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Today's Daf Yomi

January 27, 2022 | 讻状讛 讘砖讘讟 转砖驻状讘

This month鈥檚 shiurim are dedicated by Efrat Arnold in loving memory of Joshua Carr, Yehoshua Aryeh Leib ben Yonatan Chaim and Malka Esther HaCohen.

This month's shiurim are dedicated by Tova and David Kestenbaum in honor of their children and grandchildren.

  • This month's learning is dedicated by Debbie and Yossi Gevir to Rabbanit Michelle and the Hadran Zoom group for their kindness, support, and care during a medically challenging year.

Moed Katan 15

Today鈥檚 daf is sponsored by Terri Krivosha and Rabbi Hayim Herring in honor of the birth of their granddaughter Orly Nessa, named after Terri’s father Nahum Meir. 鈥淢ay she bring light to the world as her Saba Raba did.鈥

Today鈥檚 daf is sponsored by Catriella Freedman in loving memory of her father, Zvi Stein, on his 3rd Yahrzeit on Shabbat. 鈥淵ou taught us (in Yiddish) that you can’t dance at every wedding, so learning 讗讬谉 诪注讘专讬谉 砖诪讞讛 诇砖诪讞讛 took on special meaning: be present and approach each moment with gratitude and joy.鈥

Today’s daf is sponsored by the Tannenbaum family in loving memory of 讘专讬讬谞讗 讘专讻讛 讘转 讗专讬讛 讬注拽讘 讜专讬谞讛 Bryna Greenberg, a dear friend to so many, a model of a 讗讛讘转 讛转讜专讛, a young woman who was plucked away from us a few days ago at too young of an age. The juxtaposition of simcha & aveilut in Moed Katan feels particularly poignant at this time. May our learning be a zechut & aliyah for her neshama. Yehi Zichra Baruch.聽

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The Gemara does through 13 different issues and tries to determine whether they are forbidden/relevant for a mourner, one who excommunicated and a leper. Issues such as laundry, work, readning one’s garment, learning Torah, sexual relations, shoes, etc. Answers are brought from the Tanach or tannitic sources.

诪谞讜讚讬谉 讜诪爪讜专注讬谉 诪讛 讛谉 讘转住驻讜专转 转讗 砖诪注 诪谞讜讚讬谉 讜诪爪讜专注讬谉 讗住讜专讬谉 诇住驻专 讜诇讻讘住

The Gemara asks: What is the halakha governing those who are ostracized and lepers, with regard to a haircut? The Gemara answers: Come and hear that which was taught in a baraita: Those who are ostracized and lepers are prohibited from cutting their hair and laundering their clothes.

诪谞讜讚讛 砖诪转 讘讬转 讚讬谉 住讜拽诇讬谉 讗转 讗专讜谞讜 专讘讬 讬讛讜讚讛 讗讜诪专 诇讗 砖讬注诪讬讚讜 注诇讬讜 讙诇 讗讘谞讬诐 讻讙诇讜 砖诇 注讻谉 讗诇讗 讘讬转 讚讬谉 砖讜诇讞讬谉 讜诪谞讬讞讬谉 讗讘谉 讙讚讜诇讛 注诇 讗专讜谞讜 诇诇诪讚讱 砖讻诇 讛诪转谞讚讛 讜诪转 讘谞讬讚讜讬讜 讘讬转 讚讬谉 住讜拽诇讬谉 讗转 讗专讜谞讜

It was further taught there: If one who is ostracized dies, the court places stones on his coffin. Rabbi Yehuda says: This does not mean that they pile up a heap of stones over him like the heap of stones that was placed over the grave of Achan (see Joshua 7:26). Rather, the court sends its agents, who place a large stone on his coffin as a symbolic gesture. This comes to teach you that anyone who is ostracized and dies while in his period of ostracism, without seeking to be released from it, the court places stones on his coffin.

讗讘诇 讞讬讬讘 讘注讟讬驻转 讛专讗砖 诪讚拽讗诪专 诇讬讛 专讞诪谞讗 诇讬讞讝拽讗诇 讜诇讗 转注讟讛 注诇 砖驻诐 诪讻诇诇 讚讻讜诇讬 注诇诪讗 诪讬讞讬讬讘讬

搂 The Gemara continues: A mourner is obligated to wrap his head as a sign of mourning, covering his head and face. This is derived from the fact that the Merciful One says to Ezekiel, while he is in mourning: 鈥淎nd cover not your upper lip鈥 (Ezekiel 24:17). God commands Ezekiel not to display outward signs of mourning, which proves by inference that everyone else is obligated to wrap their heads in this manner.

诪谞讜讚讛 诪讛讜 讘注讟讬驻转 讛专讗砖 讗诪专 专讘 讬讜住祝 转讗 砖诪注 讜讛谉 诪转注讟驻讬谉 讜讬讜砖讘讬谉 讻诪谞讜讚讬谉 讜讻讗讘诇讬诐 注讚 砖讬专讞诪讜 注诇讬讛诐 诪谉 讛砖诪讬诐 讗诪专 诇讬讛 讗讘讬讬 讚诇诪讗 诪谞讜讚讛 诇砖诪讬诐 砖讗谞讬 讚讞诪讬专

The Gemara asks: What is the halakha governing a person who is ostracized, with regard to wrapping of the head? Rav Yosef said: Come and hear that which was taught in a baraita about those who were fasting for rain and whose prayers were not answered: And they wrap themselves and sit as those who are ostracized and as mourners, until they are shown mercy from Heaven. This implies that those who are ostracized must wrap their heads like mourners. Abaye said to him: Perhaps one who is ostracized by Heaven is different, as that is more serious than being ostracized by an earthly court.

诪爪讜专注 诪讛讜 讘注讟讬驻转 讛专讗砖 转讗 砖诪注 讜注诇 砖驻诐 讬注讟讛 诪讻诇诇 砖讞讬讬讘 讘注讟讬驻转 讛专讗砖 砖诪注 诪讬谞讛

The Gemara continues and asks: What is the halakha in the case of a leper with regard to wrapping of the head? Come and hear a proof based upon the verse: 鈥淎nd he shall cover his upper lip鈥 (Leviticus 13:45), from which it may be learned by inference that he is obligated to wrap his head. The Gemara concludes: Indeed, learn from here that this is the case.

讗讘诇 讗住讜专 诇讛谞讬讞 转驻讬诇讬谉 诪讚拽讗诪专 诇讬讛 专讞诪谞讗 诇讬讞讝拽讗诇 驻讗专讱 讞讘讜砖 注诇讬讱 诪讻诇诇 讚讻讜诇讬 注诇诪讗 讗住讜专

搂 The Gemara moves on to another halakha: A mourner is prohibited from donning phylacteries. This is derived from the fact that the Merciful One says to Ezekiel, while he is in mourning: 鈥淏ind your headwear [pe鈥檈r] upon yourself鈥 (Ezekiel 24:17). The word pe鈥檈r alludes to phylacteries. Ezekiel was unique in that he was commanded to put on phylacteries while in mourning, which proves by inference that everyone else is prohibited from doing so.

诪谞讜讚讛 诪讛讜 讘转驻讬诇讬谉 转讬拽讜 诪爪讜专注 诪讛讜 讘转驻讬诇讬谉 转讗 砖诪注 讜讛爪专讜注 诇专讘讜转 讻讛谉 讙讚讜诇 讘讙讚讬讜 讬讛讬讜 驻专讜诪讬诐 砖讬讛讜 诪拽讜专注讬诐 讜专讗砖讜 讬讛讬讛 驻专讜注 讗讬谉 驻专讬注讛 讗诇讗 讙讬讚讜诇 砖注专 讚讘专讬 专讘讬 讗诇讬注讝专

The Gemara asks: What is the halakha governing one who is ostracized, with regard to phylacteries? The dilemma shall stand unresolved. The Gemara proceeds to its next question: What is the halakha in the case of a leper with regard to phylacteries? The Gemara suggests: Come and hear a proof from the following baraita: The verse states: 鈥淎nd the leper鈥 (Leviticus 13:45); as explained earlier, this comes to include the High Priest in all the halakhot of the leper. The verse states there: 鈥淗is garments shall be perumim,鈥 meaning that they shall be rent. The verse continues: 鈥淎nd his head shall be parua,鈥 and this peria means only growing the hair long; this is the statement of Rabbi Eliezer.

专讘讬 注拽讬讘讗 讗讜诪专 谞讗诪专讛 讛讜讬讬讛 讘专讗砖 讜谞讗诪专讛 讛讜讬讬讛 讘讘讙讚 诪讛 讛讜讬讬讛 讛讗诪讜专讛 讘讘讙讚 讚讘专 砖讞讜抓 诪讙讜驻讜 讗祝 讛讜讬讬讛 讘专讗砖 讚讘专 砖讞讜抓 诪讙讜驻讜 诪讗讬 诇讗讜 讗转驻讬诇讬谉

Rabbi Akiva says: The meaning of these terms is derived through a verbal analogy. The verse states a form of the verb being, with regard to one鈥檚 head in the verse: 鈥淗is head shall be,鈥 teaching that a leper must perform a certain action with his head. And the verse states a form of the verb being with regard to a leper鈥檚 garment, in the verse: 鈥淗is garment shall be.鈥 Just as the term being stated with regard to his garment is referring to an object external to his body, so too, the term being used with regard to his head is referring to an object external to his body. The Gemara derives from this: What, is it not referring to phylacteries, and the verse teaches that it is prohibited for a leper to wear phylacteries?

