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Today's Daf Yomi

January 4, 2022 | 讘壮 讘砖讘讟 转砖驻状讘

This month鈥檚 shiurim are dedicated by Efrat Arnold in loving memory of Joshua Carr, Yehoshua Aryeh Leib ben Yonatan Chaim and Malka Esther HaCohen.

This month's shiurim are dedicated by Tova and David Kestenbaum in honor of their children and grandchildren.

This month's shiurim are dedicated by Jordana and Kalman Schoor on behalf of their daughter Daria who is learning Masechet Megilla for her bat mitzvah.聽

  • This month's learning is sponsored by Terri Krivosha for the Refuah Shlemah of her husband Harav Hayim Yehuda Ben Faiga Rivah.聽

  • This month's learning is dedicated by Debbie and Yossi Gevir to Rabbanit Michelle and the Hadran Zoom group for their kindness, support, and care during a medically challenging year.

Megillah 23

Today鈥檚 daf is sponsored by Judy Auerbach in loving memory of her father, Shlomo ben Dov Beer on his 33rd yahrzeit. 鈥淗is enjoyment when learning Gemara always impressed me and now, thanks to Hadran and Rabbanit Michelle, I am able to realize the same enjoyment in learning Gemara as he had. Thank you鈥.聽

Today鈥檚 daf is sponsored by Deborah Lewis dedicated to Janet Lachais.

Today’s daf is sponsored in memory of the two pilots killed tragically last night.聽

What are the different opinions regarding aliyot on Shabbat, Yom Tov and Yom Kippur? Regarding services on those days 鈥 on which days should the prayers start later and end earlier/start later and end later/start earlier and end earlier? Why? Does this have anything to do with how many aliyot there are on those days? The three aliyot on Mondays, Thursdays, etc., the five on Yom Tov and the seven on Shabbat 鈥 to what do they correspond? What about the six on Yom Kippur? Women and children can be among the seven who read from the Torah but the rabbis said that women should not due to 鈥渞espect for the community.鈥 How can this be understood? The person who reads from the prophets, the maftir, also reads a part of the Torah so as not to show disrespect for the Torah. Since the whole reason is just out of respect for the Torah, is this Aliya in addition to the seven or can it be considered part of the seven? The haftorah must be a minimum of twenty-one verses. What is the significance of that number? Are there exceptions to this rule? What prayers must be done with a quorum (minyan) of ten? From where do we learn the number ten? From where do we derive that each of these prayers needs a minyan?

讜专讘讗 讚诪爪诇讬 讗爪诇讜讬讬

and Rava, who would bend their heads and not actually prostrate themselves on the ground.

讘讬讜诐 讟讜讘 讞诪砖讛 讘讬讜诐 讛讻驻讜专讬诐 砖砖讛 讻讜壮 诪转谞讬转讬谉 诪谞讬 诇讗 专讘讬 讬砖诪注讗诇 讜诇讗 专讘讬 注拽讬讘讗 讚转谞讬讗 讘讬讜诐 讟讜讘 讞诪砖讛 讜讘讬讜诐 讛讻驻讜专讬诐 砖砖讛 讜讘砖讘转 砖讘注讛 讗讬谉 驻讜讞转讬谉 诪讛谉 讜讗讬谉 诪讜住讬驻讬谉 注诇讬讛谉 讚讘专讬 专讘讬 讬砖诪注讗诇 专讘讬 注拽讬讘讗 讗讜诪专 讘讬讜诐 讟讜讘 讞诪砖讛 讜讘讬讜诐 讛讻驻讜专讬诐 砖讘注讛 讜讘砖讘转 砖砖讛 讗讬谉 驻讜讞转讬谉 诪讛谉 讗讘诇 诪讜住讬驻讬谉 注诇讬讛谉

We learned in the mishna: On a Festival, five people read; on Yom Kippur, six people read; and on Shabbat, seven people read. One may not decrease the number of readers, but one may add to them. The Gemara asks: Who is the tanna of the mishna? It is not Rabbi Yishmael and not Rabbi Akiva, as it is taught in a baraita: On a Festival, five people read from the Torah; and on Yom Kippur, six people read; and on Shabbat, seven people read. One may not decrease or add to the required number of readers. This is the statement of Rabbi Yishmael. Rabbi Akiva disagrees and says: On a Festival, five people read from the Torah; and on Yom Kippur, seven people read; and on Shabbat, six people read. One may not decrease these numbers, but one may add to them.

诪谞讬 讗讬 专讘讬 讬砖诪注讗诇 拽砖讬讗 转讜住驻转 讗讬 专讘讬 注拽讬讘讗 拽砖讬讗 砖砖讛 讜砖讘注讛

Who is the tanna of the mishna? If you say it is Rabbi Yishmael, it is difficult due to the ruling with regard to adding, as the mishna states that one may add additional readers but Rabbi Yishmael holds that one may not do so. If you say it is Rabbi Akiva, it is difficult due to the ruling concerning the days on which there are six and seven readers.

讗诪专 专讘讗 转谞讗 讚讘讬 专讘讬 讬砖诪注讗诇 讛讬讗 讚转谞讗 讚讘讬 专讘讬 讬砖诪注讗诇 讘讬讜诐 讟讜讘 讞诪砖讛 讘讬讜诐 讛讻驻讜专讬诐 砖砖讛 讘砖讘转 砖讘注讛 讗讬谉 驻讜讞转讬谉 诪讛谉 讗讘诇 诪讜住讬驻讬谉 注诇讬讛谉 讚讘专讬 专讘讬 讬砖诪注讗诇

Rava said: It is the tanna of the school of Rabbi Yishmael, as it was taught in the school of Rabbi Yishmael: On a Festival, five people read from the Torah; on Yom Kippur, six people read; on Shabbat, seven people read. One may not decrease these numbers but one may add to them. This is the statement of Rabbi Yishmael.

拽砖讬讗 讚专讘讬 讬砖诪注讗诇 讗讚专讘讬 讬砖诪注讗诇 转专讬 转谞讗讬 讗诇讬讘讗 讚专讘讬 讬砖诪注讗诇

The Gemara comments: If so, there is a contradiction between the opinion of Rabbi Yishmael, as expressed in the mishna, and the opinion of Rabbi Yishmael himself, as recorded in the baraita. The Gemara responds: Two tanna鈥檌m, students of Rabbi Yishmael, expressed different opinions in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Yishmael.

诪讗谉 转谞讗 诇讛讗 讚转谞讬讗 讘讬讜诐 讟讜讘 诪讗讞专讬谉 诇讘讜讗 讜诪诪讛专讬谉 诇爪讗转 讘讬讜诐 讛讻驻讜专讬诐 诪诪讛专讬谉 诇讘讜讗 讜诪讗讞专讬谉 诇爪讗转 讜讘砖讘转 诪诪讛专讬谉 诇讘讜讗 讜诪诪讛专讬谉 诇爪讗转 诇讬诪讗 专讘讬 注拽讬讘讗 讚讗讬转 诇讬讛 讙讘专讗 讬转讬专讗 讗驻讬诇讜 转讬诪讗 专讘讬 讬砖诪注讗诇 讚谞驻讬砖 住讬讚讜专讗 讚讬讜诪讗

The Gemara asks: Who is the tanna who taught that which is taught in a baraita: On a Festival, one is slow to arrive at the synagogue because one is busy preparing for the festive meal, and one is quick to leave in order to eat; on Yom Kippur, one is quick to arrive at the synagogue and slow to leave; and on Shabbat, one is quick to arrive, as the meal has been prepared before Shabbat, and quick to leave in order to eat the Shabbat meal? Let us say it is Rabbi Akiva, who holds that an additional man reads from the Torah on Yom Kippur, which prolongs the service on that day. The Gemara rejects this suggestion: Even if you say it is Rabbi Yishmael, one leaves the synagogue late because the order of the day, i.e., the prayer service, is very long, as it includes many supplications and confessions.

