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Today's Daf Yomi

January 11, 2022 | ื˜ืณ ื‘ืฉื‘ื˜ ืชืฉืคืดื‘

This monthโ€™s shiurim are dedicated by Efrat Arnold in loving memory of Joshua Carr, Yehoshua Aryeh Leib ben Yonatan Chaim and Malka Esther HaCohen.

This month's shiurim are dedicated by Tova and David Kestenbaum in honor of their children and grandchildren.

This month's shiurim are dedicated by Jordana and Kalman Schoor on behalf of their daughter Daria who is learning Masechet Megilla for her bat mitzvah.ย 

  • This month's learning is dedicated by Debbie and Yossi Gevir to Rabbanit Michelle and the Hadran Zoom group for their kindness, support, and care during a medically challenging year.

Megillah 30

Todayโ€™s daf is sponsored by the Hadran zoom group in honor of Becki Goldsteinโ€™s grandson, Amitai. โ€œAmitai finished Shas Mishnayot this week. As Becki wrote: “To fill the void felt in Bavel after the destruction of the Temple they found comfort in their mikdash me’at – batei knessiot u’batei midrashot. And we, her Hadran Zoom family, take joy in seeing the comfort and pride passed on.”

What is done if Parshat Shekalim falls out on the Parsha of Tetzave, which ends just before the beginning of Ki Tisa, which is the reading for Shekalim according to Shmuel? Abaye and Rabbi Yitzchak Nafcha each have different solutions and questions are raised and support texts are brought. If Rosh Chodesh Adar falls on Friday, Rav and Shmuel debate whether or not we read Parshat Shekalim on the preceding Shabbat or the following Shabbat. Texts are brought to question/prove the different opinions. They have a similar debate regarding Parshat Zachor when Purim falls on Friday. What is the root of their debate? What weeks are the other parshiot read? What is read each of the four weeks? Were the parshiot read instead of the weekly Torah portion or only instead of the maftir and haftorah? What Torah portion is read on each of the holidays?

ืืžืจื™ ืื•ืงื•ืžื™ ื”ื•ื ื“ืงื ืžื•ืงืžื™ ื”ืชื

Since Shekalim is read from the portion in the Torah immediately following the regular weekly Torah reading, people will mistakenly say that they merely extended the regular reading and then halted there, and they will not realize that the last reading was actually for the sake of Shekalim.

ืืœื ืืžืจ ืื‘ื™ื™ ืงืจื• ืฉื™ืชื ืžื•ืืชื” ืชืฆื•ื” ืขื“ ื•ืขืฉื™ืช ื•ื—ื“ ืชื ื™ ื•ืงืจื™ ืžื›ื™ ืชืฉื ืขื“ ื•ืขืฉื™ืช

Rather, Abaye said: Six people read from โ€œAnd you shall commandโ€ until but not including โ€œAnd you shall make a copper laver,โ€ which concludes with the portion used for Shekalim. And then one person repeats and reads Shekalim from โ€œWhen you take the countโ€ until but not including โ€œAnd you shall make a copper laver.โ€ The repetition of this portion serves to highlight the fact it was read for the sake of Shekalim.

ืžื™ืชื™ื‘ื™ ื—ืœ ืœื”ื™ื•ืช ื‘ืคืจืฉื” ื”ืกืžื•ื›ื” ืœื” ื‘ื™ืŸ ืžืœืคื ื™ื” ื‘ื™ืŸ ืžืœืื—ืจื™ื” ืงื•ืจื™ืŸ ืื•ืชื” ื•ื›ื•ืคืœื™ืŸ ืื•ืชื”

The Gemara raises an objection from a baraita: If the Shabbat on which Shekalim is to be read occurs on the Shabbat on which the portion to be read for the regular weekly reading is adjacent to Shekalim, whether on the Shabbat preceding that Shabbat or following it, then they read and repeat Shekalim.

ื‘ืฉืœืžื ืœืื‘ื™ื™ ื ื™ื—ื ืืœื ืœืจื‘ื™ ื™ืฆื—ืง ื ืคื—ื ืงืฉื™ื

Granted, according to the opinion of Abaye, it works out well, for the conclusion of the baraita, that we repeat Shekalim, supports his opinion. But according to the opinion of Rabbi Yitzแธฅak Nappaแธฅa, it is difficult.

ืืžืจ ืœืš ืจื‘ื™ ื™ืฆื—ืง ื ืคื—ื ื•ืœืื‘ื™ื™ ืžื™ ื ื™ื—ื ืชื™ื ื— ืœืคื ื™ื” ืœืื—ืจื™ื” ื”ื™ื›ื™ ืžืฉื›ื—ืช ืœื”

The Gemara answers: Rabbi Yitzแธฅak Nappaแธฅa could have said to you: And according to Abaye, does it really work out well? The reference of the baraita to a case where the Shabbat on which Shekalim is read precedes the Shabbat on which that portion will be read as part of the weekly reading works out well, since it can indeed occur. However, with regard to the reference to that Shabbat following the Shabbat on which that portion is read as part of the weekly reading, under what circumstances can this case be found? It never occurs like that.

ืืœื ืžืื™ ืื™ืช ืœืš ืœืžื™ืžืจ ื›ื•ืคืœื” ื‘ืฉื‘ืชื•ืช ื”ื›ื ื ืžื™ ื›ื•ืคืœื” ื‘ืฉื‘ืชื•ืช

Rather, perforce, what have you to say? That when the baraita refers to repeating Shekalim when the Shabbat on which Shekalim is read follows the Shabbat on which it is read as the regular weekly reading, it means that one repeats it by reading it on two successive Shabbatot. Similarly, here too, when the baraita refers to repeating Shekalim when the Shabbat on which Shekalim is read precedes the Shabbat on which it is read as the regular weekly reading, it means that one repeats it by reading it on two successive Shabbatot.

ื—ืœ ืœื”ื™ื•ืช ื‘ื›ื™ ืชืฉื ืขืฆืžื” ืืžืจ ืจื‘ื™ ื™ืฆื—ืง ื ืคื—ื ืงืจื• ืฉื™ืชื ืžืŸ ื•ืขืฉื™ืช ืขื“ ื•ื™ืงื”ืœ ื•ื—ื“ ืงืจื™ ืžื›ื™ ืชืฉื ืขื“ ื•ืขืฉื™ืช

The Gemara considers a similar case: If the Shabbat on which Shekalim is to be read occurs on the Shabbat on which the regular portion itself begins with โ€œWhen you take the count,โ€ what should be done? Rabbi Yitzแธฅak Nappaแธฅa said: Six people read from โ€œAnd you shall make a copper laverโ€ until but not including the portion of โ€œAnd he assembledโ€ (Exodus 30:17โ€“34:35). This is the entire regular weekly portion of โ€œWhen you take the countโ€ without the opening passage, which is also the portion of Shekalim. And then one person goes back and reads the portion of Shekalim from โ€œWhen you take the countโ€ until but not including โ€œAnd you shall make a copper laver.โ€

ืžืชืงื™ืฃ ืœื” ืื‘ื™ื™ ื”ืฉืชื ืืžืจื™ ืœืžืคืจืข ื”ื•ื ื“ืงืจื™ ืืœื ืืžืจ ืื‘ื™ื™ ืงืจื• ืฉื™ืชื ืขื“ ื•ื™ืงื”ืœ ื•ื—ื“ ืชื ื™ ื•ืงืจื™ ืžื›ื™ ืชืฉื ืขื“ ื•ืขืฉื™ืช

Abaye strongly objects to this: Now people will mistakenly say that they are reading the regular weekly portion out of sequence, and they will not realize that the last reading was actually for the sake of the portion of Shekalim. Rather, Abaye said: Six people read the entire portion of โ€œWhen you shall countโ€ until but not including the portion of โ€œAnd he assembledโ€ (Exodus 30:11โ€“34:35), and then one person repeats and reads the portion of Shekalim from โ€œWhen you take the countโ€ until but not including โ€œAnd you shall make a copper laver.โ€

ืชื ื™ื ื›ื•ื•ืชื™ื” ื“ืื‘ื™ื™ ื—ืœ ืœื”ื™ื•ืช ื‘ื›ื™ ืชืฉื ืขืฆืžื” ืงื•ืจื™ืŸ ืื•ืชื” ื•ื›ื•ืคืœื™ืŸ ืื•ืชื”

The Gemara notes: It is taught in a baraita in accordance with the opinion of Abaye: If the Shabbat on which Shekalim is to be read occurs on the Shabbat on which the regular portion itself is โ€œWhen you take the count,โ€ the first part of that portion is read once as part of the weekly reading and then repeated as the portion of Shekalim.

ื—ืœ ืœื”ื™ื•ืช ื‘ืชื•ืš ื”ืฉื‘ืช ืžืงื“ื™ืžื™ืŸ ืœืฉื‘ืช ืฉืขื‘ืจื” ืื™ืชืžืจ ืจืืฉ ื—ื“ืฉ ืื“ืจ ืฉื—ืœ ืœื”ื™ื•ืช ื‘ืขืจื‘ ืฉื‘ืช ืจื‘ ืืžืจ ืžืงื“ื™ืžื™ืŸ ื•ืฉืžื•ืืœ ืืžืจ ืžืื—ืจื™ืŸ

ยง The mishna states: If the New Moon of Adar occurs during the middle of the week, the congregation advances the reading of Shekalim to the previous week. With regard to this, an amoraic dispute was stated: With regard to when the New Moon of Adar occurs on Friday, Rav said: The congregation advances the reading of the portion to the previous week. And Shmuel said: They defer the reading of the portion to the following day, and it is read on the coming Shabbat.

