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Today's Daf Yomi

January 9, 2022 | ื–ืณ ื‘ืฉื‘ื˜ ืชืฉืคืดื‘

This monthโ€™s shiurim are dedicated by Efrat Arnold in loving memory of Joshua Carr, Yehoshua Aryeh Leib ben Yonatan Chaim and Malka Esther HaCohen.

This month's shiurim are dedicated by Tova and David Kestenbaum in honor of their children and grandchildren.

This month's shiurim are dedicated by Jordana and Kalman Schoor on behalf of their daughter Daria who is learning Masechet Megilla for her bat mitzvah.ย 

  • This monthโ€™s learning is sponsored by Shlomo and Amalia Klapper in honor of the birth of Chiyenna Yochana, named after her great-great-grandmother, Chiyenna Kossovsky.

  • This month's learning is sponsored by Elaine Hochberg in honor of her husband, Arie Hochberg, who continues to journey through Daf Yomi with her. โ€œAnd with thanks to Rabbanit Farber and Hadran who have made our learning possible.โ€

Megillah 28

This week’s learning is sponsored by Elaine Hochberg in honor of Hadran and her husband, Aryeh. โ€œTwo years of Daf Yomi have been but a second filled with learning and delight. May we continue on this journey together and may it remain but a sweet second in our hearts and minds and on our lips.โ€

Students asked various rabbis in what merit did they gain long life? If a shul is destroyed, the space where it once stood still has sanctity and cannot be used for certain things. One should also not pull out weeds so that others see and pray for the shul to be rebuilt. One has to treat a shul respectfully and not eat and drink there, eulogize people, and a number of other things. However, shuls in Babylonia were built with a stipulation that they may be used for other things. One still cannot use them for business dealings. In what cases can eulogies be done in a shul? One cannot be served by someone who is a Torah scholar unless it is one’s student. One who studies halakha is promised a place in the World-to-Come.

ื•ืœื ื‘ืจื›ืชื™ ืœืคื ื™ ื›ื”ืŸ ื•ืœื ืื›ืœืชื™ ืžื‘ื”ืžื” ืฉืœื ื”ื•ืจืžื• ืžืชื ื•ืชื™ื”

And I never recited Grace after Meals in the presence of a priest, but rather I gave him the privilege to lead. And I never ate from an animal whose priestly portions, i.e., the foreleg, the jaw, and the maw, had not already been set aside.

ื“ืืžืจ ืจื‘ื™ ื™ืฆื—ืง ืืžืจ ืจื‘ื™ ื™ื•ื—ื ืŸ ืืกื•ืจ ืœืื›ื•ืœ ืžื‘ื”ืžื” ืฉืœื ื”ื•ืจืžื• ืžืชื ื•ืชื™ื” ื•ืืžืจ ืจื‘ื™ ื™ืฆื—ืง ื›ืœ ื”ืื•ื›ืœ ืžื‘ื”ืžื” ืฉืœื ื”ื•ืจืžื• ืžืชื ื•ืชื™ื” ื›ืื™ืœื• ืื•ื›ืœ ื˜ื‘ืœื™ื ื•ืœื™ืช ื”ืœื›ืชื ื›ื•ื•ืชื™ื”

Another example of Rabbi Peridaโ€™s meticulous behavior is based on that which Rabbi Yitzแธฅak said that Rabbi Yoแธฅanan said: It is prohibited to eat meat from an animal whose priestly portions have not been set aside. And Rabbi Yitzแธฅak said: Anyone who eats meat from an animal whose priestly portions have not been set aside is regarded as if he were eating untithed produce. The Gemara comments: And the halakha is not in accordance with his opinion. Rather, it is permitted to eat meat from such an animal. Nevertheless, Rabbi Perida acted stringently and did not eat from it.

ื•ืœื ื‘ืจื›ืชื™ ืœืคื ื™ ื›ื”ืŸ

The Gemara considers another of Rabbi Peridaโ€™s actions: He said: And I never blessed Grace after Meals in the presence of a priest, but rather I gave him the privilege to lead.

ืœืžื™ืžืจื ื“ืžืขืœื™ื•ืชื ื”ื™ื ื•ื”ื ืืžืจ ืจื‘ื™ ื™ื•ื—ื ืŸ ื›ืœ ืชืœืžื™ื“ ื—ื›ื ืฉืžื‘ืจืš ืœืคื ื™ื• ืืคื™ืœื• ื›ื”ืŸ ื’ื“ื•ืœ ืขื ื”ืืจืฅ ืื•ืชื• ืชืœืžื™ื“ ื—ื›ื ื—ื™ื™ื‘ ืžื™ืชื” ืฉื ืืžืจ ื›ืœ ืžืฉื ืื™ ืื”ื‘ื• ืžื•ืช ืืœ ืชืงืจื™ ืžืฉื ืื™ ืืœื ืžืฉื ื™ืื™

Is this to say that doing so is especially virtuous? But hasnโ€™t Rabbi Yoแธฅanan said: Any Torah scholar who allows someone else to bless Grace after Meals in his presence, i.e., to lead for him, even if that person is a High Priest who is an ignoramus, then that Torah scholar is liable to receive the death penalty for belittling his own honor? This is as it is stated: โ€œAll those who hate me, love deathโ€ (Proverbs 8:36). Do not read it as โ€œthose who hate Me [mesanโ€™ai],โ€ rather read it as though it said: Those who make Me hated [masniโ€™ai]. The honor due to a Torah scholar is representative of the honor of God in the world. Therefore, by belittling his own honor, he causes others to fail to respect God, which can ultimately develop into hate. If so, why did Rabbi Perida consider his behavior to be so deserving of praise?

ื›ื™ ืงืืžืจ ืื™ื”ื• ื‘ืฉื•ื™ืŸ

The Gemara answers: When Rabbi Perida says this, he was speaking of people of equal stature. He was particular to honor the priesthood only when the priest was also a Torah scholar.

ืฉืืœื• ืชืœืžื™ื“ื™ื• ืืช ืจื‘ื™ ื ื—ื•ื ื™ื ื‘ืŸ ื”ืงื ื” ื‘ืžื” ื”ืืจื›ืช ื™ืžื™ื ืืžืจ ืœื”ื ืžื™ืžื™ ืœื ื ืชื›ื‘ื“ืชื™ ื‘ืงืœื•ืŸ ื—ื‘ืจื™ ื•ืœื ืขืœืชื” ืขืœ ืžื˜ืชื™ ืงืœืœืช ื—ื‘ืจื™ ื•ื•ืชืจืŸ ื‘ืžืžื•ื ื™ ื”ื™ื™ืชื™

The Gemara discusses the fourth Sage who was blessed with longevity: Rabbi Neแธฅunya ben HaKana was once asked by his disciples: In the merit of which virtue were you blessed with longevity? He said to them: In all my days, I never attained veneration at the expense of my fellowโ€™s degradation. Nor did my fellowโ€™s curse ever go up with me upon my bed. If ever I offended someone, I made sure to appease him that day. Therefore, when I went to bed I knew that no one had any grievances against me. And I was always openhanded with my money.

ืœื ื ืชื›ื‘ื“ืชื™ ื‘ืงืœื•ืŸ ื—ื‘ืจื™ ื›ื™ ื”ื ื“ืจื‘ ื”ื•ื ื ื“ืจื™ ืžืจื ืื›ืชืคื™ื” ืืชื ืจื‘ ื—ื ื ื‘ืจ ื—ื ื™ืœืื™ ื•ืงื ื“ืจื™ ืžื™ื ื™ื” ืืžืจ ืœื™ื” ืื™ ืจื’ื™ืœืช ื“ื“ืจื™ืช ื‘ืžืืชื™ืš ื“ืจื™ ื•ืื™ ืœื ืืชื™ื™ืงื•ืจื™ ืื ื ื‘ื–ื™ืœื•ืชื ื“ื™ื“ืš ืœื ื ื™ื—ื ืœื™

The Gemara clarifies the meaning of his statement: Rabbi Neแธฅunya said: I never attained veneration at the expense of my fellowโ€™s denigration. This is referring to conduct such as that of Rav Huna, who was carrying a hoe over his shoulder as he returned from his work. Rav แธคana bar แธคanilai came and, out of respect for his teacher, took the hoe from him to carry it for him. Rav Huna said to him: If you are accustomed to carry such objects in your own city, you may carry it; but if not, then for me to be venerated through your denigration is not pleasing for me.

ื•ืœื ืขืœืชื” ืขืœ ืžื˜ืชื™ ืงืœืœืช ื—ื‘ืจื™ ื›ื™ ื”ื ื“ืžืจ ื–ื•ื˜ืจื ื›ื™ ื”ื•ื” ืกืœื™ืง ืœืคื•ืจื™ื™ื” ืืžืจ ืฉืจื™ ืœื™ื” ืœื›ืœ ืžืืŸ ื“ืฆืขืจืŸ

Rabbi Neแธฅunya also said: Nor did I ever allow the resentment caused by my fellowโ€™s curse to go up with me upon my bed. This is referring to conduct such as that of Mar Zutra. When he would go to bed at night, he would first say: I forgive anyone who has vexed me.

ื•ื•ืชืจืŸ ื‘ืžืžื•ื ื™ ื”ื™ื™ืชื™ ื“ืืžืจ ืžืจ ืื™ื•ื‘ ื•ื•ืชืจืŸ ื‘ืžืžื•ื ื™ื” ื”ื•ื” ืฉื”ื™ื” ืžื ื™ื— ืคืจื•ื˜ื” ืœื—ื ื•ื ื™ ืžืžืžื•ื ื™ื”

Lastly, Rabbi Neแธฅunya said: And I was always openhanded with my money. This is referring to conduct such as that which the Master said: Job was openhanded with his money, as he would always leave at least a peruta of his money with the shopkeeper. He never demanded the change from his transactions.

ืฉืืœ ืจื‘ื™ ืขืงื™ื‘ื ืืช ืจื‘ื™ ื ื—ื•ื ื™ื ื”ื’ื“ื•ืœ (ืืžืจ ืœื•) ื‘ืžื” ื”ืืจื›ืช ื™ืžื™ื ืืชื• ื’ื•ื•ื–ื™ ื•ืงื ืžื—ื• ืœื™ื” ืกืœื™ืง ื™ืชื™ื‘ ืืจื™ืฉื ื“ื“ื™ืงืœื ืืžืจ ืœื™ื” ืจื‘ื™ ืื ื ืืžืจ ื›ื‘ืฉ ืœืžื” ื ืืžืจ ืื—ื“ ืืžืจ ืœื”ื• ืฆื•ืจื‘ื ืžื“ืจื‘ื ืŸ ื”ื•ื ืฉื‘ืงื•ื”ื•

On a similar occasion, Rabbi Akiva asked Rabbi Neแธฅunya the Great; he said to him: In the merit of which virtue were you blessed with longevity? Rabbi Neแธฅunyaโ€™s attendants [gavzei] came and started beating Rabbi Akiva, for they felt that he was acting disrespectfully by highlighting Rabbi Neแธฅunyaโ€™s old age. Rabbi Akiva ran away from them, and he climbed up and sat upon the top of a date palm. From there, he said to Rabbi Neแธฅunya: My teacher, I have a question about the verse concerning the daily offering that states โ€œone lambโ€ (Numbers 28:4). If it is stated โ€œlambโ€ in the singular, why is it also stated โ€œoneโ€; isnโ€™t this superfluous? Upon hearing Rabbi Akivaโ€™s scholarly question, Rabbi Neแธฅunya said to his attendants: He is clearly a young Torah scholar, let him be.

ืืžืจ ืœื™ื” ืื—ื“ ืžื™ื•ื—ื“ ืฉื‘ืขื“ืจื•

Rabbi Neแธฅunya then addressed Rabbi Akivaโ€™s questions. With regard to the second question, he said to him: The word โ€œoneโ€ teaches that the lamb should be the unique one of its flock, i.e., only the best quality lamb should be used.