讛谞讬 砖诇砖讛 讞诪砖讛 讜砖讘注讛 讻谞讙讚 诪讬 驻诇讬讙讬 讘讛 专讘讬 讬爪讞拽 讘专 谞讞诪谞讬 讜讞讚 讚注诪讬讛 讜诪谞讜 专讘讬 砖诪注讜谉 讘谉 驻讝讬 讜讗诪专讬 诇讛 专讘讬 砖诪注讜谉 讘谉 驻讝讬 讜讞讚 讚注诪讬讛 讜诪谞讜 专讘讬 讬爪讞拽 讘专 谞讞诪谞讬 讜讗诪专讬 诇讛 专讘讬 砖诪讜讗诇 讘专 谞讞诪谞讬 讞讚 讗诪专 讻谞讙讚 讘专讻转 讻讛谞讬诐 讜讞讚 讗诪专 讻谞讙讚 砖诇砖讛 砖讜诪专讬 讛住祝 讞诪砖讛 诪专讜讗讬 驻谞讬 讛诪诇讱 砖讘注讛 专讜讗讬 驻谞讬 讛诪诇讱

A question is raised with regard to the number of readers on different days. Corresponding to what were these three, five, and seven, readers instituted? Rabbi Yitz岣k bar Na岣ani and one other Sage who was with him disagree about this. And who was that other scholar? Rabbi Shimon ben Pazi. And some say that this was a matter of dispute between Rabbi Shimon ben Pazi and one other scholar who was with him. And who was that other scholar? Rabbi Yitz岣k bar Na岣ani, and some say it was Rabbi Shmuel bar Na岣ani. One said: These numbers correspond to the number of Hebrew words in the three verses of the Priestly Benediction. And one said: These numbers correspond to the three guards of the door (II聽Kings 25:18), five of the officers who saw the king鈥檚 face (II聽Kings 25:19), and the seven officers who saw the king鈥檚 face (Esther 1:14).

转谞讬 专讘 讬讜住祝 砖诇砖讛 讞诪砖讛 讜砖讘注讛 砖诇砖讛 砖讜诪专讬 讛住祝 讞诪砖讛 诪专讜讗讬 驻谞讬 讛诪诇讱 砖讘注讛 专讜讗讬 驻谞讬 讛诪诇讱 讗诪专 诇讬讛 讗讘讬讬 注讚 讛讗讬讚谞讗 诪讗讬 讟注诪讗 诇讗 驻专讬砖 诇谉 诪专 讗诪专 诇讬讛 诇讗 讛讜讛 讬讚注谞讗 讚爪专讬讻转讜 诇讬讛 讜诪讬 讘注讬转讜 诪讬谞讗讬 诪讬诇转讗 讜诇讗 讗诪专讬 诇讻讜

Similarly, Rav Yosef taught a baraita: The three, five, and seven people who read from the Torah correspond to the three guards of the door, five of the officers who saw the king鈥檚 face, and the seven officers who saw the king鈥檚 face. When Rav Yosef taught this, Abaye said to him: What is the reason that until now the Master did not explain the matter to us in this way? Rav Yosef said to him: I did not know that you needed this information, as I thought that you were already familiar with the baraita. Have you ever asked me something and I did not tell you?

讗诪专 诇讬讛 讬注拽讘 诪讬谞讗讛 诇专讘 讬讛讜讚讛 讛谞讬 砖砖讛 讚讬讜诐 讛讻驻讜专讬诐 讻谞讙讚 诪讬 讗诪专 诇讬讛 讻谞讙讚 砖砖讛 砖注诪讚讜 诪讬诪讬谞讜 砖诇 注讝专讗 讜砖砖讛 诪砖诪讗诇讜 砖谞讗诪专 讜讬注诪讜讚 注讝专讗 讛住讜驻专 注诇 诪讙讚诇 注抓 讗砖专 注砖讜 诇讚讘专 讜讬注诪讜讚 讗爪诇讜 诪转转讬讛 讜砖诪注 讜注谞讬讛 讜讗讜专讬讛 讜讞诇拽讬讛 讜诪注砖讬讛 注诇 讬诪讬谞讜 讜诪砖诪讗诇讜 驻讚讬讛 讜诪讬砖讗诇 讜诪诇讻讬讛 讜讞砖讜诐 讜讞砖讘讚谞讛 讝讻专讬讛 诪砖诇诐

Ya鈥檃kov of Mina said to Rav Yehuda: Corresponding to whom were these six readers on Yom Kippur instituted? Rav Yehuda said to him: The number six corresponds to the six people who stood to Ezra鈥檚 right and the six people who stood to his left, as it is stated: 鈥淎nd Ezra the Scribe stood upon a platform of wood, which they had made for the purpose, and beside him stood Mattithiah, and Shema, and Anaiah, and Uriah, and Hilkiah, and Maaseiah, on his right hand, and on his left hand, Pedaiah, and Mishael, and Malchiah, and Hashum, and Hashbadanah, Zechariah, Meshullam鈥 (Nehemiah 8:4).

讛谞讬 砖讘注讛 讛讜讜 讛讬讬谞讜 讝讻专讬讛 讛讬讬谞讜 诪砖诇诐 讜讗诪讗讬 拽专讗讜 诪砖诇诐 讚诪讬砖诇诐 讘注讜讘讚讬讛

The Gemara challenges this answer: Those that stood to his left were seven and not six. The Gemara responds: Zechariah is the same as Meshullam, that is to say, they are not two separate people, but rather one person with two names. And why was he called Meshullam? Because he was perfect [mishlam] in his actions.

转谞讜 专讘谞谉 讛讻诇 注讜诇讬谉 诇诪谞讬谉 砖讘注讛 讜讗驻讬诇讜 拽讟谉 讜讗驻讬诇讜 讗砖讛 讗讘诇 讗诪专讜 讞讻诪讬诐 讗砖讛 诇讗 转拽专讗 讘转讜专讛 诪驻谞讬 讻讘讜讚 爪讘讜专

The Sages taught in a Tosefta (Megilla 3:11): All people count toward the quorum of seven readers, even a minor and even a woman. However, the Sages said that a woman should not read the Torah, out of respect for the congregation.

讗讬讘注讬讗 诇讛讜 诪驻讟讬专 诪讛讜 砖讬注诇讛 诇诪谞讬谉 砖讘注讛 专讘 讛讜谞讗 讜专讘讬 讬专诪讬讛 讘专 讗讘讗 讞讚 讗诪专 注讜诇讛 讜讞讚 讗诪专 讗讬谞讜 注讜诇讛 诪讗谉 讚讗诪专 注讜诇讛 讚讛讗 拽专讬

A dilemma was raised before the Sages: With regard to the reader who concludes [maftir] the Torah reading and reads from the Prophets [haftara], what is the halakha; does he count toward the quorum of seven readers? Rav Huna and Rabbi Yirmeya bar Abba disagreed about this matter. One said: He counts, and one said: He does not count. The one who said that he counts toward the seven readers holds that opinion because he reads from the Torah.

