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Today's Daf Yomi

January 30, 2022 | 讻状讞 讘砖讘讟 转砖驻状讘

This month鈥檚 shiurim are dedicated by Efrat Arnold in loving memory of Joshua Carr, Yehoshua Aryeh Leib ben Yonatan Chaim and Malka Esther HaCohen.

This month's shiurim are dedicated by Tova and David Kestenbaum in honor of their children and grandchildren.

  • This month's learning is dedicated by Debbie and Yossi Gevir to Rabbanit Michelle and the Hadran Zoom group for their kindness, support, and care during a medically challenging year.

Moed Katan 18

This week鈥檚 learning is sponsored by Jay Levine in honor of Rabbi Nicki Greninger, on the occasion of her son Oren鈥檚 Bar Mitzvah. 鈥淭hank you for deepening my learning, sharing my enthusiasm for Daf Yomi, and bringing me back into Talmud study.鈥
Today鈥檚 daf is sponsored by Arnold Shuster in loving memory of his mother Devorah Shuster. 鈥淏oth her children attended Maimonides School and she was a firm believer that both boys and girls get a good education in Talmud and all limudei kodesh.
Today鈥檚 daf is sponsored by Carol Robinson and Art Gould in loving memory of Art鈥檚 mother Shirley, Sarah bat Avraham v鈥橺iche Reicha z”l. 鈥淭oday is her 8th yahrzeit. She was a life-long learner and a striver; a woman born before her time. She sewed, she made mosaics; she was always busy with something. She lives on in the tallitot and quilts she made for so many members of her family and her synagogue. Art sleeps every night under an official Shirley Gould quilt.鈥

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Can one cut one鈥檚 nails on the holiday or when in mourning? Shmuel was lenient but his brother was not. When his brother sat shiva and Shmuel questioned him on it, his brother said, 鈥淚f this happened to you, you would also not cut your nails!鈥 Soon after, Shmuel became a mourner and Shmuel blamed his brother for bringing the situation upon him by the power of suggestion as is learned from Abraham鈥檚 words to his servants when arriving at the place for the binding of Isaac. Is there a difference between cutting fingernails and toenails? Can one use scissors or only one鈥檚 fingers or teeth? Does one need to bury fingernails? Why or why not? In what situation can one shave one鈥檚 mustache while in mourning? If one who only has one garment can do laundry on chol hamoed, why was that not listed in the Mishna? Flax clothes can be washed as they are easy to launder. What types of documents can be written on chol hamoed? All of the ones that are permitted are because there is a concern for a loss. Shmuel says that one can betroth a woman on chol hamoed to ensure that someone else doesn鈥檛 come along and betroth her instead. The Gemara tries to support Shmuel鈥檚 statement from various tannaitic sources, including our Mishna, that lists documents of betrothal. Or does the Mishna not permit the betrothal itself, just the writing of the monetary commitment of the two sides after the betrothal? Is Shmuel really concerned that someone else may betroth her? Didn鈥檛 Shmuel say that matches between men and women are decreed by God? Shmuel鈥檚 statement is reinterpreted. One who is suspected of wrongdoing must be somehow connected to what they are suspected of as there is no baseless suspicion. Is that really true? The Gemara raises several questions against this assumption. As a result, they bring a number of exceptions to this rule.

讛诇讻讛 讻专讘讬 讬讜住讬 讘诪讜注讚 讜讘讗讘诇 讚讗诪专 砖诪讜讗诇 讛诇讻讛 讻讚讘专讬 讛诪讬拽诇 讘讗讘诇

The halakha is in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Yosei with regard to the intermediate days of the Festival and with regard to mourning, as Shmuel said this general principle: The halakha is in accordance with the statement of the more lenient authority in matters relating to mourning.

驻谞讞住 讗讞讜讛 讚诪专 砖诪讜讗诇 讗讬转专注 讘讬讛 诪讬诇转讗 注诇 砖诪讜讗诇 诇诪讬砖讗诇 讟注诪讗 诪讬谞讬讛 讞讝谞讛讜 诇讟讜驻专讬 讚讛讜讜 谞驻讬砖谉 讗诪专 诇讬讛 讗诪讗讬 诇讗 砖拽诇转 诇讛讜 讗诪专 诇讬讛 讗讬 讘讚讬讚讬讛 讛讜讛 诪讬 诪讝诇讝诇转 讘讬讛 讻讜诇讬 讛讗讬

It was related that something unpleasant happened to Pine岣s, brother of Mar Shmuel, that is to say, one of his close relatives died. Shmuel entered to ask him the reason, i.e., to console him. He saw that Pine岣s鈥檚 nails were long, and said to him: Why do you not cut them? Pine岣s replied: If it were your relative who died, and you were in mourning, would you treat the matter so lightly and cut your nails?

讛讜讗讬 讻砖讙讙讛 砖讬爪讗 诪诇驻谞讬 讛砖诇讬讟 讜讗讬转专注 讘讬讛 诪讬诇转讗 讘砖诪讜讗诇 注诇 驻谞讞住 讗讞讜讛 诇诪讬砖讗诇 讟注诪讗 诪讬谞讬讛 砖拽诇讬谞讛讜 诇讟讜驻专讬讛 讞讘讟讬谞讛讜 诇讗驻讬讛 讗诪专 诇讬讛 诇讬转 诇讱 讘专讬转 讻专讜转讛 诇砖驻转讬诐

Pine岣s鈥檚 words were: 鈥淟ike an error that proceeds from a ruler鈥 (Ecclesiastes 10:5). As soon as he uttered them they come true, even though he did not intend them. Shortly after Pine岣s made his comment, something unpleasant happened to Shmuel, and one of his close relatives died. Pine岣s, his brother, entered to ask him the reason, i.e., to offer words of comfort. Shmuel took his nails and cast them in Pine岣s鈥檚 face. Shmuel then said to him: Do you not know the principle that a covenant is made with the lips? In other words, do you not know that what one says influences future events?

讚讗诪专 专讘讬 讬讜讞谞谉 诪谞讬谉 砖讘专讬转 讻专讜转讛 诇砖驻转讬诐 砖谞讗诪专 讜讬讗诪专 讗讘专讛诐 讗诇 谞注专讬讜 砖讘讜 诇讻诐 驻讛 注诐 讛讞诪讜专 讜讗谞讬 讜讛谞注专 谞诇讻讛 注讚 讻讛 讜谞砖转讞讜讛 讜谞砖讜讘讛 讗诇讬讻诐 讜讗讬住转讬讬注讗 诪诇转讗 讚讛讚讜专 转专讜讬讬讛讜

This is as Rabbi Yo岣nan said: From where is it derived that a covenant is made with the lips, and that one鈥檚 speech has the power to change events? For it is stated: 鈥淎nd Abraham said to his young men: Stay here with the donkey, and I and the lad will go onward; and we will worship, and we will come back to you鈥 (Genesis 22:5). Abraham said this even though he thought that he was going to sacrifice his son as an offering and that Isaac would not be returning, yet this had an influence and they both came back.

住讘讜专 诪讬谞讬讛 讚讬讚 讗讬谉 讚专讙诇 诇讗 讗诪专 专讘 注谞谉 讘专 转讞诇讬驻讗 诇讚讬讚讬 诪驻专砖讗 诇讬 诪讬谞讬讛 讚砖诪讜讗诇 诇讗 砖谞讗 讚讬讚 讜诇讗 砖谞讗 讚专讙诇

With regard to this halakha pertaining to a mourner cutting his nails: They initially concluded from this: With regard to the nails on his hand, yes, a mourner may cut them; but as for the nails on his foot, no, he may not cut them, because long toenails are less repulsive. Rav Anan bar Ta岣ifa said: It was explained to me by Shmuel himself: It is not different if it is the nails on the hand and it is not different if it is the nails on the foot, as in both cases cutting the nails is permitted.