ืืžืจ ืœื™ื” ืžื™ืžื™ ืœื ืงื‘ืœืชื™ ืžืชื ื•ืช ื•ืœื ืขืžื“ืชื™ ืขืœ ืžื“ื•ืชื™ ื•ื•ืชืจืŸ ื‘ืžืžื•ื ื™ ื”ื™ื™ืชื™

With regard to the original question, Rabbi Neแธฅunya said to him: In all my days I never accepted gifts. Nor was I ever inflexible by exacting a measure of retribution against those who wronged me. And I was always openhanded with my money.

ืœื ืงื‘ืœืชื™ ืžืชื ื•ืช ื›ื™ ื”ื ื“ืจื‘ื™ ืืœืขื–ืจ ื›ื™ ื”ื•ื• ืžืฉื“ืจื™ ืœื™ื” ืžืชื ื•ืช ืžื‘ื™ ื ืฉื™ืื” ืœื ื”ื•ื” ืฉืงื™ืœ ื›ื™ ื”ื•ื” ืžื–ืžื ื™ ืœื™ื” ืœื ื”ื•ื” ืื–ื™ืœ ืืžืจ ืœื”ื• ืœื ื ื™ื—ื ืœื›ื• ื“ืื—ื™ื” ื“ื›ืชื™ื‘ ืฉื•ื ื ืžืชื ื•ืช ื™ื—ื™ื” ืจื‘ื™ ื–ื™ืจื ื›ื™ ื”ื•ื• ืžืฉื“ืจื™ ืœื™ื” ืžื‘ื™ ื ืฉื™ืื” ืœื ื”ื•ื” ืฉืงื™ืœ ื›ื™ ื”ื•ื” ืžื–ืžื ื™ ืœื™ื” ืื–ื™ืœ ืืžืจ ืืชื™ื™ืงื•ืจื™ ื“ืžืชื™ื™ืงืจื™ ื‘ื™

The Gemara explains: I never accepted gifts; this is referring to conduct such as that of Rabbi Elazar. When they would send him gifts from the house of the Nasi, he would not take them, and when they would invite him, he would not go there, as he considered hospitality to be a type of gift. He would say to them: Is it not pleasing to you that I should live, as it is written: โ€œHe that hates gifts shall liveโ€ (Proverbs 15:27)? In contrast, it was reported about Rabbi Zeira that when they would send him gifts from the house of the Nasi, he would not accept them, but when they would invite him, he would go there. He said: They are honored by my presence; therefore my visiting is not considered like I am taking a gift from them.

ื•ืœื ืขืžื“ืชื™ ืขืœ ืžื“ื•ืชื™ ื“ืืžืจ ืจื‘ื ื›ืœ ื”ืžืขื‘ื™ืจ ืขืœ ืžื“ื•ืชื™ื• ืžืขื‘ื™ืจื™ืŸ ืžืžื ื• ื›ืœ ืคืฉืขื™ื• ืฉื ืืžืจ ื ื•ืฉื ืขื•ืŸ ื•ืขื•ื‘ืจ ืขืœ ืคืฉืข ืœืžื™ ื ื•ืฉื ืขื•ืŸ ืœืžื™ ืฉืขื•ื‘ืจ ืขืœ ืคืฉืข

He also said: Nor was I ever inflexible in exacting a measure of retribution against those who wronged me. This is referring to conduct such as that which Rava said: Anyone who overlooks exacting a measure of retribution against those who wronged him, all his transgressions are removed from him, as it is stated: โ€œHe pardons iniquity and overlooks transgressionโ€ (Micah 7:18), which is homiletically read as saying: For whom does He pardon iniquity? For he who overlooks transgressions that others have committed against him.

ืฉืืœ ืจื‘ื™ ืืช ืจื‘ื™ ื™ื”ื•ืฉืข ื‘ืŸ ืงืจื—ื” ื‘ืžื” ื”ืืจื›ืช ื™ืžื™ื ืืžืจ ืœื™ื” ืงืฆืช ื‘ื—ื™ื™ ืืžืจ ืœื• ืจื‘ื™ ืชื•ืจื” ื”ื™ื ื•ืœืœืžื•ื“ ืื ื™ ืฆืจื™ืš ืืžืจ ืœื™ื” ืžื™ืžื™ ืœื ื ืกืชื›ืœืชื™ ื‘ื“ืžื•ืช ืื“ื ืจืฉืข ื“ืืžืจ ืจื‘ื™ ื™ื•ื—ื ืŸ ืืกื•ืจ ืœืื“ื ืœื”ืกืชื›ืœ ื‘ืฆืœื ื“ืžื•ืช ืื“ื ืจืฉืข ืฉื ืืžืจ ืœื•ืœื ืคื ื™ ื™ื”ื•ืฉืคื˜ ืžืœืš ื™ื”ื•ื“ื” ืื ื™ ื ื•ืฉื ืื ืื‘ื™ื˜ ืืœื™ืš ื•ืื ืืจืืš

In a similar incident, Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi once asked Rabbi Yehoshua ben Korแธฅa: In the merit of which virtue were you blessed with longevity? He said to him: Why do you ask me, are you wearied of my long life? Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi said to him: My teacher, it is Torah and so I must learn it. Rabbi Yehoshua ben Korแธฅa said to him: In all my days I never gazed at the likeness of a wicked man, as Rabbi Yoแธฅanan said: It is prohibited for a person to gaze in the image of the likeness of a wicked man, as it is stated that the prophet Elisha said to Jehoram king of Israel: โ€œWere it not that I regard the presence of Jehoshaphat, the king of Judea, I would not look toward you, nor see youโ€ (IIย Kings 3:14).

ืจื‘ื™ ืืœืขื–ืจ ืืžืจ ืขื™ื ื™ื• ื›ื”ื•ืช ืฉื ืืžืจ ื•ื™ื”ื™ ื›ื™ ื–ืงืŸ ื™ืฆื—ืง ื•ืชื›ื”ื™ืŸ ืขื™ื ื™ื• ืžืจืื•ืช ืžืฉื•ื ื“ืืกืชื›ืœ ื‘ืขืฉื• ื”ืจืฉืข

Rabbi Elazar said: One who gazes at the likeness of an evil man, his eyes become dim, as it is stated: โ€œAnd it came to pass, that when Isaac was old, and his eyes were dim so that he could not seeโ€ (Genesis 27:1). This happened because he gazed at the wicked Esau.

ื•ื”ื ื’ืจืžื ืœื™ื” ื•ื”ืืžืจ ืจื‘ื™ ื™ืฆื—ืง ืœืขื•ืœื ืืœ ืชื”ื™ ืงืœืœืช ื”ื“ื™ื•ื˜ ืงืœื” ื‘ืขื™ื ื™ืš ืฉื”ืจื™ ืื‘ื™ืžืœืš ืงืœืœ ืืช ืฉืจื” ื•ื ืชืงื™ื™ื ื‘ื–ืจืขื” ืฉื ืืžืจ ื”ื ื” ื”ื•ื ืœืš ื›ืกื•ืช ืขื™ื ื™ื ืืœ ืชืงืจื™ ื›ืกื•ืช ืืœื ื›ืกื™ื™ืช ืขื™ื ื™ื

The Gemara asks: Did this cause Isaacโ€™s blindness? Didnโ€™t Rabbi Yitzแธฅak say: A curse of an ordinary person should not be lightly regarded in your eyes, because Abimelech cursed Sarah, and although he was not a righteous man, his curse was nevertheless fulfilled, albeit in her descendant. As it is stated that Abimelech said to Sarah with regard to the gift that he gave to Abraham: โ€œBehold, it is for you a covering of the eyesโ€ (Genesis 20:16). Do not read it as โ€œa covering [kesut] of the eyes,โ€ but rather read it as: A blindness [kesiat] of the eyes. Abimelechโ€™s words were a veiled curse for Sarah to suffer from blindness. While she herself did not suffer, the curse was apparently fulfilled in the blindness of her son, Isaac.

ื”ื ื•ื”ื ื’ืจืžื ืœื™ื” ืจื‘ื ืืžืจ ืžื”ื›ื ืฉืืช ืคื ื™ ืจืฉืข ืœื ื˜ื•ื‘

According to Rabbi Yitzแธฅak, Abimelechโ€™s curse was the cause of Isaacโ€™s blindness, and it was not, as Rabbi Elazar suggested, the fact he gazed at Esau. The Gemara explains: Both this and that jointly caused it. Rava said: The prohibition against gazing at the likeness of a wicked person is derived from here: โ€œIt is not good to raise the face of the wickedโ€ (Proverbs 18:5).

ื‘ืฉืขืช ืคื˜ื™ืจืชื• ืืžืจ ืœื™ื” [ืจื‘ื™] ื‘ืจื›ื ื™ ืืžืจ ืœื™ื” ื™ื”ื™ ืจืฆื•ืŸ ืฉืชื’ื™ืข ืœื—ืฆื™ ื™ืžื™ ื•ืœื›ื•ืœื”ื• ืœื ืืžืจ ืœื• ื”ื‘ืื™ื ืื—ืจื™ืš ื‘ื”ืžื” ื™ืจืขื•

At the time of Rabbi Yehoshua ben Korแธฅaโ€™s departure from this world, Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi said to him: My teacher, bless me. He said to him: May it be Godโ€™s will that you live to reach to half of my days. When Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi heard this, he asked in astonishment: Are you saying that to the entirety of your days I should not reach? Why? Rabbi Yehoshua ben Korแธฅa said to him: Shall those who come after you just tend cattle? If you live as long as me, your sons will never be able to succeed you in the position of Nasi. As such, they will never achieve greatness in Torah, and it will be as if they just tended cattle throughout their lives. It is therefore better that your life not be so prolonged, so that they have the opportunity to rise to eminence.

ืื‘ื•ื” ื‘ืจ ืื™ื”ื™ ื•ืžื ื™ืžืŸ ื‘ืจ ืื™ื”ื™ ื—ื“ ืืžืจ ืชื™ืชื™ ืœื™ ื“ืœื ืืกืชื›ืœื™ ื‘ื’ื•ื™ ื•ื—ื“ ืืžืจ ืชื™ืชื™ ืœื™ ื“ืœื ืขื‘ื“ื™ ืฉื•ืชืคื•ืช ื‘ื”ื“ื™ ื’ื•ื™

Avuh bar Ihi and Minyamin bar Ihi both spoke on this topic: One of them said: May a blessing come to me for I never gazed at a wicked gentile. And the other one said: May a blessing come to me for I never formed a partnership with a wicked gentile, so as not to have any association with a wicked person.

ืฉืืœื• ืชืœืžื™ื“ื™ื• ืืช ืจื‘ื™ ื–ื™ืจื ื‘ืžื” ื”ืืจื›ืช ื™ืžื™ื ืืžืจ ืœื”ื ืžื™ืžื™ ืœื ื”ืงืคื“ืชื™ ื‘ืชื•ืš ื‘ื™ืชื™ ื•ืœื ืฆืขื“ืชื™ ื‘ืคื ื™ ืžื™ ืฉื’ื“ื•ืœ ืžืžื ื™ ื•ืœื ื”ืจื”ืจืชื™ ื‘ืžื‘ื•ืื•ืช ื”ืžื˜ื•ื ืคื•ืช ื•ืœื ื”ืœื›ืชื™ ืืจื‘ืข ืืžื•ืช ื‘ืœื ืชื•ืจื” ื•ื‘ืœื ืชืคื™ืœื™ืŸ ื•ืœื ื™ืฉื ืชื™ ื‘ื‘ื™ืช ื”ืžื“ืจืฉ ืœื ืฉื™ื ืช ืงื‘ืข ื•ืœื ืฉื™ื ืช ืขืจืื™ ื•ืœื ืฉืฉืชื™ ื‘ืชืงืœืช ื—ื‘ื™ืจื™ ื•ืœื ืงืจืืชื™ ืœื—ื‘ื™ืจื™ (ื‘ื—ื ื™ื›ืชื•) ื•ืืžืจื™ ืœื” (ื‘ื—ื›ื™ื ืชื•)

The Gemara presents a similar incident: Rabbi Zeira was once asked by his disciples: In the merit of which virtue were you blessed with longevity? He said to them: In all my days, I was never angry inside my house with members of my household who acted against my wishes. Nor did I ever walk ahead of someone who was a greater Torah scholar than me. Nor did I ever meditate upon words of Torah in filthy alleyways, as doing so is a disgrace to the Torah. Nor did I ever walk four cubits without meditating on words of Torah or without wearing phylacteries. Nor did I ever sleep in a study hall, neither a deep sleep or a brief nap. Nor did I ever rejoice when my fellow stumbled. Nor did I ever call my fellow by his derogatory nickname [แธฅanikhato]. And some say that he said: I never called my fellow by his nickname [แธฅakhinato], i.e., even one that is not derogatory.