讗诪专 专讘 驻驻讗 诇讗 讗讻讜诪转讗 讜住讜讚专讗

Rav Pappa said: No, there is no proof from here, as the verse may be referring to a cap [kumta] or a scarf [sudara], which people wear on their heads. It is possible to explain that according to Rabbi Akiva, it is prohibited for a leper to wear such headwear because it is excessive adornment.

讗讘诇 讗住讜专 讘砖讗讬诇转 砖诇讜诐 讚拽讗诪专 诇讬讛 专讞诪谞讗 诇讬讞讝拽讗诇 讛讗谞拽 讚讜诐

搂 The Gemara continues: A mourner is prohibited from greeting others or be greeted. This is derived from the fact that the Merciful One says to Ezekiel: 鈥淪igh in silence鈥 (Ezekiel 24:17), implying that aside from what was absolutely essential, he was prohibited from speaking.

诪谞讜讚讛 诪讛讜 讘砖讗讬诇转 砖诇讜诐 讗诪专 专讘 讬讜住祝 转讗 砖诪注 讜讘砖讗讬诇转 砖诇讜诐 砖讘讬谉 讗讚诐 诇讞讘专讜 讻讘谞讬 讗讚诐 讛谞讝讜驻讬谉 诇诪拽讜诐 讗诪专 诇讬讛 讗讘讬讬 讚诇诪讗 诪谞讜讚讛 诇砖诪讬诐 砖讗谞讬 讚讞诪讬专

The Gemara asks: What is the halakha governing one who is ostracized with regard to greeting others? Rav Yosef said: Come and hear a proof from a baraita dealing with those who were fasting for rain and whose prayers were not answered. These people were prohibited from greeting one another, as people who are reprimanded by the Omnipresent. This indicates that those who are ostracized must not greet each other, just as mourners may not greet each other. Abaye said to him: Perhaps one who is ostracized by Heaven is different, as that is more serious than being ostracized by an earthly court.

诪爪讜专注 诪讛讜 讘砖讗讬诇转 砖诇讜诐 转讗 砖诪注 讜注诇 砖驻诐 讬注讟讛 砖讬讛讜 砖驻转讜转讬讜 诪讚讜讘拽讜转 讝讜 讘讝讜 砖讬讛讗 讻诪谞讜讚讛 讜讻讗讘诇 讜讗住讜专 讘砖讗讬诇转 砖诇讜诐 砖诪注 诪讬谞讛

The Gemara continues and asks: What is the halakha concerning a leper with regard to greeting others? The Gemara suggests: Come and hear a proof from the following baraita: The verse states: 鈥淎nd he shall cover his upper lip鈥 (Leviticus 13:45). This means that his lips should be stuck together, that he should be like one who is ostracized and like a mourner, and he is prohibited from greeting others or being greeted. The Gemara concludes: Indeed, learn from this that this is so.

讜谞讬驻砖讜讟 诪讬谞讛 诇诪谞讜讚讛 讗诪专 专讘 讗讞讗 讘专 驻谞讞住 诪砖诪讬讛 讚专讘 讬讜住祝 诪讬 拽转谞讬 砖讗住讜专 砖讬讛讗 讻诪谞讜讚讛 讜讻讗讘诇 [拽转谞讬] 讘诪讬诇讬 讗讞专谞讬讬转讗 讜讗住讜专 谞诪讬 讘砖讗讬诇转 砖诇讜诐

The Gemara asks: If this is the case, then we should also resolve the question asked above with regard to one who is ostracized and say that such a person is prohibited from offering greetings. Rav A岣 bar Pine岣s said in the name of Rav Yosef: Does it explicitly teach that a leper is prohibited from greeting others, like one who is ostracized? It teaches only that he should be treated like one who is ostracized and like a mourner, i.e., he should be like them with regard to other things, and that he is also prohibited from greeting others. This being the case, no proof can be derived from here with regard to whether or not one who is ostracized may offer greetings.

讗讘诇 讗住讜专 讘讚讘专讬 转讜专讛 诪讚拽讗诪专 专讞诪谞讗 诇讬讞讝拽讗诇 讚诐

搂 The Gemara moves on to a new topic: A mourner is prohibited from studying words of Torah. This prohibition is derived from the fact that the Merciful One says to Ezekiel: 鈥淪igh in silence鈥 (Ezekiel 24:17). Ezekiel was commanded to be silent and not discuss even Torah matters.

诪谞讜讚讛 诪讛讜 讘讚讘专讬 转讜专讛 讗诪专 专讘 讬讜住祝 转讗 砖诪注 诪谞讜讚讛 砖讜谞讛 讜砖讜谞讬谉 诇讜 谞砖讻专 讜谞砖讻专讬谉 诇讜

The Gemara asks: What is the halakha concerning one who is ostracized with regard to speaking words of Torah? Rav Yosef said: Come and hear that which was taught in the following baraita: One who is ostracized may teach Torah to others, and others may teach him Torah. Similarly, he may be hired for work by others, and others may be hired by him.

诪讜讞专诐 诇讗 砖讜谞讛 讜诇讗 砖讜谞讬谉 诇讜 诇讗 谞砖讻专 讜诇讗 谞砖讻专讬谉 诇讜 讗讘诇 砖讜谞讛 讛讜讗 诇注爪诪讜 砖诇讗 讬驻住讬拽 讗转 诇诪讜讚讜 讜注讜砖讛 诇讜 讞谞讜转 拽讟谞讛 讘砖讘讬诇 驻专谞住转讜

One who has been excommunicated, which is a more severe form of ostracism, may not teach Torah to others and others may not teach him. He may not be hired by others, and others may not be hired by him. However, he may study by himself, so that he will not interrupt his study entirely and forget everything he knows. And he may build a small store for his livelihood, so that he can earn enough money to cover his most basic needs, but not more.

讜讗诪专 专讘 讝讘讜谞讬 诪讬讗 讘驻拽转讗 讚注专讘讜转 砖诪注 诪讬谞讛

And Rav said: What is the small store referred to here? This is referring to selling water in the valley of Aravot, where no water was to be found. One selling water there could earn a small income. The Gemara concludes: Indeed, learn from this baraita that one who is ostracized is permitted to study Torah.

诪爪讜专注 诪讛讜 讘讚讘专讬 转讜专讛 转讗 砖诪注 讜讛讜讚注转诐 诇讘谞讬讱 讜诇讘谞讬 讘谞讬讱 讬讜诐 讗砖专 注诪讚转 诇驻谞讬 讛壮 讗诇讛讬讱 讘讞讜专讘 诪讛 诇讛诇谉 讘讗讬诪讛 讜讘讬专讗讛 讜讘专转转 讜讘讝讬注讛

The Gemara asks: What is the halakha with regard to a leper speaking words of Torah? The Gemara answers: Come and hear that which is taught in a baraita: It is written: 鈥淎nd you shall impart them to your children and your children鈥檚 children; the day that you stood before the Lord your God in Horeb鈥 (Deuteronomy 4:9鈥10). Just as there, the revelation at Sinai was in reverence, fear, and trembling, so too, here, in every generation, Torah must be studied in a similar fashion.

诪讻讗谉 讗诪专讜 讛讝讘讬谉 讜讛诪爪讜专注讬谉 讜讘讜注诇讬 谞讚讜转 诪讜转专讬谉 诇拽专讜转 讘转讜专讛 讜讘谞讘讬讗讬诐 讜讘讻转讜讘讬诐 讜诇砖谞讜转 讘诪讚专砖 讜讘转诇诪讜讚 讘讛诇讻讜转 讜讘讗讙讚讜转 讜讘注诇讬 拽专讬讬谉 讗住讜专讬谉 砖诪注 诪讬谞讛

From here the Sages stated: Zavim, lepers, and those who had intercourse with menstruating women despite their severe ritual impurity are permitted to read the Torah, Prophets, and Writings, and to study midrash, Talmud, halakhot, and aggada. But those who experienced a seminal emission are prohibited from doing so. The reason for this distinction is that the cases of severe impurity are caused by ailment or other circumstances beyond one鈥檚 control; as a result, they do not necessarily preclude a sense of reverence and awe as one studies Torah. However, a seminal emission usually occurs due to frivolity and a lack of reverence and awe, and it is therefore inappropriate for one who experiences a seminal emission to engage in matters of Torah. The Gemara concludes: Indeed, learn from this that a leper is permitted to study words of Torah.

讗讘诇 讗住讜专 讘转讻讘讜住转 讚讻转讬讘 讜讬砖诇讞 讬讜讗讘 转拽讜注讛 讜讬拽讞 诪砖诐 讗砖讛 讞讻诪讛 讜讬讗诪专 讗诇讬讛 讛转讗讘诇讬 谞讗 讜诇讘砖讬 谞讗 讘讙讚讬 讗讘诇 讜讗诇 转住讜讻讬 砖诪谉 讜讛讬讬转 讻讗砖讛 讝讛 讬诪讬诐 专讘讬诐 诪转讗讘诇转 注诇 诪转

搂 The Gemara proceeds to discuss another issue: A mourner is prohibited from laundering his clothes, as it is written: 鈥淎nd Joab sent to Tekoa, and fetched from there a wise woman, and said to her, I pray you, feign yourself to be a mourner, and put on now mourning apparel, and do not anoint yourself with oil, but be as a woman that had a long time mourned for the dead鈥 (II聽Samuel 14:2).