ืจื‘ ืืžืจ ืžืงื“ื™ืžื™ืŸ ื“ืื ื›ืŸ ื‘ืฆืจื™ ืœื”ื• ื™ื•ืžื™ ืฉื•ืœื—ื ื•ืช ื•ืฉืžื•ืืœ ืืžืจ ืžืื—ืจื™ืŸ ืืžืจ ืœืš ืกื•ืฃ ืกื•ืฃ ื—ืžื™ืกืจ ื‘ืžืขืœื™ ืฉื‘ืชื ืžื™ืงืœืข ื•ืฉื•ืœื—ื ื•ืช ืœื ื ืคืงื™ ืขื“ ื—ื“ ื‘ืฉื‘ื ื”ืœื›ืš ืžืื—ืจื™ืŸ

The Gemara explains the two opinions: Rav said: They advance the reading to the previous week, as, if one would read the portion only on the following day, there will be less than the required number of days, i.e., two weeks, that the announcement needs to precede the setting up of the money-changing tables on the fifteenth. And Shmuel said: They defer the reading of the portion to the following day. As for Ravโ€™s argument, Shmuel could have said to you: Ultimately, in such a year the fifteenth of Adar also occurs on a Friday, and therefore the money-changing tables will not be brought out until Sunday. Consequently, there will still be a full two weeks between the announcement and the setting of the tables. Therefore, they can defer the reading to the following day.

ืชื ืŸ ื—ืœ ืœื”ื™ื•ืช ื‘ืชื•ืš ื”ืฉื‘ืช ืžืงื“ื™ืžื™ืŸ ืœืฉืขื‘ืจ ื•ืžืคืกื™ืงื™ืŸ ืœืฉื‘ืช ืื—ืจืช ืžืื™ ืœืื• ืืคื™ืœื• ื‘ืขืจื‘ ืฉื‘ืช ืœื ื‘ืชื•ืš ื”ืฉื‘ืช ื“ื•ืงื

The Gemara offers various proofs for Ravโ€™s opinion: We learned in the mishna: If the New Moon occurs during the middle of the week, they advance the reading of that portion to the previous Shabbat, and in such a case they interrupt the reading of the four portions on the following Shabbat. The Gemara explains the proof: What; is it not that this is referring even to a case when the New Moon occurs on Friday? This would prove Ravโ€™s opinion. No; it is referring specifically to a case where it occurs during the middle of the week.

ืชื ืฉืžืข ืื™ื–ื• ื”ื™ื ืฉื‘ืช ืจืืฉื•ื ื” ื›ืœ ืฉื—ืœ ืจืืฉ ื—ื“ืฉ ืื“ืจ ืœื”ื™ื•ืช ื‘ืชื•ื›ื” ื•ืืคื™ืœื• ื‘ืขืจื‘ ืฉื‘ืช ืžืื™ ืœืื• ืืคื™ืœื• ื‘ืขืจื‘ ืฉื‘ืช ื“ื•ืžื™ื ื“ืชื•ื›ื” ืžื” ืชื•ื›ื” ืžืงื“ื™ืžื™ืŸ ืืฃ ืขืจื‘ ืฉื‘ืช ืžืงื“ื™ืžื™ืŸ

Come and hear another proof from a baraita: Which is the first Shabbat of the four Shabbatot on which the special portions are read? The Shabbat of whichever week during which the New Moon of Adar occurs, and this is the case even if it occurs on Friday. The Gemara explains the proof: What, is it not that the baraita teaches that the case when it occurs even on Friday is similar to the case where it occurs during the middle of the week, and just as when it occurs during the middle of the week, they advance the reading to the previous Shabbat, so too, when it occurs on Friday, they advance the reading to the previous Shabbat? This would therefore prove Ravโ€™s opinion.

ืืžืจ ืฉืžื•ืืœ ื‘ื” ื•ื›ืŸ ืชื ื ื“ื‘ื™ ืฉืžื•ืืœ ื‘ื”

Shmuel said: The baraita should be emended, and instead of saying: During which the New Moon occurs, it should say: On which the New Moon occurs, i.e., on Shabbat itself. And so the school of Shmuel taught: On which the New Moon occurs.

ื›ืชื ืื™ ืžืกืจื’ื™ืŸ ืœืฉื‘ืชื•ืช ื“ื‘ืจื™ ืจื‘ื™ ื™ื”ื•ื“ื” ื”ื ืฉื™ื ืจื‘ื™ ืฉืžืขื•ืŸ ื‘ืŸ ืืœืขื–ืจ ืื•ืžืจ ืื™ืŸ ืžืกืจื’ื™ืŸ ืืžืจ ืจื‘ื™ ืฉืžืขื•ืŸ ื‘ืŸ ืืœืขื–ืจ ืื™ืžืชื™ ืื ื™ ืื•ืžืจ ืื™ืŸ ืžืกืจื’ื™ืŸ ื‘ื–ืžืŸ ืฉื—ืœ ืœื”ื™ื•ืช ื‘ืขืจื‘ ืฉื‘ืช ืื‘ืœ ื‘ื–ืžืŸ ืฉื—ืœ ืœื”ื™ื•ืช ื‘ืชื•ืš ื”ืฉื‘ืช ืžืงื“ื™ื ื•ืงื•ืจื ืžืฉื‘ืช ืฉืขื‘ืจื” ืืฃ ืขืœ ืคื™ ืฉื”ื•ื ืฉื‘ื˜

The Gemara suggests: This dispute between the amoraโ€™im is like a dispute between tannaโ€™im, as it is taught in a baraita: With regard to the reading of the four special portions, they interrupt the flow of Shabbatot, i.e., there is a Shabbat in which no special portion is read; this is the statement of Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi. Rabbi Shimon ben Elazar said: They do not interrupt the flow of Shabbatot. Rabbi Shimon ben Elazar said: When do I say that they do not interrupt the flow of Shabbatot? When the New Moon of Adar occurs on Friday, since I hold that in that case Shekalim is read on the following day, and therefore the four portions are read on four consecutive weeks. However, when the New Moon of Adar occurs during the week, one advances and reads Shekalim on the previous Shabbat, although it is still the month of Shevat, and therefore on one of the Shabbatot in Adar there will be no reading. It would appear, then, that Shmuel holds in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Shimon ben Elazar, whereas Rav holds in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi.

ื‘ืฉื ื™ื™ื” ื–ื›ื•ืจ ื•ื›ื•ืณ ืื™ืชืžืจ ืคื•ืจื™ื ืฉื—ืœ ืœื”ื™ื•ืช ื‘ืขืจื‘ ืฉื‘ืช ืจื‘ ืืžืจ ืžืงื“ื™ืžื™ืŸ ืคืจืฉืช ื–ื›ื•ืจ ื•ืฉืžื•ืืœ ืืžืจ ืžืื—ืจื™ืŸ

ยง The mishna states: On the second Shabbat of Adar, the Shabbat prior to Purim, they read the portion of โ€œRemember [zakhor] what Amalek didโ€ (Deuteronomy 25:17โ€“19). The portion of Zakhor is associated with Purim because according to tradition, Haman was a descendant of Amalek, and so the victory over him and his supporters was a victory against Amalek. With regard to this, an amoraic dispute was stated: With regard to when Purim occurs on a Friday, Rav said: The congregation advances the reading of the portion of Zakhor to the previous Shabbat. And Shmuel said: They defer it to the Shabbat following Purim.

ืจื‘ ืืžืจ ืžืงื“ื™ืžื™ืŸ ื›ื™ ื”ื™ื›ื™ ื“ืœื ืชื™ืงื“ื•ื ืขืฉื™ื” ืœื–ื›ื™ืจื” ื•ืฉืžื•ืืœ ืืžืจ ืžืื—ืจื™ืŸ ืืžืจ ืœืš ื›ื™ื•ืŸ ื“ืื™ื›ื ืžื•ืงืคื™ืŸ ื“ืขื‘ื“ื™ ื‘ื—ืžื™ืกืจ ืขืฉื™ื” ื•ื–ื›ื™ืจื” ื‘ื”ื“ื™ ื”ื“ื“ื™ ืงื ืืชื™ื™ืŸ

The Gemara explains the two opinions: Rav said: They advance it to the previous Shabbat, in order that the observance of Purim should not precede the remembrance of the destruction of Amalek, which is achieved through reading the portion of Zakhor. And Shmuel said: They defer its reading. And as for Ravโ€™s argument, Shmuel could have said to you: Since there are the walled cities that observe Purim on the fifteenth, at least with regard to them, the observance and the remembrance come together on the same day, and that is sufficient.

ืชื ืŸ ื‘ืฉื ื™ื” ื–ื›ื•ืจ ื•ื”ื ื›ื™ ืžื™ืงืœืข ืจื™ืฉ ื™ืจื—ื ื‘ืฉื‘ืช ืžื™ืงืœืข ืคื•ืจื™ื ื‘ืขืจื‘ ืฉื‘ืช ื•ืงืชื ื™ ื‘ืฉื ื™ื” ื–ื›ื•ืจ ืืžืจ ืจื‘ ืคืคื ืžืื™ ืฉื ื™ื” ืฉื ื™ื” ืœื”ืคืกืงื”

The Gemara offers various proofs for Ravโ€™s opinion: We learned in the mishna: On the second Shabbat they read the portion of Zakhor. The Gemara suggests: Is it not the case that when the New Moon of Adar occurs on Shabbat, Purim occurs on Friday, and yet the mishna teaches: On the second Shabbat they read the portion of Zakhor? This supports Ravโ€™s opinion that in all cases the portion is read before Purim. Rav Pappa said: There is no proof, because one could argue as follows: What is the intention of the mishna when it is referring to the second Shabbat? It could mean the second Shabbat on which a special portion is read, which, if Purim occurs on Friday, occurs only after the interruption of the previous Shabbat, during which no portion was read.