讗诪专 专讘 讞讬讬讗 讘专 讗砖讬 讗诪专 专讘 讜讘讙谞讜住讟专讗 讗住讜专 讗诪专 专讘 砖诪谉 讘专 讗讘讗 讛讜讛 拽讗讬诪谞讗 拽诪讬讛 讚专讘讬 讬讜讞谞谉 讘讬 诪讚专砖讗 讘讞讜诇讜 砖诇 诪讜注讚 讜砖拽诇讬谞讛讜 诇讟讜驻专讬讛 讘砖讬谞讬讛 讜讝专拽讬谞讛讜

Rav 岣yya bar Ashi said that Rav said: But with scissors [genustera] specifically for nail cutting it is prohibited, i.e., the mourner should cut his nails in an alternate manner. Rav Shemen bar Abba said: I once stood before Rabbi Yo岣nan in the study hall during the intermediate days of a Festival, and he cut his nails with his teeth and threw them down.

砖诪注 诪讬谞讛 转诇转 砖诪注 诪讬谞讛 诪讜转专 诇讬讟讜诇 爪驻专谞讬诐 讘讞讜诇讜 砖诇 诪讜注讚 讜砖诪注 诪讬谞讛 讗讬谉 讘讛谉 诪砖讜诐 诪讬讗讜住 讜砖诪注 诪讬谞讛 诪讜转专 诇讝讜专拽谉

The Gemara comments: Learn from this incident of Rabbi Yo岣nan three halakhot: Learn from this that it is permitted to cut one鈥檚 nails on the intermediate days of a Festival. And learn from this that nails have no prohibition due to the fact that they are repulsive, i.e., there is no prohibition against biting them on that basis. Inasmuch as one is prohibited from placing something repulsive in his mouth, this incident teaches that nails do not fall into this category. And also learn from this that it is permitted to throw nails away.

讗讬谞讬 讜讛转谞讬讗 砖诇砖讛 讚讘专讬诐 谞讗诪专讜 讘爪驻专谞讬诐 讛拽讜讘专谉 爪讚讬拽 砖讜专驻谉 讞住讬讚 讝讜专拽谉 专砖注 讟注诪讗 诪讗讬 砖诪讗 转注讘讜专 注诇讬讛谉 讗砖讛 注讜讘专讛 讜转驻讬诇

The Gemara asks: Is that so? But isn鈥檛 it taught in a baraita: Three things were said about nails: One who buries them in the ground is deemed righteous. One who burns them is even better, as he is considered pious. One who merely throws them away is regarded as wicked. The Gemara explains: What is the reason that it is prohibited to throw away nail clippings? This is prohibited lest a pregnant women pass over them and miscarry, for the Sages had a tradition that it is dangerous for a pregnant woman to walk over fingernails.

讗砖讛 讘讬 诪讚专砖讗 诇讗 砖讻讬讞讗 讜讻讬 转讬诪讗 讝讬诪谞讬谉 讚诪讬讻谞砖讬 诇讛讜 讜砖讚讬 诇讛讜 讗讘专讗讬 讻讬讜谉 讚讗砖转谞讬 讗砖转谞讬

The Gemara answers: A woman is not usually found in the study hall, and therefore Rabbi Yo岣nan was not concerned about throwing his nail clippings there. If you say that sometimes the nails are gathered together when the floor is swept and then thrown outside where a pregnant woman may walk over them, this is not a problem. Once their place has changed the nails themselves change and are no longer harmful.

讗诪专 专讘 讬讛讜讚讛 讗诪专 专讘 讝讜讙 讘讗 诪讞诪转谉 诇驻谞讬 专讘讬 讜诪专 讝讜讟专讗 诪转谞讬 讝讜讙 讘讗 诪讞诪转谉 诇驻谞讬 专讘讬 讜讘拽砖讜 诪诪谞讜 爪驻专谞讬诐 讜讛转讬专 诇讛诐 讜讗诐 讘拽砖讜 诪诪谞讜 砖驻讛 讛转讬专 诇讛诐 讜砖诪讜讗诇 讗诪专 讗祝 讘拽砖讜 诪诪谞讜 砖驻讛 讜讛转讬专 诇讛诐

Rav Yehuda said that Rav said: A pair of Sages from 岣matan came before Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi. And Mar Zutra taught it without the names of Rav Yehuda and Rav, simply as: A pair of Sages from 岣matan came before Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi. And they asked him whether or not a mourner is permitted to cut his nails, and he permitted it to them. And had they asked him whether or not a mourner may trim his mustache, he would also have permitted it to them. And Shmuel said: They also asked him about trimming a mustache, and he permitted it to them.

讗诪专 讗讘讬讟讜诇 住驻专讗 诪砖诪讬讛 讚专讘 驻驻讗 砖驻讛 诪讝讜讬转 诇讝讜讬转 讗诪专 专讘讬 讗诪讬 讜讘砖驻讛 讛诪注讻讘转 讗诪专 专讘 谞讞诪谉 讘专 讬爪讞拽 诇讚讬讚讬 讻砖驻讛 讛诪注讻讘转 讚诪讬 诇讬

Avitul the scribe said in the name of Rav Pappa: A mustache may be trimmed from one corner to the other corner of the mouth.Rabbi Ami said: One may trim only the portion of the mustache that interferes with normal eating, but one may not trim the mustache for beautification. Rav Na岣an bar Yitz岣k said: For me, my entire mustache is considered like a mustache that interferes with normal eating, as I am particularly sensitive, and so I may trim my entire mustache.

讜讗诪专 讗讘讬讟讜诇 住驻专讗 诪砖诪讬讛 讚专讘 驻驻讗 驻专注讛 砖讛讬讛 讘讬诪讬 诪砖讛 讛讜讗 讗诪讛 讜讝拽谞讜 讗诪讛 讜驻专诪砖转拽讜 讗诪讛 讜讝专转 诇拽讬讬诐 诪讛 砖谞讗诪专 讜砖驻诇 讗谞砖讬诐 讬拽讬诐 注诇讬讛

搂 Having mentioned Avitul the scribe, the Gemara records other statements of his: And Avitul the scribe said in the name of Rav Pappa: The Pharaoh who lived in the days of Moses was a cubit tall, his beard was a cubit long, and his penis [parmashtako] was a cubit and a span, i.e., a cubit and the distance between the thumb and the little finger, in length, in order to fulfill what is stated: 鈥淎nd He sets up over it the lowest of men鈥 (Daniel 4:14), which teaches that Pharaoh was extremely short and lowly.

讜讗诪专 讗讘讬讟讜诇 住驻专讗 诪砖诪讬讛 讚专讘 驻驻讗 驻专注讛 砖讛讬讛 讘讬诪讬 诪砖讛 讗诪讙讜砖讬 讛讬讛 砖谞讗诪专 讛谞讛 讬讜爪讗 讛诪讬诪讛 讜讙讜壮

Avitul the scribe also said in the name of Rav Pappa: The Pharaoh who lived in the days of Moses was a sorcerer [amgushi], as it is stated: 鈥淏ehold, he goes out to the water鈥 (Exodus 7:15). Pharaoh would regularly go out to the water in order to engage in witchcraft.

讜讗诇讜 诪讻讘住讬谉 讘诪讜注讚 讛讘讗 诪诪讚讬谞转 讛讬诐 讗诪专 专讘 讗住讬 讗诪专 专讘讬 讬讜讞谞谉 诪讬 砖讗讬谉 诇讜 讗诇讗 讞诇讜拽 讗讞讚 诪讜转专 诇讻讘住讜 讘讞讜诇讜 砖诇 诪讜注讚

搂 The mishna taught: And these people may launder their clothes on the intermediate days of a Festival: One who comes from a country overseas. Rav Asi said that Rabbi Yo岣nan said: Anyone who has only one shirt is permitted to launder it on the intermediate days of a Festival.

诪转讬讘 专讘讬 讬专诪讬讛 讗诇讜 诪讻讘住讬谉 讘诪讜注讚 讛讘讗 诪诪讚讬谞转 讛讬诐 讻讜壮 讛谞讬 讗讬谉 诪讬 砖讗讬谉 诇讜 讗诇讗 讞诇讜拽 讗讞讚 诇讗

Rabbi Yirmeya raised an objection from what was taught in the mishna: And these people may launder their clothes on the intermediate days of a Festival: One who comes from a country overseas, and one who is released from a house of captivity, and one who comes out of prison, and one who had been ostracized and the Rabbis released him from his decree of ostracism, etc. It may be inferred: Those who are mentioned in the mishna, yes, they may launder their clothes during the intermediate days of the Festival, but one who has only one shirt may not launder it.