讜诪讗谉 讚讗诪专 讗讬谞讜 注讜诇讛 讻讚注讜诇讗 讚讗诪专 注讜诇讗 诪驻谞讬 诪讛 讛诪驻讟讬专 讘谞讘讬讗 爪专讬讱 砖讬拽专讗 讘转讜专讛 转讞诇讛 诪驻谞讬 讻讘讜讚 转讜专讛 讜讻讬讜谉 讚诪砖讜诐 讻讘讜讚 转讜专讛 讛讜讗 诇诪谞讬谞讗 诇讗 住诇讬拽

And the one who said that he does not count holds in accordance with the opinion of Ulla, as Ulla said: For what reason must the one who concludes with a reading from the Prophets read from the Torah first? It is due to respect for the Torah, so that those present should not conclude that he was called up only to read from the Prophets because the honor due the Torah and the honor due the Prophets are equal. And since he reads only out of respect for the Torah, he is not included in the quorum of seven readers.

诪讬转讬讘讬 讛诪驻讟讬专 讘谞讘讬讗 诇讗 讬驻讞讜转 诪注砖专讬诐 讜讗讞讚 驻住讜拽讬谉 讻谞讙讚 砖讘注讛 砖拽专讗讜 讘转讜专讛 讜讗诐 讗讬转讗 注砖专讬诐 讜讗专讘注讛 讛讜讬讬谉 讻讬讜谉 讚诪砖讜诐 讻讘讜讚 转讜专讛 讛讜讗

The Gemara raises an objection based upon the following baraita: The one who concludes with a reading from the Prophets may not read fewer than twenty-one verses, corresponding to the seven who read from the Torah. Each one who reads from the Torah must read at least three verses, for a total of at least twenty-one verses. And if it is so, that the one who reads the haftara does not count toward the quorum of seven readers, and he is an eighth reader, the minimum number of verses that must be read from the Torah is twenty-four and not twenty-one. The Gemara answers: Since the one who reads the haftara reads from the Torah first only due to respect for the Torah,

讻谞讙讚讜 谞诪讬 诇讗 讘注讬

it is not necessary to also add corresponding verses in the haftara.

诪转拽讬祝 诇讛 专讘讗 讜讛专讬 注讜诇讜转讬讻诐 住驻讜 讚诇讗 讛讜讬讬谉 注砖专讬谉 讜讞讚 讜拽专讬谞谉 砖讗谞讬 讛转诐 讚住诇讬拽 注谞讬讬谞讗

Rava strongly objects to this baraita: But there is the haftara that begins with the words: 鈥淎dd your burnt offerings鈥 (Jeremiah 7:21鈥28), which does not have twenty-one verses, and nevertheless we read it. The Gemara answers: There it is different, as the topic is completed in fewer than twenty-one verses, and it is not necessary to begin another topic merely to complete the number of verses.

讜讛讬讻讗 讚诇讗 住诇讬拽 注谞讬讬谞讗 诇讗 讜讛讗诪专 专讘 砖诪讜讗诇 讘专 讗讘讗 讝诪谞讬谉 住讙讬讗讬谉 讛讜讛 拽讗讬诪谞讗 拽诪讬讛 讚专讘讬 讬讜讞谞谉 讜讻讬 讛讜讛 拽专讬谞谉 注砖专讛 驻住讜拽讬 讗诪专 诇谉 讗驻住讬拽讜 诪拽讜诐 砖讬砖 转讜专讙诪谉 砖讗谞讬 讚转谞讬 专讘 转讞诇讬驻讗 讘专 砖诪讜讗诇 诇讗 砖谞讜 讗诇讗 讘诪拽讜诐 砖讗讬谉 转讜专讙诪谉 讗讘诇 诪拽讜诐 砖讬砖 转讜专讙诪谉 驻讜住拽

The Gemara asks: But is it true that where the topic is not completed, we do not read fewer than twenty-one verses? Didn鈥檛 Rav Shmuel bar Abba say: Many times I stood before Rabbi Yo岣nan as a translator, and when we had read ten verses he would say to us: Stop. This indicates that a haftara need not be twenty-one verses. The Gemara answers: In a place where there is a translator, who translates each verse into Aramaic and adds additional explanation, it is different. In that case, it is not necessary for the haftara to consist of twenty-one verses, so as not to overburden the congregation, as Rav Ta岣lifa bar Shmuel taught: They taught that twenty-one verses must be read from the haftara only in a place where there is no translator; but in a place where there is a translator, one may stop even before that.

诪转谞讬壮 讗讬谉 驻讜专住讬谉 注诇 砖诪注 讜讗讬谉 注讜讘专讬谉 诇驻谞讬 讛转讬讘讛 讜讗讬谉 谞讜砖讗讬谉 讗转 讻驻讬讛诐 讜讗讬谉 拽讜专讬谉 讘转讜专讛 讜讗讬谉 诪驻讟讬专讬谉 讘谞讘讬讗

MISHNA: One does not recite the introductory prayers and blessing [poresin] before Shema; nor does one pass before the ark to repeat the Amida prayer; nor do the priests lift their hands to recite the Priestly Benediction; nor is the Torah read in public; nor does one conclude with a reading from the Prophets [haftara] in the presence of fewer than ten men.

讜讗讬谉 注讜砖讬谉 诪注诪讚 讜诪讜砖讘 讜讗讬谉 讗讜诪专讬诐 讘专讻转 讗讘诇讬诐 讜转谞讞讜诪讬 讗讘诇讬诐 讜讘专讻转 讞转谞讬诐 讜讗讬谉 诪讝诪谞讬谉 讘砖诐 驻讞讜转 诪注砖专讛 讜讘拽专拽注讜转 转砖注讛 讜讻讛谉 讜讗讚诐 讻讬讜爪讗 讘讛谉

And one does not observe the practice of standing up and sitting down for the delivery of eulogies at a funeral service; nor does one recite the mourners鈥 blessing or comfort mourners in two lines after the funeral; or recite the bridegrooms鈥 blessing; and one does not invite others to recite Grace after Meals, i.e., conduct a zimmun, with the name of God, with fewer than ten men present. If one consecrated land and now wishes to redeem it, the land must be assessed by nine men and one priest, for a total of ten. And similarly, assessing the value of a person who has pledged his own value to the Temple must be undertaken by ten people, one of whom must be a priest.

讙诪壮 诪谞讗 讛谞讬 诪讬诇讬 讗诪专 专讘讬 讞讬讬讗 讘专 讗讘讗 讗诪专 专讘讬 讬讜讞谞谉 讚讗诪专 拽专讗 讜谞拽讚砖转讬 讘转讜讱 讘谞讬 讬砖专讗诇 讻诇 讚讘专 砖讘拽讚讜砖讛 诇讗 讬讛讗 驻讞讜转 诪注砖专讛

GEMARA: The Gemara asks: From where are these matters, i.e., that ten people are needed in each of these cases, derived? Rabbi 岣yya bar Abba said that Rabbi Yo岣nan said: It is as the verse states: 鈥淎nd I shall be hallowed among the children of Israel鈥 (Leviticus 22:32), which indicates that any expression of sanctity may not be recited in a quorum of fewer than ten men.

诪讗讬 诪砖诪注 讚转谞讬 专讘讬 讞讬讬讗 讗转讬讗 转讜讱 转讜讱 讻转讬讘 讛讻讗 讜谞拽讚砖转讬 讘转讜讱 讘谞讬 讬砖专讗诇 讜讻转讬讘 讛转诐 讛讘讚诇讜 诪转讜讱 讛注讚讛

The Gemara asks: From where in the verse may this be inferred? The Gemara responds that it must be understood as Rabbi 岣yya taught: It is inferred by means of a verbal analogy [gezera shava] between the words 鈥渁mong,鈥 鈥渁mong.鈥 Here, it is written: 鈥淎nd I shall be hallowed among the children of Israel,鈥 and there, with regard to Korah鈥檚 congregation, it is written 鈥淪eparate yourselves from among this congregation鈥 (Numbers 16:21). Just as with regard to Korah the reference is to ten men, so too, the name of God is to be hallowed in a quorum of ten men.