ืžืชื ื™ืณ ื•ืขื•ื“ ืืžืจ ืจื‘ื™ ื™ื”ื•ื“ื” ื‘ื™ืช ื”ื›ื ืกืช ืฉื—ืจื‘ ืื™ืŸ ืžืกืคื™ื“ื™ืŸ ื‘ืชื•ื›ื• ื•ืื™ืŸ ืžืคืฉื™ืœื™ืŸ ื‘ืชื•ื›ื• ื—ื‘ืœื™ื ื•ืื™ืŸ ืคื•ืจืฉื™ืŸ ืœืชื•ื›ื• ืžืฆื•ื“ื•ืช ื•ืื™ืŸ ืฉื•ื˜ื—ื™ืŸ ืขืœ ื’ื’ื• ืคื™ืจื•ืช ื•ืื™ืŸ ืขื•ืฉื™ืŸ ืื•ืชื• ืงืคื ื“ืจื™ื

MISHNA: And Rabbi Yehuda said further: A synagogue that fell into ruin still may not be used for a mundane purpose. Therefore, one may not eulogize in it. And nor may one stretch out and repair ropes in it. The wide expanse of the synagogue would have been particularly suitable for this. And nor may one spread animal traps within it. And nor may one spread out produce upon its roof to dry. And nor may one make it into a shortcut.

ืฉื ืืžืจ ื•ื”ืฉืžื•ืชื™ ืืช ืžืงื“ืฉื™ื›ื ืงื“ื•ืฉืชืŸ ืืฃ ื›ืฉื”ืŸ ืฉื•ืžืžื™ืŸ

The halakha that a synagogue in disrepair still may not be used for mundane purposes is derived from a verse, as it is stated: โ€œAnd I will bring desolation to your sanctuariesโ€ (Leviticus 26:31). The fact that the word โ€œsanctuariesโ€ appears after the word โ€œdesolationโ€ indicates that their sanctity remains upon them even when they are desolate.

ืขืœื• ื‘ื• ืขืฉื‘ื™ื ืœื ื™ืชืœื•ืฉ ืžืคื ื™ ืขื’ืžืช ื ืคืฉ

However, if grass sprang up of its own accord in the ruined synagogue, although it is not befitting its sanctity, one should not pick it, due to the anguish that it will bring to those who see it. It will remind them of the disrepair of the synagogue and the need to rebuild it.

ื’ืžืณ ืชื ื• ืจื‘ื ืŸ ื‘ืชื™ ื›ื ืกื™ื•ืช ืื™ืŸ ื ื•ื”ื’ื™ืŸ ื‘ื”ืŸ ืงืœื•ืช ืจืืฉ ืื™ืŸ ืื•ื›ืœื™ืŸ ื‘ื”ืŸ ื•ืื™ืŸ ืฉื•ืชื™ืŸ ื‘ื”ืŸ

GEMARA: The Sages taught in a baraita: With regard to synagogues: One may not act inside them with frivolity. Therefore, one may not eat in them; nor may one drink in them;

ื•ืื™ืŸ ื ื™ืื•ืชื™ืŸ ื‘ื”ื ื•ืื™ืŸ ืžื˜ื™ื™ืœื™ืŸ ื‘ื”ื ื•ืื™ืŸ ื ื›ื ืกื™ืŸ ื‘ื”ืŸ ื‘ื—ืžื” ืžืคื ื™ ื”ื—ืžื” ื•ื‘ื’ืฉืžื™ื ืžืคื ื™ ื”ื’ืฉืžื™ื ื•ืื™ืŸ ืžืกืคื™ื“ื™ืŸ ื‘ื”ืŸ ื”ืกืคื“ ืฉืœ ื™ื—ื™ื“ ืื‘ืœ ืงื•ืจื™ืŸ ื‘ื”ืŸ ื•ืฉื•ื ื™ืŸ ื‘ื”ืŸ ื•ืžืกืคื™ื“ื™ืŸ ื‘ื”ืŸ ื”ืกืคื“ ืฉืœ ืจื‘ื™ื

and one may not adorn oneself inside them; nor may one wander about inside them; nor may one enter them in the sun for protection from the sun, or in the rain to find shelter from the rain; nor may one offer a eulogy inside them for an individual, which is a private event. However, one may read the Bible inside them, and one may study halakhot inside them, and one may offer a eulogy inside them for a Torah scholar, if the public attends the eulogy.

ืืžืจ ืจื‘ื™ ื™ื”ื•ื“ื” ืื™ืžืชื™ ื‘ื™ืฉื•ื‘ืŸ ืื‘ืœ ื‘ื—ื•ืจื‘ื ืŸ ืžื ื™ื—ื™ืŸ ืื•ืชืŸ ื•ืขื•ืœื™ืŸ ื‘ื”ืŸ ืขืฉื‘ื™ื ื•ืœื ื™ืชืœื•ืฉ ืžืคื ื™ ืขื’ืžืช ื ืคืฉ

Rabbi Yehuda said: When does this apply? When the synagogues are occupied by the people using them. But when they are in a state of ruin, they should be left alone so that grass will sprout up inside them. And that grass should not be picked and removed, due to the anguish that it will bring to those who see it. It will remind them of the disrepair of the synagogue and the need to rebuild it.

ืขืฉื‘ื™ื ืžืืŸ ื“ื›ืจ ืฉืžื™ื™ื”ื• ื—ืกื•ืจื™ ืžื™ื—ืกืจื ื•ื”ื›ื™ ืงืชื ื™ ื•ืžื›ื‘ื“ื™ืŸ ืื•ืชืŸ ื•ืžืจื‘ื™ืฆื™ืŸ ืื•ืชืŸ ื›ื“ื™ ืฉืœื ื™ืขืœื• ื‘ื”ืŸ ืขืฉื‘ื™ื ืืžืจ ืจื‘ื™ ื™ื”ื•ื“ื” ืื™ืžืชื™ ื‘ื™ืฉื•ื‘ืŸ ืื‘ืœ ื‘ื—ื•ืจื‘ื ืŸ ืžื ื™ื—ื™ืŸ ืื•ืชืŸ ืœืขืœื•ืช ืขืœื• ื‘ื”ืŸ ืขืฉื‘ื™ื ืœื ื™ืชืœื•ืฉ ืžืคื ื™ ืขื’ืžืช ื ืคืฉ

The Gemara asks: Why did Rabbi Yehuda discuss the halakha about grass? Who mentioned anything about it? The Gemara explains: The text of the baraita is incomplete and is teaching the following: And among the other things that may be done in synagogues, they should also be sure to sweep them and to sprinkle their floors with water, in order that grass not sprout up in them. Rabbi Yehuda said: When does this apply? When the synagogues are occupied by the people using them, but when they are in a state of ruin, they should be left alone so that grass will sprout up inside them. If grass did sprout up, it should not be removed, due to the anguish that this will bring to those who see it.

ืืžืจ ืจื‘ ืืกื™ ื‘ืชื™ ื›ื ืกื™ื•ืช ืฉื‘ื‘ื‘ืœ ืขืœ ืชื ืื™ ื”ืŸ ืขืฉื•ื™ื™ืŸ ื•ืืฃ ืขืœ ืคื™ ื›ืŸ ืื™ืŸ ื ื•ื”ื’ื™ืŸ ื‘ื”ืŸ ืงืœื•ืช ืจืืฉ ื•ืžืื™ ื ื™ื”ื• ื—ืฉื‘ื•ื ื•ืช

Rav Asi said: Synagogues in Babylonia are built from the outset with a stipulation that they not have the full sanctity of a synagogue, in order that it be permitted to use them for the communityโ€™s general needs. But nevertheless, one should not act inside them with frivolity. The Gemara explains: What is meant by this? One should not make business calculations in a synagogue.

ืืžืจ ืจื‘ ืืกื™ ื‘ื™ืช ื”ื›ื ืกืช ืฉืžื—ืฉื‘ื™ืŸ ื‘ื• ื—ืฉื‘ื•ื ื•ืช ืžืœื™ื ื™ืŸ ื‘ื• ืืช ื”ืžืช ืžืœื™ื ื™ืŸ ืกืœืงื ื“ืขืชืš ืœื ืกื’ื™ ื“ืœืื• ื”ื›ื™ ืืœื ืœืกื•ืฃ ืฉื™ืœื™ื ื• ื‘ื• ืžืช ืžืฆื•ื”

Rav Asi said: With regard to a synagogue in which people make business calculations, they will eventually keep a corpse inside it overnight. The Gemara questions the wording of this dictum: Can it really enter your mind to say that they will ever actually keep a corpse inside it overnight? Could it really be that there will not be any other alternative? Rather, Rav Asi means that as a punishment for acting with frivolity people in the community will die, including those who have no family, and so ultimately they will have to keep a corpse with no one to bury it [met mitzva] overnight in the synagogue.

ื•ืื™ืŸ ื ื™ืื•ืชื™ืŸ ื‘ื”ืŸ ืืžืจ ืจื‘ื ื—ื›ืžื™ื ื•ืชืœืžื™ื“ื™ื”ื ืžื•ืชืจื™ืŸ ื“ืืžืจ ืจื‘ื™ ื™ื”ื•ืฉืข ื‘ืŸ ืœื•ื™ ืžืื™ ื‘ื™ ืจื‘ื ืŸ ื‘ื™ืชื ื“ืจื‘ื ืŸ

ยง The baraita taught: And one may not adorn oneself inside them. Rava said: The prohibition applies only to laypeople, but Torah scholars and their disciples are permitted to do so, as Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi said: What is the meaning of the term: Bei of the Sages, which is used to describe a study hall? It is a shortened form of house [beita] of the Sages. In order to facilitate the constant presence of the Torah scholars in the study hall, it is permitted for them to use the hall as though it were their home.

ื•ืื™ืŸ ื ื›ื ืกื™ืŸ ื‘ื”ืŸ ื‘ื—ืžื” ืžืคื ื™ ื”ื—ืžื” ื•ื‘ื’ืฉืžื™ื ืžืคื ื™ ื”ื’ืฉืžื™ื ื›ื™ ื”ื ื“ืจื‘ื™ื ื ื•ืจื‘ ืื“ื ื‘ืจ ืžืชื ื” ื”ื•ื• ืงื™ื™ืžื™ ื•ืฉืืœื™ ืฉืื™ืœืชื ืžืจื‘ื ืืชื ื–ื™ืœื—ื ื“ืžื™ื˜ืจื ืขื™ื™ืœื™ ืœื‘ื™ ื›ื ื™ืฉืชื ืืžืจื™ ื”ืื™ ื“ืขื™ื™ืœื™ื ืŸ ืœื‘ื™ ื›ื ื™ืฉืชื ืœืื• ืžืฉื•ื ืžื™ื˜ืจื ืืœื ืžืฉื•ื ื“ืฉืžืขืชื ื‘ืขื ืฆื™ืœื•ืชื ื›ื™ื•ืžื ื“ืืกืชื ื

The baraita continued: And nor may one enter them in the sun for protection from the sun, or in the rain to find shelter from the rain. The Gemara explains: This is similar to that case of Ravina and Rav Adda bar Mattana. They were standing and asking a question of Rava, when a shower [zilแธฅa] of rain began to fall upon them. They all entered the synagogue, saying: Our having entered the synagogue is not due to the rain, that we stay dry; rather, it is due to the fact that the halakha we were discussing requires clarity like the day the north wind [istena] blows and the sky is perfectly clear. Therefore, we are entering the synagogue for the sake of studying Torah, which is certainly permitted.