讗诪专 诇讬讛 专讘讬 讬注拽讘 诇专讘讬 讬专诪讬讛 讗住讘专讛 诇讱 诪转谞讬转讬谉 讗祝 注诇 讙讘 讚讗讬转 诇讬讛 转专讬 讜诪讟谞驻讬

Rabbi Ya鈥檃kov said to Rabbi Yirmeya: I will explain it to you. The mishna is referring to those cases where one is permitted to launder his clothes even if he has two changes of garments and they are dirty. Rabbi Yo岣nan speaks about one who has only one garment, and he rules that he may launder it in all circumstances.

砖诇讞 专讘 讬爪讞拽 讘专 讬注拽讘 讘专 讙讬讜专讬 诪砖诪讬讛 讚专讘讬 讬讜讞谞谉 讻诇讬 驻砖转谉 诪讜转专 诇讻讘住谉 讘讞讜诇讜 砖诇 诪讜注讚 诪转讬讘 专讘讗 诪讟驻讞讜转 讛讬讚讬诐 诪讟驻讞讜转

Rav Yitz岣k bar Ya鈥檃kov bar Giyorei sent a message in the name of Rabbi Yo岣nan: With regard to linen garments, it is permitted to launder them during the intermediate days of the Festival because they are easily soiled. Rava raised an objection from what is taught in the mishna: Hand towels, the towels

讛住驻专讬诐 讛谞讬 讗讬谉 讻诇讬 驻砖转谉 诇讗

of barbers that are used to cover a person having a haircut, and body-drying towels may all be laundered on the intermediate days of a Festival. This statement implies that these garments, yes, they may be laundered, but other types of linen garments, no, they may not be laundered.

讗诪专 诇讬讛 讗讘讬讬 诪转谞讬转讬谉 讗驻讬诇讜 讚砖讗专 诪讬谞讬 讗诪专 讘专 讛讬讚讬讗 诇讚讬讚讬 讞讝讬 诇讬 讬诪讛 砖诇 讟讘专讬讛 讚诪驻拽讬 诇讛 诪砖讬讻诇讬 讚诪谞讬 讻讬转谞讗 讘讞讜诇讗 讚诪讜注讚讗

Abaye said to him: This is not a contradiction: The mishna is referring to garments made even of other types of materials; linen garments, however, may be laundered even when they serve other purposes. Bar Hedya said: I myself saw the Sea of Tiberias, the Sea of Galilee, to which basins full of linen garments were brought out to be laundered during the intermediate days of a Festival.

诪转拽讬祝 诇讛 讗讘讬讬 诪讗谉 诇讬诪讗 诇谉 讚讘专爪讜谉 讞讻诪讬诐 注讘讚讬 讚诇诪讗 砖诇讗 讘专爪讜谉 讞讻诪讬诐 注讘讚讬

Abaye strongly objects to this: This report cannot be adduced as proof for the halakha, for who says to us that they did this in accordance with the will of the Sages? Perhaps they did it without the will of the Sages.

诪转谞讬壮 讜讗诇讜 讻讜转讘讬谉 讘诪讜注讚 拽讚讜砖讬 谞砖讬诐 讜讙讬讟讬谉 讜砖讜讘专讬谉 讚讬讬转讬拽讬 诪转谞讛 讜驻专讜讝讘讜诇讬谉 讗讬讙专讜转 砖讜诐 讜讗讬讙专讜转 诪讝讜谉

MISHNA: And these are the documents that may be written on the intermediate days of a Festival: Documents of betrothal of wives, through which bridegrooms betroth their brides; bills of divorce; receipts for the repayment of debts; wills [deyateiki]; deeds of gift; perozbolin, documents through which lenders authorize the courts to collect their loans on their behalf, thereby preventing the Sabbatical year from canceling their debts; letters of valuation, which were drawn up by the court when they valuated property and transferred it to the lender; and letters of sustenance, which were drawn up when one accepted upon himself to maintain another, e.g., his step-daughter.

砖讟专讬 讞诇讬爪讛 讜诪讬讗讜谞讬诐 讜砖讟专讬 讘讬专讜专讬谉 讙讝专讜转 讘讬转 讚讬谉 讜讗讬讙专讜转 砖诇 专砖讜转

The list continues: Documents of the ritual through which the brother-in-law frees the yevama of her levirate bonds [岣litza], thereby freeing her from the obligation to marry one of her deceased husband鈥檚 brothers; documents in which the court records the refusal of a girl upon reaching majority to remain married to the man to whom her mother or brothers married her as a minor after the death of her father; documents of arbitration, in which the court summarizes a conflict that had been resolved through arbitration; court rulings; and the official correspondence of the ruling authorities.

讙诪壮 讗诪专 砖诪讜讗诇 诪讜转专 诇讗专住 讗砖讛 讘讞讜诇讜 砖诇 诪讜注讚 砖诪讗 讬拽讚诪谞讜 讗讞专 诇讬诪讗 诪住讬讬注 诇讬讛 讜讗诇讜 讻讜转讘讬谉 讘诪讜注讚 拽讚讜砖讬 谞砖讬诐

GEMARA: Shmuel said: It is permitted to betroth a woman on the intermediate days of a Festival, lest another come and betroth her first. The Gemara asks: Let us say that the mishna supports Shmuel, who said: And these are the documents that may be drawn up on the intermediate days of a Festival: Documents of betrothal.

诪讗讬 诇讗讜 砖讟专讬 拽讚讜砖讬谉 诪诪砖 诇讗 砖讟专讬 驻住讬拽转讗 讜讻讚专讘 讙讬讚诇 讗诪专 专讘

What, is the mishna not referring to actual documents of betrothal, through which one would actually betroth a woman? The Gemara rejects this: No, the mishna is referring to documents of stipulation recording the amounts that the parents agree to pay as the dowry of their respective son or daughter, in accordance with what Rav Giddel said that Rav said.

讚讗诪专 专讘 讙讬讚诇 讗诪专 专讘 讻诪讛 讗转讛 谞讜转谉 诇讘谞讱 讻讱 讜讻讱 讻诪讛 讗转讛 谞讜转谉 诇讘转讱 讻讱 讜讻讱 注诪讚讜 讜拽讚砖讜 拽谞讜 讛谉 讛谉 讛讚讘专讬诐 讛谞拽谞讬谉 讘讗诪讬专讛

For Rav Giddel said that Rav said: When two families negotiate the terms of marriage for their respective children, and one side says to the other: How much do you give to your son as a dowry? And the second side says: I give such and such amount; how much do you give to your daughter? And the first side responds: Such and such amount, then, once the bride and groom arose and pronounced the betrothal formula, then all of these obligations are acquired and therefore binding. These are among the things that are acquired through words alone. In other words, there is no need to perform an additional act of acquisition in order to confirm the agreement, and the mishna is referring to a document recording such an agreement. Although such a document may be drawn up even on the intermediate days of a Festival, this does not mean that one may actually betroth a woman during this period.

诇讬诪讗 诪住讬讬注 诇讬讛 讗讬谉 谞讜砖讗讬谉 谞砖讬诐 讘诪讜注讚 诇讗 讘转讜诇讜转 讜诇讗 讗诇诪谞讜转 讜诇讗 诪讬讘诪讬谉 诪驻谞讬 砖砖诪讞讛 讛讬讗 诇讜 讛讗 诇讗专住 砖专讬

The Gemara asks: Let us say that the following mishna supports Shmuel: One may not marry a woman on the intermediate days of a Festival, neither a virgin nor a widow; nor may one then perform levirate marriage with his sister-in-law, if his brother died childless, because that would be a joyous occasion for him. This statement implies that it is only marrying that is prohibited, but betrothing is permitted.

诇讗 诪讬讘注讬讗 拽讗诪专 诇讗 诪讬讘注讬讗 诇讗专住 讚诇讗 拽注讘讬讚 诪爪讜讛 讗诇讗 讗驻讬诇讜 诇讬砖讗 谞诪讬 讚拽讗 注讘讬讚 诪爪讜讛 讗住讜专

The Gemara rejects this argument: This is not the correct way to understand the mishna, as it is speaking in the style of: Needless to say. It is needless to say that betrothal is not permitted, because the groom does not perform a mitzva through betrothal. Rather, the same is true even of marriage, through which one performs a mitzva, as marriage is preparation for fulfilling the mitzva of procreation. It is still not permitted.