诪谞讜讚讬谉 讜诪爪讜专注讬谉 诪讛 讛谉 讘转讻讘讜住转 转讗 砖诪注 诪谞讜讚讬谉 讜诪爪讜专注讬谉 讗住讜专讬谉 诇住驻专 讜诇讻讘住 砖诪注 诪讬谞讛

The Gemara asks: What is the halakha concerning laundering with regard to those who are ostracized or lepers? Come and hear that which is taught in a baraita: Those who are ostracized or lepers are prohibited from cutting their hair or laundering their clothes. The Gemara concludes: Indeed, learn from here that they are prohibited from laundering their clothes.

讗讘诇 讞讬讬讘 讘拽专讬注讛 讚拽讗诪专 诇讛讜 专讞诪谞讗 诇讘谞讬 讗讛专谉 诇讗 转驻专讜诪讜 诪讻诇诇 讚讻讜诇讬 注诇诪讗 诪讬讞讬讬讘讬

The Gemara continues: A mourner is obligated to rend his clothes. This is derived from the fact that the Merciful One says to the sons of Aaron: 鈥淣either rend your clothes鈥 (Leviticus 10:6), which proves by inference that everyone else, all other mourners, are obligated to rend their clothes.

诪谞讜讚讛 诪讛讜 讘拽专讬注讛 转讬拽讜

The Gemara asks: What is the halakha of rending clothes with regard to one who is ostracized? No answer is found, and the question shall stand unresolved.

诪爪讜专注 诪讛讜 讘拽专讬注讛 转讗 砖诪注 讘讙讚讬讜 讬讛讬讜 驻专讜诪讬诐 砖讬讛讜 诪拽讜专注讬谉 砖诪注 诪讬谞讛

The Gemara continues: What is the halakha concerning a leper with regard to rending? Come and hear that which is taught in the following baraita: The verse states: 鈥淗is garments shall be rent鈥 (Leviticus 13:45), meaning that they shall be torn. The Gemara concludes: Indeed, learn from here that this is the case.

讗讘诇 讞讬讬讘 讘讻驻讬讬转 讛诪讟讛 讚转谞讬 讘专 拽驻专讗

搂 The Gemara moves to a different issue: A mourner is obligated to overturn his bed, so that he sleeps on the underside of it, as bar Kappara taught a baraita that states:

讚诪讜转 讚讬讜拽谞讬 谞转转讬 讘讛谉 讜讘注讜谞讜转讬讛诐 讛驻讻转讬讛 讻驻讜 诪讟讜转讬讛谉 注诇讬讛 诪谞讜讚讛 讜诪爪讜专注 诪讛 讛谉 讘讻驻讬讬转 讛诪讟讛 转讬拽讜

God stated: I have placed the likeness of My image [deyokan] within humans, as they were created in My image, and owing to their sins I have overturned it, as when this person died the Divine image in him was removed. Therefore, you must also overturn your beds on account of this. The Gemara asks: What is the halakha governing one who was ostracized or a leper, with regard to overturning the bed? The Gemara has no answer, and the question shall stand unresolved.

讗讘诇 讗住讜专 讘注砖讬讬转 诪诇讗讻讛 讚讻转讬讘 讜讛驻讻转讬 讞讙讬讻诐 诇讗讘诇 诪讛 讞讙 讗住讜专 讘诪诇讗讻讛 讗祝 讗讘诇 讗住讜专 讘诪诇讗讻讛

搂 The Gemara proceeds to the next topic: A mourner is prohibited from performing work, as it is written: 鈥淎nd I will turn your Festivals into mourning鈥 (Amos 8:10). The Gemara infers: Just as a Festival is a time when it is prohibited to work, so too, a mourner is prohibited from performing work.

诪谞讜讚讛 诪讛讜 讘注砖讬讬转 诪诇讗讻讛 讗诪专 专讘 讬讜住祝 转讗 砖诪注 讻砖讗诪专讜 讗住讜专 讘注砖讬讬转 诪诇讗讻讛 诇讗 讗诪专讜 讗诇讗 讘讬讜诐 讗讘诇 讘诇讬诇讛 诪讜转专 讜讻谉 讗转讛 诪讜爪讗 讘诪谞讜讚讛 讜讘讗讘诇 诪讗讬 诇讗讜 讗讻讜诇讛讜 诇讗 讗砖讗专讗

The Gemara asks: What is the halakha concerning one who was ostracized with regard to the performance of work? Rav Yosef said: Come and hear that which is taught in the following baraita: When the Sages said that the performance of work is prohibited on a communal fast due to lack of rain, they meant only that work is prohibited during the day of the fast, but during the night of the fast it is permitted. And you find a similar halakha with regard to a person who was ostracized and with regard to a mourner. What, is it not with regard to all of the prohibitions stated that the baraita says that they apply to one who was ostracized as well, including the prohibition to engage in work? The Gemara rejects this argument: No, this is referring to the rest of the prohibitions, but not to work.

转讗 砖诪注 诪谞讜讚讛 砖讜谞讛 讜砖讜谞讬谉 诇讜 谞砖讻专 讜谞砖讻专讬谉 诇讜 砖诪注 诪讬谞讛 诪爪讜专注 诪讛讜 讘注砖讬讬转 诪诇讗讻讛 转讬拽讜

The Gemara offers a different proof: Come and hear that which was taught in the following baraita: One who is ostracized may teach Torah to others, and others may teach him Torah. Similarly, he may be hired for work by others, and others may be hired by him. The Gemara concludes: Learn from here that it is permitted for one who is ostracized to engage in work. The Gemara asks: What is the halakha concerning a leper, with regard to the performance of work? An answer is not found, and the question shall stand unresolved.

讗讘诇 讗住讜专 讘专讞讬爪讛 讚讻转讬讘 讜讗诇 转住讜讻讬 砖诪谉 讜专讞讬爪讛 讘讻诇诇 住讬讻讛

搂 The Gemara discusses a different prohibition: A mourner is prohibited from bathing, as it is written: 鈥淎nd do not anoint yourself with oil, but be as a woman that had for a long time mourned for the dead鈥 (II聽Samuel 14:2). And bathing is included in the category of anointing, as both activities have a similar goal, i.e., cleanliness.

诪谞讜讚讛 诪讛讜 讘专讞讬爪讛 讗诪专 专讘 讬讜住祝 转讗 砖诪注 讻砖讗诪专讜 讗住讜专 讘专讞讬爪讛 诇讗 讗诪专讜 讗诇讗 讻诇 讙讜驻讜 讗讘诇 驻谞讬讜 讬讚讬讜 讜专讙诇讬讜 诪讜转专 讜讻谉 讗转讛 诪讜爪讗 讘诪谞讜讚讛 讜讘讗讘诇 诪讗讬 诇讗讜 讗讻讜诇讛讜 诇讗 讗砖讗专讗 诪爪讜专注 诪讛讜 讘专讞讬爪讛 转讬拽讜

The Gemara asks: What is the halakha concerning one who is ostracized with regard to bathing? Rav Yosef said: Come and hear that which was taught in the following baraita: When the Sages said that bathing is prohibited on a communal fast, they meant only that a person may not wash his entire body, but washing his face, his hands, and his feet is permitted. And you find a similar halakha with regard to a person who was ostracized and with regard to a mourner. What, is it not with regard to all the prohibitions stated in the baraita, including the prohibition against bathing, that they apply also to one who is ostracized? The Gemara rejects this argument: No, this is referring to the rest of the prohibitions, but not to bathing. The Gemara asks: What is the halakha concerning a leper with regard to bathing? An answer is not found, and the question shall stand unresolved.

讗讘诇 讗住讜专 讘谞注讬诇转 讛住谞讚诇 诪讚拽讗诪专 诇讬讛 专讞诪谞讗 诇讬讞讝拽讗诇 讜谞注诇讬讱 转砖讬诐 讘专讙诇讬讱 诪讻诇诇 讚讻讜诇讬 注诇诪讗 讗住讜专

搂 The Gemara moves to the next topic: A mourner is prohibited from wearing shoes. Since the Merciful One says to Ezekiel with regard to how his mourning rites should differ from the accepted custom: 鈥淎nd put your shoes upon your feet鈥 (Ezekiel 24:17), which shows by inference that everyone else, i.e., all other mourners, is prohibited from wearing shoes.