ืืžืจ ืœื™ื” ืจื‘ ืื—ื ื‘ืจื™ื” ื“ืจื‘ื ืœืจื‘ ืืฉื™ ืื™ ืืฆื˜ืจื™ืš ืœื™ื” ืœืื™ื ื™ืฉ ืœืžื™ืงืจื™ ื’ื‘ืจื ืžื‘ื™ ื›ื ื™ืฉืชื ืžืื™ ืืžืจ ืœื™ื” ืื™ ืฆื•ืจื‘ื ืžืจื‘ื ืŸ ื”ื•ื ืœื™ืžื ื”ืœื›ืชื ื•ืื™ ืชื ื ื”ื•ื ืœื™ืžื ืžืชื ื™ืชื™ืŸ ื•ืื™ ืงืจื ื”ื•ื ืœื™ืžื ืคืกื•ืงื ื•ืื™ ืœื ืœื™ืžื ืœื™ื” ืœื™ื ื•ืงื ืื™ืžื ืœื™ ืคืกื•ืงื™ืš ืื™ ื ืžื™ ื ื™ืฉื”ื™ ืคื•ืจืชื ื•ื ื™ืงื•ื

Rav Aแธฅa, son of Rava, said to Rav Ashi: If a person needs to summon an individual from inside a synagogue, what should he do, since it is not permitted to enter a synagogue just for that purpose? Rav Ashi said to him: If he is a young Torah scholar, let him recite a halakha upon entering the synagogue; and if he is a tanna who memorizes large numbers of mishnayot, let him recite various mishnayot; and if he is an expert in the Bible, let him recite a verse; and if he is not able to do even this, let him say to a child: Recite for me a verse that you have learned today. Alternatively, he should remain in the synagogue for a short time and only afterward stand up and leave.

ื•ืžืกืคื™ื“ื™ืŸ ื‘ื”ืŸ ื”ืกืคื“ ืฉืœ ืจื‘ื™ื ื”ื™ื›ื™ ื“ืžื™ ื”ืกืคื™ื“ื ื“ืจื‘ื™ื ืžื—ื•ื™ ืจื‘ ื—ืกื“ื ื›ื’ื•ืŸ ื”ืกืคื™ื“ื ื“ืงืื™ ื‘ื™ื” ืจื‘ ืฉืฉืช ืžื—ื•ื™ ืจื‘ ืฉืฉืช ื›ื’ื•ืŸ ื”ืกืคื™ื“ื ื“ืงืื™ ื‘ื™ื” ืจื‘ ื—ืกื“ื

The baraita continues: And one may offer a eulogy inside them for a Torah scholar if the public attends the eulogy. The Gemara asks: What are the circumstances of a eulogy for the public? Rav แธคisda depicted a case: For example, a eulogy for a Torah scholar at which Rav Sheshet is present. Owing to his presence, many people will come. Rav Sheshet himself depicted another case: For example, a eulogy at which Rav แธคisda is present.

ืจืคืจื ืืกืคื“ื” ืœื›ืœืชื™ื” ื‘ื‘ื™ ื›ื ื™ืฉืชื ืืžืจ ืžืฉื•ื ื™ืงืจื ื“ื™ื“ื™ ื•ื“ืžื™ืชื ืืชื• ื›ื•ืœื™ื” ืขืœืžื ืจื‘ื™ ื–ื™ืจื ืกืคื“ื™ื” ืœื”ื”ื•ื ืžืจื‘ื ืŸ ื‘ื‘ื™ ื›ื ื™ืฉืชื ืืžืจ ืื™ ืžืฉื•ื ื™ืงืจื ื“ื™ื“ื™ ืื™ ืžืฉื•ื ื™ืงืจื ื“ื™ื“ื™ื” ื“ืžื™ืชื ืืชื• ื›ื•ืœื™ ืขืœืžื

The Gemara offers another example: Rafram once eulogized his daughter-in-law inside a synagogue. He said: Due to my honor and the honor of the deceased, everyone will come to the eulogy. It will consequently be a public event, and it is therefore permitted to hold it in a synagogue. Similarly, Rabbi Zeira once eulogized a certain Sage inside a synagogue. He said: Whether due to my honor, or whether due to the honor of the deceased, everyone will come to the eulogy.

ืจื™ืฉ ืœืงื™ืฉ ืกืคื“ื™ื” ืœื”ื”ื•ื ืฆื•ืจื‘ื ืžืจื‘ื ืŸ ื“ืฉื›ื™ื— ื‘ืืจืขื ื“ื™ืฉืจืืœ ื“ื”ื•ื™ ืชื ื™ ื”ืœื›ืชื ื‘ืขืฉืจื™ื ื•ืืจื‘ืข ืฉื•ืจืชื ืืžืจ ื•ื•ื™ ื—ืกืจื ืืจืขื ื“ื™ืฉืจืืœ ื’ื‘ืจื ืจื‘ื”

Reish Lakish once eulogized a certain young Torah scholar who was frequently present in Eretz Yisrael and who used to study halakha in the twenty-fourth row of the study hall.He sat so far back because he was not one of the principal scholars. Nevertheless, when he died, Reish Lakish said: Alas, Eretz Yisrael has lost a great man.

ื”ื”ื•ื ื“ื”ื•ื™ ืชื ื™ ื”ืœื›ืชื ืกื™ืคืจื ื•ืกื™ืคืจื™ ื•ืชื•ืกืคืชื ื•ืฉื›ื™ื‘ ืืชื• ื•ืืžืจื• ืœื™ื” ืœืจื‘ ื ื—ืžืŸ ืœื™ืกืคื“ื™ื” ืžืจ ืืžืจ ื”ื™ื›ื™ ื ืกืคื“ื™ื” ื”ื™ ืฆื ื ื“ืžืœื™ ืกื™ืคืจื™ ื“ื—ืกืจ

In contrast, there was a certain man who used to study halakha, the Sifra, and the Sifrei, and the Tosefta, and he died. People came and said to Rav Naแธฅman: Let the Master eulogize him. He said to them: How can I eulogize him? Should I say: Alas, a basket filled with books is lost? This would not be true. Although the man studied many areas of Torah, he was not proficient in them.

ืชื ื—ื–ื™ ืžื” ื‘ื™ืŸ ืชืงื™ืคื™ ื“ืืจืขื ื“ื™ืฉืจืืœ ืœื—ืกื™ื“ื™ ื“ื‘ื‘ืœ

The Gemara compares the conduct of Reish Lakish in Eretz Yisrael to that of Rav Naแธฅman in Babylonia. Come and see what the difference is between the harsh scholars of Eretz Yisrael and the saintly ones of Babylonia. Although Reish Lakish was known for his harsh nature, he was still more respectful than Rav Naแธฅman, who was known for his saintliness.

ืชื ืŸ ื”ืชื ื•ื“ืืฉืชืžืฉ ื‘ืชื’ื ื—ืœืฃ ืชื ื™ ืจื™ืฉ ืœืงื™ืฉ ื–ื” ื”ืžืฉืชืžืฉ ื‘ืžื™ ืฉืฉื•ื ื” ื”ืœื›ื•ืช ื›ืชืจื” ืฉืœ ืชื•ืจื”

We learned in a mishna there (Avot 1:13): And one who makes use of the crown [taga] of Torah learning will perish from the world. Reish Lakish taught: This is referring to one who allows himself to be served by one who studies halakhot, which is the crown of the Torah.

ื•ืืžืจ ืขื•ืœื ืœืฉืชืžืฉ ืื™ื ื™ืฉ ื‘ืžืืŸ ื“ืชื ื™ ืืจื‘ืขื” ื•ืœื ืœืฉืชืžืฉ ื‘ืžืืŸ ื“ืžืชื ื™ ืืจื‘ืขื” ื›ื™ ื”ื ื“ืจื™ืฉ ืœืงื™ืฉ ื”ื•ื” ืื–ื™ืœ ื‘ืื•ืจื—ื ืžื˜ื ืขื•ืจืงืžื ื“ืžื™ื ืืชื ื”ื”ื•ื ื’ื‘ืจื ืืจื›ื‘ื™ื” ืื›ืชืคื™ื” ื•ืงื ืžืขื‘ืจ ืœื™ื” ืืžืจ ืœื™ื” ืงืจื™ืช ืืžืจ ืœื™ื” ืงืจื™ื ื ืชื ื™ืช ืชื ื™ื ื ืืจื‘ืขื” ืกื™ื“ืจื™ ืžืฉื ื” ืืžืจ ืœื™ื” ืคืกืœืช ืœืš ืืจื‘ืขื” ื˜ื•ืจื™ ื•ื˜ืขื ืช ื‘ืจ ืœืงื™ืฉ ืื›ืชืคืš ืฉื“ื™ ื‘ืจ ืœืงื™ืฉื ื‘ืžื™ื

And Ulla said: It is better that a person should be served by one who studies four orders of the Mishna, and he should not allow himself to be served by one who teaches to others four orders of the Mishna, as in that case of Reish Lakish. He was traveling along the road when he reached a deep puddle of water. A certain man came and placed him upon his shoulders and began transferring him to the other side. Reish Lakish said to him: Have you read the Bible? He said to him: I have read it. He then asked: Have you studied the Mishna? He answered him: I have studied four orders of the Mishna. Reish Lakish then said to him: You have hewn these four mountains and yet you bear the weight of the son of Lakish upon your shoulders? It is inappropriate for you to carry me; throw the son of Lakish into the water.

ืืžืจ ืœื™ื” ื ื™ื—ื ืœื™ ื“ืืฉืžืขื™ื ืŸ ืœืžืจ ืื™ ื”ื›ื™ ื’ืžื•ืจ ืžื™ื ื™ ื”ื ืžืœืชื ื“ืืžืจ ืจื‘ื™ ื–ื™ืจื ื‘ื ื•ืช ื™ืฉืจืืœ ื”ืŸ ื”ื—ืžื™ืจื• ืขืœ ืขืฆืžืŸ ืฉืืคื™ืœื• ืจื•ืื•ืช ื˜ื™ืคืช ื“ื ื›ื—ืจื“ืœ ื™ื•ืฉื‘ื•ืช ืขืœื™ื• ืฉื‘ืขื” ื ืงื™ื™ื

The man said to Reish Lakish: It is pleasing for me to serve the Master in this way. Reish Lakish said to him: If so, learn from me this matter that Rabbi Zeira said. In this way you will be considered my disciple, and it will then be appropriate for you to serve me. Jewish women were strict upon themselves in that even if they see a spot of menstrual blood that is only the size of a mustard seed they wait on its account seven clean days before immersing themselves in a ritual bath to purify themselves.

ืชื ื ื“ื‘ื™ ืืœื™ื”ื• ื›ืœ ื”ืฉื•ื ื” ื”ืœื›ื•ืช ืžื•ื‘ื˜ื— ืœื• ืฉื”ื•ื ื‘ืŸ ืขื•ืœื ื”ื‘ื ืฉื ืืžืจ ื”ืœื™ื›ื•ืช ืขื•ืœื ืœื• ืืœ ืชืงืจื™ ื”ืœื™ื›ื•ืช ืืœื ื”ืœื›ื•ืช

The school of Eliyahu taught: Anyone who studies halakhot every day, he is guaranteed that he is destined for the World-to-Come, as it is stated: โ€œHis ways [halikhot] are eternalโ€ (Habakkuk 3:6): Do not read the verse as halikhot [ways]; rather, read it as halakhot. Consequently, the verse indicates that the study of the halakhot brings one to eternal life.