ืชื ืฉืžืข ืื™ื–ื• ืฉื‘ืช ืฉื ื™ื” ื›ืœ ืฉื—ืœ ืคื•ืจื™ื ืœื”ื™ื•ืช ื‘ืชื•ื›ื” ื•ืืคื™ืœื• ื‘ืขืจื‘ ืฉื‘ืช ืžืื™ ืœืื• ืขืจื‘ ืฉื‘ืช ื“ื•ืžื™ื ื“ืชื•ื›ื” ืžื” ืชื•ื›ื” ืžืงื“ื™ืžื™ืŸ ืืฃ ืขืจื‘ ืฉื‘ืช ืžืงื“ื™ืžื™ืŸ

Come and hear another proof from a baraita: Which is the second Shabbat on which a special portion is read? The Shabbat of whichever week during which Purim occurs, and this is the case even if it occurs on Friday. The Gemara explains the proof: What, is it not that the baraita teaches that even if Purim occurs on Friday, the case is similar to the case when it occurs during the middle of the week, and therefore, just as when it occurs during the middle of the week we advance the reading to the previous Shabbat, so too, when it occurs on Friday, we should advance the reading to the previous Shabbat? This baraita would therefore prove Ravโ€™s opinion.

ืืžืจ ืฉืžื•ืืœ ื‘ื” ื•ื›ืŸ ืชื ื ื“ื‘ื™ ืฉืžื•ืืœ ื‘ื”

Shmuel said: The baraita should be emended, and instead of saying: During which Purim occurs, it should say: On which Purim occurs, i.e., on Shabbat itself. And so the school of Shmuel taught: On which Purim occurs.

ื—ืœ ืœื”ื™ื•ืช ื‘ืฉื‘ืช ืขืฆืžื” ืืžืจ ืจื‘ ื”ื•ื ื ืœื“ื‘ืจื™ ื”ื›ืœ ืื™ืŸ ืžืงื“ื™ืžื™ืŸ ื•ืจื‘ ื ื—ืžืŸ ืืžืจ ืขื“ื™ื™ืŸ ื”ื™ื ืžื—ืœื•ืงืช ืื™ืชืžืจ ื ืžื™ ืืžืจ ืจื‘ื™ ื—ื™ื™ื ื‘ืจ ืื‘ื ืืžืจ ืจื‘ื™ ืื‘ื ืืžืจ ืจื‘ ืคื•ืจื™ื ืฉื—ืœ ืœื”ื™ื•ืช ื‘ืฉื‘ืช ืžืงื“ื™ื ื•ืงื•ืจื ื‘ืฉื‘ืช ืฉืขื‘ืจื” ื–ื›ื•ืจ

With regard to when Purim occurs on Shabbat itself, Rav Huna said: Everyone agrees, i.e., both Rav and Shmuel, that they do not advance the reading of the portion of Zakhor to the previous Shabbat, but it is read on that Shabbat. And Rav Naแธฅman said: Even in this case there is still a dispute, for Rav maintains that in all cases the remembrance of the destruction of Amalek, which is achieved through reading the portion of Zakhor, must always precede the observance of Purim. It was also stated that Rabbi แธคiyya bar Abba said that Rabbi Abba said that Rav said: If Purim occurs on Shabbat, one advances and reads the portion of Zakhor on the previous Shabbat, as Rav Naแธฅman understood Ravโ€™s opinion.

ื‘ืฉืœื™ืฉื™ืช ืคืจื” ืื“ื•ืžื” ื•ื›ื•ืณ ืชื ื• ืจื‘ื ืŸ ืื™ื–ื• ื”ื™ื ืฉื‘ืช ืฉืœื™ืฉื™ืช ื›ืœ ืฉืกืžื•ื›ื” ืœืคื•ืจื™ื ืžืื—ืจื™ื” ืื™ืชืžืจ ืจื‘ื™ ื—ืžื ื‘ืจื‘ื™ ื—ื ื™ื ื ืืžืจ ืฉื‘ืช ื”ืกืžื•ื›ื” ืœืจืืฉ ื—ื“ืฉ ื ื™ืกืŸ

ยง The mishna states: On the third Shabbat, they read the portion of the Red Heifer [Para] (Numbers 19:1โ€“22). The Sages taught in a baraita: Which is the third Shabbat? Whichever Shabbat occurs immediately after Purim. It was also stated: Rabbi แธคama, son of Rabbi แธคanina, said: The Shabbat that is immediately after the New Moon of Nisan.

ื•ืœื ืคืœื™ื’ื™ ื”ื ื“ืื™ืงืœืข ืจืืฉ ื—ื“ืฉ ื ื™ืกืŸ ื‘ืฉื‘ืช ื”ื ื“ืื™ืงืœืข ื‘ืืžืฆืข ืฉื‘ืช

The Gemara comments: And these two statements do not disagree, as they refer to different cases: This statement of Rabbi แธคama, son of Rabbi แธคanina, is referring to a case where the New Moon of Nisan occurs on Shabbat itself. In that case, the portion of Haแธคodesh is read then, and therefore the reading of Para is deferred to the following Shabbat. And that statement of the baraita is referring to a case where the New Moon of Nisan occurs during the middle of the week. Therefore, Haแธคodesh is read on the Shabbat immediately preceding the New Moon, and Para is read on the Shabbat before that one, which is the Shabbat that is adjacent to Purim and after it.

ื‘ืจื‘ื™ืขื™ืช ื”ื—ื“ืฉ ื”ื–ื” ืœื›ื ืชื ื• ืจื‘ื ืŸ ืจืืฉ ื—ื“ืฉ ืื“ืจ ืฉื—ืœ ืœื”ื™ื•ืช ื‘ืฉื‘ืช ืงื•ืจื™ืŸ ื›ื™ ืชืฉื ื•ืžืคื˜ื™ืจื™ืŸ ื‘ื™ื”ื•ื™ื“ืข ื•ืื™ ื–ื• ื”ื™ื ืฉื‘ืช ืจืืฉื•ื ื” ื›ืœ ืฉื—ืœ ืจืืฉ ื—ื“ืฉ ืื“ืจ ืœื”ื™ื•ืช ื‘ืชื•ื›ื” ื•ืืคื™ืœื• ื‘ืขืจื‘ ืฉื‘ืช ื‘ืฉื ื™ื” ื–ื›ื•ืจ ื•ืžืคื˜ื™ืจื™ืŸ ืคืงื“ืชื™ ื•ืื™ ื–ื• ื”ื™ื ืฉื‘ืช ืฉื ื™ื” ื›ืœ ืฉื—ืœ ืคื•ืจื™ื ืœื”ื™ื•ืช ื‘ืชื•ื›ื” ื•ืืคื™ืœื• ื‘ืขืจื‘ ืฉื‘ืช

ยง The mishna states: On the fourth Shabbat, they read the portion of โ€œThis month [haแธฅodesh] shall be for youโ€ (Exodus 12:1โ€“20). The Sages taught in a baraita: When the New Moon of Adar occurs on Shabbat, they read โ€œWhen you take the countโ€ as the portion of Shekalim. And they read as the haftara the story involving Jehoiada the priest (IIย Kings 12:1โ€“27). And which is the first Shabbat? The Shabbat of whichever week during which the New Moon of Adar occurs, and this is the case even if it occurs on Friday. On the second Shabbat, they read the portion of Zakhor, and they read as the haftara of โ€œI remembered that which Amalek didโ€ (Iย Samuel 15:1โ€“34). And which is the second Shabbat? The Shabbat of whichever week during which Purim occurs, and this is the case even if it occurs on Friday.

ื‘ืฉืœื™ืฉื™ืช ืคืจื” ืื“ื•ืžื” ื•ืžืคื˜ื™ืจื™ืŸ ื•ื–ืจืงืชื™ ืขืœื™ื›ื ื•ืื™ ื–ื• ื”ื™ื ืฉื‘ืช ืฉืœื™ืฉื™ืช ื›ืœ ืฉืกืžื•ื›ื” ืœืคื•ืจื™ื ืžืื—ืจื™ื” ื‘ืจื‘ื™ืขื™ืช ื”ื—ื“ืฉ ื”ื–ื” ื•ืžืคื˜ื™ืจื™ืŸ ื›ื” ืืžืจ ื”ืณ [ืืœื”ื™ื] ื‘ืจืืฉื•ืŸ ื‘ืื—ื“ ืœื—ื“ืฉ

On the third Shabbat, they read the portion of the Red Heifer [Para], and they read as the haftara the portion of โ€œThen will I sprinkle clean water upon youโ€ (Ezekiel 36:25โ€“38). And which is the third Shabbat? That which is adjacent to Purim and after it. On the fourth Shabbat, they read the portion of โ€œThis month [haแธฅodesh] shall be for you,โ€ and they read as the haftara the portion of โ€œThus says the Lord God: In the first month, on the first day of the monthโ€ (Ezekiel 45:18โ€“46:18).

ื•ืื™ื–ื• ื”ื™ื ืฉื‘ืช ืจื‘ื™ืขื™ืช ื›ืœ ืฉื—ืœ ืจืืฉ ื—ื“ืฉ ื ื™ืกืŸ ืœื”ื™ื•ืช ื‘ืชื•ื›ื” ื•ืืคื™ืœื• ื‘ืขืจื‘ ืฉื‘ืช

And which is the fourth Shabbat? The Shabbat of whichever week during which the New Moon of Nisan occurs, and this is the case even if it occurs on Friday.

ื‘ื—ืžื™ืฉื™ืช ื—ื•ื–ืจื™ืŸ ืœื›ืกื“ืจืŸ ื•ื›ื•ืณ ืœืกื“ืจ ืžืื™ ืจื‘ื™ ืืžื™ ืืžืจ ืœืกื“ืจ ืคืจืฉื™ื•ืช ื”ื•ื ื—ื•ื–ืจ ืจื‘ื™ ื™ืจืžื™ื” ืืžืจ ืœืกื“ืจ ื”ืคื˜ืจื•ืช ื”ื•ื ื—ื•ื–ืจ

ยง The mishna states: On the fifth Shabbat, we resume the regular weekly order. The Gemara clarifies the mishnaโ€™s intent: To the order of what does one resume? Rabbi Ami said: One resumes the regular weekly order of Torah portions. Rabbi Ami holds that on the weeks on which the special portions are read, the regular weekly Torah portion is not read at all, and therefore the cycle is resumed only on the fifth Shabbat. Rabbi Yirmeya said: One resumes the regular weekly order of the haftarot. Rabbi Yirmeya holds that even on the Shabbatot on which the special portions are read, the regular weekly portion is still read; the special portion is read by the last reader as the maftir. However, the haftara of the regular cycle is entirely replaced with a portion from the Prophets that parallels the special portion. As such, it is the cycle of haftarot that is resumed on the fifth Shabbat.