诪谞讜讚讛 诪讛讜 讘谞注讬诇转 讛住谞讚诇 讗诪专 专讘 讬讜住祝 转讗 砖诪注 讻砖讗诪专讜 讗住讜专 讘谞注讬诇转 讛住谞讚诇 诇讗 讗诪专讜 讗诇讗 讘注讬专 讗讘诇 讘讚专讱 诪讜转专 讛讗 讻讬爪讚 讬爪讗 诇讚专讱 谞讜注诇 谞讻谞住 诇注讬专 讞讜诇抓 讜讻谉 讗转讛 诪讜爪讗 讘诪谞讜讚讛 讜讘讗讘诇 诪讗讬 诇讗讜 讗讻讜诇讛讜 诇讗 讗砖讗专讗

The Gemara asks: What is the halakha concerning one who is ostracized with regard to wearing shoes? Rav Yosef said: Come and hear that which is taught in the following baraita: When the Sages said that wearing shoes is prohibited on a communal fast, they meant only that one may not wear shoes when he is walking about in the city, but if he set out to travel on the road, wearing shoes is permitted. How so? When he sets out on the road, he may put on his shoes. But as soon as he enters the city once again, he must take off his shoes and continue barefoot. And you find a similar halakha with regard to a person who was ostracized and with regard to a mourner. What, is it not with regard to all of the prohibitions stated in the baraita, including the prohibition against wearing shoes, that they apply also to one who was ostracized? The Gemara rejects this argument: No, this is referring to the rest of the prohibitions, but not to wearing shoes.

诪爪讜专注 诪讛讜 讘谞注讬诇转 讛住谞讚诇 转讬拽讜

The Gemara asks: What is the halakha concerning a leper with regard to wearing shoes? No answer is found, and the question shall stand unresolved.

讗讘诇 讗住讜专 讘转砖诪讬砖 讛诪讟讛 讚讻转讬讘 讜讬谞讞诐 讚讜讚 讗转 讘转 砖讘注 讗砖转讜 讜讬讘讗 讗诇讬讛 诪讻诇诇 讚诪注讬拽专讗 讗住讜专

搂 The Gemara considers another issue: A mourner is prohibited from engaging in sexual relations, as it is written: 鈥淎nd David comforted Bath-Sheba his wife, and went into her, and lay with her鈥 (II聽Samuel 12:24), after their son had died. This proves by inference that initially, during the period of mourning, sexual relations were forbidden.

诪谞讜讚讛 诪讛讜 讘转砖诪讬砖 讛诪讟讛 讗诪专 专讘 讬讜住祝 转讗 砖诪注 讻诇 讗讜转谉 砖谞讬诐 砖讛讬讜 讬砖专讗诇 讘诪讚讘专 诪谞讜讚讬谉 讛讬讜 讜砖讬诪砖讜 诪讟讜转讬讛谉 讗诪专 诇讬讛 讗讘讬讬 讜讚诇诪讗 诪谞讜讚讛 诇砖诪讬诐 砖讗谞讬 讚拽讬诇

The Gemara asks: What is the halakha concerning one who is ostracized with regard to sexual relations? Rav Yosef said: Come and hear that which is taught in a baraita: All those years that the Jewish people were in the wilderness they were ostracized, and yet they engaged in sexual relations, as there were children born to them during that period. It follows that it is permitted for one who is ostracized to engage in sexual relations. Abaye said to him: Perhaps one who is ostracized by Heaven is different, as that is less serious than being ostracized by an earthly court.

拽讬诇 讜讛讗 讗诪专转 讞诪讬专 住驻讜拽讬 诪住驻拽讗 诇讬讛 讝讬诇 讛讻讗 拽诪讚讞讬 诇讬讛 讜讝讬诇 讛讻讗 拽诪讚讞讬 诇讬讛

The Gemara asks in astonishment: Is it less serious? But didn鈥檛 you, Abaye, say elsewhere that a decree of ostracism imposed by Heaven is more serious than one issued by an earthly court? For this reason, Abaye rejected several proofs of Rav Yosef from the previously cited baraita. The Gemara answers: Abaye is uncertain whether a decree of ostracism imposed by Heaven is more or less serious than one imposed by an earthly court. Therefore, when he goes in this direction he rejects the argument, and when he goes in that direction he rejects the argument. Abaye asserts that since the issue is in doubt, no proof can be derived from ostracism issued by Heaven.

诪爪讜专注 诪讛讜 讘转砖诪讬砖 讛诪讟讛 转讗 砖诪注 讚转谞讬讗 讜讬砖讘 诪讞讜抓 诇讗讛诇讜 砖讬讛讗 讻诪谞讜讚讛 讜讻讗讘诇 讜讗住讜专 讘转砖诪讬砖 讛诪讟讛 讜讗讬谉 讗讛诇讜 讗诇讗 讗砖转讜 砖谞讗诪专 诇讱 讗诪讜专 诇讛诐 砖讜讘讜 诇讻诐 诇讗讛诇讬讻诐 砖诪注 诪讬谞讛

The Gemara continues: What is the halakha concerning a leper with regard to sexual relations? Come and hear a proof, as it is taught in a baraita: The verse concerning a leper states: 鈥淏ut he shall remain outside his tent seven days鈥 (Leviticus 14:8), from which it is derived that a leper should be like one who is ostracized and like a mourner, and he is prohibited from engaging in sexual relations. How is this derived? The only meaning of the term 鈥渉is tent鈥 is his wife, as is stated after the giving of the Torah: 鈥淕o say to them, return again to your tents鈥 (Deuteronomy 5:27). This statement rendered it permitted for the men to once again engage in sexual relations with their wives after they had previously been prohibited to do so in anticipation of the giving of the Torah, as expressed in the verse: 鈥淐ome not near a woman鈥 (Exodus 19:15). The Gemara concludes: Indeed, learn from this that it is prohibited for a leper to engage in sexual relations.

讜谞讬驻砖讜讟 谞诪讬 诇诪谞讜讚讛 讗诪专 专讘 讛讜谞讗 讘专讬讛 讚专讘 驻谞讞住 诪砖诪讬讛 讚专讘 讬讜住祝 诪讬 拽转谞讬 砖讗住讜专 砖讬讛讗 讻诪谞讜讚讛 讜讻讗讘诇 讘诪讬诇讬 讗讞专谞讬讬转讗 讜讗住讜专 谞诪讬 讘转砖诪讬砖 讛诪讟讛

The Gemara asks: If this is the case, then can we also resolve the question raised above with regard to one who is ostracized, by saying that it is prohibited for such a person to engage in sexual relations? Rav Huna, son of Rav Pine岣s, said in the name of Rav Yosef: Is it taught that a leper is prohibited from engaging in sexual relations like one who is ostracized? It states only that he should be treated like one who is ostracized and like a mourner, i.e., he should be like them with regard to other things, and in addition he is prohibited from engaging in sexual relations. Therefore, no proof can be derived from here with regard to one who is ostracized that he, too, is prohibited from engaging in sexual relations.

讗讘诇 讗讬谞讜 诪砖诇讞 拽专讘谞讜转讬讜 讚转谞讬讗 专讘讬 砖诪注讜谉 讗讜诪专 砖诇诪讬诐 讘讝诪谉 砖讛讜讗 砖诇诐 讜诇讗 讘讝诪谉 砖讛讜讗 讗讜谞谉

搂 The Gemara continues: A mourner may not send his offerings to the Temple, as it is taught in a baraita: Rabbi Shimon says: A peace-offering [shelamim] is given this name also to teach us that one may sacrifice it only at a time when he is whole [shalem] and his mind is settled, but not at a time when he is an acute mourner, i.e., on the first day of his bereavement, when he is distressed.

诪谞讜讚讛 诪讛讜 砖讬砖诇讞 拽专讘谞讜转讬讜 讗诪专 专讘 讬讜住祝 转讗 砖诪注 讻诇 讗讜转谉 砖谞讬诐 砖讛讬讜 讬砖专讗诇 讘诪讚讘专 诪谞讜讚讬谉 讛讬讜 讜砖诇讞讜 拽专讘谞讜转讬讛谉 讗诪专 诇讬讛 讗讘讬讬 讜讚诇诪讗 诪谞讜讚讛 诇砖诪讬诐 砖讗谞讬 讚拽讬诇

The Gemara asks: What is the halakha concerning one who is ostracized with regard to sending his offerings to the Temple? Rav Yosef said: Come and hear a proof from that which is taught in a baraita: All those years that the Jewish people were in the wilderness they were ostracized, and yet they sent their offerings. Abaye said to him: Perhaps one who is ostracized by Heaven is different, as that is less serious than being ostracized by an earthly court.

拽讬诇 讜讛讗诪专转 讞诪讬专 住驻讜拽讬 诪住驻拽讗 诇讬讛 讜诪讚讞讬 诇讬讛

The Gemara asks in astonishment: Is it less serious? But certainly you, Abaye, said elsewhere that being ostracized by Heaven is more serious than being ostracized by an earthly court. The Gemara offers a resolution: Abaye is uncertain whether being ostracized by Heaven is more or less serious than being ostracized by an earthly court, and therefore he rejects Rav Yosef鈥檚 arguments in both directions.