讜讗转讬讗 注讚讛 注讚讛 讚讻转讬讘 讛转诐 注讚 诪转讬 诇注讚讛 讛专注讛 讛讝讗转 诪讛 诇讛诇谉 注砖专讛 讗祝 讻讗谉 注砖专讛

The connotation of ten associated with the word 鈥渁mong鈥 in the portion of Korah is, in turn, inferred by means of another verbal analogy between the word 鈥渃ongregation鈥 written there and the word 鈥渃ongregation鈥 written in reference to the ten spies who slandered Eretz Yisrael, as it is written there: 鈥淗ow long shall I bear with this evil congregation?鈥 (Numbers 14:27). Consequently, just as there, in the case of the spies, it was a congregation of ten people, as there were twelve spies altogether, and Joshua and Caleb were not included in the evil congregation, so too, here, in the case of Korah, the reference is to a congregation of ten people. The first several items mentioned in the mishna are expressions of sanctity, and they consequently require a quorum of ten.

讜讗讬谉 注讜砖讬谉 诪注诪讚 讜诪讜砖讘 驻讞讜转 诪注砖专讛 讻讬讜谉 讚讘注讬 诇诪讬诪专 注诪讚讜 讬拽专讬诐 注诪讜讚讜 砖讘讜 讬拽专讬诐 砖讘讜 讘爪讬专 诪注砖专讛 诇讗讜 讗讜专讞 讗专注讗

搂 We learned in the mishna: And one does not observe the practice of standing up and sitting down for the delivery of eulogies at a funeral service with fewer than ten men present. As this is not an expression of sanctity, it is therefore necessary to explain why a quorum is required. The Gemara explains: Since the leader of the funeral procession is required to say: Stand, dear friends, stand; sit down, dear friends, sit down, when there are fewer than ten it is not proper conduct to speak in such a dignified style.

讜讗讬谉 讗讜诪专讬诐 讘专讻转 讗讘诇讬诐 讜讘专讻转 讞转谞讬诐 (讜讻讜壮) 诪讗讬 讘专讻转 讗讘诇讬诐 讘专讻转 专讞讘讛 讚讗诪专 专讘讬 讬爪讞拽 讗诪专 专讘讬 讬讜讞谞谉 讘专讻转 讗讘诇讬诐 讘注砖专讛 讜讗讬谉 讗讘诇讬诐 诪谉 讛诪谞讬谉 讘专讻转 讞转谞讬诐 讘注砖专讛 讜讞转谞讬诐 诪谉 讛诪谞讬谉

We also learned in the mishna that one does not recite the mourners鈥 blessing and the bridegrooms鈥 blessing with fewer than ten men present. The Gemara asks: What is the mourners鈥 blessing? The blessing recited in the square next to the cemetery. Following the burial, those who participated in the funeral would assemble in the square and bless the mourners that God should comfort them, as Rabbi Yitz岣k said that Rabbi Yo岣nan said: The mourners鈥 blessing is recited only with ten men present, and mourners themselves are not included in the count. The bridegrooms鈥 blessing is also recited only with ten men present, and bridegrooms themselves are included in the count. Consequently, only nine other men are needed.

讜讗讬谉 诪讝诪谞讬谉 注诇 讛诪讝讜谉 讘砖诐 驻讞讜转 诪注砖专讛 (讜讻讜壮) 讻讬讜谉 讚讘注讬 诇诪讬诪专 谞讘专讱 诇讗诇讛讬谞讜 讘爪讬专 诪注砖专讛 诇讗讜 讗讜专讞 讗专注讗

We learned further in the mishna: And one does not invite others to recite Grace after Meals, i.e., conduct a zimmun, in order to thank God for one鈥檚 nourishment, with the name of God, with fewer than ten men present. Since one is required to say: Let us bless our Lord, in the presence of fewer than ten it is not proper conduct to mention the name of God.

讜讛拽专拽注讜转 转砖注讛 讜讻讛谉 讜讗讚诐 讻讬讜爪讗 讘讛谉 (讜讻讜壮) 诪谞讗 讛谞讬 诪讬诇讬

搂 If one consecrated land and now wishes to redeem it, the land must be assessed by nine Israelites and one priest, for a total of ten. And similarly, assessing the value of a person who has pledged his own value to the Temple must be undertaken by ten people, one of whom must be a priest. The Gemara asks: From where are these matters, that consecrated land must be assessed by ten people, one of whom is a priest, derived?

讗诪专 砖诪讜讗诇 注砖专讛 讻讛谞讬诐 讻转讜讘讬诐 讘驻专砖讛 讞讚 诇讙讜驻讬讛 (讜讞讚 诇诪注讜讟讬) 讜讗讬讚讱 讛讜讬 诪讬注讜讟 讗讞专 诪讬注讜讟 讜讗讬谉 诪讬注讜讟 讗讞专 诪讬注讜讟 讗诇讗 诇专讘讜转 转砖注讛 讬砖专讗诇讬诐 讜讞讚 讻讛谉

Shmuel said: The word priest is written ten times in the Torah portion that addresses the redemption of consecrated property, indicating that ten people are required to assess the value of such property (Leviticus, chapter 27). One instance of the word is needed for itself, to indicate that a priest must participate in the assessment. And one instance is needed to exclude all non-priests from fulfilling that role. And all the other instances of the word are restrictions following other restrictions, and there is a general hermeneutical principle that one restriction after another serves only to amplify. Therefore, each additional time the word priest is repeated, it extends the criteria applied to appraisers, so as to allow non-priests to participate. Consequently, the assessment may be carried out by nine ordinary Israelites and one priest.

讜讗讬诪讗 讞诪砖讛 讻讛谞讬诐 讜讞诪砖讛 讬砖专讗诇讬诐 拽砖讬讗

The Gemara asks: And on the basis of this principle, say that the first usage of the term is restrictive and requires a priest for the assessment; the second usage amplifies and allows for a non-priest; the third usage again requires a priest; the fourth usage allows for a non-priest; and so on. Consequently, the assessment must be carried out by five priests and five ordinary Israelites. The Gemara concludes: Indeed, it is difficult, as the derivation has not been sufficiently explained.

讜讗讚诐 讻讬讜爪讗 讘讛谉 讗讚诐 诪讬 拽讚讜砖

We learned in the mishna: And similarly, assessing the value of a person who has pledged his own value to the Temple must be undertaken by ten people, one of whom must be a priest. The Gemara asks: Can a person become consecrated and thereby require redemption?

讗诪专 专讘讬 讗讘讛讜 讘讗讜诪专 讚诪讬 注诇讬 讚转谞讬讗 讛讗讜诪专 讚诪讬 注诇讬 砖诪讬谉 讗讜转讜 讻注讘讚 讜注讘讚 讗讬转拽砖 诇拽专拽注讜转 讚讻转讬讘 讜讛转谞讞诇转诐 讗讜转诐 诇讘谞讬讻诐 讗讞专讬讻诐 诇专砖转 讗讞讜讝讛

Rabbi Abbahu said: The mishna is referring to one who says: My assessment is incumbent upon me, and thereby pledges to donate a sum of money equivalent to his own monetary value to the Temple treasury, as it is taught in a baraita: With regard to one who says: My assessment is incumbent upon me, the court assesses him as though he were a slave in order to determine the amount he is obligated to donate to the Temple treasury. And a slave is compared to land, as it is written with regard to slaves: 鈥淎nd you shall take them as an inheritance for your children after you, to inherit them for a possession鈥 (Leviticus 25:46). Consequently, the same criteria that apply to assessing consecrated land apply to assessing the monetary value of an individual.

