another instance of atonement in the context of Yom Kippur. As it is taught in a baraita with regard to Yom Kippur, the verse states: 鈥淎nd Aaron shall present the bull of the sin-offering that is his, and atone for himself and for his household鈥 (Leviticus 16:11). The verse speaks of atonement achieved through words, i.e., the atonement here is not referring to the sacrifice of offerings and the sprinkling of blood, but rather to atonement achieved through confession. And the atonement of Yom Kippur is only during the day, as it is written: 鈥淔or on that day will He atone for you鈥 (Leviticus 16:30). Just as the atonement on Yom Kippur must take place during the day, so must the other cases of atonement, over other bulls brought as sin-offerings, take place during the day.

讜诇讜讬讚讜讬 诪注砖专 讜讻讜壮 讚讻转讬讘 讜讗诪专转 诇驻谞讬 讛壮 讗诇讛讬讱 讘注专转讬 讛拽讚砖 诪谉 讛讘讬转 讜住诪讬讱 诇讬讛 讛讬讜诐 讛讝讛 讛壮 讗诇讛讬讱 诪爪讜讱

And daytime is the time for the declaration with regard to tithes, as it is written in the formula of this declaration: 鈥淎nd you shall say before the Lord your God, I have removed the sacred things out of my house鈥 (Deuteronomy 26:13鈥15); and juxtaposed to that passage it is written: 鈥淭his day the Lord your God has commanded you to do鈥 (Deuteronomy 26:16), implying during the day and not at night.

诇住诪讬讻讛 讜诇砖讞讬讟讛 讚讻转讬讘 讜住诪讱 讜砖讞讟 讜讻转讬讘 讘讛 讘砖讞讬讟讛 讘讬讜诐 讝讘讞讻诐 讜诇转谞讜驻讛 讚讻转讬讘 讘讬讜诐 讛谞讬驻讻诐 讗转 讛注讜诪专

For placing hands on the head of an offering and for slaughtering an offering, it is derived as it is written: 鈥淎nd he shall lay his hand upon the head of his offering, and slaughter it鈥 (Leviticus 3:8), comparing the laying of hands to slaughtering. And it is written with regard to slaughtering: 鈥淥n the day that you slaughter鈥 (Leviticus 19:6), meaning during the day and not at night. And for waving the offerings that require waving, it is derived as it is written: 鈥淎nd on the day you wave the omer (Leviticus 23:12).

讜诇讛讙砖讛 讚讗讬转拽砖 诇转谞讜驻讛 讚讻转讬讘 讜诇拽讞 讛讻讛谉 诪讬讚 讛讗砖讛 讗转 诪谞讞转 讛拽谞讗讜转 讜讛谞讬祝 讜讛拽专讬讘 讜诇诪诇讬拽讛 讜诇拽诪讬爪讛 讜诇讛拽讟专讛 讜诇讛讝讬讛 讚讻转讬讘 讘讬讜诐 爪讜讜转讜 讗转 讘谞讬 讬砖专讗诇

And with regard to bringing the meal-offerings near the altar, it is likened to waving, as it is written: 鈥淎nd the priest shall take the meal-offering of jealousy from the woman鈥檚 hand, and shall wave the offering before the Lord, and sacrifice it upon the altar鈥 (Numbers 5:25). The words 鈥渟acrifice it鈥 are referring to bringing the offering near the altar. And for scooping out a fistful of flour, and for pinching the necks of the bird-offerings, and for burning the fistful of flour on the altar, and for sprinkling the blood, these are derived as it is written: 鈥淭his is the law of the burnt-offering, of the meal-offering, and of the sin-offering, and of the guilt-offering, and of the consecration-offering, and of the sacrifice of the peace-offering; which the Lord commanded Moses on Mount Sinai on the day that he commanded the children of Israel to present their offerings鈥 (Leviticus 7:37鈥38).

讜诇讛砖拽讬讬转 住讜讟讛 讗转讬讗 转讜专讛 转讜专讛 讻转讬讘 讛讻讗 讜注砖讛 诇讛 讛讻讛谉 讗转 讻诇 讛转讜专讛 讛讝讗转 讜讻转讬讘 讛转诐 注诇 驻讬 讛转讜专讛 讗砖专 讬讜专讜讱 讜注诇 讛诪砖驻讟

And with regard to giving the sota to drink from the bitter waters, this is derived from a verbal analogy between one instance of the word 鈥淭orah鈥 and another instance of the word 鈥淭orah.鈥 It is written here with respect to a sota: 鈥淎nd the priest shall execute upon her all this Torah鈥 (Numbers 5:30), and it is written there with regard to judgment: 鈥淎ccording to the Torah, which they shall teach you, and according to the judgment, which they shall tell you鈥 (Deuteronomy 17:11).

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