诪爪讜专注 诪讛讜 砖讬砖诇讞 拽专讘谞讜转讬讜 转讗 砖诪注 讚转谞讬讗 讜讗讞专讬 讟讛专转讜 讗讞专 驻专讬砖转讜 诪谉 讛诪转 砖讘注转 讬诪讬诐 讬住驻专讜 诇讜 讗诇讜 砖讘注转 讬诪讬 住驻讬专讜 讜讘讬讜诐 讘讗讜 讗诇 讛拽讜讚砖 讗诇 讛讞爪专 讛驻谞讬诪讬转 诇砖专转 讘拽讜讚砖 讬拽专讬讘 讞讟讗转讜

The Gemara asks: What is the halakha with regard to a leper sending his offerings to the Temple? The Gemara answers: Come and hear a proof, as it is taught in a baraita with regard to a priest who became ritually impure: 鈥淎nd after he is purified, they shall count for him seven days鈥 (Ezekiel 44:26). The verse should be understood as follows: 鈥淎nd after he is purified鈥; after he has separated from his deceased relative. 鈥淭hey shall count for him seven days鈥; these are the seven days of his counting before he may purify himself. 鈥淎nd on the day that he goes into the Sanctuary, into the inner court, to minister in the Sanctuary, he shall sacrifice his sin-offering, says the Lord God鈥 (Ezekiel 44:27);

This month鈥檚 shiurim are dedicated by Efrat Arnold in loving memory of Joshua Carr, Yehoshua Aryeh Leib ben Yonatan Chaim and Malka Esther HaCohen.

And by Tova and David Kestenbaum in honor of their children and grandchildren.

  • This month's learning is dedicated by Debbie and Yossi Gevir to Rabbanit Michelle and the Hadran Zoom group for their kindness, support, and care during a medically challenging year.

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Moed Katan 15: Organizing Moed Katan

A systematic approach to the various statuses of people and the range of activities that those same categories of people...

Moed Katan 15

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Moed Katan 15

诪谞讜讚讬谉 讜诪爪讜专注讬谉 诪讛 讛谉 讘转住驻讜专转 转讗 砖诪注 诪谞讜讚讬谉 讜诪爪讜专注讬谉 讗住讜专讬谉 诇住驻专 讜诇讻讘住

The Gemara asks: What is the halakha governing those who are ostracized and lepers, with regard to a haircut? The Gemara answers: Come and hear that which was taught in a baraita: Those who are ostracized and lepers are prohibited from cutting their hair and laundering their clothes.

诪谞讜讚讛 砖诪转 讘讬转 讚讬谉 住讜拽诇讬谉 讗转 讗专讜谞讜 专讘讬 讬讛讜讚讛 讗讜诪专 诇讗 砖讬注诪讬讚讜 注诇讬讜 讙诇 讗讘谞讬诐 讻讙诇讜 砖诇 注讻谉 讗诇讗 讘讬转 讚讬谉 砖讜诇讞讬谉 讜诪谞讬讞讬谉 讗讘谉 讙讚讜诇讛 注诇 讗专讜谞讜 诇诇诪讚讱 砖讻诇 讛诪转谞讚讛 讜诪转 讘谞讬讚讜讬讜 讘讬转 讚讬谉 住讜拽诇讬谉 讗转 讗专讜谞讜

It was further taught there: If one who is ostracized dies, the court places stones on his coffin. Rabbi Yehuda says: This does not mean that they pile up a heap of stones over him like the heap of stones that was placed over the grave of Achan (see Joshua 7:26). Rather, the court sends its agents, who place a large stone on his coffin as a symbolic gesture. This comes to teach you that anyone who is ostracized and dies while in his period of ostracism, without seeking to be released from it, the court places stones on his coffin.

讗讘诇 讞讬讬讘 讘注讟讬驻转 讛专讗砖 诪讚拽讗诪专 诇讬讛 专讞诪谞讗 诇讬讞讝拽讗诇 讜诇讗 转注讟讛 注诇 砖驻诐 诪讻诇诇 讚讻讜诇讬 注诇诪讗 诪讬讞讬讬讘讬

搂 The Gemara continues: A mourner is obligated to wrap his head as a sign of mourning, covering his head and face. This is derived from the fact that the Merciful One says to Ezekiel, while he is in mourning: 鈥淎nd cover not your upper lip鈥 (Ezekiel 24:17). God commands Ezekiel not to display outward signs of mourning, which proves by inference that everyone else is obligated to wrap their heads in this manner.

诪谞讜讚讛 诪讛讜 讘注讟讬驻转 讛专讗砖 讗诪专 专讘 讬讜住祝 转讗 砖诪注 讜讛谉 诪转注讟驻讬谉 讜讬讜砖讘讬谉 讻诪谞讜讚讬谉 讜讻讗讘诇讬诐 注讚 砖讬专讞诪讜 注诇讬讛诐 诪谉 讛砖诪讬诐 讗诪专 诇讬讛 讗讘讬讬 讚诇诪讗 诪谞讜讚讛 诇砖诪讬诐 砖讗谞讬 讚讞诪讬专

The Gemara asks: What is the halakha governing a person who is ostracized, with regard to wrapping of the head? Rav Yosef said: Come and hear that which was taught in a baraita about those who were fasting for rain and whose prayers were not answered: And they wrap themselves and sit as those who are ostracized and as mourners, until they are shown mercy from Heaven. This implies that those who are ostracized must wrap their heads like mourners. Abaye said to him: Perhaps one who is ostracized by Heaven is different, as that is more serious than being ostracized by an earthly court.

诪爪讜专注 诪讛讜 讘注讟讬驻转 讛专讗砖 转讗 砖诪注 讜注诇 砖驻诐 讬注讟讛 诪讻诇诇 砖讞讬讬讘 讘注讟讬驻转 讛专讗砖 砖诪注 诪讬谞讛

The Gemara continues and asks: What is the halakha in the case of a leper with regard to wrapping of the head? Come and hear a proof based upon the verse: 鈥淎nd he shall cover his upper lip鈥 (Leviticus 13:45), from which it may be learned by inference that he is obligated to wrap his head. The Gemara concludes: Indeed, learn from here that this is the case.

讗讘诇 讗住讜专 诇讛谞讬讞 转驻讬诇讬谉 诪讚拽讗诪专 诇讬讛 专讞诪谞讗 诇讬讞讝拽讗诇 驻讗专讱 讞讘讜砖 注诇讬讱 诪讻诇诇 讚讻讜诇讬 注诇诪讗 讗住讜专

搂 The Gemara moves on to another halakha: A mourner is prohibited from donning phylacteries. This is derived from the fact that the Merciful One says to Ezekiel, while he is in mourning: 鈥淏ind your headwear [pe鈥檈r] upon yourself鈥 (Ezekiel 24:17). The word pe鈥檈r alludes to phylacteries. Ezekiel was unique in that he was commanded to put on phylacteries while in mourning, which proves by inference that everyone else is prohibited from doing so.

诪谞讜讚讛 诪讛讜 讘转驻讬诇讬谉 转讬拽讜 诪爪讜专注 诪讛讜 讘转驻讬诇讬谉 转讗 砖诪注 讜讛爪专讜注 诇专讘讜转 讻讛谉 讙讚讜诇 讘讙讚讬讜 讬讛讬讜 驻专讜诪讬诐 砖讬讛讜 诪拽讜专注讬诐 讜专讗砖讜 讬讛讬讛 驻专讜注 讗讬谉 驻专讬注讛 讗诇讗 讙讬讚讜诇 砖注专 讚讘专讬 专讘讬 讗诇讬注讝专

The Gemara asks: What is the halakha governing one who is ostracized, with regard to phylacteries? The dilemma shall stand unresolved. The Gemara proceeds to its next question: What is the halakha in the case of a leper with regard to phylacteries? The Gemara suggests: Come and hear a proof from the following baraita: The verse states: 鈥淎nd the leper鈥 (Leviticus 13:45); as explained earlier, this comes to include the High Priest in all the halakhot of the leper. The verse states there: 鈥淗is garments shall be perumim,鈥 meaning that they shall be rent. The verse continues: 鈥淎nd his head shall be parua,鈥 and this peria means only growing the hair long; this is the statement of Rabbi Eliezer.

专讘讬 注拽讬讘讗 讗讜诪专 谞讗诪专讛 讛讜讬讬讛 讘专讗砖 讜谞讗诪专讛 讛讜讬讬讛 讘讘讙讚 诪讛 讛讜讬讬讛 讛讗诪讜专讛 讘讘讙讚 讚讘专 砖讞讜抓 诪讙讜驻讜 讗祝 讛讜讬讬讛 讘专讗砖 讚讘专 砖讞讜抓 诪讙讜驻讜 诪讗讬 诇讗讜 讗转驻讬诇讬谉

Rabbi Akiva says: The meaning of these terms is derived through a verbal analogy. The verse states a form of the verb being, with regard to one鈥檚 head in the verse: 鈥淗is head shall be,鈥 teaching that a leper must perform a certain action with his head. And the verse states a form of the verb being with regard to a leper鈥檚 garment, in the verse: 鈥淗is garment shall be.鈥 Just as the term being stated with regard to his garment is referring to an object external to his body, so too, the term being used with regard to his head is referring to an object external to his body. The Gemara derives from this: What, is it not referring to phylacteries, and the verse teaches that it is prohibited for a leper to wear phylacteries?

讗诪专 专讘 驻驻讗 诇讗 讗讻讜诪转讗 讜住讜讚专讗

Rav Pappa said: No, there is no proof from here, as the verse may be referring to a cap [kumta] or a scarf [sudara], which people wear on their heads. It is possible to explain that according to Rabbi Akiva, it is prohibited for a leper to wear such headwear because it is excessive adornment.