诪转谞讬壮 讛拽讜专讗 讘转讜专讛 诇讗 讬驻讞讜转 诪砖诇砖讛 驻住讜拽讬诐 讜诇讗 讬拽专讗 诇诪转讜专讙诪谉 讬讜转专 诪驻住讜拽 讗讞讚

MISHNA: One who reads from the Torah in the synagogue should not read fewer than three verses. And when it is being translated, he should not read to the translator more than one verse at a time, so that the translator will not become confused.

This month鈥檚 shiurim are dedicated by Efrat Arnold in loving memory of Joshua Carr, Yehoshua Aryeh Leib ben Yonatan Chaim and Malka Esther HaCohen.

And by Tova and David Kestenbaum in honor of their children and grandchildren.

This month's shiurim are dedicated聽by Jordana and Kalman Schoor on behalf of their daughter Daria who is learning Masechet Megilla for her bat mitzvah. Mazal tov Daria!

  • This month's learning is sponsored by Terri Krivosha for the Refuah Shlemah of her husband Harav Hayim Yehuda Ben Faiga Rivah.聽

  • This month's learning is dedicated by Debbie and Yossi Gevir to Rabbanit Michelle and the Hadran Zoom group for their kindness, support, and care during a medically challenging year.

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Megillah: 17-23 – Daf Yomi One Week at a Time

This week we will learn the entire second chapter of Masechet Megillah. This chapter deals with the laws of reading...

Megillah 23

The William Davidson Talmud | Powered by Sefaria

Megillah 23

讜专讘讗 讚诪爪诇讬 讗爪诇讜讬讬

and Rava, who would bend their heads and not actually prostrate themselves on the ground.

讘讬讜诐 讟讜讘 讞诪砖讛 讘讬讜诐 讛讻驻讜专讬诐 砖砖讛 讻讜壮 诪转谞讬转讬谉 诪谞讬 诇讗 专讘讬 讬砖诪注讗诇 讜诇讗 专讘讬 注拽讬讘讗 讚转谞讬讗 讘讬讜诐 讟讜讘 讞诪砖讛 讜讘讬讜诐 讛讻驻讜专讬诐 砖砖讛 讜讘砖讘转 砖讘注讛 讗讬谉 驻讜讞转讬谉 诪讛谉 讜讗讬谉 诪讜住讬驻讬谉 注诇讬讛谉 讚讘专讬 专讘讬 讬砖诪注讗诇 专讘讬 注拽讬讘讗 讗讜诪专 讘讬讜诐 讟讜讘 讞诪砖讛 讜讘讬讜诐 讛讻驻讜专讬诐 砖讘注讛 讜讘砖讘转 砖砖讛 讗讬谉 驻讜讞转讬谉 诪讛谉 讗讘诇 诪讜住讬驻讬谉 注诇讬讛谉

We learned in the mishna: On a Festival, five people read; on Yom Kippur, six people read; and on Shabbat, seven people read. One may not decrease the number of readers, but one may add to them. The Gemara asks: Who is the tanna of the mishna? It is not Rabbi Yishmael and not Rabbi Akiva, as it is taught in a baraita: On a Festival, five people read from the Torah; and on Yom Kippur, six people read; and on Shabbat, seven people read. One may not decrease or add to the required number of readers. This is the statement of Rabbi Yishmael. Rabbi Akiva disagrees and says: On a Festival, five people read from the Torah; and on Yom Kippur, seven people read; and on Shabbat, six people read. One may not decrease these numbers, but one may add to them.

诪谞讬 讗讬 专讘讬 讬砖诪注讗诇 拽砖讬讗 转讜住驻转 讗讬 专讘讬 注拽讬讘讗 拽砖讬讗 砖砖讛 讜砖讘注讛

Who is the tanna of the mishna? If you say it is Rabbi Yishmael, it is difficult due to the ruling with regard to adding, as the mishna states that one may add additional readers but Rabbi Yishmael holds that one may not do so. If you say it is Rabbi Akiva, it is difficult due to the ruling concerning the days on which there are six and seven readers.

讗诪专 专讘讗 转谞讗 讚讘讬 专讘讬 讬砖诪注讗诇 讛讬讗 讚转谞讗 讚讘讬 专讘讬 讬砖诪注讗诇 讘讬讜诐 讟讜讘 讞诪砖讛 讘讬讜诐 讛讻驻讜专讬诐 砖砖讛 讘砖讘转 砖讘注讛 讗讬谉 驻讜讞转讬谉 诪讛谉 讗讘诇 诪讜住讬驻讬谉 注诇讬讛谉 讚讘专讬 专讘讬 讬砖诪注讗诇

Rava said: It is the tanna of the school of Rabbi Yishmael, as it was taught in the school of Rabbi Yishmael: On a Festival, five people read from the Torah; on Yom Kippur, six people read; on Shabbat, seven people read. One may not decrease these numbers but one may add to them. This is the statement of Rabbi Yishmael.

拽砖讬讗 讚专讘讬 讬砖诪注讗诇 讗讚专讘讬 讬砖诪注讗诇 转专讬 转谞讗讬 讗诇讬讘讗 讚专讘讬 讬砖诪注讗诇

The Gemara comments: If so, there is a contradiction between the opinion of Rabbi Yishmael, as expressed in the mishna, and the opinion of Rabbi Yishmael himself, as recorded in the baraita. The Gemara responds: Two tanna鈥檌m, students of Rabbi Yishmael, expressed different opinions in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Yishmael.

诪讗谉 转谞讗 诇讛讗 讚转谞讬讗 讘讬讜诐 讟讜讘 诪讗讞专讬谉 诇讘讜讗 讜诪诪讛专讬谉 诇爪讗转 讘讬讜诐 讛讻驻讜专讬诐 诪诪讛专讬谉 诇讘讜讗 讜诪讗讞专讬谉 诇爪讗转 讜讘砖讘转 诪诪讛专讬谉 诇讘讜讗 讜诪诪讛专讬谉 诇爪讗转 诇讬诪讗 专讘讬 注拽讬讘讗 讚讗讬转 诇讬讛 讙讘专讗 讬转讬专讗 讗驻讬诇讜 转讬诪讗 专讘讬 讬砖诪注讗诇 讚谞驻讬砖 住讬讚讜专讗 讚讬讜诪讗

The Gemara asks: Who is the tanna who taught that which is taught in a baraita: On a Festival, one is slow to arrive at the synagogue because one is busy preparing for the festive meal, and one is quick to leave in order to eat; on Yom Kippur, one is quick to arrive at the synagogue and slow to leave; and on Shabbat, one is quick to arrive, as the meal has been prepared before Shabbat, and quick to leave in order to eat the Shabbat meal? Let us say it is Rabbi Akiva, who holds that an additional man reads from the Torah on Yom Kippur, which prolongs the service on that day. The Gemara rejects this suggestion: Even if you say it is Rabbi Yishmael, one leaves the synagogue late because the order of the day, i.e., the prayer service, is very long, as it includes many supplications and confessions.