转讗 砖诪注 讚转谞讗 讚讘讬 砖诪讜讗诇 诪讗专住讬谉 讗讘诇 诇讗 讻讜谞住讬谉 讜讗讬谉 注讜砖讬谉 住注讜讚转 讗讬专讜住讬谉 讜诇讗 诪讬讘诪讬谉 诪驻谞讬 砖砖诪讞讛 讛讬讗 诇讜 砖诪注 诪讬谞讛

The Gemara offers another support for Shmuel: Come and hear that which a Sage of the school of Shmuel taught in the following baraita: One may betroth a woman on the intermediate days of a Festival, but he may not marry her, nor may he make a betrothal feast, nor may he perform levirate marriage, because that would be a joyous occasion for him, and one may not mix the joy of a wedding with the joy of the Festival. The Gemara concludes: Learn from this a support for Shmuel鈥檚 opinion.

讜诪讬 讗诪专 砖诪讜讗诇 砖诪讗 讬拽讚诪谞讜 讗讞专 讜讛讗诪专 专讘 讬讛讜讚讛 讗诪专 砖诪讜讗诇 讘讻诇 讬讜诐 讜讬讜诐 讘转 拽讜诇 讬讜爪讗转 讜讗讜诪专转 讘转 驻诇讜谞讬 诇驻诇讜谞讬 砖讚讛 驻诇讜谞讬 诇驻诇讜谞讬

The Gemara raises a question about the ruling itself: And did Shmuel actually say that we are concerned that perhaps another man will come and betroth the woman first? But didn鈥檛 Rav Yehuda say that Shmuel said: Every day a Divine Voice issues forth and says: The daughter of so-and-so is destined to be the wife of so-and-so; the field of so-and-so will belong to so-and-so? If this is the case, why should one be concerned lest another betroth her first? It is predestined that he will marry his designated mate.

讗诇讗 砖诪讗 讬拽讚诪谞讜 讗讞专 讘专讞诪讬诐

Rather, Shmuel鈥檚 statement should be understood as follows: Perhaps another man will come and betroth her first by means of praying for divine mercy. In other words, Shmuel is concerned that the rival may beseech God to cancel the decree of the Divine Voice, and therefore the first man needs to hurry and betroth the woman before the other one has a chance to pray that he should take her from him.

讻讬 讛讗 讚专讘讗 砖诪注讬讛 诇讛讛讜讗 讙讘专讗 讚讘注讬 专讞诪讬 讜讗诪专 转讝讚诪谉 诇讬 驻诇谞讬转讗 讗诪专 诇讬讛 诇讗 转讬讘注讬 专讞诪讬 讛讻讬 讗讬 讞讝讬讗 诇讱 诇讗 讗讝诇讗 诪讬谞讱 讜讗讬 诇讗 讻驻专转 讘讛壮 讘转专 讛讻讬 砖诪注讬讛 讚拽讗诪专 讗讜 讗讬讛讜 诇讬诪讜转 诪拽诪讛 讗讜 讗讬讛讬 转诪讜转 诪拽诪讬讛 讗诪专 诇讬讛 诇讗讜 讗诪讬谞讗 诇讱 诇讗 转讬讘注讬 注诇讛 讚诪讬诇转讗

This is like this incident, in which Rava heard a certain man asking for mercy, i.e., praying, who said: Grant me so-and-so as a wife. Rava said to him: Do not pray and ask for mercy in this way. If she is fit for you, and it has been decreed that she will be your wife, she will not go away from you. And if she is not destined to be your wife, you will come to deny the Lord when you see that your prayer is not answered. After the man married this woman, Rava heard him say in prayer: Please either let him die before her or let her die before him. He was speaking about himself and his wife because he had grown to hate her so much. Rava said to him: Did I not say to you not to pray for this matter?

讛讻讬 讗诪专 专讘 诪砖讜诐 专讘讬 专讗讜讘谉 讘谉 讗爪讟专讜讘讬诇讬 诪谉 讛转讜专讛 讜诪谉 讛谞讘讬讗讬诐 讜诪谉 讛讻转讜讘讬诐 诪讛壮 讗砖讛 诇讗讬砖 诪谉 讛转讜专讛 讚讻转讬讘 讜讬注谉 诇讘谉 讜讘转讜讗诇 讜讬讗诪专讜 诪讛壮 讬爪讗 讛讚讘专 诪谉 讛谞讘讬讗讬诐 讚讻转讬讘 讜讗讘讬讜 讜讗诪讜 诇讗 讬讚注讜 讻讬 诪讛壮 讛讬讗 诪谉 讛讻转讜讘讬诐 讚讻转讬讘 讘讬转 讜讛讜谉 谞讞诇转 讗讘讜转 讜诪讛壮 讗砖讛 诪砖讻诇转

Rav said in the name of Rabbi Reuven ben Itzterobili as follows: From the Torah, and from the Prophets, and from the Writings; it implies that the decree that a specific woman is destined to be married to a specific man is from God. From where is this derived? It is from the Torah, as it is written: 鈥淭hen Laban and Bethuel answered and said: The thing comes from the Lord, we cannot speak to you either bad or good鈥 (Genesis 24:50). From the Prophets, as it is written: 鈥淏ut his father and his mother knew not that it was of the Lord鈥 (Judges 14:4). From the Writings, as it is written: 鈥淗ouse and riches are the inheritance of fathers; but a prudent woman is from the Lord鈥 (Proverbs 19:14).

讜讗诪专 专讘 诪砖讜诐 专讘讬 专讗讜讘谉 讘谉 讗爪讟专讜讘讬诇讬 讜讗诪专讬 诇讛 讘诪转谞讬转讗 转谞讗 讗诪专 专讘讬 专讗讜讘谉 讘谉 讗爪讟专讜讘讬诇讬 讗讬谉 讗讚诐 谞讞砖讚 讘讚讘专 讗诇讗 讗诐 讻谉 注砖讗讜 讜讗诐 诇讗 注砖讛 讻讜诇讜 注砖讛 诪拽爪转讜 讜讗诐 诇讗 注砖讛 诪拽爪转讜 讛专讛专 讘诇讘讜 诇注砖讜转讜 讜讗诐 诇讗 讛专讛专 讘诇讘讜 诇注砖讜转讜 专讗讛 讗讞专讬诐 砖注砖讜 讜砖诪讞

搂 Apropos a teaching of Rabbi Reuven ben Itzterobili, the Gemara states that Rav said in the name of Rabbi Reuven ben Itzterobili, and some say that it was taught in a baraita that Rabbi Reuven ben Itzterobili said: A man is suspected of having done something wrong only if he has indeed done so. And if he did not do it wholly, then probably he did it partly. And if he did not do it even partly, then probably he thought in his heart to do it. And if he did not even think to himself to do it, then certainly he saw others doing it and was happy. Suspicions do not arbitrarily arise about a person; therefore is certainly some basis for them.

诪转讬讘 专讘讬 讬注拽讘 讜讬讞驻讗讜 讘谞讬 讬砖专讗诇 讚讘专讬诐 讗砖专 诇讗 讻谉 注诇 讛壮 讗诇讛讬讛诐 讛转诐 诇讛讻注讬住 讛讜讗 讚注讘讜讚

Rabbi Ya鈥檃kov raised an objection: Does the verse not say: 鈥淎nd the children of Israel fabricated matters that were not right against the Lord their God鈥 (II聽Kings 17:9), which indicates that it is possible to make up stories about someone else even though they are entirely baseless. The Gemara answers: There they did it in order to anger God, but they did not actually think that what they were saying was true.