讗讘诇 讗住讜专 讘砖讗讬诇转 砖诇讜诐 讚拽讗诪专 诇讬讛 专讞诪谞讗 诇讬讞讝拽讗诇 讛讗谞拽 讚讜诐

搂 The Gemara continues: A mourner is prohibited from greeting others or be greeted. This is derived from the fact that the Merciful One says to Ezekiel: 鈥淪igh in silence鈥 (Ezekiel 24:17), implying that aside from what was absolutely essential, he was prohibited from speaking.

诪谞讜讚讛 诪讛讜 讘砖讗讬诇转 砖诇讜诐 讗诪专 专讘 讬讜住祝 转讗 砖诪注 讜讘砖讗讬诇转 砖诇讜诐 砖讘讬谉 讗讚诐 诇讞讘专讜 讻讘谞讬 讗讚诐 讛谞讝讜驻讬谉 诇诪拽讜诐 讗诪专 诇讬讛 讗讘讬讬 讚诇诪讗 诪谞讜讚讛 诇砖诪讬诐 砖讗谞讬 讚讞诪讬专

The Gemara asks: What is the halakha governing one who is ostracized with regard to greeting others? Rav Yosef said: Come and hear a proof from a baraita dealing with those who were fasting for rain and whose prayers were not answered. These people were prohibited from greeting one another, as people who are reprimanded by the Omnipresent. This indicates that those who are ostracized must not greet each other, just as mourners may not greet each other. Abaye said to him: Perhaps one who is ostracized by Heaven is different, as that is more serious than being ostracized by an earthly court.

诪爪讜专注 诪讛讜 讘砖讗讬诇转 砖诇讜诐 转讗 砖诪注 讜注诇 砖驻诐 讬注讟讛 砖讬讛讜 砖驻转讜转讬讜 诪讚讜讘拽讜转 讝讜 讘讝讜 砖讬讛讗 讻诪谞讜讚讛 讜讻讗讘诇 讜讗住讜专 讘砖讗讬诇转 砖诇讜诐 砖诪注 诪讬谞讛

The Gemara continues and asks: What is the halakha concerning a leper with regard to greeting others? The Gemara suggests: Come and hear a proof from the following baraita: The verse states: 鈥淎nd he shall cover his upper lip鈥 (Leviticus 13:45). This means that his lips should be stuck together, that he should be like one who is ostracized and like a mourner, and he is prohibited from greeting others or being greeted. The Gemara concludes: Indeed, learn from this that this is so.

讜谞讬驻砖讜讟 诪讬谞讛 诇诪谞讜讚讛 讗诪专 专讘 讗讞讗 讘专 驻谞讞住 诪砖诪讬讛 讚专讘 讬讜住祝 诪讬 拽转谞讬 砖讗住讜专 砖讬讛讗 讻诪谞讜讚讛 讜讻讗讘诇 [拽转谞讬] 讘诪讬诇讬 讗讞专谞讬讬转讗 讜讗住讜专 谞诪讬 讘砖讗讬诇转 砖诇讜诐

The Gemara asks: If this is the case, then we should also resolve the question asked above with regard to one who is ostracized and say that such a person is prohibited from offering greetings. Rav A岣 bar Pine岣s said in the name of Rav Yosef: Does it explicitly teach that a leper is prohibited from greeting others, like one who is ostracized? It teaches only that he should be treated like one who is ostracized and like a mourner, i.e., he should be like them with regard to other things, and that he is also prohibited from greeting others. This being the case, no proof can be derived from here with regard to whether or not one who is ostracized may offer greetings.

讗讘诇 讗住讜专 讘讚讘专讬 转讜专讛 诪讚拽讗诪专 专讞诪谞讗 诇讬讞讝拽讗诇 讚诐

搂 The Gemara moves on to a new topic: A mourner is prohibited from studying words of Torah. This prohibition is derived from the fact that the Merciful One says to Ezekiel: 鈥淪igh in silence鈥 (Ezekiel 24:17). Ezekiel was commanded to be silent and not discuss even Torah matters.

诪谞讜讚讛 诪讛讜 讘讚讘专讬 转讜专讛 讗诪专 专讘 讬讜住祝 转讗 砖诪注 诪谞讜讚讛 砖讜谞讛 讜砖讜谞讬谉 诇讜 谞砖讻专 讜谞砖讻专讬谉 诇讜

The Gemara asks: What is the halakha concerning one who is ostracized with regard to speaking words of Torah? Rav Yosef said: Come and hear that which was taught in the following baraita: One who is ostracized may teach Torah to others, and others may teach him Torah. Similarly, he may be hired for work by others, and others may be hired by him.

诪讜讞专诐 诇讗 砖讜谞讛 讜诇讗 砖讜谞讬谉 诇讜 诇讗 谞砖讻专 讜诇讗 谞砖讻专讬谉 诇讜 讗讘诇 砖讜谞讛 讛讜讗 诇注爪诪讜 砖诇讗 讬驻住讬拽 讗转 诇诪讜讚讜 讜注讜砖讛 诇讜 讞谞讜转 拽讟谞讛 讘砖讘讬诇 驻专谞住转讜

One who has been excommunicated, which is a more severe form of ostracism, may not teach Torah to others and others may not teach him. He may not be hired by others, and others may not be hired by him. However, he may study by himself, so that he will not interrupt his study entirely and forget everything he knows. And he may build a small store for his livelihood, so that he can earn enough money to cover his most basic needs, but not more.

讜讗诪专 专讘 讝讘讜谞讬 诪讬讗 讘驻拽转讗 讚注专讘讜转 砖诪注 诪讬谞讛

And Rav said: What is the small store referred to here? This is referring to selling water in the valley of Aravot, where no water was to be found. One selling water there could earn a small income. The Gemara concludes: Indeed, learn from this baraita that one who is ostracized is permitted to study Torah.

诪爪讜专注 诪讛讜 讘讚讘专讬 转讜专讛 转讗 砖诪注 讜讛讜讚注转诐 诇讘谞讬讱 讜诇讘谞讬 讘谞讬讱 讬讜诐 讗砖专 注诪讚转 诇驻谞讬 讛壮 讗诇讛讬讱 讘讞讜专讘 诪讛 诇讛诇谉 讘讗讬诪讛 讜讘讬专讗讛 讜讘专转转 讜讘讝讬注讛

The Gemara asks: What is the halakha with regard to a leper speaking words of Torah? The Gemara answers: Come and hear that which is taught in a baraita: It is written: 鈥淎nd you shall impart them to your children and your children鈥檚 children; the day that you stood before the Lord your God in Horeb鈥 (Deuteronomy 4:9鈥10). Just as there, the revelation at Sinai was in reverence, fear, and trembling, so too, here, in every generation, Torah must be studied in a similar fashion.

诪讻讗谉 讗诪专讜 讛讝讘讬谉 讜讛诪爪讜专注讬谉 讜讘讜注诇讬 谞讚讜转 诪讜转专讬谉 诇拽专讜转 讘转讜专讛 讜讘谞讘讬讗讬诐 讜讘讻转讜讘讬诐 讜诇砖谞讜转 讘诪讚专砖 讜讘转诇诪讜讚 讘讛诇讻讜转 讜讘讗讙讚讜转 讜讘注诇讬 拽专讬讬谉 讗住讜专讬谉 砖诪注 诪讬谞讛

From here the Sages stated: Zavim, lepers, and those who had intercourse with menstruating women despite their severe ritual impurity are permitted to read the Torah, Prophets, and Writings, and to study midrash, Talmud, halakhot, and aggada. But those who experienced a seminal emission are prohibited from doing so. The reason for this distinction is that the cases of severe impurity are caused by ailment or other circumstances beyond one鈥檚 control; as a result, they do not necessarily preclude a sense of reverence and awe as one studies Torah. However, a seminal emission usually occurs due to frivolity and a lack of reverence and awe, and it is therefore inappropriate for one who experiences a seminal emission to engage in matters of Torah. The Gemara concludes: Indeed, learn from this that a leper is permitted to study words of Torah.

讗讘诇 讗住讜专 讘转讻讘讜住转 讚讻转讬讘 讜讬砖诇讞 讬讜讗讘 转拽讜注讛 讜讬拽讞 诪砖诐 讗砖讛 讞讻诪讛 讜讬讗诪专 讗诇讬讛 讛转讗讘诇讬 谞讗 讜诇讘砖讬 谞讗 讘讙讚讬 讗讘诇 讜讗诇 转住讜讻讬 砖诪谉 讜讛讬讬转 讻讗砖讛 讝讛 讬诪讬诐 专讘讬诐 诪转讗讘诇转 注诇 诪转

搂 The Gemara proceeds to discuss another issue: A mourner is prohibited from laundering his clothes, as it is written: 鈥淎nd Joab sent to Tekoa, and fetched from there a wise woman, and said to her, I pray you, feign yourself to be a mourner, and put on now mourning apparel, and do not anoint yourself with oil, but be as a woman that had a long time mourned for the dead鈥 (II聽Samuel 14:2).

诪谞讜讚讬谉 讜诪爪讜专注讬谉 诪讛 讛谉 讘转讻讘讜住转 转讗 砖诪注 诪谞讜讚讬谉 讜诪爪讜专注讬谉 讗住讜专讬谉 诇住驻专 讜诇讻讘住 砖诪注 诪讬谞讛

The Gemara asks: What is the halakha concerning laundering with regard to those who are ostracized or lepers? Come and hear that which is taught in a baraita: Those who are ostracized or lepers are prohibited from cutting their hair or laundering their clothes. The Gemara concludes: Indeed, learn from here that they are prohibited from laundering their clothes.