ืืžืจ ืื‘ื™ื™ ื›ื•ื•ืชื™ื” ื“ืจื‘ื™ ืืžื™ ืžืกืชื‘ืจื ื“ืชื ืŸ ืœื›ืœ ืžืคืกื™ืงื™ืŸ ืœืจืืฉื™ ื—ื“ืฉื™ื ืœื—ื ื•ื›ื” ื•ืœืคื•ืจื™ื ืœืชืขื ื™ื•ืช ื•ืœืžืขืžื“ื•ืช ื•ืœื™ื•ื ื”ื›ืคื•ืจื™ื

Abaye said: It stands to reason that one should rule in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Ami, as we learned in the mishna: For all special days, we interrupt the regular order of readings, and a special portion relating to the character of the day is read. This applies to the New Moons, to Hanukkah, and to Purim, to fast days, and to non-priestly watches, and to Yom Kippur.

ื‘ืฉืœืžื ืœืžืืŸ ื“ืืžืจ ืœืกื“ืจ ืคืจืฉื™ื•ืช ื”ื•ื ื—ื•ื–ืจ ื”ื™ื™ื ื• ื“ืื™ื›ื ืคืจืฉื” ื‘ื—ื•ืœ ืืœื ืœืžืืŸ ื“ืืžืจ ืœืกื“ืจ ื”ืคื˜ืจื•ืช ื”ื•ื ื—ื•ื–ืจ ื”ืคื˜ืจื” ื‘ื—ื•ืœ ืžื™ ืื™ื›ื

Abaye explains his proof: Granted, according to the one who said that one resumes the regular weekly order of Torah portions, this statement in the mishna is referring to the fact that there is a reading of the weekly Torah portion on weekdays. If one of the special days listed in the mishna occurs on Monday or Thursday, the weekly Torah reading is replaced by the special portion for that day. However, according to one who said that one resumes the regular weekly order of haftarot, what could the mishna mean when it says that the regular cycle is interrupted? Is there a haftara on weekdays? The mishna therefore supports Rabbi Amiโ€™s opinion.

ื•ืื™ื“ืš ื”ื ื›ื“ืื™ืชื ื•ื”ื ื›ื“ืื™ืชื

And the other one, Rabbi Yirmeya, would counter: This case is as it is, and that case is as it is. On days when there is a haftara, the reference in the mishna is to the order of the haftarot. On weekdays, when there is no haftara, the reference is to the order of the Torah readings. Therefore, no proof can be deduced from the mishna.

ื•ื‘ืชืขื ื™ื•ืช ืœืžื” ืœื™ ื”ืคืกืงื” ืœื™ืงืจื™ ืžืฆืคืจื ื‘ืขื ื™ื ื ื“ื™ื•ืžื ื•ื‘ืžื ื—ื” ื‘ืชืขื ื™ืชื ืžืกื™ื™ืข ืœื™ื” ืœืจื‘ ื”ื•ื ื ื“ืืžืจ ืจื‘ ื”ื•ื ื ืžืฆืคืจื ื›ื™ื ื•ืคื™ื

The Gemara asks: But on fast days, why do I need to have any interruption of the regular order of Torah readings? Let us read in the morning the regular weekly portion of the matter of the day, and in the afternoon service let us read the portion of a fast day. The Gemara comments: This supports the statement of Rav Huna, for Rav Huna said: From the morning of communal fasts, a gathering is held in the synagogue. The community leaders examine the conduct of the townspeople and admonish those whose behavior is found wanting. Therefore, there is no time in the morning to read the Torah portion for fast days.

ื”ื™ื›ื™ ืขื‘ื“ื™ื ืŸ ืืžืจ ืื‘ื™ื™ ืžืฆืคืจื ืœืคืœื’ื™ื” ื“ื™ื•ืžื ืžืขื™ื™ื ื™ื ืŸ ื‘ืžื™ืœื™ ื“ืžืชื ืžืคืœื’ื™ื” ื“ื™ื•ืžื ืœืคื ื™ื ืจื™ื‘ืขื ื“ื™ื•ืžื ืงืจื ื•ืžืคื˜ืจื™ ื•ืจื™ื‘ืขื ื“ื™ื•ืžื ื‘ืขื• ืจื—ืžื™ ืฉื ืืžืจ ื•ื™ืงืจืื• ื‘ืกืคืจ ืชื•ืจืช ื”ืณ ืืœื”ื™ื”ื ืจื‘ื™ืขื™ืช ื”ื™ื•ื ื•ืจื‘ื™ืขื™ืช (ื”ื™ื•ื) ืžืชื•ื•ื“ื™ื ื•ืžืฉืชื—ื•ื™ื

The Gemara asks: What does the community do on a public fast day? Abaye said: From the morning until the middle of the day, the community gathers in the synagogue, and the leaders examine the affairs of the town to determine whether and how the peopleโ€™s conduct needs to be improved. From the middle of the day until the evening, a quarter of the day is spent reading from the Torah and reading the haftara, and a quarter of the day is spent praying, as it is stated: โ€œAnd they read in the book of the Torah of the Lord their God one quarter of the day, and a quarter of the day they confessed, and they prostrated themselves before the Lord their Godโ€ (Nehemiah 9:3).

ื•ืื™ืคื•ืš ืื ื ืœื ืกืœืงื ื“ืขืชืš ื“ื›ืชื™ื‘ ื•ืืœื™ ื™ืืกืคื• ื›ืœ ื—ืจื“ ื‘ื“ื‘ืจื™ ืืœื”ื™ ื™ืฉืจืืœ ืขืœ ืžืขืœ ื”ื’ื•ืœื” ื•ืื ื™ ื™ื•ืฉื‘ ืžืฉื•ืžื ืขื“ ืœืžื ื—ืช ื”ืขืจื‘ ื•ื›ืชื™ื‘ ื•ื‘ืžื ื—ืช ื”ืขืจื‘ ืงืžืชื™ ืžืชืขื ื™ืชื™

The Gemara objects: But perhaps I should reverse the order, and the first half of the day should be spent reading from the Torah and praying, and the second half of the day should be spent examining the affairs of the townspeople. The Gemara answers: It should not enter your mind to say this, as it is written: โ€œThen everyone who trembled at the words of the God of Israel due to the transgression of the exiles gathered around me, and I sat appalled until the evening offeringโ€ (Ezra 9:4), and it is written in the next verse: โ€œAnd at the evening offering I arose from my fast, and having rent my garment and my mantle; I fell on my knees, and I spread out my hands to the Lord my Godโ€ (Ezra 9:5). This indicates that the first half of a public fast should be dedicated to an inspection of the communityโ€™s behavior, and the rest of the day should be devoted to prayer.

ืžืชื ื™ืณ ื‘ืคืกื— ืงื•ืจื™ืŸ ื‘ืคืจืฉืช ืžื•ืขื“ื•ืช ืฉืœ ืชื•ืจืช ื›ื”ื ื™ื ื‘ืขืฆืจืช ืฉื‘ืขื” ืฉื‘ื•ืขื•ืช ื‘ืจืืฉ ื”ืฉื ื” ื‘ื—ื“ืฉ ื”ืฉื‘ื™ืขื™ ื‘ืื—ื“ ืœื—ื“ืฉ ื‘ื™ื•ื ื”ื›ืคื•ืจื™ื ืื—ืจื™ ืžื•ืช ื‘ื™ื•ื ื˜ื•ื‘ ื”ืจืืฉื•ืŸ ืฉืœ ื—ื’ ืงื•ืจื™ืŸ ื‘ืคืจืฉืช ืžื•ืขื“ื•ืช ืฉื‘ืชื•ืจืช ื›ื”ื ื™ื ื•ื‘ืฉืืจ ื›ืœ ื™ืžื•ืช ื”ื—ื’ ื‘ืงืจื‘ื ื•ืช ื”ื—ื’

MISHNA: On the first day of Passover, the congregation reads from the portion of the Festivals of Leviticus (Leviticus 22:26โ€“23:44). On Shavuot they read the portion of โ€œSeven weeksโ€ (Deuteronomy 16:9โ€“12). On Rosh HaShana they read the portion of โ€œAnd on the seventh month on the first of the monthโ€ (Leviticus 23:23โ€“25). On Yom Kippur they read the portion of โ€œAfter the deathโ€ (Leviticus 16). On the first Festival day of Sukkot they read from the portion of the Festivals of Leviticus (Leviticus 22:26โ€“23:44), and on the other days of Sukkot they read selections from the portion of the offerings of Sukkot (Numbers 29:12โ€“39).