转讗 砖诪注 讜讬拽谞讗讜 诇诪砖讛 讘诪讞谞讛 诇讗讛专谉 拽讚讜砖 讛壮 专讘 砖诪讜讗诇 讘专 讬爪讞拽 讗诪专 诪诇诪讚 砖讻诇 讗讞讚 拽讬谞讗 诇讗砖转讜 诪诪砖讛 讛转诐 诪砖讜诐 砖谞讗讛 讛讜讗 讚注讘讜讚

Come and hear a challenge from a different source: The verse states: 鈥淎nd they were jealous of Moses in the camp, of Aaron the Lord鈥檚 holy one鈥 (Psalms 106:16). Rav Shmuel bar Yitz岣k said: This verse teaches that every man warned his wife against seclusion with Moses because he was jealous. This implies that every man thought that his wife had secluded herself with Moses and sinned, although this was certainly not the case. This demonstrates that it is possible to suspect an absolutely innocent person. The Gemara answers: There they did it out of hatred for Moses. They did not actually suspect him of wrongdoing. Instead, their goal was to degrade him by leveling these false accusations against him.

转讗 砖诪注 讗诪专 专讘讬 讬讜住讬 讬讛讗 讞诇拽讬 注诐 诪讬 砖讞讜砖讚讬谉 讗讜转讜 讘讚讘专 讜讗讬谉 讘讜 讜讗诪专 专讘 驻驻讗 诇讚讬讚讬 讞砖讚讜谉 讜诇讗 讛讜讛 讘讬

The Gemara raises another challenge, based on yet another source: Come and hear that which Rabbi Yosei said: May my portion in the future world be with one who is suspected of a certain wrongdoing but is innocent, as the pain that such a person experiences atones for his sins. This statement also appears to imply that it is possible to suspect an absolutely innocent person. And Rav Pappa said: They suspected me of a certain wrongdoing but I was not guilty.

诇讗 拽砖讬讗 讛讗 讘拽诇讗 讚驻住讬拽 讛讗 讘拽诇讗 讚诇讗 驻住讬拽 讜拽诇讗 讚诇讗 驻住讬拽 注讚 讻诪讛 讗诪专 讗讘讬讬 讗诪专讛 诇讬 讗诐 讚讜诪讬 讚诪转讗 讬讜诪讗 讜驻诇讙讗

The Gemara answers: It is not difficult. This is referring to a rumor that stops, and therefore it is possible that it is groundless, whereas that is referring to a rumor that does not stop, and in that case there must be a factual basis for the suspicion. The Gemara asks: To be considered a rumor that does not stop, for how long must it persist? Abaye said: My nurse told me: Local gossip lasts for a day and a half, and then it is deemed to be a rumor that does not stop.

讜讛谞讬 诪讬诇讬 讚诇讗 驻住拽 讘讬谞讬 讘讬谞讬 讗讘诇 驻住拽 讘讬谞讬 讘讬谞讬 诇讬转 诇谉 讘讛 讜讻讬 驻住拽 讘讬谞讬 讘讬谞讬 诇讗 讗诪专谉 讗诇讗 讚诇讗 驻住拽 诪讞诪转 讬专讗讛 讗讘诇 驻住拽 诪讞诪转 讬专讗讛 诇讗

The Gemara comments: This applies only if the rumor did not stop in between, during the day and a half, but if it stopped in between then we have no problem with it, and it is not a persistent rumor. And if the rumor stopped in between, we said that it is considered baseless only if it stopped of its own accord and not out of fear, i.e., because the suspect is violent and therefore people are afraid to speak badly about him. But if the rumor stopped out of fear, then this dispensation does not apply, and it is still assumed that there must be some basis to the rumor.

讜诇讗 讗诪专谉 讗诇讗 讚诇讗 讛讚专 谞讘讟 讗讘诇 讛讚专 谞讘讟 诇讗 讜诇讗 讗诪专谉 讗诇讗 讚诇讬转 诇讬讛 讗讜讬讘讬诐 讗讘诇 讗讬转 诇讬讛 讗讜讬讘讬诐 讗讜讬讘讬诐 讛讜讗 讚讗驻拽讜讛 诇拽诇讗

And we said that a rumor that stopped is assumed to be baseless only if it did not arise again. But if it arose again, then this does not apply. And we said that a rumor that does not stop must be taken seriously only if the slandered person has no enemies. But if he has known enemies, then it can be assumed that it was the enemies who disseminated the rumor.

诪转谞讬壮 讗讬谉 讻讜转讘讬谉 砖讟专讬 讞讜讘 讘诪讜注讚 讜讗诐 讗讬谞讜 诪讗诪讬谞讜 讗讜 砖讗讬谉 诇讜 诪讛 讬讗讻诇 讛专讬 讝讛 讬讻转讜讘

MISHNA: One may not write bills of debt on the intermediate days of a Festival. But if the lender does not trust the borrower, and he is concerned that the borrower will later deny the loan, or if the scribe has nothing to eat, then he may write a bill of debt during the Festival week.

讗讬谉 讻讜转讘讬谉 住驻专讬诐 转驻讬诇讬谉 讜诪讝讜讝讜转 讘诪讜注讚 讜讗讬谉 诪讙讬讛讬谉 讗讜转 讗讞转 讗驻讬诇讜 讘住驻专 注讝专讗 专讘讬 讬讛讜讚讛 讗讜诪专 讻讜转讘 讗讚诐 转驻讬诇讬谉 讜诪讝讜讝讜转 诇注爪诪讜

One may not write Torah scrolls, phylacteries, or mezuzot on the intermediate days of a Festival, nor may one correct a single letter, even in the Torah scroll of Ezra, which was kept in the Temple and upon which all the Jewish communities relied. Rabbi Yehuda says: One may write phylacteries and mezuzot for himself on the intermediate days of a Festival if he needs them.

This month鈥檚 shiurim are dedicated by Efrat Arnold in loving memory of Joshua Carr, Yehoshua Aryeh Leib ben Yonatan Chaim and Malka Esther HaCohen.

And by Tova and David Kestenbaum in honor of their children and grandchildren.

  • This month's learning is dedicated by Debbie and Yossi Gevir to Rabbanit Michelle and the Hadran Zoom group for their kindness, support, and care during a medically challenging year.

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Moed Katan 18: Is There Fire Where There’s Smoke?

Cutting nails on Chol HaMoed - and the implications of seeing long nails on another person. Plus, the connection to...

Moed Katan 18

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Moed Katan 18

讛诇讻讛 讻专讘讬 讬讜住讬 讘诪讜注讚 讜讘讗讘诇 讚讗诪专 砖诪讜讗诇 讛诇讻讛 讻讚讘专讬 讛诪讬拽诇 讘讗讘诇

The halakha is in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Yosei with regard to the intermediate days of the Festival and with regard to mourning, as Shmuel said this general principle: The halakha is in accordance with the statement of the more lenient authority in matters relating to mourning.

驻谞讞住 讗讞讜讛 讚诪专 砖诪讜讗诇 讗讬转专注 讘讬讛 诪讬诇转讗 注诇 砖诪讜讗诇 诇诪讬砖讗诇 讟注诪讗 诪讬谞讬讛 讞讝谞讛讜 诇讟讜驻专讬 讚讛讜讜 谞驻讬砖谉 讗诪专 诇讬讛 讗诪讗讬 诇讗 砖拽诇转 诇讛讜 讗诪专 诇讬讛 讗讬 讘讚讬讚讬讛 讛讜讛 诪讬 诪讝诇讝诇转 讘讬讛 讻讜诇讬 讛讗讬

It was related that something unpleasant happened to Pine岣s, brother of Mar Shmuel, that is to say, one of his close relatives died. Shmuel entered to ask him the reason, i.e., to console him. He saw that Pine岣s鈥檚 nails were long, and said to him: Why do you not cut them? Pine岣s replied: If it were your relative who died, and you were in mourning, would you treat the matter so lightly and cut your nails?

讛讜讗讬 讻砖讙讙讛 砖讬爪讗 诪诇驻谞讬 讛砖诇讬讟 讜讗讬转专注 讘讬讛 诪讬诇转讗 讘砖诪讜讗诇 注诇 驻谞讞住 讗讞讜讛 诇诪讬砖讗诇 讟注诪讗 诪讬谞讬讛 砖拽诇讬谞讛讜 诇讟讜驻专讬讛 讞讘讟讬谞讛讜 诇讗驻讬讛 讗诪专 诇讬讛 诇讬转 诇讱 讘专讬转 讻专讜转讛 诇砖驻转讬诐

Pine岣s鈥檚 words were: 鈥淟ike an error that proceeds from a ruler鈥 (Ecclesiastes 10:5). As soon as he uttered them they come true, even though he did not intend them. Shortly after Pine岣s made his comment, something unpleasant happened to Shmuel, and one of his close relatives died. Pine岣s, his brother, entered to ask him the reason, i.e., to offer words of comfort. Shmuel took his nails and cast them in Pine岣s鈥檚 face. Shmuel then said to him: Do you not know the principle that a covenant is made with the lips? In other words, do you not know that what one says influences future events?