讛谞讬 砖诇砖讛 讞诪砖讛 讜砖讘注讛 讻谞讙讚 诪讬 驻诇讬讙讬 讘讛 专讘讬 讬爪讞拽 讘专 谞讞诪谞讬 讜讞讚 讚注诪讬讛 讜诪谞讜 专讘讬 砖诪注讜谉 讘谉 驻讝讬 讜讗诪专讬 诇讛 专讘讬 砖诪注讜谉 讘谉 驻讝讬 讜讞讚 讚注诪讬讛 讜诪谞讜 专讘讬 讬爪讞拽 讘专 谞讞诪谞讬 讜讗诪专讬 诇讛 专讘讬 砖诪讜讗诇 讘专 谞讞诪谞讬 讞讚 讗诪专 讻谞讙讚 讘专讻转 讻讛谞讬诐 讜讞讚 讗诪专 讻谞讙讚 砖诇砖讛 砖讜诪专讬 讛住祝 讞诪砖讛 诪专讜讗讬 驻谞讬 讛诪诇讱 砖讘注讛 专讜讗讬 驻谞讬 讛诪诇讱

A question is raised with regard to the number of readers on different days. Corresponding to what were these three, five, and seven, readers instituted? Rabbi Yitz岣k bar Na岣ani and one other Sage who was with him disagree about this. And who was that other scholar? Rabbi Shimon ben Pazi. And some say that this was a matter of dispute between Rabbi Shimon ben Pazi and one other scholar who was with him. And who was that other scholar? Rabbi Yitz岣k bar Na岣ani, and some say it was Rabbi Shmuel bar Na岣ani. One said: These numbers correspond to the number of Hebrew words in the three verses of the Priestly Benediction. And one said: These numbers correspond to the three guards of the door (II聽Kings 25:18), five of the officers who saw the king鈥檚 face (II聽Kings 25:19), and the seven officers who saw the king鈥檚 face (Esther 1:14).

转谞讬 专讘 讬讜住祝 砖诇砖讛 讞诪砖讛 讜砖讘注讛 砖诇砖讛 砖讜诪专讬 讛住祝 讞诪砖讛 诪专讜讗讬 驻谞讬 讛诪诇讱 砖讘注讛 专讜讗讬 驻谞讬 讛诪诇讱 讗诪专 诇讬讛 讗讘讬讬 注讚 讛讗讬讚谞讗 诪讗讬 讟注诪讗 诇讗 驻专讬砖 诇谉 诪专 讗诪专 诇讬讛 诇讗 讛讜讛 讬讚注谞讗 讚爪专讬讻转讜 诇讬讛 讜诪讬 讘注讬转讜 诪讬谞讗讬 诪讬诇转讗 讜诇讗 讗诪专讬 诇讻讜

Similarly, Rav Yosef taught a baraita: The three, five, and seven people who read from the Torah correspond to the three guards of the door, five of the officers who saw the king鈥檚 face, and the seven officers who saw the king鈥檚 face. When Rav Yosef taught this, Abaye said to him: What is the reason that until now the Master did not explain the matter to us in this way? Rav Yosef said to him: I did not know that you needed this information, as I thought that you were already familiar with the baraita. Have you ever asked me something and I did not tell you?

讗诪专 诇讬讛 讬注拽讘 诪讬谞讗讛 诇专讘 讬讛讜讚讛 讛谞讬 砖砖讛 讚讬讜诐 讛讻驻讜专讬诐 讻谞讙讚 诪讬 讗诪专 诇讬讛 讻谞讙讚 砖砖讛 砖注诪讚讜 诪讬诪讬谞讜 砖诇 注讝专讗 讜砖砖讛 诪砖诪讗诇讜 砖谞讗诪专 讜讬注诪讜讚 注讝专讗 讛住讜驻专 注诇 诪讙讚诇 注抓 讗砖专 注砖讜 诇讚讘专 讜讬注诪讜讚 讗爪诇讜 诪转转讬讛 讜砖诪注 讜注谞讬讛 讜讗讜专讬讛 讜讞诇拽讬讛 讜诪注砖讬讛 注诇 讬诪讬谞讜 讜诪砖诪讗诇讜 驻讚讬讛 讜诪讬砖讗诇 讜诪诇讻讬讛 讜讞砖讜诐 讜讞砖讘讚谞讛 讝讻专讬讛 诪砖诇诐

Ya鈥檃kov of Mina said to Rav Yehuda: Corresponding to whom were these six readers on Yom Kippur instituted? Rav Yehuda said to him: The number six corresponds to the six people who stood to Ezra鈥檚 right and the six people who stood to his left, as it is stated: 鈥淎nd Ezra the Scribe stood upon a platform of wood, which they had made for the purpose, and beside him stood Mattithiah, and Shema, and Anaiah, and Uriah, and Hilkiah, and Maaseiah, on his right hand, and on his left hand, Pedaiah, and Mishael, and Malchiah, and Hashum, and Hashbadanah, Zechariah, Meshullam鈥 (Nehemiah 8:4).

讛谞讬 砖讘注讛 讛讜讜 讛讬讬谞讜 讝讻专讬讛 讛讬讬谞讜 诪砖诇诐 讜讗诪讗讬 拽专讗讜 诪砖诇诐 讚诪讬砖诇诐 讘注讜讘讚讬讛

The Gemara challenges this answer: Those that stood to his left were seven and not six. The Gemara responds: Zechariah is the same as Meshullam, that is to say, they are not two separate people, but rather one person with two names. And why was he called Meshullam? Because he was perfect [mishlam] in his actions.

转谞讜 专讘谞谉 讛讻诇 注讜诇讬谉 诇诪谞讬谉 砖讘注讛 讜讗驻讬诇讜 拽讟谉 讜讗驻讬诇讜 讗砖讛 讗讘诇 讗诪专讜 讞讻诪讬诐 讗砖讛 诇讗 转拽专讗 讘转讜专讛 诪驻谞讬 讻讘讜讚 爪讘讜专

The Sages taught in a Tosefta (Megilla 3:11): All people count toward the quorum of seven readers, even a minor and even a woman. However, the Sages said that a woman should not read the Torah, out of respect for the congregation.

讗讬讘注讬讗 诇讛讜 诪驻讟讬专 诪讛讜 砖讬注诇讛 诇诪谞讬谉 砖讘注讛 专讘 讛讜谞讗 讜专讘讬 讬专诪讬讛 讘专 讗讘讗 讞讚 讗诪专 注讜诇讛 讜讞讚 讗诪专 讗讬谞讜 注讜诇讛 诪讗谉 讚讗诪专 注讜诇讛 讚讛讗 拽专讬

A dilemma was raised before the Sages: With regard to the reader who concludes [maftir] the Torah reading and reads from the Prophets [haftara], what is the halakha; does he count toward the quorum of seven readers? Rav Huna and Rabbi Yirmeya bar Abba disagreed about this matter. One said: He counts, and one said: He does not count. The one who said that he counts toward the seven readers holds that opinion because he reads from the Torah.

讜诪讗谉 讚讗诪专 讗讬谞讜 注讜诇讛 讻讚注讜诇讗 讚讗诪专 注讜诇讗 诪驻谞讬 诪讛 讛诪驻讟讬专 讘谞讘讬讗 爪专讬讱 砖讬拽专讗 讘转讜专讛 转讞诇讛 诪驻谞讬 讻讘讜讚 转讜专讛 讜讻讬讜谉 讚诪砖讜诐 讻讘讜讚 转讜专讛 讛讜讗 诇诪谞讬谞讗 诇讗 住诇讬拽

And the one who said that he does not count holds in accordance with the opinion of Ulla, as Ulla said: For what reason must the one who concludes with a reading from the Prophets read from the Torah first? It is due to respect for the Torah, so that those present should not conclude that he was called up only to read from the Prophets because the honor due the Torah and the honor due the Prophets are equal. And since he reads only out of respect for the Torah, he is not included in the quorum of seven readers.