ื‘ื—ื ื•ื›ื” ื‘ื ืฉื™ืื™ื ื‘ืคื•ืจื™ื ื•ื™ื‘ื ืขืžืœืง ื‘ืจืืฉื™ ื—ื“ืฉื™ื ื•ื‘ืจืืฉื™ ื—ื“ืฉื™ื›ื ื‘ืžืขืžื“ื•ืช ื‘ืžืขืฉื” ื‘ืจืืฉื™ืช ื‘ืชืขื ื™ื•ืช

On each day of Hanukkah they read selections from the portion of the dedication of the altar by the tribal princes (Numbers 7). On Purim they read the portion of โ€œAnd Amalek cameโ€ (Exodus 17:8โ€“16). On the New Moon they read the portion of โ€œAnd in the beginnings of your monthsโ€ (Numbers 28:11โ€“15). And in the non-priestly watches they read the act of Creation (Genesis 1:1โ€“2:3). The Jewish people were divided into twenty-four watches. Each week, it would be the turn of a different watch to send representatives to Jerusalem to be present in the Temple to witness the sacrificial service. Those remaining behind would fast during the week, from Monday to Thursday, offer special prayers, and read the account of Creation from the Torah. On fast days,

This monthโ€™s shiurim are dedicated by Efrat Arnold in loving memory of Joshua Carr, Yehoshua Aryeh Leib ben Yonatan Chaim and Malka Esther HaCohen.

And by Tova and David Kestenbaum in honor of their children and grandchildren.

This month's shiurim are dedicatedย by Jordana and Kalman Schoor on behalf of their daughter Daria who is learning Masechet Megilla for her bat mitzvah. Mazal tov Daria!

  • This month's learning is dedicated by Debbie and Yossi Gevir to Rabbanit Michelle and the Hadran Zoom group for their kindness, support, and care during a medically challenging year.

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Megillah: 24-32 + Siyum – Daf Yomi One Week at a Time

We will continue to learn about the laws of Torah reading. We will also learn the laws for the Blessings...

Megillah 30

The William Davidson Talmud | Powered by Sefaria

Megillah 30

ืืžืจื™ ืื•ืงื•ืžื™ ื”ื•ื ื“ืงื ืžื•ืงืžื™ ื”ืชื

Since Shekalim is read from the portion in the Torah immediately following the regular weekly Torah reading, people will mistakenly say that they merely extended the regular reading and then halted there, and they will not realize that the last reading was actually for the sake of Shekalim.

ืืœื ืืžืจ ืื‘ื™ื™ ืงืจื• ืฉื™ืชื ืžื•ืืชื” ืชืฆื•ื” ืขื“ ื•ืขืฉื™ืช ื•ื—ื“ ืชื ื™ ื•ืงืจื™ ืžื›ื™ ืชืฉื ืขื“ ื•ืขืฉื™ืช

Rather, Abaye said: Six people read from โ€œAnd you shall commandโ€ until but not including โ€œAnd you shall make a copper laver,โ€ which concludes with the portion used for Shekalim. And then one person repeats and reads Shekalim from โ€œWhen you take the countโ€ until but not including โ€œAnd you shall make a copper laver.โ€ The repetition of this portion serves to highlight the fact it was read for the sake of Shekalim.

ืžื™ืชื™ื‘ื™ ื—ืœ ืœื”ื™ื•ืช ื‘ืคืจืฉื” ื”ืกืžื•ื›ื” ืœื” ื‘ื™ืŸ ืžืœืคื ื™ื” ื‘ื™ืŸ ืžืœืื—ืจื™ื” ืงื•ืจื™ืŸ ืื•ืชื” ื•ื›ื•ืคืœื™ืŸ ืื•ืชื”

The Gemara raises an objection from a baraita: If the Shabbat on which Shekalim is to be read occurs on the Shabbat on which the portion to be read for the regular weekly reading is adjacent to Shekalim, whether on the Shabbat preceding that Shabbat or following it, then they read and repeat Shekalim.

ื‘ืฉืœืžื ืœืื‘ื™ื™ ื ื™ื—ื ืืœื ืœืจื‘ื™ ื™ืฆื—ืง ื ืคื—ื ืงืฉื™ื

Granted, according to the opinion of Abaye, it works out well, for the conclusion of the baraita, that we repeat Shekalim, supports his opinion. But according to the opinion of Rabbi Yitzแธฅak Nappaแธฅa, it is difficult.

ืืžืจ ืœืš ืจื‘ื™ ื™ืฆื—ืง ื ืคื—ื ื•ืœืื‘ื™ื™ ืžื™ ื ื™ื—ื ืชื™ื ื— ืœืคื ื™ื” ืœืื—ืจื™ื” ื”ื™ื›ื™ ืžืฉื›ื—ืช ืœื”

The Gemara answers: Rabbi Yitzแธฅak Nappaแธฅa could have said to you: And according to Abaye, does it really work out well? The reference of the baraita to a case where the Shabbat on which Shekalim is read precedes the Shabbat on which that portion will be read as part of the weekly reading works out well, since it can indeed occur. However, with regard to the reference to that Shabbat following the Shabbat on which that portion is read as part of the weekly reading, under what circumstances can this case be found? It never occurs like that.

ืืœื ืžืื™ ืื™ืช ืœืš ืœืžื™ืžืจ ื›ื•ืคืœื” ื‘ืฉื‘ืชื•ืช ื”ื›ื ื ืžื™ ื›ื•ืคืœื” ื‘ืฉื‘ืชื•ืช

Rather, perforce, what have you to say? That when the baraita refers to repeating Shekalim when the Shabbat on which Shekalim is read follows the Shabbat on which it is read as the regular weekly reading, it means that one repeats it by reading it on two successive Shabbatot. Similarly, here too, when the baraita refers to repeating Shekalim when the Shabbat on which Shekalim is read precedes the Shabbat on which it is read as the regular weekly reading, it means that one repeats it by reading it on two successive Shabbatot.

ื—ืœ ืœื”ื™ื•ืช ื‘ื›ื™ ืชืฉื ืขืฆืžื” ืืžืจ ืจื‘ื™ ื™ืฆื—ืง ื ืคื—ื ืงืจื• ืฉื™ืชื ืžืŸ ื•ืขืฉื™ืช ืขื“ ื•ื™ืงื”ืœ ื•ื—ื“ ืงืจื™ ืžื›ื™ ืชืฉื ืขื“ ื•ืขืฉื™ืช

The Gemara considers a similar case: If the Shabbat on which Shekalim is to be read occurs on the Shabbat on which the regular portion itself begins with โ€œWhen you take the count,โ€ what should be done? Rabbi Yitzแธฅak Nappaแธฅa said: Six people read from โ€œAnd you shall make a copper laverโ€ until but not including the portion of โ€œAnd he assembledโ€ (Exodus 30:17โ€“34:35). This is the entire regular weekly portion of โ€œWhen you take the countโ€ without the opening passage, which is also the portion of Shekalim. And then one person goes back and reads the portion of Shekalim from โ€œWhen you take the countโ€ until but not including โ€œAnd you shall make a copper laver.โ€

ืžืชืงื™ืฃ ืœื” ืื‘ื™ื™ ื”ืฉืชื ืืžืจื™ ืœืžืคืจืข ื”ื•ื ื“ืงืจื™ ืืœื ืืžืจ ืื‘ื™ื™ ืงืจื• ืฉื™ืชื ืขื“ ื•ื™ืงื”ืœ ื•ื—ื“ ืชื ื™ ื•ืงืจื™ ืžื›ื™ ืชืฉื ืขื“ ื•ืขืฉื™ืช

Abaye strongly objects to this: Now people will mistakenly say that they are reading the regular weekly portion out of sequence, and they will not realize that the last reading was actually for the sake of the portion of Shekalim. Rather, Abaye said: Six people read the entire portion of โ€œWhen you shall countโ€ until but not including the portion of โ€œAnd he assembledโ€ (Exodus 30:11โ€“34:35), and then one person repeats and reads the portion of Shekalim from โ€œWhen you take the countโ€ until but not including โ€œAnd you shall make a copper laver.โ€

ืชื ื™ื ื›ื•ื•ืชื™ื” ื“ืื‘ื™ื™ ื—ืœ ืœื”ื™ื•ืช ื‘ื›ื™ ืชืฉื ืขืฆืžื” ืงื•ืจื™ืŸ ืื•ืชื” ื•ื›ื•ืคืœื™ืŸ ืื•ืชื”

The Gemara notes: It is taught in a baraita in accordance with the opinion of Abaye: If the Shabbat on which Shekalim is to be read occurs on the Shabbat on which the regular portion itself is โ€œWhen you take the count,โ€ the first part of that portion is read once as part of the weekly reading and then repeated as the portion of Shekalim.

ื—ืœ ืœื”ื™ื•ืช ื‘ืชื•ืš ื”ืฉื‘ืช ืžืงื“ื™ืžื™ืŸ ืœืฉื‘ืช ืฉืขื‘ืจื” ืื™ืชืžืจ ืจืืฉ ื—ื“ืฉ ืื“ืจ ืฉื—ืœ ืœื”ื™ื•ืช ื‘ืขืจื‘ ืฉื‘ืช ืจื‘ ืืžืจ ืžืงื“ื™ืžื™ืŸ ื•ืฉืžื•ืืœ ืืžืจ ืžืื—ืจื™ืŸ

ยง The mishna states: If the New Moon of Adar occurs during the middle of the week, the congregation advances the reading of Shekalim to the previous week. With regard to this, an amoraic dispute was stated: With regard to when the New Moon of Adar occurs on Friday, Rav said: The congregation advances the reading of the portion to the previous week. And Shmuel said: They defer the reading of the portion to the following day, and it is read on the coming Shabbat.

ืจื‘ ืืžืจ ืžืงื“ื™ืžื™ืŸ ื“ืื ื›ืŸ ื‘ืฆืจื™ ืœื”ื• ื™ื•ืžื™ ืฉื•ืœื—ื ื•ืช ื•ืฉืžื•ืืœ ืืžืจ ืžืื—ืจื™ืŸ ืืžืจ ืœืš ืกื•ืฃ ืกื•ืฃ ื—ืžื™ืกืจ ื‘ืžืขืœื™ ืฉื‘ืชื ืžื™ืงืœืข ื•ืฉื•ืœื—ื ื•ืช ืœื ื ืคืงื™ ืขื“ ื—ื“ ื‘ืฉื‘ื ื”ืœื›ืš ืžืื—ืจื™ืŸ

The Gemara explains the two opinions: Rav said: They advance the reading to the previous week, as, if one would read the portion only on the following day, there will be less than the required number of days, i.e., two weeks, that the announcement needs to precede the setting up of the money-changing tables on the fifteenth. And Shmuel said: They defer the reading of the portion to the following day. As for Ravโ€™s argument, Shmuel could have said to you: Ultimately, in such a year the fifteenth of Adar also occurs on a Friday, and therefore the money-changing tables will not be brought out until Sunday. Consequently, there will still be a full two weeks between the announcement and the setting of the tables. Therefore, they can defer the reading to the following day.