ืชื ื• ืจื‘ื ืŸ

The Sages taught in a baraita:

This monthโ€™s shiurim are dedicated by Efrat Arnold in loving memory of Joshua Carr, Yehoshua Aryeh Leib ben Yonatan Chaim and Malka Esther HaCohen.

And by Tova and David Kestenbaum in honor of their children and grandchildren.

This month's shiurim are dedicatedย by Jordana and Kalman Schoor on behalf of their daughter Daria who is learning Masechet Megilla for her bat mitzvah. Mazal tov Daria!

  • This monthโ€™s learning is sponsored by Shlomo and Amalia Klapper in honor of the birth of Chiyenna Yochana, named after her great-great-grandmother, Chiyenna Kossovsky.

  • This month's learning is sponsored by Elaine Hochberg in honor of her husband, Arie Hochberg, who continues to journey through Daf Yomi with her. โ€œAnd with thanks to Rabbanit Farber and Hadran who have made our learning possible.โ€

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Megillah 28

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Megillah 28

The William Davidson Talmud | Powered by Sefaria

Megillah 28

ื•ืœื ื‘ืจื›ืชื™ ืœืคื ื™ ื›ื”ืŸ ื•ืœื ืื›ืœืชื™ ืžื‘ื”ืžื” ืฉืœื ื”ื•ืจืžื• ืžืชื ื•ืชื™ื”

And I never recited Grace after Meals in the presence of a priest, but rather I gave him the privilege to lead. And I never ate from an animal whose priestly portions, i.e., the foreleg, the jaw, and the maw, had not already been set aside.

ื“ืืžืจ ืจื‘ื™ ื™ืฆื—ืง ืืžืจ ืจื‘ื™ ื™ื•ื—ื ืŸ ืืกื•ืจ ืœืื›ื•ืœ ืžื‘ื”ืžื” ืฉืœื ื”ื•ืจืžื• ืžืชื ื•ืชื™ื” ื•ืืžืจ ืจื‘ื™ ื™ืฆื—ืง ื›ืœ ื”ืื•ื›ืœ ืžื‘ื”ืžื” ืฉืœื ื”ื•ืจืžื• ืžืชื ื•ืชื™ื” ื›ืื™ืœื• ืื•ื›ืœ ื˜ื‘ืœื™ื ื•ืœื™ืช ื”ืœื›ืชื ื›ื•ื•ืชื™ื”

Another example of Rabbi Peridaโ€™s meticulous behavior is based on that which Rabbi Yitzแธฅak said that Rabbi Yoแธฅanan said: It is prohibited to eat meat from an animal whose priestly portions have not been set aside. And Rabbi Yitzแธฅak said: Anyone who eats meat from an animal whose priestly portions have not been set aside is regarded as if he were eating untithed produce. The Gemara comments: And the halakha is not in accordance with his opinion. Rather, it is permitted to eat meat from such an animal. Nevertheless, Rabbi Perida acted stringently and did not eat from it.

ื•ืœื ื‘ืจื›ืชื™ ืœืคื ื™ ื›ื”ืŸ

The Gemara considers another of Rabbi Peridaโ€™s actions: He said: And I never blessed Grace after Meals in the presence of a priest, but rather I gave him the privilege to lead.

ืœืžื™ืžืจื ื“ืžืขืœื™ื•ืชื ื”ื™ื ื•ื”ื ืืžืจ ืจื‘ื™ ื™ื•ื—ื ืŸ ื›ืœ ืชืœืžื™ื“ ื—ื›ื ืฉืžื‘ืจืš ืœืคื ื™ื• ืืคื™ืœื• ื›ื”ืŸ ื’ื“ื•ืœ ืขื ื”ืืจืฅ ืื•ืชื• ืชืœืžื™ื“ ื—ื›ื ื—ื™ื™ื‘ ืžื™ืชื” ืฉื ืืžืจ ื›ืœ ืžืฉื ืื™ ืื”ื‘ื• ืžื•ืช ืืœ ืชืงืจื™ ืžืฉื ืื™ ืืœื ืžืฉื ื™ืื™

Is this to say that doing so is especially virtuous? But hasnโ€™t Rabbi Yoแธฅanan said: Any Torah scholar who allows someone else to bless Grace after Meals in his presence, i.e., to lead for him, even if that person is a High Priest who is an ignoramus, then that Torah scholar is liable to receive the death penalty for belittling his own honor? This is as it is stated: โ€œAll those who hate me, love deathโ€ (Proverbs 8:36). Do not read it as โ€œthose who hate Me [mesanโ€™ai],โ€ rather read it as though it said: Those who make Me hated [masniโ€™ai]. The honor due to a Torah scholar is representative of the honor of God in the world. Therefore, by belittling his own honor, he causes others to fail to respect God, which can ultimately develop into hate. If so, why did Rabbi Perida consider his behavior to be so deserving of praise?

ื›ื™ ืงืืžืจ ืื™ื”ื• ื‘ืฉื•ื™ืŸ

The Gemara answers: When Rabbi Perida says this, he was speaking of people of equal stature. He was particular to honor the priesthood only when the priest was also a Torah scholar.

ืฉืืœื• ืชืœืžื™ื“ื™ื• ืืช ืจื‘ื™ ื ื—ื•ื ื™ื ื‘ืŸ ื”ืงื ื” ื‘ืžื” ื”ืืจื›ืช ื™ืžื™ื ืืžืจ ืœื”ื ืžื™ืžื™ ืœื ื ืชื›ื‘ื“ืชื™ ื‘ืงืœื•ืŸ ื—ื‘ืจื™ ื•ืœื ืขืœืชื” ืขืœ ืžื˜ืชื™ ืงืœืœืช ื—ื‘ืจื™ ื•ื•ืชืจืŸ ื‘ืžืžื•ื ื™ ื”ื™ื™ืชื™

The Gemara discusses the fourth Sage who was blessed with longevity: Rabbi Neแธฅunya ben HaKana was once asked by his disciples: In the merit of which virtue were you blessed with longevity? He said to them: In all my days, I never attained veneration at the expense of my fellowโ€™s degradation. Nor did my fellowโ€™s curse ever go up with me upon my bed. If ever I offended someone, I made sure to appease him that day. Therefore, when I went to bed I knew that no one had any grievances against me. And I was always openhanded with my money.

ืœื ื ืชื›ื‘ื“ืชื™ ื‘ืงืœื•ืŸ ื—ื‘ืจื™ ื›ื™ ื”ื ื“ืจื‘ ื”ื•ื ื ื“ืจื™ ืžืจื ืื›ืชืคื™ื” ืืชื ืจื‘ ื—ื ื ื‘ืจ ื—ื ื™ืœืื™ ื•ืงื ื“ืจื™ ืžื™ื ื™ื” ืืžืจ ืœื™ื” ืื™ ืจื’ื™ืœืช ื“ื“ืจื™ืช ื‘ืžืืชื™ืš ื“ืจื™ ื•ืื™ ืœื ืืชื™ื™ืงื•ืจื™ ืื ื ื‘ื–ื™ืœื•ืชื ื“ื™ื“ืš ืœื ื ื™ื—ื ืœื™

The Gemara clarifies the meaning of his statement: Rabbi Neแธฅunya said: I never attained veneration at the expense of my fellowโ€™s denigration. This is referring to conduct such as that of Rav Huna, who was carrying a hoe over his shoulder as he returned from his work. Rav แธคana bar แธคanilai came and, out of respect for his teacher, took the hoe from him to carry it for him. Rav Huna said to him: If you are accustomed to carry such objects in your own city, you may carry it; but if not, then for me to be venerated through your denigration is not pleasing for me.

ื•ืœื ืขืœืชื” ืขืœ ืžื˜ืชื™ ืงืœืœืช ื—ื‘ืจื™ ื›ื™ ื”ื ื“ืžืจ ื–ื•ื˜ืจื ื›ื™ ื”ื•ื” ืกืœื™ืง ืœืคื•ืจื™ื™ื” ืืžืจ ืฉืจื™ ืœื™ื” ืœื›ืœ ืžืืŸ ื“ืฆืขืจืŸ

Rabbi Neแธฅunya also said: Nor did I ever allow the resentment caused by my fellowโ€™s curse to go up with me upon my bed. This is referring to conduct such as that of Mar Zutra. When he would go to bed at night, he would first say: I forgive anyone who has vexed me.

ื•ื•ืชืจืŸ ื‘ืžืžื•ื ื™ ื”ื™ื™ืชื™ ื“ืืžืจ ืžืจ ืื™ื•ื‘ ื•ื•ืชืจืŸ ื‘ืžืžื•ื ื™ื” ื”ื•ื” ืฉื”ื™ื” ืžื ื™ื— ืคืจื•ื˜ื” ืœื—ื ื•ื ื™ ืžืžืžื•ื ื™ื”

Lastly, Rabbi Neแธฅunya said: And I was always openhanded with my money. This is referring to conduct such as that which the Master said: Job was openhanded with his money, as he would always leave at least a peruta of his money with the shopkeeper. He never demanded the change from his transactions.

ืฉืืœ ืจื‘ื™ ืขืงื™ื‘ื ืืช ืจื‘ื™ ื ื—ื•ื ื™ื ื”ื’ื“ื•ืœ (ืืžืจ ืœื•) ื‘ืžื” ื”ืืจื›ืช ื™ืžื™ื ืืชื• ื’ื•ื•ื–ื™ ื•ืงื ืžื—ื• ืœื™ื” ืกืœื™ืง ื™ืชื™ื‘ ืืจื™ืฉื ื“ื“ื™ืงืœื ืืžืจ ืœื™ื” ืจื‘ื™ ืื ื ืืžืจ ื›ื‘ืฉ ืœืžื” ื ืืžืจ ืื—ื“ ืืžืจ ืœื”ื• ืฆื•ืจื‘ื ืžื“ืจื‘ื ืŸ ื”ื•ื ืฉื‘ืงื•ื”ื•

On a similar occasion, Rabbi Akiva asked Rabbi Neแธฅunya the Great; he said to him: In the merit of which virtue were you blessed with longevity? Rabbi Neแธฅunyaโ€™s attendants [gavzei] came and started beating Rabbi Akiva, for they felt that he was acting disrespectfully by highlighting Rabbi Neแธฅunyaโ€™s old age. Rabbi Akiva ran away from them, and he climbed up and sat upon the top of a date palm. From there, he said to Rabbi Neแธฅunya: My teacher, I have a question about the verse concerning the daily offering that states โ€œone lambโ€ (Numbers 28:4). If it is stated โ€œlambโ€ in the singular, why is it also stated โ€œoneโ€; isnโ€™t this superfluous? Upon hearing Rabbi Akivaโ€™s scholarly question, Rabbi Neแธฅunya said to his attendants: He is clearly a young Torah scholar, let him be.

ืืžืจ ืœื™ื” ืื—ื“ ืžื™ื•ื—ื“ ืฉื‘ืขื“ืจื•

Rabbi Neแธฅunya then addressed Rabbi Akivaโ€™s questions. With regard to the second question, he said to him: The word โ€œoneโ€ teaches that the lamb should be the unique one of its flock, i.e., only the best quality lamb should be used.

ืืžืจ ืœื™ื” ืžื™ืžื™ ืœื ืงื‘ืœืชื™ ืžืชื ื•ืช ื•ืœื ืขืžื“ืชื™ ืขืœ ืžื“ื•ืชื™ ื•ื•ืชืจืŸ ื‘ืžืžื•ื ื™ ื”ื™ื™ืชื™

With regard to the original question, Rabbi Neแธฅunya said to him: In all my days I never accepted gifts. Nor was I ever inflexible by exacting a measure of retribution against those who wronged me. And I was always openhanded with my money.