讚讗诪专 专讘讬 讬讜讞谞谉 诪谞讬谉 砖讘专讬转 讻专讜转讛 诇砖驻转讬诐 砖谞讗诪专 讜讬讗诪专 讗讘专讛诐 讗诇 谞注专讬讜 砖讘讜 诇讻诐 驻讛 注诐 讛讞诪讜专 讜讗谞讬 讜讛谞注专 谞诇讻讛 注讚 讻讛 讜谞砖转讞讜讛 讜谞砖讜讘讛 讗诇讬讻诐 讜讗讬住转讬讬注讗 诪诇转讗 讚讛讚讜专 转专讜讬讬讛讜

This is as Rabbi Yo岣nan said: From where is it derived that a covenant is made with the lips, and that one鈥檚 speech has the power to change events? For it is stated: 鈥淎nd Abraham said to his young men: Stay here with the donkey, and I and the lad will go onward; and we will worship, and we will come back to you鈥 (Genesis 22:5). Abraham said this even though he thought that he was going to sacrifice his son as an offering and that Isaac would not be returning, yet this had an influence and they both came back.

住讘讜专 诪讬谞讬讛 讚讬讚 讗讬谉 讚专讙诇 诇讗 讗诪专 专讘 注谞谉 讘专 转讞诇讬驻讗 诇讚讬讚讬 诪驻专砖讗 诇讬 诪讬谞讬讛 讚砖诪讜讗诇 诇讗 砖谞讗 讚讬讚 讜诇讗 砖谞讗 讚专讙诇

With regard to this halakha pertaining to a mourner cutting his nails: They initially concluded from this: With regard to the nails on his hand, yes, a mourner may cut them; but as for the nails on his foot, no, he may not cut them, because long toenails are less repulsive. Rav Anan bar Ta岣ifa said: It was explained to me by Shmuel himself: It is not different if it is the nails on the hand and it is not different if it is the nails on the foot, as in both cases cutting the nails is permitted.

讗诪专 专讘 讞讬讬讗 讘专 讗砖讬 讗诪专 专讘 讜讘讙谞讜住讟专讗 讗住讜专 讗诪专 专讘 砖诪谉 讘专 讗讘讗 讛讜讛 拽讗讬诪谞讗 拽诪讬讛 讚专讘讬 讬讜讞谞谉 讘讬 诪讚专砖讗 讘讞讜诇讜 砖诇 诪讜注讚 讜砖拽诇讬谞讛讜 诇讟讜驻专讬讛 讘砖讬谞讬讛 讜讝专拽讬谞讛讜

Rav 岣yya bar Ashi said that Rav said: But with scissors [genustera] specifically for nail cutting it is prohibited, i.e., the mourner should cut his nails in an alternate manner. Rav Shemen bar Abba said: I once stood before Rabbi Yo岣nan in the study hall during the intermediate days of a Festival, and he cut his nails with his teeth and threw them down.

砖诪注 诪讬谞讛 转诇转 砖诪注 诪讬谞讛 诪讜转专 诇讬讟讜诇 爪驻专谞讬诐 讘讞讜诇讜 砖诇 诪讜注讚 讜砖诪注 诪讬谞讛 讗讬谉 讘讛谉 诪砖讜诐 诪讬讗讜住 讜砖诪注 诪讬谞讛 诪讜转专 诇讝讜专拽谉

The Gemara comments: Learn from this incident of Rabbi Yo岣nan three halakhot: Learn from this that it is permitted to cut one鈥檚 nails on the intermediate days of a Festival. And learn from this that nails have no prohibition due to the fact that they are repulsive, i.e., there is no prohibition against biting them on that basis. Inasmuch as one is prohibited from placing something repulsive in his mouth, this incident teaches that nails do not fall into this category. And also learn from this that it is permitted to throw nails away.

讗讬谞讬 讜讛转谞讬讗 砖诇砖讛 讚讘专讬诐 谞讗诪专讜 讘爪驻专谞讬诐 讛拽讜讘专谉 爪讚讬拽 砖讜专驻谉 讞住讬讚 讝讜专拽谉 专砖注 讟注诪讗 诪讗讬 砖诪讗 转注讘讜专 注诇讬讛谉 讗砖讛 注讜讘专讛 讜转驻讬诇

The Gemara asks: Is that so? But isn鈥檛 it taught in a baraita: Three things were said about nails: One who buries them in the ground is deemed righteous. One who burns them is even better, as he is considered pious. One who merely throws them away is regarded as wicked. The Gemara explains: What is the reason that it is prohibited to throw away nail clippings? This is prohibited lest a pregnant women pass over them and miscarry, for the Sages had a tradition that it is dangerous for a pregnant woman to walk over fingernails.

讗砖讛 讘讬 诪讚专砖讗 诇讗 砖讻讬讞讗 讜讻讬 转讬诪讗 讝讬诪谞讬谉 讚诪讬讻谞砖讬 诇讛讜 讜砖讚讬 诇讛讜 讗讘专讗讬 讻讬讜谉 讚讗砖转谞讬 讗砖转谞讬

The Gemara answers: A woman is not usually found in the study hall, and therefore Rabbi Yo岣nan was not concerned about throwing his nail clippings there. If you say that sometimes the nails are gathered together when the floor is swept and then thrown outside where a pregnant woman may walk over them, this is not a problem. Once their place has changed the nails themselves change and are no longer harmful.

讗诪专 专讘 讬讛讜讚讛 讗诪专 专讘 讝讜讙 讘讗 诪讞诪转谉 诇驻谞讬 专讘讬 讜诪专 讝讜讟专讗 诪转谞讬 讝讜讙 讘讗 诪讞诪转谉 诇驻谞讬 专讘讬 讜讘拽砖讜 诪诪谞讜 爪驻专谞讬诐 讜讛转讬专 诇讛诐 讜讗诐 讘拽砖讜 诪诪谞讜 砖驻讛 讛转讬专 诇讛诐 讜砖诪讜讗诇 讗诪专 讗祝 讘拽砖讜 诪诪谞讜 砖驻讛 讜讛转讬专 诇讛诐

Rav Yehuda said that Rav said: A pair of Sages from 岣matan came before Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi. And Mar Zutra taught it without the names of Rav Yehuda and Rav, simply as: A pair of Sages from 岣matan came before Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi. And they asked him whether or not a mourner is permitted to cut his nails, and he permitted it to them. And had they asked him whether or not a mourner may trim his mustache, he would also have permitted it to them. And Shmuel said: They also asked him about trimming a mustache, and he permitted it to them.

讗诪专 讗讘讬讟讜诇 住驻专讗 诪砖诪讬讛 讚专讘 驻驻讗 砖驻讛 诪讝讜讬转 诇讝讜讬转 讗诪专 专讘讬 讗诪讬 讜讘砖驻讛 讛诪注讻讘转 讗诪专 专讘 谞讞诪谉 讘专 讬爪讞拽 诇讚讬讚讬 讻砖驻讛 讛诪注讻讘转 讚诪讬 诇讬

Avitul the scribe said in the name of Rav Pappa: A mustache may be trimmed from one corner to the other corner of the mouth.Rabbi Ami said: One may trim only the portion of the mustache that interferes with normal eating, but one may not trim the mustache for beautification. Rav Na岣an bar Yitz岣k said: For me, my entire mustache is considered like a mustache that interferes with normal eating, as I am particularly sensitive, and so I may trim my entire mustache.