ืชื ืŸ ื—ืœ ืœื”ื™ื•ืช ื‘ืชื•ืš ื”ืฉื‘ืช ืžืงื“ื™ืžื™ืŸ ืœืฉืขื‘ืจ ื•ืžืคืกื™ืงื™ืŸ ืœืฉื‘ืช ืื—ืจืช ืžืื™ ืœืื• ืืคื™ืœื• ื‘ืขืจื‘ ืฉื‘ืช ืœื ื‘ืชื•ืš ื”ืฉื‘ืช ื“ื•ืงื

The Gemara offers various proofs for Ravโ€™s opinion: We learned in the mishna: If the New Moon occurs during the middle of the week, they advance the reading of that portion to the previous Shabbat, and in such a case they interrupt the reading of the four portions on the following Shabbat. The Gemara explains the proof: What; is it not that this is referring even to a case when the New Moon occurs on Friday? This would prove Ravโ€™s opinion. No; it is referring specifically to a case where it occurs during the middle of the week.

ืชื ืฉืžืข ืื™ื–ื• ื”ื™ื ืฉื‘ืช ืจืืฉื•ื ื” ื›ืœ ืฉื—ืœ ืจืืฉ ื—ื“ืฉ ืื“ืจ ืœื”ื™ื•ืช ื‘ืชื•ื›ื” ื•ืืคื™ืœื• ื‘ืขืจื‘ ืฉื‘ืช ืžืื™ ืœืื• ืืคื™ืœื• ื‘ืขืจื‘ ืฉื‘ืช ื“ื•ืžื™ื ื“ืชื•ื›ื” ืžื” ืชื•ื›ื” ืžืงื“ื™ืžื™ืŸ ืืฃ ืขืจื‘ ืฉื‘ืช ืžืงื“ื™ืžื™ืŸ

Come and hear another proof from a baraita: Which is the first Shabbat of the four Shabbatot on which the special portions are read? The Shabbat of whichever week during which the New Moon of Adar occurs, and this is the case even if it occurs on Friday. The Gemara explains the proof: What, is it not that the baraita teaches that the case when it occurs even on Friday is similar to the case where it occurs during the middle of the week, and just as when it occurs during the middle of the week, they advance the reading to the previous Shabbat, so too, when it occurs on Friday, they advance the reading to the previous Shabbat? This would therefore prove Ravโ€™s opinion.

ืืžืจ ืฉืžื•ืืœ ื‘ื” ื•ื›ืŸ ืชื ื ื“ื‘ื™ ืฉืžื•ืืœ ื‘ื”

Shmuel said: The baraita should be emended, and instead of saying: During which the New Moon occurs, it should say: On which the New Moon occurs, i.e., on Shabbat itself. And so the school of Shmuel taught: On which the New Moon occurs.

ื›ืชื ืื™ ืžืกืจื’ื™ืŸ ืœืฉื‘ืชื•ืช ื“ื‘ืจื™ ืจื‘ื™ ื™ื”ื•ื“ื” ื”ื ืฉื™ื ืจื‘ื™ ืฉืžืขื•ืŸ ื‘ืŸ ืืœืขื–ืจ ืื•ืžืจ ืื™ืŸ ืžืกืจื’ื™ืŸ ืืžืจ ืจื‘ื™ ืฉืžืขื•ืŸ ื‘ืŸ ืืœืขื–ืจ ืื™ืžืชื™ ืื ื™ ืื•ืžืจ ืื™ืŸ ืžืกืจื’ื™ืŸ ื‘ื–ืžืŸ ืฉื—ืœ ืœื”ื™ื•ืช ื‘ืขืจื‘ ืฉื‘ืช ืื‘ืœ ื‘ื–ืžืŸ ืฉื—ืœ ืœื”ื™ื•ืช ื‘ืชื•ืš ื”ืฉื‘ืช ืžืงื“ื™ื ื•ืงื•ืจื ืžืฉื‘ืช ืฉืขื‘ืจื” ืืฃ ืขืœ ืคื™ ืฉื”ื•ื ืฉื‘ื˜

The Gemara suggests: This dispute between the amoraโ€™im is like a dispute between tannaโ€™im, as it is taught in a baraita: With regard to the reading of the four special portions, they interrupt the flow of Shabbatot, i.e., there is a Shabbat in which no special portion is read; this is the statement of Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi. Rabbi Shimon ben Elazar said: They do not interrupt the flow of Shabbatot. Rabbi Shimon ben Elazar said: When do I say that they do not interrupt the flow of Shabbatot? When the New Moon of Adar occurs on Friday, since I hold that in that case Shekalim is read on the following day, and therefore the four portions are read on four consecutive weeks. However, when the New Moon of Adar occurs during the week, one advances and reads Shekalim on the previous Shabbat, although it is still the month of Shevat, and therefore on one of the Shabbatot in Adar there will be no reading. It would appear, then, that Shmuel holds in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Shimon ben Elazar, whereas Rav holds in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi.

ื‘ืฉื ื™ื™ื” ื–ื›ื•ืจ ื•ื›ื•ืณ ืื™ืชืžืจ ืคื•ืจื™ื ืฉื—ืœ ืœื”ื™ื•ืช ื‘ืขืจื‘ ืฉื‘ืช ืจื‘ ืืžืจ ืžืงื“ื™ืžื™ืŸ ืคืจืฉืช ื–ื›ื•ืจ ื•ืฉืžื•ืืœ ืืžืจ ืžืื—ืจื™ืŸ

ยง The mishna states: On the second Shabbat of Adar, the Shabbat prior to Purim, they read the portion of โ€œRemember [zakhor] what Amalek didโ€ (Deuteronomy 25:17โ€“19). The portion of Zakhor is associated with Purim because according to tradition, Haman was a descendant of Amalek, and so the victory over him and his supporters was a victory against Amalek. With regard to this, an amoraic dispute was stated: With regard to when Purim occurs on a Friday, Rav said: The congregation advances the reading of the portion of Zakhor to the previous Shabbat. And Shmuel said: They defer it to the Shabbat following Purim.

ืจื‘ ืืžืจ ืžืงื“ื™ืžื™ืŸ ื›ื™ ื”ื™ื›ื™ ื“ืœื ืชื™ืงื“ื•ื ืขืฉื™ื” ืœื–ื›ื™ืจื” ื•ืฉืžื•ืืœ ืืžืจ ืžืื—ืจื™ืŸ ืืžืจ ืœืš ื›ื™ื•ืŸ ื“ืื™ื›ื ืžื•ืงืคื™ืŸ ื“ืขื‘ื“ื™ ื‘ื—ืžื™ืกืจ ืขืฉื™ื” ื•ื–ื›ื™ืจื” ื‘ื”ื“ื™ ื”ื“ื“ื™ ืงื ืืชื™ื™ืŸ

The Gemara explains the two opinions: Rav said: They advance it to the previous Shabbat, in order that the observance of Purim should not precede the remembrance of the destruction of Amalek, which is achieved through reading the portion of Zakhor. And Shmuel said: They defer its reading. And as for Ravโ€™s argument, Shmuel could have said to you: Since there are the walled cities that observe Purim on the fifteenth, at least with regard to them, the observance and the remembrance come together on the same day, and that is sufficient.

ืชื ืŸ ื‘ืฉื ื™ื” ื–ื›ื•ืจ ื•ื”ื ื›ื™ ืžื™ืงืœืข ืจื™ืฉ ื™ืจื—ื ื‘ืฉื‘ืช ืžื™ืงืœืข ืคื•ืจื™ื ื‘ืขืจื‘ ืฉื‘ืช ื•ืงืชื ื™ ื‘ืฉื ื™ื” ื–ื›ื•ืจ ืืžืจ ืจื‘ ืคืคื ืžืื™ ืฉื ื™ื” ืฉื ื™ื” ืœื”ืคืกืงื”

The Gemara offers various proofs for Ravโ€™s opinion: We learned in the mishna: On the second Shabbat they read the portion of Zakhor. The Gemara suggests: Is it not the case that when the New Moon of Adar occurs on Shabbat, Purim occurs on Friday, and yet the mishna teaches: On the second Shabbat they read the portion of Zakhor? This supports Ravโ€™s opinion that in all cases the portion is read before Purim. Rav Pappa said: There is no proof, because one could argue as follows: What is the intention of the mishna when it is referring to the second Shabbat? It could mean the second Shabbat on which a special portion is read, which, if Purim occurs on Friday, occurs only after the interruption of the previous Shabbat, during which no portion was read.

ืชื ืฉืžืข ืื™ื–ื• ืฉื‘ืช ืฉื ื™ื” ื›ืœ ืฉื—ืœ ืคื•ืจื™ื ืœื”ื™ื•ืช ื‘ืชื•ื›ื” ื•ืืคื™ืœื• ื‘ืขืจื‘ ืฉื‘ืช ืžืื™ ืœืื• ืขืจื‘ ืฉื‘ืช ื“ื•ืžื™ื ื“ืชื•ื›ื” ืžื” ืชื•ื›ื” ืžืงื“ื™ืžื™ืŸ ืืฃ ืขืจื‘ ืฉื‘ืช ืžืงื“ื™ืžื™ืŸ

Come and hear another proof from a baraita: Which is the second Shabbat on which a special portion is read? The Shabbat of whichever week during which Purim occurs, and this is the case even if it occurs on Friday. The Gemara explains the proof: What, is it not that the baraita teaches that even if Purim occurs on Friday, the case is similar to the case when it occurs during the middle of the week, and therefore, just as when it occurs during the middle of the week we advance the reading to the previous Shabbat, so too, when it occurs on Friday, we should advance the reading to the previous Shabbat? This baraita would therefore prove Ravโ€™s opinion.