讗讘诇 讞讬讬讘 讘拽专讬注讛 讚拽讗诪专 诇讛讜 专讞诪谞讗 诇讘谞讬 讗讛专谉 诇讗 转驻专讜诪讜 诪讻诇诇 讚讻讜诇讬 注诇诪讗 诪讬讞讬讬讘讬

The Gemara continues: A mourner is obligated to rend his clothes. This is derived from the fact that the Merciful One says to the sons of Aaron: 鈥淣either rend your clothes鈥 (Leviticus 10:6), which proves by inference that everyone else, all other mourners, are obligated to rend their clothes.

诪谞讜讚讛 诪讛讜 讘拽专讬注讛 转讬拽讜

The Gemara asks: What is the halakha of rending clothes with regard to one who is ostracized? No answer is found, and the question shall stand unresolved.

诪爪讜专注 诪讛讜 讘拽专讬注讛 转讗 砖诪注 讘讙讚讬讜 讬讛讬讜 驻专讜诪讬诐 砖讬讛讜 诪拽讜专注讬谉 砖诪注 诪讬谞讛

The Gemara continues: What is the halakha concerning a leper with regard to rending? Come and hear that which is taught in the following baraita: The verse states: 鈥淗is garments shall be rent鈥 (Leviticus 13:45), meaning that they shall be torn. The Gemara concludes: Indeed, learn from here that this is the case.

讗讘诇 讞讬讬讘 讘讻驻讬讬转 讛诪讟讛 讚转谞讬 讘专 拽驻专讗

搂 The Gemara moves to a different issue: A mourner is obligated to overturn his bed, so that he sleeps on the underside of it, as bar Kappara taught a baraita that states:

讚诪讜转 讚讬讜拽谞讬 谞转转讬 讘讛谉 讜讘注讜谞讜转讬讛诐 讛驻讻转讬讛 讻驻讜 诪讟讜转讬讛谉 注诇讬讛 诪谞讜讚讛 讜诪爪讜专注 诪讛 讛谉 讘讻驻讬讬转 讛诪讟讛 转讬拽讜

God stated: I have placed the likeness of My image [deyokan] within humans, as they were created in My image, and owing to their sins I have overturned it, as when this person died the Divine image in him was removed. Therefore, you must also overturn your beds on account of this. The Gemara asks: What is the halakha governing one who was ostracized or a leper, with regard to overturning the bed? The Gemara has no answer, and the question shall stand unresolved.

讗讘诇 讗住讜专 讘注砖讬讬转 诪诇讗讻讛 讚讻转讬讘 讜讛驻讻转讬 讞讙讬讻诐 诇讗讘诇 诪讛 讞讙 讗住讜专 讘诪诇讗讻讛 讗祝 讗讘诇 讗住讜专 讘诪诇讗讻讛

搂 The Gemara proceeds to the next topic: A mourner is prohibited from performing work, as it is written: 鈥淎nd I will turn your Festivals into mourning鈥 (Amos 8:10). The Gemara infers: Just as a Festival is a time when it is prohibited to work, so too, a mourner is prohibited from performing work.

诪谞讜讚讛 诪讛讜 讘注砖讬讬转 诪诇讗讻讛 讗诪专 专讘 讬讜住祝 转讗 砖诪注 讻砖讗诪专讜 讗住讜专 讘注砖讬讬转 诪诇讗讻讛 诇讗 讗诪专讜 讗诇讗 讘讬讜诐 讗讘诇 讘诇讬诇讛 诪讜转专 讜讻谉 讗转讛 诪讜爪讗 讘诪谞讜讚讛 讜讘讗讘诇 诪讗讬 诇讗讜 讗讻讜诇讛讜 诇讗 讗砖讗专讗

The Gemara asks: What is the halakha concerning one who was ostracized with regard to the performance of work? Rav Yosef said: Come and hear that which is taught in the following baraita: When the Sages said that the performance of work is prohibited on a communal fast due to lack of rain, they meant only that work is prohibited during the day of the fast, but during the night of the fast it is permitted. And you find a similar halakha with regard to a person who was ostracized and with regard to a mourner. What, is it not with regard to all of the prohibitions stated that the baraita says that they apply to one who was ostracized as well, including the prohibition to engage in work? The Gemara rejects this argument: No, this is referring to the rest of the prohibitions, but not to work.

转讗 砖诪注 诪谞讜讚讛 砖讜谞讛 讜砖讜谞讬谉 诇讜 谞砖讻专 讜谞砖讻专讬谉 诇讜 砖诪注 诪讬谞讛 诪爪讜专注 诪讛讜 讘注砖讬讬转 诪诇讗讻讛 转讬拽讜

The Gemara offers a different proof: Come and hear that which was taught in the following baraita: One who is ostracized may teach Torah to others, and others may teach him Torah. Similarly, he may be hired for work by others, and others may be hired by him. The Gemara concludes: Learn from here that it is permitted for one who is ostracized to engage in work. The Gemara asks: What is the halakha concerning a leper, with regard to the performance of work? An answer is not found, and the question shall stand unresolved.

讗讘诇 讗住讜专 讘专讞讬爪讛 讚讻转讬讘 讜讗诇 转住讜讻讬 砖诪谉 讜专讞讬爪讛 讘讻诇诇 住讬讻讛

搂 The Gemara discusses a different prohibition: A mourner is prohibited from bathing, as it is written: 鈥淎nd do not anoint yourself with oil, but be as a woman that had for a long time mourned for the dead鈥 (II聽Samuel 14:2). And bathing is included in the category of anointing, as both activities have a similar goal, i.e., cleanliness.

诪谞讜讚讛 诪讛讜 讘专讞讬爪讛 讗诪专 专讘 讬讜住祝 转讗 砖诪注 讻砖讗诪专讜 讗住讜专 讘专讞讬爪讛 诇讗 讗诪专讜 讗诇讗 讻诇 讙讜驻讜 讗讘诇 驻谞讬讜 讬讚讬讜 讜专讙诇讬讜 诪讜转专 讜讻谉 讗转讛 诪讜爪讗 讘诪谞讜讚讛 讜讘讗讘诇 诪讗讬 诇讗讜 讗讻讜诇讛讜 诇讗 讗砖讗专讗 诪爪讜专注 诪讛讜 讘专讞讬爪讛 转讬拽讜

The Gemara asks: What is the halakha concerning one who is ostracized with regard to bathing? Rav Yosef said: Come and hear that which was taught in the following baraita: When the Sages said that bathing is prohibited on a communal fast, they meant only that a person may not wash his entire body, but washing his face, his hands, and his feet is permitted. And you find a similar halakha with regard to a person who was ostracized and with regard to a mourner. What, is it not with regard to all the prohibitions stated in the baraita, including the prohibition against bathing, that they apply also to one who is ostracized? The Gemara rejects this argument: No, this is referring to the rest of the prohibitions, but not to bathing. The Gemara asks: What is the halakha concerning a leper with regard to bathing? An answer is not found, and the question shall stand unresolved.

讗讘诇 讗住讜专 讘谞注讬诇转 讛住谞讚诇 诪讚拽讗诪专 诇讬讛 专讞诪谞讗 诇讬讞讝拽讗诇 讜谞注诇讬讱 转砖讬诐 讘专讙诇讬讱 诪讻诇诇 讚讻讜诇讬 注诇诪讗 讗住讜专

搂 The Gemara moves to the next topic: A mourner is prohibited from wearing shoes. Since the Merciful One says to Ezekiel with regard to how his mourning rites should differ from the accepted custom: 鈥淎nd put your shoes upon your feet鈥 (Ezekiel 24:17), which shows by inference that everyone else, i.e., all other mourners, is prohibited from wearing shoes.

诪谞讜讚讛 诪讛讜 讘谞注讬诇转 讛住谞讚诇 讗诪专 专讘 讬讜住祝 转讗 砖诪注 讻砖讗诪专讜 讗住讜专 讘谞注讬诇转 讛住谞讚诇 诇讗 讗诪专讜 讗诇讗 讘注讬专 讗讘诇 讘讚专讱 诪讜转专 讛讗 讻讬爪讚 讬爪讗 诇讚专讱 谞讜注诇 谞讻谞住 诇注讬专 讞讜诇抓 讜讻谉 讗转讛 诪讜爪讗 讘诪谞讜讚讛 讜讘讗讘诇 诪讗讬 诇讗讜 讗讻讜诇讛讜 诇讗 讗砖讗专讗

The Gemara asks: What is the halakha concerning one who is ostracized with regard to wearing shoes? Rav Yosef said: Come and hear that which is taught in the following baraita: When the Sages said that wearing shoes is prohibited on a communal fast, they meant only that one may not wear shoes when he is walking about in the city, but if he set out to travel on the road, wearing shoes is permitted. How so? When he sets out on the road, he may put on his shoes. But as soon as he enters the city once again, he must take off his shoes and continue barefoot. And you find a similar halakha with regard to a person who was ostracized and with regard to a mourner. What, is it not with regard to all of the prohibitions stated in the baraita, including the prohibition against wearing shoes, that they apply also to one who was ostracized? The Gemara rejects this argument: No, this is referring to the rest of the prohibitions, but not to wearing shoes.