ืœื ืงื‘ืœืชื™ ืžืชื ื•ืช ื›ื™ ื”ื ื“ืจื‘ื™ ืืœืขื–ืจ ื›ื™ ื”ื•ื• ืžืฉื“ืจื™ ืœื™ื” ืžืชื ื•ืช ืžื‘ื™ ื ืฉื™ืื” ืœื ื”ื•ื” ืฉืงื™ืœ ื›ื™ ื”ื•ื” ืžื–ืžื ื™ ืœื™ื” ืœื ื”ื•ื” ืื–ื™ืœ ืืžืจ ืœื”ื• ืœื ื ื™ื—ื ืœื›ื• ื“ืื—ื™ื” ื“ื›ืชื™ื‘ ืฉื•ื ื ืžืชื ื•ืช ื™ื—ื™ื” ืจื‘ื™ ื–ื™ืจื ื›ื™ ื”ื•ื• ืžืฉื“ืจื™ ืœื™ื” ืžื‘ื™ ื ืฉื™ืื” ืœื ื”ื•ื” ืฉืงื™ืœ ื›ื™ ื”ื•ื” ืžื–ืžื ื™ ืœื™ื” ืื–ื™ืœ ืืžืจ ืืชื™ื™ืงื•ืจื™ ื“ืžืชื™ื™ืงืจื™ ื‘ื™

The Gemara explains: I never accepted gifts; this is referring to conduct such as that of Rabbi Elazar. When they would send him gifts from the house of the Nasi, he would not take them, and when they would invite him, he would not go there, as he considered hospitality to be a type of gift. He would say to them: Is it not pleasing to you that I should live, as it is written: โ€œHe that hates gifts shall liveโ€ (Proverbs 15:27)? In contrast, it was reported about Rabbi Zeira that when they would send him gifts from the house of the Nasi, he would not accept them, but when they would invite him, he would go there. He said: They are honored by my presence; therefore my visiting is not considered like I am taking a gift from them.

ื•ืœื ืขืžื“ืชื™ ืขืœ ืžื“ื•ืชื™ ื“ืืžืจ ืจื‘ื ื›ืœ ื”ืžืขื‘ื™ืจ ืขืœ ืžื“ื•ืชื™ื• ืžืขื‘ื™ืจื™ืŸ ืžืžื ื• ื›ืœ ืคืฉืขื™ื• ืฉื ืืžืจ ื ื•ืฉื ืขื•ืŸ ื•ืขื•ื‘ืจ ืขืœ ืคืฉืข ืœืžื™ ื ื•ืฉื ืขื•ืŸ ืœืžื™ ืฉืขื•ื‘ืจ ืขืœ ืคืฉืข

He also said: Nor was I ever inflexible in exacting a measure of retribution against those who wronged me. This is referring to conduct such as that which Rava said: Anyone who overlooks exacting a measure of retribution against those who wronged him, all his transgressions are removed from him, as it is stated: โ€œHe pardons iniquity and overlooks transgressionโ€ (Micah 7:18), which is homiletically read as saying: For whom does He pardon iniquity? For he who overlooks transgressions that others have committed against him.

ืฉืืœ ืจื‘ื™ ืืช ืจื‘ื™ ื™ื”ื•ืฉืข ื‘ืŸ ืงืจื—ื” ื‘ืžื” ื”ืืจื›ืช ื™ืžื™ื ืืžืจ ืœื™ื” ืงืฆืช ื‘ื—ื™ื™ ืืžืจ ืœื• ืจื‘ื™ ืชื•ืจื” ื”ื™ื ื•ืœืœืžื•ื“ ืื ื™ ืฆืจื™ืš ืืžืจ ืœื™ื” ืžื™ืžื™ ืœื ื ืกืชื›ืœืชื™ ื‘ื“ืžื•ืช ืื“ื ืจืฉืข ื“ืืžืจ ืจื‘ื™ ื™ื•ื—ื ืŸ ืืกื•ืจ ืœืื“ื ืœื”ืกืชื›ืœ ื‘ืฆืœื ื“ืžื•ืช ืื“ื ืจืฉืข ืฉื ืืžืจ ืœื•ืœื ืคื ื™ ื™ื”ื•ืฉืคื˜ ืžืœืš ื™ื”ื•ื“ื” ืื ื™ ื ื•ืฉื ืื ืื‘ื™ื˜ ืืœื™ืš ื•ืื ืืจืืš

In a similar incident, Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi once asked Rabbi Yehoshua ben Korแธฅa: In the merit of which virtue were you blessed with longevity? He said to him: Why do you ask me, are you wearied of my long life? Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi said to him: My teacher, it is Torah and so I must learn it. Rabbi Yehoshua ben Korแธฅa said to him: In all my days I never gazed at the likeness of a wicked man, as Rabbi Yoแธฅanan said: It is prohibited for a person to gaze in the image of the likeness of a wicked man, as it is stated that the prophet Elisha said to Jehoram king of Israel: โ€œWere it not that I regard the presence of Jehoshaphat, the king of Judea, I would not look toward you, nor see youโ€ (IIย Kings 3:14).

ืจื‘ื™ ืืœืขื–ืจ ืืžืจ ืขื™ื ื™ื• ื›ื”ื•ืช ืฉื ืืžืจ ื•ื™ื”ื™ ื›ื™ ื–ืงืŸ ื™ืฆื—ืง ื•ืชื›ื”ื™ืŸ ืขื™ื ื™ื• ืžืจืื•ืช ืžืฉื•ื ื“ืืกืชื›ืœ ื‘ืขืฉื• ื”ืจืฉืข

Rabbi Elazar said: One who gazes at the likeness of an evil man, his eyes become dim, as it is stated: โ€œAnd it came to pass, that when Isaac was old, and his eyes were dim so that he could not seeโ€ (Genesis 27:1). This happened because he gazed at the wicked Esau.

ื•ื”ื ื’ืจืžื ืœื™ื” ื•ื”ืืžืจ ืจื‘ื™ ื™ืฆื—ืง ืœืขื•ืœื ืืœ ืชื”ื™ ืงืœืœืช ื”ื“ื™ื•ื˜ ืงืœื” ื‘ืขื™ื ื™ืš ืฉื”ืจื™ ืื‘ื™ืžืœืš ืงืœืœ ืืช ืฉืจื” ื•ื ืชืงื™ื™ื ื‘ื–ืจืขื” ืฉื ืืžืจ ื”ื ื” ื”ื•ื ืœืš ื›ืกื•ืช ืขื™ื ื™ื ืืœ ืชืงืจื™ ื›ืกื•ืช ืืœื ื›ืกื™ื™ืช ืขื™ื ื™ื

The Gemara asks: Did this cause Isaacโ€™s blindness? Didnโ€™t Rabbi Yitzแธฅak say: A curse of an ordinary person should not be lightly regarded in your eyes, because Abimelech cursed Sarah, and although he was not a righteous man, his curse was nevertheless fulfilled, albeit in her descendant. As it is stated that Abimelech said to Sarah with regard to the gift that he gave to Abraham: โ€œBehold, it is for you a covering of the eyesโ€ (Genesis 20:16). Do not read it as โ€œa covering [kesut] of the eyes,โ€ but rather read it as: A blindness [kesiat] of the eyes. Abimelechโ€™s words were a veiled curse for Sarah to suffer from blindness. While she herself did not suffer, the curse was apparently fulfilled in the blindness of her son, Isaac.

ื”ื ื•ื”ื ื’ืจืžื ืœื™ื” ืจื‘ื ืืžืจ ืžื”ื›ื ืฉืืช ืคื ื™ ืจืฉืข ืœื ื˜ื•ื‘

According to Rabbi Yitzแธฅak, Abimelechโ€™s curse was the cause of Isaacโ€™s blindness, and it was not, as Rabbi Elazar suggested, the fact he gazed at Esau. The Gemara explains: Both this and that jointly caused it. Rava said: The prohibition against gazing at the likeness of a wicked person is derived from here: โ€œIt is not good to raise the face of the wickedโ€ (Proverbs 18:5).

ื‘ืฉืขืช ืคื˜ื™ืจืชื• ืืžืจ ืœื™ื” [ืจื‘ื™] ื‘ืจื›ื ื™ ืืžืจ ืœื™ื” ื™ื”ื™ ืจืฆื•ืŸ ืฉืชื’ื™ืข ืœื—ืฆื™ ื™ืžื™ ื•ืœื›ื•ืœื”ื• ืœื ืืžืจ ืœื• ื”ื‘ืื™ื ืื—ืจื™ืš ื‘ื”ืžื” ื™ืจืขื•

At the time of Rabbi Yehoshua ben Korแธฅaโ€™s departure from this world, Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi said to him: My teacher, bless me. He said to him: May it be Godโ€™s will that you live to reach to half of my days. When Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi heard this, he asked in astonishment: Are you saying that to the entirety of your days I should not reach? Why? Rabbi Yehoshua ben Korแธฅa said to him: Shall those who come after you just tend cattle? If you live as long as me, your sons will never be able to succeed you in the position of Nasi. As such, they will never achieve greatness in Torah, and it will be as if they just tended cattle throughout their lives. It is therefore better that your life not be so prolonged, so that they have the opportunity to rise to eminence.

ืื‘ื•ื” ื‘ืจ ืื™ื”ื™ ื•ืžื ื™ืžืŸ ื‘ืจ ืื™ื”ื™ ื—ื“ ืืžืจ ืชื™ืชื™ ืœื™ ื“ืœื ืืกืชื›ืœื™ ื‘ื’ื•ื™ ื•ื—ื“ ืืžืจ ืชื™ืชื™ ืœื™ ื“ืœื ืขื‘ื“ื™ ืฉื•ืชืคื•ืช ื‘ื”ื“ื™ ื’ื•ื™

Avuh bar Ihi and Minyamin bar Ihi both spoke on this topic: One of them said: May a blessing come to me for I never gazed at a wicked gentile. And the other one said: May a blessing come to me for I never formed a partnership with a wicked gentile, so as not to have any association with a wicked person.

ืฉืืœื• ืชืœืžื™ื“ื™ื• ืืช ืจื‘ื™ ื–ื™ืจื ื‘ืžื” ื”ืืจื›ืช ื™ืžื™ื ืืžืจ ืœื”ื ืžื™ืžื™ ืœื ื”ืงืคื“ืชื™ ื‘ืชื•ืš ื‘ื™ืชื™ ื•ืœื ืฆืขื“ืชื™ ื‘ืคื ื™ ืžื™ ืฉื’ื“ื•ืœ ืžืžื ื™ ื•ืœื ื”ืจื”ืจืชื™ ื‘ืžื‘ื•ืื•ืช ื”ืžื˜ื•ื ืคื•ืช ื•ืœื ื”ืœื›ืชื™ ืืจื‘ืข ืืžื•ืช ื‘ืœื ืชื•ืจื” ื•ื‘ืœื ืชืคื™ืœื™ืŸ ื•ืœื ื™ืฉื ืชื™ ื‘ื‘ื™ืช ื”ืžื“ืจืฉ ืœื ืฉื™ื ืช ืงื‘ืข ื•ืœื ืฉื™ื ืช ืขืจืื™ ื•ืœื ืฉืฉืชื™ ื‘ืชืงืœืช ื—ื‘ื™ืจื™ ื•ืœื ืงืจืืชื™ ืœื—ื‘ื™ืจื™ (ื‘ื—ื ื™ื›ืชื•) ื•ืืžืจื™ ืœื” (ื‘ื—ื›ื™ื ืชื•)

The Gemara presents a similar incident: Rabbi Zeira was once asked by his disciples: In the merit of which virtue were you blessed with longevity? He said to them: In all my days, I was never angry inside my house with members of my household who acted against my wishes. Nor did I ever walk ahead of someone who was a greater Torah scholar than me. Nor did I ever meditate upon words of Torah in filthy alleyways, as doing so is a disgrace to the Torah. Nor did I ever walk four cubits without meditating on words of Torah or without wearing phylacteries. Nor did I ever sleep in a study hall, neither a deep sleep or a brief nap. Nor did I ever rejoice when my fellow stumbled. Nor did I ever call my fellow by his derogatory nickname [แธฅanikhato]. And some say that he said: I never called my fellow by his nickname [แธฅakhinato], i.e., even one that is not derogatory.