ืืžืจ ืฉืžื•ืืœ ื‘ื” ื•ื›ืŸ ืชื ื ื“ื‘ื™ ืฉืžื•ืืœ ื‘ื”

Shmuel said: The baraita should be emended, and instead of saying: During which Purim occurs, it should say: On which Purim occurs, i.e., on Shabbat itself. And so the school of Shmuel taught: On which Purim occurs.

ื—ืœ ืœื”ื™ื•ืช ื‘ืฉื‘ืช ืขืฆืžื” ืืžืจ ืจื‘ ื”ื•ื ื ืœื“ื‘ืจื™ ื”ื›ืœ ืื™ืŸ ืžืงื“ื™ืžื™ืŸ ื•ืจื‘ ื ื—ืžืŸ ืืžืจ ืขื“ื™ื™ืŸ ื”ื™ื ืžื—ืœื•ืงืช ืื™ืชืžืจ ื ืžื™ ืืžืจ ืจื‘ื™ ื—ื™ื™ื ื‘ืจ ืื‘ื ืืžืจ ืจื‘ื™ ืื‘ื ืืžืจ ืจื‘ ืคื•ืจื™ื ืฉื—ืœ ืœื”ื™ื•ืช ื‘ืฉื‘ืช ืžืงื“ื™ื ื•ืงื•ืจื ื‘ืฉื‘ืช ืฉืขื‘ืจื” ื–ื›ื•ืจ

With regard to when Purim occurs on Shabbat itself, Rav Huna said: Everyone agrees, i.e., both Rav and Shmuel, that they do not advance the reading of the portion of Zakhor to the previous Shabbat, but it is read on that Shabbat. And Rav Naแธฅman said: Even in this case there is still a dispute, for Rav maintains that in all cases the remembrance of the destruction of Amalek, which is achieved through reading the portion of Zakhor, must always precede the observance of Purim. It was also stated that Rabbi แธคiyya bar Abba said that Rabbi Abba said that Rav said: If Purim occurs on Shabbat, one advances and reads the portion of Zakhor on the previous Shabbat, as Rav Naแธฅman understood Ravโ€™s opinion.

ื‘ืฉืœื™ืฉื™ืช ืคืจื” ืื“ื•ืžื” ื•ื›ื•ืณ ืชื ื• ืจื‘ื ืŸ ืื™ื–ื• ื”ื™ื ืฉื‘ืช ืฉืœื™ืฉื™ืช ื›ืœ ืฉืกืžื•ื›ื” ืœืคื•ืจื™ื ืžืื—ืจื™ื” ืื™ืชืžืจ ืจื‘ื™ ื—ืžื ื‘ืจื‘ื™ ื—ื ื™ื ื ืืžืจ ืฉื‘ืช ื”ืกืžื•ื›ื” ืœืจืืฉ ื—ื“ืฉ ื ื™ืกืŸ

ยง The mishna states: On the third Shabbat, they read the portion of the Red Heifer [Para] (Numbers 19:1โ€“22). The Sages taught in a baraita: Which is the third Shabbat? Whichever Shabbat occurs immediately after Purim. It was also stated: Rabbi แธคama, son of Rabbi แธคanina, said: The Shabbat that is immediately after the New Moon of Nisan.

ื•ืœื ืคืœื™ื’ื™ ื”ื ื“ืื™ืงืœืข ืจืืฉ ื—ื“ืฉ ื ื™ืกืŸ ื‘ืฉื‘ืช ื”ื ื“ืื™ืงืœืข ื‘ืืžืฆืข ืฉื‘ืช

The Gemara comments: And these two statements do not disagree, as they refer to different cases: This statement of Rabbi แธคama, son of Rabbi แธคanina, is referring to a case where the New Moon of Nisan occurs on Shabbat itself. In that case, the portion of Haแธคodesh is read then, and therefore the reading of Para is deferred to the following Shabbat. And that statement of the baraita is referring to a case where the New Moon of Nisan occurs during the middle of the week. Therefore, Haแธคodesh is read on the Shabbat immediately preceding the New Moon, and Para is read on the Shabbat before that one, which is the Shabbat that is adjacent to Purim and after it.

ื‘ืจื‘ื™ืขื™ืช ื”ื—ื“ืฉ ื”ื–ื” ืœื›ื ืชื ื• ืจื‘ื ืŸ ืจืืฉ ื—ื“ืฉ ืื“ืจ ืฉื—ืœ ืœื”ื™ื•ืช ื‘ืฉื‘ืช ืงื•ืจื™ืŸ ื›ื™ ืชืฉื ื•ืžืคื˜ื™ืจื™ืŸ ื‘ื™ื”ื•ื™ื“ืข ื•ืื™ ื–ื• ื”ื™ื ืฉื‘ืช ืจืืฉื•ื ื” ื›ืœ ืฉื—ืœ ืจืืฉ ื—ื“ืฉ ืื“ืจ ืœื”ื™ื•ืช ื‘ืชื•ื›ื” ื•ืืคื™ืœื• ื‘ืขืจื‘ ืฉื‘ืช ื‘ืฉื ื™ื” ื–ื›ื•ืจ ื•ืžืคื˜ื™ืจื™ืŸ ืคืงื“ืชื™ ื•ืื™ ื–ื• ื”ื™ื ืฉื‘ืช ืฉื ื™ื” ื›ืœ ืฉื—ืœ ืคื•ืจื™ื ืœื”ื™ื•ืช ื‘ืชื•ื›ื” ื•ืืคื™ืœื• ื‘ืขืจื‘ ืฉื‘ืช

ยง The mishna states: On the fourth Shabbat, they read the portion of โ€œThis month [haแธฅodesh] shall be for youโ€ (Exodus 12:1โ€“20). The Sages taught in a baraita: When the New Moon of Adar occurs on Shabbat, they read โ€œWhen you take the countโ€ as the portion of Shekalim. And they read as the haftara the story involving Jehoiada the priest (IIย Kings 12:1โ€“27). And which is the first Shabbat? The Shabbat of whichever week during which the New Moon of Adar occurs, and this is the case even if it occurs on Friday. On the second Shabbat, they read the portion of Zakhor, and they read as the haftara of โ€œI remembered that which Amalek didโ€ (Iย Samuel 15:1โ€“34). And which is the second Shabbat? The Shabbat of whichever week during which Purim occurs, and this is the case even if it occurs on Friday.

ื‘ืฉืœื™ืฉื™ืช ืคืจื” ืื“ื•ืžื” ื•ืžืคื˜ื™ืจื™ืŸ ื•ื–ืจืงืชื™ ืขืœื™ื›ื ื•ืื™ ื–ื• ื”ื™ื ืฉื‘ืช ืฉืœื™ืฉื™ืช ื›ืœ ืฉืกืžื•ื›ื” ืœืคื•ืจื™ื ืžืื—ืจื™ื” ื‘ืจื‘ื™ืขื™ืช ื”ื—ื“ืฉ ื”ื–ื” ื•ืžืคื˜ื™ืจื™ืŸ ื›ื” ืืžืจ ื”ืณ [ืืœื”ื™ื] ื‘ืจืืฉื•ืŸ ื‘ืื—ื“ ืœื—ื“ืฉ

On the third Shabbat, they read the portion of the Red Heifer [Para], and they read as the haftara the portion of โ€œThen will I sprinkle clean water upon youโ€ (Ezekiel 36:25โ€“38). And which is the third Shabbat? That which is adjacent to Purim and after it. On the fourth Shabbat, they read the portion of โ€œThis month [haแธฅodesh] shall be for you,โ€ and they read as the haftara the portion of โ€œThus says the Lord God: In the first month, on the first day of the monthโ€ (Ezekiel 45:18โ€“46:18).

ื•ืื™ื–ื• ื”ื™ื ืฉื‘ืช ืจื‘ื™ืขื™ืช ื›ืœ ืฉื—ืœ ืจืืฉ ื—ื“ืฉ ื ื™ืกืŸ ืœื”ื™ื•ืช ื‘ืชื•ื›ื” ื•ืืคื™ืœื• ื‘ืขืจื‘ ืฉื‘ืช

And which is the fourth Shabbat? The Shabbat of whichever week during which the New Moon of Nisan occurs, and this is the case even if it occurs on Friday.

ื‘ื—ืžื™ืฉื™ืช ื—ื•ื–ืจื™ืŸ ืœื›ืกื“ืจืŸ ื•ื›ื•ืณ ืœืกื“ืจ ืžืื™ ืจื‘ื™ ืืžื™ ืืžืจ ืœืกื“ืจ ืคืจืฉื™ื•ืช ื”ื•ื ื—ื•ื–ืจ ืจื‘ื™ ื™ืจืžื™ื” ืืžืจ ืœืกื“ืจ ื”ืคื˜ืจื•ืช ื”ื•ื ื—ื•ื–ืจ

ยง The mishna states: On the fifth Shabbat, we resume the regular weekly order. The Gemara clarifies the mishnaโ€™s intent: To the order of what does one resume? Rabbi Ami said: One resumes the regular weekly order of Torah portions. Rabbi Ami holds that on the weeks on which the special portions are read, the regular weekly Torah portion is not read at all, and therefore the cycle is resumed only on the fifth Shabbat. Rabbi Yirmeya said: One resumes the regular weekly order of the haftarot. Rabbi Yirmeya holds that even on the Shabbatot on which the special portions are read, the regular weekly portion is still read; the special portion is read by the last reader as the maftir. However, the haftara of the regular cycle is entirely replaced with a portion from the Prophets that parallels the special portion. As such, it is the cycle of haftarot that is resumed on the fifth Shabbat.