讜讗诪专 讗讘讬讟讜诇 住驻专讗 诪砖诪讬讛 讚专讘 驻驻讗 驻专注讛 砖讛讬讛 讘讬诪讬 诪砖讛 讛讜讗 讗诪讛 讜讝拽谞讜 讗诪讛 讜驻专诪砖转拽讜 讗诪讛 讜讝专转 诇拽讬讬诐 诪讛 砖谞讗诪专 讜砖驻诇 讗谞砖讬诐 讬拽讬诐 注诇讬讛

搂 Having mentioned Avitul the scribe, the Gemara records other statements of his: And Avitul the scribe said in the name of Rav Pappa: The Pharaoh who lived in the days of Moses was a cubit tall, his beard was a cubit long, and his penis [parmashtako] was a cubit and a span, i.e., a cubit and the distance between the thumb and the little finger, in length, in order to fulfill what is stated: 鈥淎nd He sets up over it the lowest of men鈥 (Daniel 4:14), which teaches that Pharaoh was extremely short and lowly.

讜讗诪专 讗讘讬讟讜诇 住驻专讗 诪砖诪讬讛 讚专讘 驻驻讗 驻专注讛 砖讛讬讛 讘讬诪讬 诪砖讛 讗诪讙讜砖讬 讛讬讛 砖谞讗诪专 讛谞讛 讬讜爪讗 讛诪讬诪讛 讜讙讜壮

Avitul the scribe also said in the name of Rav Pappa: The Pharaoh who lived in the days of Moses was a sorcerer [amgushi], as it is stated: 鈥淏ehold, he goes out to the water鈥 (Exodus 7:15). Pharaoh would regularly go out to the water in order to engage in witchcraft.

讜讗诇讜 诪讻讘住讬谉 讘诪讜注讚 讛讘讗 诪诪讚讬谞转 讛讬诐 讗诪专 专讘 讗住讬 讗诪专 专讘讬 讬讜讞谞谉 诪讬 砖讗讬谉 诇讜 讗诇讗 讞诇讜拽 讗讞讚 诪讜转专 诇讻讘住讜 讘讞讜诇讜 砖诇 诪讜注讚

搂 The mishna taught: And these people may launder their clothes on the intermediate days of a Festival: One who comes from a country overseas. Rav Asi said that Rabbi Yo岣nan said: Anyone who has only one shirt is permitted to launder it on the intermediate days of a Festival.

诪转讬讘 专讘讬 讬专诪讬讛 讗诇讜 诪讻讘住讬谉 讘诪讜注讚 讛讘讗 诪诪讚讬谞转 讛讬诐 讻讜壮 讛谞讬 讗讬谉 诪讬 砖讗讬谉 诇讜 讗诇讗 讞诇讜拽 讗讞讚 诇讗

Rabbi Yirmeya raised an objection from what was taught in the mishna: And these people may launder their clothes on the intermediate days of a Festival: One who comes from a country overseas, and one who is released from a house of captivity, and one who comes out of prison, and one who had been ostracized and the Rabbis released him from his decree of ostracism, etc. It may be inferred: Those who are mentioned in the mishna, yes, they may launder their clothes during the intermediate days of the Festival, but one who has only one shirt may not launder it.

讗诪专 诇讬讛 专讘讬 讬注拽讘 诇专讘讬 讬专诪讬讛 讗住讘专讛 诇讱 诪转谞讬转讬谉 讗祝 注诇 讙讘 讚讗讬转 诇讬讛 转专讬 讜诪讟谞驻讬

Rabbi Ya鈥檃kov said to Rabbi Yirmeya: I will explain it to you. The mishna is referring to those cases where one is permitted to launder his clothes even if he has two changes of garments and they are dirty. Rabbi Yo岣nan speaks about one who has only one garment, and he rules that he may launder it in all circumstances.

砖诇讞 专讘 讬爪讞拽 讘专 讬注拽讘 讘专 讙讬讜专讬 诪砖诪讬讛 讚专讘讬 讬讜讞谞谉 讻诇讬 驻砖转谉 诪讜转专 诇讻讘住谉 讘讞讜诇讜 砖诇 诪讜注讚 诪转讬讘 专讘讗 诪讟驻讞讜转 讛讬讚讬诐 诪讟驻讞讜转

Rav Yitz岣k bar Ya鈥檃kov bar Giyorei sent a message in the name of Rabbi Yo岣nan: With regard to linen garments, it is permitted to launder them during the intermediate days of the Festival because they are easily soiled. Rava raised an objection from what is taught in the mishna: Hand towels, the towels

讛住驻专讬诐 讛谞讬 讗讬谉 讻诇讬 驻砖转谉 诇讗

of barbers that are used to cover a person having a haircut, and body-drying towels may all be laundered on the intermediate days of a Festival. This statement implies that these garments, yes, they may be laundered, but other types of linen garments, no, they may not be laundered.

讗诪专 诇讬讛 讗讘讬讬 诪转谞讬转讬谉 讗驻讬诇讜 讚砖讗专 诪讬谞讬 讗诪专 讘专 讛讬讚讬讗 诇讚讬讚讬 讞讝讬 诇讬 讬诪讛 砖诇 讟讘专讬讛 讚诪驻拽讬 诇讛 诪砖讬讻诇讬 讚诪谞讬 讻讬转谞讗 讘讞讜诇讗 讚诪讜注讚讗

Abaye said to him: This is not a contradiction: The mishna is referring to garments made even of other types of materials; linen garments, however, may be laundered even when they serve other purposes. Bar Hedya said: I myself saw the Sea of Tiberias, the Sea of Galilee, to which basins full of linen garments were brought out to be laundered during the intermediate days of a Festival.

诪转拽讬祝 诇讛 讗讘讬讬 诪讗谉 诇讬诪讗 诇谉 讚讘专爪讜谉 讞讻诪讬诐 注讘讚讬 讚诇诪讗 砖诇讗 讘专爪讜谉 讞讻诪讬诐 注讘讚讬

Abaye strongly objects to this: This report cannot be adduced as proof for the halakha, for who says to us that they did this in accordance with the will of the Sages? Perhaps they did it without the will of the Sages.

诪转谞讬壮 讜讗诇讜 讻讜转讘讬谉 讘诪讜注讚 拽讚讜砖讬 谞砖讬诐 讜讙讬讟讬谉 讜砖讜讘专讬谉 讚讬讬转讬拽讬 诪转谞讛 讜驻专讜讝讘讜诇讬谉 讗讬讙专讜转 砖讜诐 讜讗讬讙专讜转 诪讝讜谉

MISHNA: And these are the documents that may be written on the intermediate days of a Festival: Documents of betrothal of wives, through which bridegrooms betroth their brides; bills of divorce; receipts for the repayment of debts; wills [deyateiki]; deeds of gift; perozbolin, documents through which lenders authorize the courts to collect their loans on their behalf, thereby preventing the Sabbatical year from canceling their debts; letters of valuation, which were drawn up by the court when they valuated property and transferred it to the lender; and letters of sustenance, which were drawn up when one accepted upon himself to maintain another, e.g., his step-daughter.

砖讟专讬 讞诇讬爪讛 讜诪讬讗讜谞讬诐 讜砖讟专讬 讘讬专讜专讬谉 讙讝专讜转 讘讬转 讚讬谉 讜讗讬讙专讜转 砖诇 专砖讜转

The list continues: Documents of the ritual through which the brother-in-law frees the yevama of her levirate bonds [岣litza], thereby freeing her from the obligation to marry one of her deceased husband鈥檚 brothers; documents in which the court records the refusal of a girl upon reaching majority to remain married to the man to whom her mother or brothers married her as a minor after the death of her father; documents of arbitration, in which the court summarizes a conflict that had been resolved through arbitration; court rulings; and the official correspondence of the ruling authorities.

讙诪壮 讗诪专 砖诪讜讗诇 诪讜转专 诇讗专住 讗砖讛 讘讞讜诇讜 砖诇 诪讜注讚 砖诪讗 讬拽讚诪谞讜 讗讞专 诇讬诪讗 诪住讬讬注 诇讬讛 讜讗诇讜 讻讜转讘讬谉 讘诪讜注讚 拽讚讜砖讬 谞砖讬诐

GEMARA: Shmuel said: It is permitted to betroth a woman on the intermediate days of a Festival, lest another come and betroth her first. The Gemara asks: Let us say that the mishna supports Shmuel, who said: And these are the documents that may be drawn up on the intermediate days of a Festival: Documents of betrothal.