ืžืชื ื™ืณ ื•ืขื•ื“ ืืžืจ ืจื‘ื™ ื™ื”ื•ื“ื” ื‘ื™ืช ื”ื›ื ืกืช ืฉื—ืจื‘ ืื™ืŸ ืžืกืคื™ื“ื™ืŸ ื‘ืชื•ื›ื• ื•ืื™ืŸ ืžืคืฉื™ืœื™ืŸ ื‘ืชื•ื›ื• ื—ื‘ืœื™ื ื•ืื™ืŸ ืคื•ืจืฉื™ืŸ ืœืชื•ื›ื• ืžืฆื•ื“ื•ืช ื•ืื™ืŸ ืฉื•ื˜ื—ื™ืŸ ืขืœ ื’ื’ื• ืคื™ืจื•ืช ื•ืื™ืŸ ืขื•ืฉื™ืŸ ืื•ืชื• ืงืคื ื“ืจื™ื

MISHNA: And Rabbi Yehuda said further: A synagogue that fell into ruin still may not be used for a mundane purpose. Therefore, one may not eulogize in it. And nor may one stretch out and repair ropes in it. The wide expanse of the synagogue would have been particularly suitable for this. And nor may one spread animal traps within it. And nor may one spread out produce upon its roof to dry. And nor may one make it into a shortcut.

ืฉื ืืžืจ ื•ื”ืฉืžื•ืชื™ ืืช ืžืงื“ืฉื™ื›ื ืงื“ื•ืฉืชืŸ ืืฃ ื›ืฉื”ืŸ ืฉื•ืžืžื™ืŸ

The halakha that a synagogue in disrepair still may not be used for mundane purposes is derived from a verse, as it is stated: โ€œAnd I will bring desolation to your sanctuariesโ€ (Leviticus 26:31). The fact that the word โ€œsanctuariesโ€ appears after the word โ€œdesolationโ€ indicates that their sanctity remains upon them even when they are desolate.

ืขืœื• ื‘ื• ืขืฉื‘ื™ื ืœื ื™ืชืœื•ืฉ ืžืคื ื™ ืขื’ืžืช ื ืคืฉ

However, if grass sprang up of its own accord in the ruined synagogue, although it is not befitting its sanctity, one should not pick it, due to the anguish that it will bring to those who see it. It will remind them of the disrepair of the synagogue and the need to rebuild it.

ื’ืžืณ ืชื ื• ืจื‘ื ืŸ ื‘ืชื™ ื›ื ืกื™ื•ืช ืื™ืŸ ื ื•ื”ื’ื™ืŸ ื‘ื”ืŸ ืงืœื•ืช ืจืืฉ ืื™ืŸ ืื•ื›ืœื™ืŸ ื‘ื”ืŸ ื•ืื™ืŸ ืฉื•ืชื™ืŸ ื‘ื”ืŸ

GEMARA: The Sages taught in a baraita: With regard to synagogues: One may not act inside them with frivolity. Therefore, one may not eat in them; nor may one drink in them;

ื•ืื™ืŸ ื ื™ืื•ืชื™ืŸ ื‘ื”ื ื•ืื™ืŸ ืžื˜ื™ื™ืœื™ืŸ ื‘ื”ื ื•ืื™ืŸ ื ื›ื ืกื™ืŸ ื‘ื”ืŸ ื‘ื—ืžื” ืžืคื ื™ ื”ื—ืžื” ื•ื‘ื’ืฉืžื™ื ืžืคื ื™ ื”ื’ืฉืžื™ื ื•ืื™ืŸ ืžืกืคื™ื“ื™ืŸ ื‘ื”ืŸ ื”ืกืคื“ ืฉืœ ื™ื—ื™ื“ ืื‘ืœ ืงื•ืจื™ืŸ ื‘ื”ืŸ ื•ืฉื•ื ื™ืŸ ื‘ื”ืŸ ื•ืžืกืคื™ื“ื™ืŸ ื‘ื”ืŸ ื”ืกืคื“ ืฉืœ ืจื‘ื™ื

and one may not adorn oneself inside them; nor may one wander about inside them; nor may one enter them in the sun for protection from the sun, or in the rain to find shelter from the rain; nor may one offer a eulogy inside them for an individual, which is a private event. However, one may read the Bible inside them, and one may study halakhot inside them, and one may offer a eulogy inside them for a Torah scholar, if the public attends the eulogy.

ืืžืจ ืจื‘ื™ ื™ื”ื•ื“ื” ืื™ืžืชื™ ื‘ื™ืฉื•ื‘ืŸ ืื‘ืœ ื‘ื—ื•ืจื‘ื ืŸ ืžื ื™ื—ื™ืŸ ืื•ืชืŸ ื•ืขื•ืœื™ืŸ ื‘ื”ืŸ ืขืฉื‘ื™ื ื•ืœื ื™ืชืœื•ืฉ ืžืคื ื™ ืขื’ืžืช ื ืคืฉ

Rabbi Yehuda said: When does this apply? When the synagogues are occupied by the people using them. But when they are in a state of ruin, they should be left alone so that grass will sprout up inside them. And that grass should not be picked and removed, due to the anguish that it will bring to those who see it. It will remind them of the disrepair of the synagogue and the need to rebuild it.

ืขืฉื‘ื™ื ืžืืŸ ื“ื›ืจ ืฉืžื™ื™ื”ื• ื—ืกื•ืจื™ ืžื™ื—ืกืจื ื•ื”ื›ื™ ืงืชื ื™ ื•ืžื›ื‘ื“ื™ืŸ ืื•ืชืŸ ื•ืžืจื‘ื™ืฆื™ืŸ ืื•ืชืŸ ื›ื“ื™ ืฉืœื ื™ืขืœื• ื‘ื”ืŸ ืขืฉื‘ื™ื ืืžืจ ืจื‘ื™ ื™ื”ื•ื“ื” ืื™ืžืชื™ ื‘ื™ืฉื•ื‘ืŸ ืื‘ืœ ื‘ื—ื•ืจื‘ื ืŸ ืžื ื™ื—ื™ืŸ ืื•ืชืŸ ืœืขืœื•ืช ืขืœื• ื‘ื”ืŸ ืขืฉื‘ื™ื ืœื ื™ืชืœื•ืฉ ืžืคื ื™ ืขื’ืžืช ื ืคืฉ

The Gemara asks: Why did Rabbi Yehuda discuss the halakha about grass? Who mentioned anything about it? The Gemara explains: The text of the baraita is incomplete and is teaching the following: And among the other things that may be done in synagogues, they should also be sure to sweep them and to sprinkle their floors with water, in order that grass not sprout up in them. Rabbi Yehuda said: When does this apply? When the synagogues are occupied by the people using them, but when they are in a state of ruin, they should be left alone so that grass will sprout up inside them. If grass did sprout up, it should not be removed, due to the anguish that this will bring to those who see it.

ืืžืจ ืจื‘ ืืกื™ ื‘ืชื™ ื›ื ืกื™ื•ืช ืฉื‘ื‘ื‘ืœ ืขืœ ืชื ืื™ ื”ืŸ ืขืฉื•ื™ื™ืŸ ื•ืืฃ ืขืœ ืคื™ ื›ืŸ ืื™ืŸ ื ื•ื”ื’ื™ืŸ ื‘ื”ืŸ ืงืœื•ืช ืจืืฉ ื•ืžืื™ ื ื™ื”ื• ื—ืฉื‘ื•ื ื•ืช

Rav Asi said: Synagogues in Babylonia are built from the outset with a stipulation that they not have the full sanctity of a synagogue, in order that it be permitted to use them for the communityโ€™s general needs. But nevertheless, one should not act inside them with frivolity. The Gemara explains: What is meant by this? One should not make business calculations in a synagogue.

ืืžืจ ืจื‘ ืืกื™ ื‘ื™ืช ื”ื›ื ืกืช ืฉืžื—ืฉื‘ื™ืŸ ื‘ื• ื—ืฉื‘ื•ื ื•ืช ืžืœื™ื ื™ืŸ ื‘ื• ืืช ื”ืžืช ืžืœื™ื ื™ืŸ ืกืœืงื ื“ืขืชืš ืœื ืกื’ื™ ื“ืœืื• ื”ื›ื™ ืืœื ืœืกื•ืฃ ืฉื™ืœื™ื ื• ื‘ื• ืžืช ืžืฆื•ื”

Rav Asi said: With regard to a synagogue in which people make business calculations, they will eventually keep a corpse inside it overnight. The Gemara questions the wording of this dictum: Can it really enter your mind to say that they will ever actually keep a corpse inside it overnight? Could it really be that there will not be any other alternative? Rather, Rav Asi means that as a punishment for acting with frivolity people in the community will die, including those who have no family, and so ultimately they will have to keep a corpse with no one to bury it [met mitzva] overnight in the synagogue.

ื•ืื™ืŸ ื ื™ืื•ืชื™ืŸ ื‘ื”ืŸ ืืžืจ ืจื‘ื ื—ื›ืžื™ื ื•ืชืœืžื™ื“ื™ื”ื ืžื•ืชืจื™ืŸ ื“ืืžืจ ืจื‘ื™ ื™ื”ื•ืฉืข ื‘ืŸ ืœื•ื™ ืžืื™ ื‘ื™ ืจื‘ื ืŸ ื‘ื™ืชื ื“ืจื‘ื ืŸ

ยง The baraita taught: And one may not adorn oneself inside them. Rava said: The prohibition applies only to laypeople, but Torah scholars and their disciples are permitted to do so, as Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi said: What is the meaning of the term: Bei of the Sages, which is used to describe a study hall? It is a shortened form of house [beita] of the Sages. In order to facilitate the constant presence of the Torah scholars in the study hall, it is permitted for them to use the hall as though it were their home.

ื•ืื™ืŸ ื ื›ื ืกื™ืŸ ื‘ื”ืŸ ื‘ื—ืžื” ืžืคื ื™ ื”ื—ืžื” ื•ื‘ื’ืฉืžื™ื ืžืคื ื™ ื”ื’ืฉืžื™ื ื›ื™ ื”ื ื“ืจื‘ื™ื ื ื•ืจื‘ ืื“ื ื‘ืจ ืžืชื ื” ื”ื•ื• ืงื™ื™ืžื™ ื•ืฉืืœื™ ืฉืื™ืœืชื ืžืจื‘ื ืืชื ื–ื™ืœื—ื ื“ืžื™ื˜ืจื ืขื™ื™ืœื™ ืœื‘ื™ ื›ื ื™ืฉืชื ืืžืจื™ ื”ืื™ ื“ืขื™ื™ืœื™ื ืŸ ืœื‘ื™ ื›ื ื™ืฉืชื ืœืื• ืžืฉื•ื ืžื™ื˜ืจื ืืœื ืžืฉื•ื ื“ืฉืžืขืชื ื‘ืขื ืฆื™ืœื•ืชื ื›ื™ื•ืžื ื“ืืกืชื ื

The baraita continued: And nor may one enter them in the sun for protection from the sun, or in the rain to find shelter from the rain. The Gemara explains: This is similar to that case of Ravina and Rav Adda bar Mattana. They were standing and asking a question of Rava, when a shower [zilแธฅa] of rain began to fall upon them. They all entered the synagogue, saying: Our having entered the synagogue is not due to the rain, that we stay dry; rather, it is due to the fact that the halakha we were discussing requires clarity like the day the north wind [istena] blows and the sky is perfectly clear. Therefore, we are entering the synagogue for the sake of studying Torah, which is certainly permitted.