ืืžืจ ืื‘ื™ื™ ื›ื•ื•ืชื™ื” ื“ืจื‘ื™ ืืžื™ ืžืกืชื‘ืจื ื“ืชื ืŸ ืœื›ืœ ืžืคืกื™ืงื™ืŸ ืœืจืืฉื™ ื—ื“ืฉื™ื ืœื—ื ื•ื›ื” ื•ืœืคื•ืจื™ื ืœืชืขื ื™ื•ืช ื•ืœืžืขืžื“ื•ืช ื•ืœื™ื•ื ื”ื›ืคื•ืจื™ื

Abaye said: It stands to reason that one should rule in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Ami, as we learned in the mishna: For all special days, we interrupt the regular order of readings, and a special portion relating to the character of the day is read. This applies to the New Moons, to Hanukkah, and to Purim, to fast days, and to non-priestly watches, and to Yom Kippur.

ื‘ืฉืœืžื ืœืžืืŸ ื“ืืžืจ ืœืกื“ืจ ืคืจืฉื™ื•ืช ื”ื•ื ื—ื•ื–ืจ ื”ื™ื™ื ื• ื“ืื™ื›ื ืคืจืฉื” ื‘ื—ื•ืœ ืืœื ืœืžืืŸ ื“ืืžืจ ืœืกื“ืจ ื”ืคื˜ืจื•ืช ื”ื•ื ื—ื•ื–ืจ ื”ืคื˜ืจื” ื‘ื—ื•ืœ ืžื™ ืื™ื›ื

Abaye explains his proof: Granted, according to the one who said that one resumes the regular weekly order of Torah portions, this statement in the mishna is referring to the fact that there is a reading of the weekly Torah portion on weekdays. If one of the special days listed in the mishna occurs on Monday or Thursday, the weekly Torah reading is replaced by the special portion for that day. However, according to one who said that one resumes the regular weekly order of haftarot, what could the mishna mean when it says that the regular cycle is interrupted? Is there a haftara on weekdays? The mishna therefore supports Rabbi Amiโ€™s opinion.

ื•ืื™ื“ืš ื”ื ื›ื“ืื™ืชื ื•ื”ื ื›ื“ืื™ืชื

And the other one, Rabbi Yirmeya, would counter: This case is as it is, and that case is as it is. On days when there is a haftara, the reference in the mishna is to the order of the haftarot. On weekdays, when there is no haftara, the reference is to the order of the Torah readings. Therefore, no proof can be deduced from the mishna.

ื•ื‘ืชืขื ื™ื•ืช ืœืžื” ืœื™ ื”ืคืกืงื” ืœื™ืงืจื™ ืžืฆืคืจื ื‘ืขื ื™ื ื ื“ื™ื•ืžื ื•ื‘ืžื ื—ื” ื‘ืชืขื ื™ืชื ืžืกื™ื™ืข ืœื™ื” ืœืจื‘ ื”ื•ื ื ื“ืืžืจ ืจื‘ ื”ื•ื ื ืžืฆืคืจื ื›ื™ื ื•ืคื™ื

The Gemara asks: But on fast days, why do I need to have any interruption of the regular order of Torah readings? Let us read in the morning the regular weekly portion of the matter of the day, and in the afternoon service let us read the portion of a fast day. The Gemara comments: This supports the statement of Rav Huna, for Rav Huna said: From the morning of communal fasts, a gathering is held in the synagogue. The community leaders examine the conduct of the townspeople and admonish those whose behavior is found wanting. Therefore, there is no time in the morning to read the Torah portion for fast days.

ื”ื™ื›ื™ ืขื‘ื“ื™ื ืŸ ืืžืจ ืื‘ื™ื™ ืžืฆืคืจื ืœืคืœื’ื™ื” ื“ื™ื•ืžื ืžืขื™ื™ื ื™ื ืŸ ื‘ืžื™ืœื™ ื“ืžืชื ืžืคืœื’ื™ื” ื“ื™ื•ืžื ืœืคื ื™ื ืจื™ื‘ืขื ื“ื™ื•ืžื ืงืจื ื•ืžืคื˜ืจื™ ื•ืจื™ื‘ืขื ื“ื™ื•ืžื ื‘ืขื• ืจื—ืžื™ ืฉื ืืžืจ ื•ื™ืงืจืื• ื‘ืกืคืจ ืชื•ืจืช ื”ืณ ืืœื”ื™ื”ื ืจื‘ื™ืขื™ืช ื”ื™ื•ื ื•ืจื‘ื™ืขื™ืช (ื”ื™ื•ื) ืžืชื•ื•ื“ื™ื ื•ืžืฉืชื—ื•ื™ื

The Gemara asks: What does the community do on a public fast day? Abaye said: From the morning until the middle of the day, the community gathers in the synagogue, and the leaders examine the affairs of the town to determine whether and how the peopleโ€™s conduct needs to be improved. From the middle of the day until the evening, a quarter of the day is spent reading from the Torah and reading the haftara, and a quarter of the day is spent praying, as it is stated: โ€œAnd they read in the book of the Torah of the Lord their God one quarter of the day, and a quarter of the day they confessed, and they prostrated themselves before the Lord their Godโ€ (Nehemiah 9:3).

ื•ืื™ืคื•ืš ืื ื ืœื ืกืœืงื ื“ืขืชืš ื“ื›ืชื™ื‘ ื•ืืœื™ ื™ืืกืคื• ื›ืœ ื—ืจื“ ื‘ื“ื‘ืจื™ ืืœื”ื™ ื™ืฉืจืืœ ืขืœ ืžืขืœ ื”ื’ื•ืœื” ื•ืื ื™ ื™ื•ืฉื‘ ืžืฉื•ืžื ืขื“ ืœืžื ื—ืช ื”ืขืจื‘ ื•ื›ืชื™ื‘ ื•ื‘ืžื ื—ืช ื”ืขืจื‘ ืงืžืชื™ ืžืชืขื ื™ืชื™

The Gemara objects: But perhaps I should reverse the order, and the first half of the day should be spent reading from the Torah and praying, and the second half of the day should be spent examining the affairs of the townspeople. The Gemara answers: It should not enter your mind to say this, as it is written: โ€œThen everyone who trembled at the words of the God of Israel due to the transgression of the exiles gathered around me, and I sat appalled until the evening offeringโ€ (Ezra 9:4), and it is written in the next verse: โ€œAnd at the evening offering I arose from my fast, and having rent my garment and my mantle; I fell on my knees, and I spread out my hands to the Lord my Godโ€ (Ezra 9:5). This indicates that the first half of a public fast should be dedicated to an inspection of the communityโ€™s behavior, and the rest of the day should be devoted to prayer.

ืžืชื ื™ืณ ื‘ืคืกื— ืงื•ืจื™ืŸ ื‘ืคืจืฉืช ืžื•ืขื“ื•ืช ืฉืœ ืชื•ืจืช ื›ื”ื ื™ื ื‘ืขืฆืจืช ืฉื‘ืขื” ืฉื‘ื•ืขื•ืช ื‘ืจืืฉ ื”ืฉื ื” ื‘ื—ื“ืฉ ื”ืฉื‘ื™ืขื™ ื‘ืื—ื“ ืœื—ื“ืฉ ื‘ื™ื•ื ื”ื›ืคื•ืจื™ื ืื—ืจื™ ืžื•ืช ื‘ื™ื•ื ื˜ื•ื‘ ื”ืจืืฉื•ืŸ ืฉืœ ื—ื’ ืงื•ืจื™ืŸ ื‘ืคืจืฉืช ืžื•ืขื“ื•ืช ืฉื‘ืชื•ืจืช ื›ื”ื ื™ื ื•ื‘ืฉืืจ ื›ืœ ื™ืžื•ืช ื”ื—ื’ ื‘ืงืจื‘ื ื•ืช ื”ื—ื’

MISHNA: On the first day of Passover, the congregation reads from the portion of the Festivals of Leviticus (Leviticus 22:26โ€“23:44). On Shavuot they read the portion of โ€œSeven weeksโ€ (Deuteronomy 16:9โ€“12). On Rosh HaShana they read the portion of โ€œAnd on the seventh month on the first of the monthโ€ (Leviticus 23:23โ€“25). On Yom Kippur they read the portion of โ€œAfter the deathโ€ (Leviticus 16). On the first Festival day of Sukkot they read from the portion of the Festivals of Leviticus (Leviticus 22:26โ€“23:44), and on the other days of Sukkot they read selections from the portion of the offerings of Sukkot (Numbers 29:12โ€“39).

ื‘ื—ื ื•ื›ื” ื‘ื ืฉื™ืื™ื ื‘ืคื•ืจื™ื ื•ื™ื‘ื ืขืžืœืง ื‘ืจืืฉื™ ื—ื“ืฉื™ื ื•ื‘ืจืืฉื™ ื—ื“ืฉื™ื›ื ื‘ืžืขืžื“ื•ืช ื‘ืžืขืฉื” ื‘ืจืืฉื™ืช ื‘ืชืขื ื™ื•ืช

On each day of Hanukkah they read selections from the portion of the dedication of the altar by the tribal princes (Numbers 7). On Purim they read the portion of โ€œAnd Amalek cameโ€ (Exodus 17:8โ€“16). On the New Moon they read the portion of โ€œAnd in the beginnings of your monthsโ€ (Numbers 28:11โ€“15). And in the non-priestly watches they read the act of Creation (Genesis 1:1โ€“2:3). The Jewish people were divided into twenty-four watches. Each week, it would be the turn of a different watch to send representatives to Jerusalem to be present in the Temple to witness the sacrificial service. Those remaining behind would fast during the week, from Monday to Thursday, offer special prayers, and read the account of Creation from the Torah. On fast days,

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