诪讬转讬讘讬 讛诪驻讟讬专 讘谞讘讬讗 诇讗 讬驻讞讜转 诪注砖专讬诐 讜讗讞讚 驻住讜拽讬谉 讻谞讙讚 砖讘注讛 砖拽专讗讜 讘转讜专讛 讜讗诐 讗讬转讗 注砖专讬诐 讜讗专讘注讛 讛讜讬讬谉 讻讬讜谉 讚诪砖讜诐 讻讘讜讚 转讜专讛 讛讜讗

The Gemara raises an objection based upon the following baraita: The one who concludes with a reading from the Prophets may not read fewer than twenty-one verses, corresponding to the seven who read from the Torah. Each one who reads from the Torah must read at least three verses, for a total of at least twenty-one verses. And if it is so, that the one who reads the haftara does not count toward the quorum of seven readers, and he is an eighth reader, the minimum number of verses that must be read from the Torah is twenty-four and not twenty-one. The Gemara answers: Since the one who reads the haftara reads from the Torah first only due to respect for the Torah,

讻谞讙讚讜 谞诪讬 诇讗 讘注讬

it is not necessary to also add corresponding verses in the haftara.

诪转拽讬祝 诇讛 专讘讗 讜讛专讬 注讜诇讜转讬讻诐 住驻讜 讚诇讗 讛讜讬讬谉 注砖专讬谉 讜讞讚 讜拽专讬谞谉 砖讗谞讬 讛转诐 讚住诇讬拽 注谞讬讬谞讗

Rava strongly objects to this baraita: But there is the haftara that begins with the words: 鈥淎dd your burnt offerings鈥 (Jeremiah 7:21鈥28), which does not have twenty-one verses, and nevertheless we read it. The Gemara answers: There it is different, as the topic is completed in fewer than twenty-one verses, and it is not necessary to begin another topic merely to complete the number of verses.

讜讛讬讻讗 讚诇讗 住诇讬拽 注谞讬讬谞讗 诇讗 讜讛讗诪专 专讘 砖诪讜讗诇 讘专 讗讘讗 讝诪谞讬谉 住讙讬讗讬谉 讛讜讛 拽讗讬诪谞讗 拽诪讬讛 讚专讘讬 讬讜讞谞谉 讜讻讬 讛讜讛 拽专讬谞谉 注砖专讛 驻住讜拽讬 讗诪专 诇谉 讗驻住讬拽讜 诪拽讜诐 砖讬砖 转讜专讙诪谉 砖讗谞讬 讚转谞讬 专讘 转讞诇讬驻讗 讘专 砖诪讜讗诇 诇讗 砖谞讜 讗诇讗 讘诪拽讜诐 砖讗讬谉 转讜专讙诪谉 讗讘诇 诪拽讜诐 砖讬砖 转讜专讙诪谉 驻讜住拽

The Gemara asks: But is it true that where the topic is not completed, we do not read fewer than twenty-one verses? Didn鈥檛 Rav Shmuel bar Abba say: Many times I stood before Rabbi Yo岣nan as a translator, and when we had read ten verses he would say to us: Stop. This indicates that a haftara need not be twenty-one verses. The Gemara answers: In a place where there is a translator, who translates each verse into Aramaic and adds additional explanation, it is different. In that case, it is not necessary for the haftara to consist of twenty-one verses, so as not to overburden the congregation, as Rav Ta岣lifa bar Shmuel taught: They taught that twenty-one verses must be read from the haftara only in a place where there is no translator; but in a place where there is a translator, one may stop even before that.

诪转谞讬壮 讗讬谉 驻讜专住讬谉 注诇 砖诪注 讜讗讬谉 注讜讘专讬谉 诇驻谞讬 讛转讬讘讛 讜讗讬谉 谞讜砖讗讬谉 讗转 讻驻讬讛诐 讜讗讬谉 拽讜专讬谉 讘转讜专讛 讜讗讬谉 诪驻讟讬专讬谉 讘谞讘讬讗

MISHNA: One does not recite the introductory prayers and blessing [poresin] before Shema; nor does one pass before the ark to repeat the Amida prayer; nor do the priests lift their hands to recite the Priestly Benediction; nor is the Torah read in public; nor does one conclude with a reading from the Prophets [haftara] in the presence of fewer than ten men.

讜讗讬谉 注讜砖讬谉 诪注诪讚 讜诪讜砖讘 讜讗讬谉 讗讜诪专讬诐 讘专讻转 讗讘诇讬诐 讜转谞讞讜诪讬 讗讘诇讬诐 讜讘专讻转 讞转谞讬诐 讜讗讬谉 诪讝诪谞讬谉 讘砖诐 驻讞讜转 诪注砖专讛 讜讘拽专拽注讜转 转砖注讛 讜讻讛谉 讜讗讚诐 讻讬讜爪讗 讘讛谉

And one does not observe the practice of standing up and sitting down for the delivery of eulogies at a funeral service; nor does one recite the mourners鈥 blessing or comfort mourners in two lines after the funeral; or recite the bridegrooms鈥 blessing; and one does not invite others to recite Grace after Meals, i.e., conduct a zimmun, with the name of God, with fewer than ten men present. If one consecrated land and now wishes to redeem it, the land must be assessed by nine men and one priest, for a total of ten. And similarly, assessing the value of a person who has pledged his own value to the Temple must be undertaken by ten people, one of whom must be a priest.

讙诪壮 诪谞讗 讛谞讬 诪讬诇讬 讗诪专 专讘讬 讞讬讬讗 讘专 讗讘讗 讗诪专 专讘讬 讬讜讞谞谉 讚讗诪专 拽专讗 讜谞拽讚砖转讬 讘转讜讱 讘谞讬 讬砖专讗诇 讻诇 讚讘专 砖讘拽讚讜砖讛 诇讗 讬讛讗 驻讞讜转 诪注砖专讛

GEMARA: The Gemara asks: From where are these matters, i.e., that ten people are needed in each of these cases, derived? Rabbi 岣yya bar Abba said that Rabbi Yo岣nan said: It is as the verse states: 鈥淎nd I shall be hallowed among the children of Israel鈥 (Leviticus 22:32), which indicates that any expression of sanctity may not be recited in a quorum of fewer than ten men.

诪讗讬 诪砖诪注 讚转谞讬 专讘讬 讞讬讬讗 讗转讬讗 转讜讱 转讜讱 讻转讬讘 讛讻讗 讜谞拽讚砖转讬 讘转讜讱 讘谞讬 讬砖专讗诇 讜讻转讬讘 讛转诐 讛讘讚诇讜 诪转讜讱 讛注讚讛

The Gemara asks: From where in the verse may this be inferred? The Gemara responds that it must be understood as Rabbi 岣yya taught: It is inferred by means of a verbal analogy [gezera shava] between the words 鈥渁mong,鈥 鈥渁mong.鈥 Here, it is written: 鈥淎nd I shall be hallowed among the children of Israel,鈥 and there, with regard to Korah鈥檚 congregation, it is written 鈥淪eparate yourselves from among this congregation鈥 (Numbers 16:21). Just as with regard to Korah the reference is to ten men, so too, the name of God is to be hallowed in a quorum of ten men.