ืืžืจ ืœื™ื” ืจื‘ ืื—ื ื‘ืจื™ื” ื“ืจื‘ื ืœืจื‘ ืืฉื™ ืื™ ืืฆื˜ืจื™ืš ืœื™ื” ืœืื™ื ื™ืฉ ืœืžื™ืงืจื™ ื’ื‘ืจื ืžื‘ื™ ื›ื ื™ืฉืชื ืžืื™ ืืžืจ ืœื™ื” ืื™ ืฆื•ืจื‘ื ืžืจื‘ื ืŸ ื”ื•ื ืœื™ืžื ื”ืœื›ืชื ื•ืื™ ืชื ื ื”ื•ื ืœื™ืžื ืžืชื ื™ืชื™ืŸ ื•ืื™ ืงืจื ื”ื•ื ืœื™ืžื ืคืกื•ืงื ื•ืื™ ืœื ืœื™ืžื ืœื™ื” ืœื™ื ื•ืงื ืื™ืžื ืœื™ ืคืกื•ืงื™ืš ืื™ ื ืžื™ ื ื™ืฉื”ื™ ืคื•ืจืชื ื•ื ื™ืงื•ื

Rav Aแธฅa, son of Rava, said to Rav Ashi: If a person needs to summon an individual from inside a synagogue, what should he do, since it is not permitted to enter a synagogue just for that purpose? Rav Ashi said to him: If he is a young Torah scholar, let him recite a halakha upon entering the synagogue; and if he is a tanna who memorizes large numbers of mishnayot, let him recite various mishnayot; and if he is an expert in the Bible, let him recite a verse; and if he is not able to do even this, let him say to a child: Recite for me a verse that you have learned today. Alternatively, he should remain in the synagogue for a short time and only afterward stand up and leave.

ื•ืžืกืคื™ื“ื™ืŸ ื‘ื”ืŸ ื”ืกืคื“ ืฉืœ ืจื‘ื™ื ื”ื™ื›ื™ ื“ืžื™ ื”ืกืคื™ื“ื ื“ืจื‘ื™ื ืžื—ื•ื™ ืจื‘ ื—ืกื“ื ื›ื’ื•ืŸ ื”ืกืคื™ื“ื ื“ืงืื™ ื‘ื™ื” ืจื‘ ืฉืฉืช ืžื—ื•ื™ ืจื‘ ืฉืฉืช ื›ื’ื•ืŸ ื”ืกืคื™ื“ื ื“ืงืื™ ื‘ื™ื” ืจื‘ ื—ืกื“ื

The baraita continues: And one may offer a eulogy inside them for a Torah scholar if the public attends the eulogy. The Gemara asks: What are the circumstances of a eulogy for the public? Rav แธคisda depicted a case: For example, a eulogy for a Torah scholar at which Rav Sheshet is present. Owing to his presence, many people will come. Rav Sheshet himself depicted another case: For example, a eulogy at which Rav แธคisda is present.

ืจืคืจื ืืกืคื“ื” ืœื›ืœืชื™ื” ื‘ื‘ื™ ื›ื ื™ืฉืชื ืืžืจ ืžืฉื•ื ื™ืงืจื ื“ื™ื“ื™ ื•ื“ืžื™ืชื ืืชื• ื›ื•ืœื™ื” ืขืœืžื ืจื‘ื™ ื–ื™ืจื ืกืคื“ื™ื” ืœื”ื”ื•ื ืžืจื‘ื ืŸ ื‘ื‘ื™ ื›ื ื™ืฉืชื ืืžืจ ืื™ ืžืฉื•ื ื™ืงืจื ื“ื™ื“ื™ ืื™ ืžืฉื•ื ื™ืงืจื ื“ื™ื“ื™ื” ื“ืžื™ืชื ืืชื• ื›ื•ืœื™ ืขืœืžื

The Gemara offers another example: Rafram once eulogized his daughter-in-law inside a synagogue. He said: Due to my honor and the honor of the deceased, everyone will come to the eulogy. It will consequently be a public event, and it is therefore permitted to hold it in a synagogue. Similarly, Rabbi Zeira once eulogized a certain Sage inside a synagogue. He said: Whether due to my honor, or whether due to the honor of the deceased, everyone will come to the eulogy.

ืจื™ืฉ ืœืงื™ืฉ ืกืคื“ื™ื” ืœื”ื”ื•ื ืฆื•ืจื‘ื ืžืจื‘ื ืŸ ื“ืฉื›ื™ื— ื‘ืืจืขื ื“ื™ืฉืจืืœ ื“ื”ื•ื™ ืชื ื™ ื”ืœื›ืชื ื‘ืขืฉืจื™ื ื•ืืจื‘ืข ืฉื•ืจืชื ืืžืจ ื•ื•ื™ ื—ืกืจื ืืจืขื ื“ื™ืฉืจืืœ ื’ื‘ืจื ืจื‘ื”

Reish Lakish once eulogized a certain young Torah scholar who was frequently present in Eretz Yisrael and who used to study halakha in the twenty-fourth row of the study hall.He sat so far back because he was not one of the principal scholars. Nevertheless, when he died, Reish Lakish said: Alas, Eretz Yisrael has lost a great man.

ื”ื”ื•ื ื“ื”ื•ื™ ืชื ื™ ื”ืœื›ืชื ืกื™ืคืจื ื•ืกื™ืคืจื™ ื•ืชื•ืกืคืชื ื•ืฉื›ื™ื‘ ืืชื• ื•ืืžืจื• ืœื™ื” ืœืจื‘ ื ื—ืžืŸ ืœื™ืกืคื“ื™ื” ืžืจ ืืžืจ ื”ื™ื›ื™ ื ืกืคื“ื™ื” ื”ื™ ืฆื ื ื“ืžืœื™ ืกื™ืคืจื™ ื“ื—ืกืจ

In contrast, there was a certain man who used to study halakha, the Sifra, and the Sifrei, and the Tosefta, and he died. People came and said to Rav Naแธฅman: Let the Master eulogize him. He said to them: How can I eulogize him? Should I say: Alas, a basket filled with books is lost? This would not be true. Although the man studied many areas of Torah, he was not proficient in them.

ืชื ื—ื–ื™ ืžื” ื‘ื™ืŸ ืชืงื™ืคื™ ื“ืืจืขื ื“ื™ืฉืจืืœ ืœื—ืกื™ื“ื™ ื“ื‘ื‘ืœ

The Gemara compares the conduct of Reish Lakish in Eretz Yisrael to that of Rav Naแธฅman in Babylonia. Come and see what the difference is between the harsh scholars of Eretz Yisrael and the saintly ones of Babylonia. Although Reish Lakish was known for his harsh nature, he was still more respectful than Rav Naแธฅman, who was known for his saintliness.

ืชื ืŸ ื”ืชื ื•ื“ืืฉืชืžืฉ ื‘ืชื’ื ื—ืœืฃ ืชื ื™ ืจื™ืฉ ืœืงื™ืฉ ื–ื” ื”ืžืฉืชืžืฉ ื‘ืžื™ ืฉืฉื•ื ื” ื”ืœื›ื•ืช ื›ืชืจื” ืฉืœ ืชื•ืจื”

We learned in a mishna there (Avot 1:13): And one who makes use of the crown [taga] of Torah learning will perish from the world. Reish Lakish taught: This is referring to one who allows himself to be served by one who studies halakhot, which is the crown of the Torah.

ื•ืืžืจ ืขื•ืœื ืœืฉืชืžืฉ ืื™ื ื™ืฉ ื‘ืžืืŸ ื“ืชื ื™ ืืจื‘ืขื” ื•ืœื ืœืฉืชืžืฉ ื‘ืžืืŸ ื“ืžืชื ื™ ืืจื‘ืขื” ื›ื™ ื”ื ื“ืจื™ืฉ ืœืงื™ืฉ ื”ื•ื” ืื–ื™ืœ ื‘ืื•ืจื—ื ืžื˜ื ืขื•ืจืงืžื ื“ืžื™ื ืืชื ื”ื”ื•ื ื’ื‘ืจื ืืจื›ื‘ื™ื” ืื›ืชืคื™ื” ื•ืงื ืžืขื‘ืจ ืœื™ื” ืืžืจ ืœื™ื” ืงืจื™ืช ืืžืจ ืœื™ื” ืงืจื™ื ื ืชื ื™ืช ืชื ื™ื ื ืืจื‘ืขื” ืกื™ื“ืจื™ ืžืฉื ื” ืืžืจ ืœื™ื” ืคืกืœืช ืœืš ืืจื‘ืขื” ื˜ื•ืจื™ ื•ื˜ืขื ืช ื‘ืจ ืœืงื™ืฉ ืื›ืชืคืš ืฉื“ื™ ื‘ืจ ืœืงื™ืฉื ื‘ืžื™ื

And Ulla said: It is better that a person should be served by one who studies four orders of the Mishna, and he should not allow himself to be served by one who teaches to others four orders of the Mishna, as in that case of Reish Lakish. He was traveling along the road when he reached a deep puddle of water. A certain man came and placed him upon his shoulders and began transferring him to the other side. Reish Lakish said to him: Have you read the Bible? He said to him: I have read it. He then asked: Have you studied the Mishna? He answered him: I have studied four orders of the Mishna. Reish Lakish then said to him: You have hewn these four mountains and yet you bear the weight of the son of Lakish upon your shoulders? It is inappropriate for you to carry me; throw the son of Lakish into the water.

ืืžืจ ืœื™ื” ื ื™ื—ื ืœื™ ื“ืืฉืžืขื™ื ืŸ ืœืžืจ ืื™ ื”ื›ื™ ื’ืžื•ืจ ืžื™ื ื™ ื”ื ืžืœืชื ื“ืืžืจ ืจื‘ื™ ื–ื™ืจื ื‘ื ื•ืช ื™ืฉืจืืœ ื”ืŸ ื”ื—ืžื™ืจื• ืขืœ ืขืฆืžืŸ ืฉืืคื™ืœื• ืจื•ืื•ืช ื˜ื™ืคืช ื“ื ื›ื—ืจื“ืœ ื™ื•ืฉื‘ื•ืช ืขืœื™ื• ืฉื‘ืขื” ื ืงื™ื™ื

The man said to Reish Lakish: It is pleasing for me to serve the Master in this way. Reish Lakish said to him: If so, learn from me this matter that Rabbi Zeira said. In this way you will be considered my disciple, and it will then be appropriate for you to serve me. Jewish women were strict upon themselves in that even if they see a spot of menstrual blood that is only the size of a mustard seed they wait on its account seven clean days before immersing themselves in a ritual bath to purify themselves.

ืชื ื ื“ื‘ื™ ืืœื™ื”ื• ื›ืœ ื”ืฉื•ื ื” ื”ืœื›ื•ืช ืžื•ื‘ื˜ื— ืœื• ืฉื”ื•ื ื‘ืŸ ืขื•ืœื ื”ื‘ื ืฉื ืืžืจ ื”ืœื™ื›ื•ืช ืขื•ืœื ืœื• ืืœ ืชืงืจื™ ื”ืœื™ื›ื•ืช ืืœื ื”ืœื›ื•ืช

The school of Eliyahu taught: Anyone who studies halakhot every day, he is guaranteed that he is destined for the World-to-Come, as it is stated: โ€œHis ways [halikhot] are eternalโ€ (Habakkuk 3:6): Do not read the verse as halikhot [ways]; rather, read it as halakhot. Consequently, the verse indicates that the study of the halakhot brings one to eternal life.

ืชื ื• ืจื‘ื ืŸ

The Sages taught in a baraita:

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