诪爪讜专注 诪讛讜 讘谞注讬诇转 讛住谞讚诇 转讬拽讜

The Gemara asks: What is the halakha concerning a leper with regard to wearing shoes? No answer is found, and the question shall stand unresolved.

讗讘诇 讗住讜专 讘转砖诪讬砖 讛诪讟讛 讚讻转讬讘 讜讬谞讞诐 讚讜讚 讗转 讘转 砖讘注 讗砖转讜 讜讬讘讗 讗诇讬讛 诪讻诇诇 讚诪注讬拽专讗 讗住讜专

搂 The Gemara considers another issue: A mourner is prohibited from engaging in sexual relations, as it is written: 鈥淎nd David comforted Bath-Sheba his wife, and went into her, and lay with her鈥 (II聽Samuel 12:24), after their son had died. This proves by inference that initially, during the period of mourning, sexual relations were forbidden.

诪谞讜讚讛 诪讛讜 讘转砖诪讬砖 讛诪讟讛 讗诪专 专讘 讬讜住祝 转讗 砖诪注 讻诇 讗讜转谉 砖谞讬诐 砖讛讬讜 讬砖专讗诇 讘诪讚讘专 诪谞讜讚讬谉 讛讬讜 讜砖讬诪砖讜 诪讟讜转讬讛谉 讗诪专 诇讬讛 讗讘讬讬 讜讚诇诪讗 诪谞讜讚讛 诇砖诪讬诐 砖讗谞讬 讚拽讬诇

The Gemara asks: What is the halakha concerning one who is ostracized with regard to sexual relations? Rav Yosef said: Come and hear that which is taught in a baraita: All those years that the Jewish people were in the wilderness they were ostracized, and yet they engaged in sexual relations, as there were children born to them during that period. It follows that it is permitted for one who is ostracized to engage in sexual relations. Abaye said to him: Perhaps one who is ostracized by Heaven is different, as that is less serious than being ostracized by an earthly court.

拽讬诇 讜讛讗 讗诪专转 讞诪讬专 住驻讜拽讬 诪住驻拽讗 诇讬讛 讝讬诇 讛讻讗 拽诪讚讞讬 诇讬讛 讜讝讬诇 讛讻讗 拽诪讚讞讬 诇讬讛

The Gemara asks in astonishment: Is it less serious? But didn鈥檛 you, Abaye, say elsewhere that a decree of ostracism imposed by Heaven is more serious than one issued by an earthly court? For this reason, Abaye rejected several proofs of Rav Yosef from the previously cited baraita. The Gemara answers: Abaye is uncertain whether a decree of ostracism imposed by Heaven is more or less serious than one imposed by an earthly court. Therefore, when he goes in this direction he rejects the argument, and when he goes in that direction he rejects the argument. Abaye asserts that since the issue is in doubt, no proof can be derived from ostracism issued by Heaven.

诪爪讜专注 诪讛讜 讘转砖诪讬砖 讛诪讟讛 转讗 砖诪注 讚转谞讬讗 讜讬砖讘 诪讞讜抓 诇讗讛诇讜 砖讬讛讗 讻诪谞讜讚讛 讜讻讗讘诇 讜讗住讜专 讘转砖诪讬砖 讛诪讟讛 讜讗讬谉 讗讛诇讜 讗诇讗 讗砖转讜 砖谞讗诪专 诇讱 讗诪讜专 诇讛诐 砖讜讘讜 诇讻诐 诇讗讛诇讬讻诐 砖诪注 诪讬谞讛

The Gemara continues: What is the halakha concerning a leper with regard to sexual relations? Come and hear a proof, as it is taught in a baraita: The verse concerning a leper states: 鈥淏ut he shall remain outside his tent seven days鈥 (Leviticus 14:8), from which it is derived that a leper should be like one who is ostracized and like a mourner, and he is prohibited from engaging in sexual relations. How is this derived? The only meaning of the term 鈥渉is tent鈥 is his wife, as is stated after the giving of the Torah: 鈥淕o say to them, return again to your tents鈥 (Deuteronomy 5:27). This statement rendered it permitted for the men to once again engage in sexual relations with their wives after they had previously been prohibited to do so in anticipation of the giving of the Torah, as expressed in the verse: 鈥淐ome not near a woman鈥 (Exodus 19:15). The Gemara concludes: Indeed, learn from this that it is prohibited for a leper to engage in sexual relations.

讜谞讬驻砖讜讟 谞诪讬 诇诪谞讜讚讛 讗诪专 专讘 讛讜谞讗 讘专讬讛 讚专讘 驻谞讞住 诪砖诪讬讛 讚专讘 讬讜住祝 诪讬 拽转谞讬 砖讗住讜专 砖讬讛讗 讻诪谞讜讚讛 讜讻讗讘诇 讘诪讬诇讬 讗讞专谞讬讬转讗 讜讗住讜专 谞诪讬 讘转砖诪讬砖 讛诪讟讛

The Gemara asks: If this is the case, then can we also resolve the question raised above with regard to one who is ostracized, by saying that it is prohibited for such a person to engage in sexual relations? Rav Huna, son of Rav Pine岣s, said in the name of Rav Yosef: Is it taught that a leper is prohibited from engaging in sexual relations like one who is ostracized? It states only that he should be treated like one who is ostracized and like a mourner, i.e., he should be like them with regard to other things, and in addition he is prohibited from engaging in sexual relations. Therefore, no proof can be derived from here with regard to one who is ostracized that he, too, is prohibited from engaging in sexual relations.

讗讘诇 讗讬谞讜 诪砖诇讞 拽专讘谞讜转讬讜 讚转谞讬讗 专讘讬 砖诪注讜谉 讗讜诪专 砖诇诪讬诐 讘讝诪谉 砖讛讜讗 砖诇诐 讜诇讗 讘讝诪谉 砖讛讜讗 讗讜谞谉

搂 The Gemara continues: A mourner may not send his offerings to the Temple, as it is taught in a baraita: Rabbi Shimon says: A peace-offering [shelamim] is given this name also to teach us that one may sacrifice it only at a time when he is whole [shalem] and his mind is settled, but not at a time when he is an acute mourner, i.e., on the first day of his bereavement, when he is distressed.

诪谞讜讚讛 诪讛讜 砖讬砖诇讞 拽专讘谞讜转讬讜 讗诪专 专讘 讬讜住祝 转讗 砖诪注 讻诇 讗讜转谉 砖谞讬诐 砖讛讬讜 讬砖专讗诇 讘诪讚讘专 诪谞讜讚讬谉 讛讬讜 讜砖诇讞讜 拽专讘谞讜转讬讛谉 讗诪专 诇讬讛 讗讘讬讬 讜讚诇诪讗 诪谞讜讚讛 诇砖诪讬诐 砖讗谞讬 讚拽讬诇

The Gemara asks: What is the halakha concerning one who is ostracized with regard to sending his offerings to the Temple? Rav Yosef said: Come and hear a proof from that which is taught in a baraita: All those years that the Jewish people were in the wilderness they were ostracized, and yet they sent their offerings. Abaye said to him: Perhaps one who is ostracized by Heaven is different, as that is less serious than being ostracized by an earthly court.

拽讬诇 讜讛讗诪专转 讞诪讬专 住驻讜拽讬 诪住驻拽讗 诇讬讛 讜诪讚讞讬 诇讬讛

The Gemara asks in astonishment: Is it less serious? But certainly you, Abaye, said elsewhere that being ostracized by Heaven is more serious than being ostracized by an earthly court. The Gemara offers a resolution: Abaye is uncertain whether being ostracized by Heaven is more or less serious than being ostracized by an earthly court, and therefore he rejects Rav Yosef鈥檚 arguments in both directions.

诪爪讜专注 诪讛讜 砖讬砖诇讞 拽专讘谞讜转讬讜 转讗 砖诪注 讚转谞讬讗 讜讗讞专讬 讟讛专转讜 讗讞专 驻专讬砖转讜 诪谉 讛诪转 砖讘注转 讬诪讬诐 讬住驻专讜 诇讜 讗诇讜 砖讘注转 讬诪讬 住驻讬专讜 讜讘讬讜诐 讘讗讜 讗诇 讛拽讜讚砖 讗诇 讛讞爪专 讛驻谞讬诪讬转 诇砖专转 讘拽讜讚砖 讬拽专讬讘 讞讟讗转讜

The Gemara asks: What is the halakha with regard to a leper sending his offerings to the Temple? The Gemara answers: Come and hear a proof, as it is taught in a baraita with regard to a priest who became ritually impure: 鈥淎nd after he is purified, they shall count for him seven days鈥 (Ezekiel 44:26). The verse should be understood as follows: 鈥淎nd after he is purified鈥; after he has separated from his deceased relative. 鈥淭hey shall count for him seven days鈥; these are the seven days of his counting before he may purify himself. 鈥淎nd on the day that he goes into the Sanctuary, into the inner court, to minister in the Sanctuary, he shall sacrifice his sin-offering, says the Lord God鈥 (Ezekiel 44:27);

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