讜讗转讬讗 注讚讛 注讚讛 讚讻转讬讘 讛转诐 注讚 诪转讬 诇注讚讛 讛专注讛 讛讝讗转 诪讛 诇讛诇谉 注砖专讛 讗祝 讻讗谉 注砖专讛

The connotation of ten associated with the word 鈥渁mong鈥 in the portion of Korah is, in turn, inferred by means of another verbal analogy between the word 鈥渃ongregation鈥 written there and the word 鈥渃ongregation鈥 written in reference to the ten spies who slandered Eretz Yisrael, as it is written there: 鈥淗ow long shall I bear with this evil congregation?鈥 (Numbers 14:27). Consequently, just as there, in the case of the spies, it was a congregation of ten people, as there were twelve spies altogether, and Joshua and Caleb were not included in the evil congregation, so too, here, in the case of Korah, the reference is to a congregation of ten people. The first several items mentioned in the mishna are expressions of sanctity, and they consequently require a quorum of ten.

讜讗讬谉 注讜砖讬谉 诪注诪讚 讜诪讜砖讘 驻讞讜转 诪注砖专讛 讻讬讜谉 讚讘注讬 诇诪讬诪专 注诪讚讜 讬拽专讬诐 注诪讜讚讜 砖讘讜 讬拽专讬诐 砖讘讜 讘爪讬专 诪注砖专讛 诇讗讜 讗讜专讞 讗专注讗

搂 We learned in the mishna: And one does not observe the practice of standing up and sitting down for the delivery of eulogies at a funeral service with fewer than ten men present. As this is not an expression of sanctity, it is therefore necessary to explain why a quorum is required. The Gemara explains: Since the leader of the funeral procession is required to say: Stand, dear friends, stand; sit down, dear friends, sit down, when there are fewer than ten it is not proper conduct to speak in such a dignified style.

讜讗讬谉 讗讜诪专讬诐 讘专讻转 讗讘诇讬诐 讜讘专讻转 讞转谞讬诐 (讜讻讜壮) 诪讗讬 讘专讻转 讗讘诇讬诐 讘专讻转 专讞讘讛 讚讗诪专 专讘讬 讬爪讞拽 讗诪专 专讘讬 讬讜讞谞谉 讘专讻转 讗讘诇讬诐 讘注砖专讛 讜讗讬谉 讗讘诇讬诐 诪谉 讛诪谞讬谉 讘专讻转 讞转谞讬诐 讘注砖专讛 讜讞转谞讬诐 诪谉 讛诪谞讬谉

We also learned in the mishna that one does not recite the mourners鈥 blessing and the bridegrooms鈥 blessing with fewer than ten men present. The Gemara asks: What is the mourners鈥 blessing? The blessing recited in the square next to the cemetery. Following the burial, those who participated in the funeral would assemble in the square and bless the mourners that God should comfort them, as Rabbi Yitz岣k said that Rabbi Yo岣nan said: The mourners鈥 blessing is recited only with ten men present, and mourners themselves are not included in the count. The bridegrooms鈥 blessing is also recited only with ten men present, and bridegrooms themselves are included in the count. Consequently, only nine other men are needed.

讜讗讬谉 诪讝诪谞讬谉 注诇 讛诪讝讜谉 讘砖诐 驻讞讜转 诪注砖专讛 (讜讻讜壮) 讻讬讜谉 讚讘注讬 诇诪讬诪专 谞讘专讱 诇讗诇讛讬谞讜 讘爪讬专 诪注砖专讛 诇讗讜 讗讜专讞 讗专注讗

We learned further in the mishna: And one does not invite others to recite Grace after Meals, i.e., conduct a zimmun, in order to thank God for one鈥檚 nourishment, with the name of God, with fewer than ten men present. Since one is required to say: Let us bless our Lord, in the presence of fewer than ten it is not proper conduct to mention the name of God.

讜讛拽专拽注讜转 转砖注讛 讜讻讛谉 讜讗讚诐 讻讬讜爪讗 讘讛谉 (讜讻讜壮) 诪谞讗 讛谞讬 诪讬诇讬

搂 If one consecrated land and now wishes to redeem it, the land must be assessed by nine Israelites and one priest, for a total of ten. And similarly, assessing the value of a person who has pledged his own value to the Temple must be undertaken by ten people, one of whom must be a priest. The Gemara asks: From where are these matters, that consecrated land must be assessed by ten people, one of whom is a priest, derived?

讗诪专 砖诪讜讗诇 注砖专讛 讻讛谞讬诐 讻转讜讘讬诐 讘驻专砖讛 讞讚 诇讙讜驻讬讛 (讜讞讚 诇诪注讜讟讬) 讜讗讬讚讱 讛讜讬 诪讬注讜讟 讗讞专 诪讬注讜讟 讜讗讬谉 诪讬注讜讟 讗讞专 诪讬注讜讟 讗诇讗 诇专讘讜转 转砖注讛 讬砖专讗诇讬诐 讜讞讚 讻讛谉

Shmuel said: The word priest is written ten times in the Torah portion that addresses the redemption of consecrated property, indicating that ten people are required to assess the value of such property (Leviticus, chapter 27). One instance of the word is needed for itself, to indicate that a priest must participate in the assessment. And one instance is needed to exclude all non-priests from fulfilling that role. And all the other instances of the word are restrictions following other restrictions, and there is a general hermeneutical principle that one restriction after another serves only to amplify. Therefore, each additional time the word priest is repeated, it extends the criteria applied to appraisers, so as to allow non-priests to participate. Consequently, the assessment may be carried out by nine ordinary Israelites and one priest.

讜讗讬诪讗 讞诪砖讛 讻讛谞讬诐 讜讞诪砖讛 讬砖专讗诇讬诐 拽砖讬讗

The Gemara asks: And on the basis of this principle, say that the first usage of the term is restrictive and requires a priest for the assessment; the second usage amplifies and allows for a non-priest; the third usage again requires a priest; the fourth usage allows for a non-priest; and so on. Consequently, the assessment must be carried out by five priests and five ordinary Israelites. The Gemara concludes: Indeed, it is difficult, as the derivation has not been sufficiently explained.

讜讗讚诐 讻讬讜爪讗 讘讛谉 讗讚诐 诪讬 拽讚讜砖

We learned in the mishna: And similarly, assessing the value of a person who has pledged his own value to the Temple must be undertaken by ten people, one of whom must be a priest. The Gemara asks: Can a person become consecrated and thereby require redemption?

讗诪专 专讘讬 讗讘讛讜 讘讗讜诪专 讚诪讬 注诇讬 讚转谞讬讗 讛讗讜诪专 讚诪讬 注诇讬 砖诪讬谉 讗讜转讜 讻注讘讚 讜注讘讚 讗讬转拽砖 诇拽专拽注讜转 讚讻转讬讘 讜讛转谞讞诇转诐 讗讜转诐 诇讘谞讬讻诐 讗讞专讬讻诐 诇专砖转 讗讞讜讝讛

Rabbi Abbahu said: The mishna is referring to one who says: My assessment is incumbent upon me, and thereby pledges to donate a sum of money equivalent to his own monetary value to the Temple treasury, as it is taught in a baraita: With regard to one who says: My assessment is incumbent upon me, the court assesses him as though he were a slave in order to determine the amount he is obligated to donate to the Temple treasury. And a slave is compared to land, as it is written with regard to slaves: 鈥淎nd you shall take them as an inheritance for your children after you, to inherit them for a possession鈥 (Leviticus 25:46). Consequently, the same criteria that apply to assessing consecrated land apply to assessing the monetary value of an individual.

诪转谞讬壮 讛拽讜专讗 讘转讜专讛 诇讗 讬驻讞讜转 诪砖诇砖讛 驻住讜拽讬诐 讜诇讗 讬拽专讗 诇诪转讜专讙诪谉 讬讜转专 诪驻住讜拽 讗讞讚

MISHNA: One who reads from the Torah in the synagogue should not read fewer than three verses. And when it is being translated, he should not read to the translator more than one verse at a time, so that the translator will not become confused.

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