诪讗讬 诇讗讜 砖讟专讬 拽讚讜砖讬谉 诪诪砖 诇讗 砖讟专讬 驻住讬拽转讗 讜讻讚专讘 讙讬讚诇 讗诪专 专讘

What, is the mishna not referring to actual documents of betrothal, through which one would actually betroth a woman? The Gemara rejects this: No, the mishna is referring to documents of stipulation recording the amounts that the parents agree to pay as the dowry of their respective son or daughter, in accordance with what Rav Giddel said that Rav said.

讚讗诪专 专讘 讙讬讚诇 讗诪专 专讘 讻诪讛 讗转讛 谞讜转谉 诇讘谞讱 讻讱 讜讻讱 讻诪讛 讗转讛 谞讜转谉 诇讘转讱 讻讱 讜讻讱 注诪讚讜 讜拽讚砖讜 拽谞讜 讛谉 讛谉 讛讚讘专讬诐 讛谞拽谞讬谉 讘讗诪讬专讛

For Rav Giddel said that Rav said: When two families negotiate the terms of marriage for their respective children, and one side says to the other: How much do you give to your son as a dowry? And the second side says: I give such and such amount; how much do you give to your daughter? And the first side responds: Such and such amount, then, once the bride and groom arose and pronounced the betrothal formula, then all of these obligations are acquired and therefore binding. These are among the things that are acquired through words alone. In other words, there is no need to perform an additional act of acquisition in order to confirm the agreement, and the mishna is referring to a document recording such an agreement. Although such a document may be drawn up even on the intermediate days of a Festival, this does not mean that one may actually betroth a woman during this period.

诇讬诪讗 诪住讬讬注 诇讬讛 讗讬谉 谞讜砖讗讬谉 谞砖讬诐 讘诪讜注讚 诇讗 讘转讜诇讜转 讜诇讗 讗诇诪谞讜转 讜诇讗 诪讬讘诪讬谉 诪驻谞讬 砖砖诪讞讛 讛讬讗 诇讜 讛讗 诇讗专住 砖专讬

The Gemara asks: Let us say that the following mishna supports Shmuel: One may not marry a woman on the intermediate days of a Festival, neither a virgin nor a widow; nor may one then perform levirate marriage with his sister-in-law, if his brother died childless, because that would be a joyous occasion for him. This statement implies that it is only marrying that is prohibited, but betrothing is permitted.

诇讗 诪讬讘注讬讗 拽讗诪专 诇讗 诪讬讘注讬讗 诇讗专住 讚诇讗 拽注讘讬讚 诪爪讜讛 讗诇讗 讗驻讬诇讜 诇讬砖讗 谞诪讬 讚拽讗 注讘讬讚 诪爪讜讛 讗住讜专

The Gemara rejects this argument: This is not the correct way to understand the mishna, as it is speaking in the style of: Needless to say. It is needless to say that betrothal is not permitted, because the groom does not perform a mitzva through betrothal. Rather, the same is true even of marriage, through which one performs a mitzva, as marriage is preparation for fulfilling the mitzva of procreation. It is still not permitted.

转讗 砖诪注 讚转谞讗 讚讘讬 砖诪讜讗诇 诪讗专住讬谉 讗讘诇 诇讗 讻讜谞住讬谉 讜讗讬谉 注讜砖讬谉 住注讜讚转 讗讬专讜住讬谉 讜诇讗 诪讬讘诪讬谉 诪驻谞讬 砖砖诪讞讛 讛讬讗 诇讜 砖诪注 诪讬谞讛

The Gemara offers another support for Shmuel: Come and hear that which a Sage of the school of Shmuel taught in the following baraita: One may betroth a woman on the intermediate days of a Festival, but he may not marry her, nor may he make a betrothal feast, nor may he perform levirate marriage, because that would be a joyous occasion for him, and one may not mix the joy of a wedding with the joy of the Festival. The Gemara concludes: Learn from this a support for Shmuel鈥檚 opinion.

讜诪讬 讗诪专 砖诪讜讗诇 砖诪讗 讬拽讚诪谞讜 讗讞专 讜讛讗诪专 专讘 讬讛讜讚讛 讗诪专 砖诪讜讗诇 讘讻诇 讬讜诐 讜讬讜诐 讘转 拽讜诇 讬讜爪讗转 讜讗讜诪专转 讘转 驻诇讜谞讬 诇驻诇讜谞讬 砖讚讛 驻诇讜谞讬 诇驻诇讜谞讬

The Gemara raises a question about the ruling itself: And did Shmuel actually say that we are concerned that perhaps another man will come and betroth the woman first? But didn鈥檛 Rav Yehuda say that Shmuel said: Every day a Divine Voice issues forth and says: The daughter of so-and-so is destined to be the wife of so-and-so; the field of so-and-so will belong to so-and-so? If this is the case, why should one be concerned lest another betroth her first? It is predestined that he will marry his designated mate.

讗诇讗 砖诪讗 讬拽讚诪谞讜 讗讞专 讘专讞诪讬诐

Rather, Shmuel鈥檚 statement should be understood as follows: Perhaps another man will come and betroth her first by means of praying for divine mercy. In other words, Shmuel is concerned that the rival may beseech God to cancel the decree of the Divine Voice, and therefore the first man needs to hurry and betroth the woman before the other one has a chance to pray that he should take her from him.

讻讬 讛讗 讚专讘讗 砖诪注讬讛 诇讛讛讜讗 讙讘专讗 讚讘注讬 专讞诪讬 讜讗诪专 转讝讚诪谉 诇讬 驻诇谞讬转讗 讗诪专 诇讬讛 诇讗 转讬讘注讬 专讞诪讬 讛讻讬 讗讬 讞讝讬讗 诇讱 诇讗 讗讝诇讗 诪讬谞讱 讜讗讬 诇讗 讻驻专转 讘讛壮 讘转专 讛讻讬 砖诪注讬讛 讚拽讗诪专 讗讜 讗讬讛讜 诇讬诪讜转 诪拽诪讛 讗讜 讗讬讛讬 转诪讜转 诪拽诪讬讛 讗诪专 诇讬讛 诇讗讜 讗诪讬谞讗 诇讱 诇讗 转讬讘注讬 注诇讛 讚诪讬诇转讗

This is like this incident, in which Rava heard a certain man asking for mercy, i.e., praying, who said: Grant me so-and-so as a wife. Rava said to him: Do not pray and ask for mercy in this way. If she is fit for you, and it has been decreed that she will be your wife, she will not go away from you. And if she is not destined to be your wife, you will come to deny the Lord when you see that your prayer is not answered. After the man married this woman, Rava heard him say in prayer: Please either let him die before her or let her die before him. He was speaking about himself and his wife because he had grown to hate her so much. Rava said to him: Did I not say to you not to pray for this matter?

讛讻讬 讗诪专 专讘 诪砖讜诐 专讘讬 专讗讜讘谉 讘谉 讗爪讟专讜讘讬诇讬 诪谉 讛转讜专讛 讜诪谉 讛谞讘讬讗讬诐 讜诪谉 讛讻转讜讘讬诐 诪讛壮 讗砖讛 诇讗讬砖 诪谉 讛转讜专讛 讚讻转讬讘 讜讬注谉 诇讘谉 讜讘转讜讗诇 讜讬讗诪专讜 诪讛壮 讬爪讗 讛讚讘专 诪谉 讛谞讘讬讗讬诐 讚讻转讬讘 讜讗讘讬讜 讜讗诪讜 诇讗 讬讚注讜 讻讬 诪讛壮 讛讬讗 诪谉 讛讻转讜讘讬诐 讚讻转讬讘 讘讬转 讜讛讜谉 谞讞诇转 讗讘讜转 讜诪讛壮 讗砖讛 诪砖讻诇转

Rav said in the name of Rabbi Reuven ben Itzterobili as follows: From the Torah, and from the Prophets, and from the Writings; it implies that the decree that a specific woman is destined to be married to a specific man is from God. From where is this derived? It is from the Torah, as it is written: 鈥淭hen Laban and Bethuel answered and said: The thing comes from the Lord, we cannot speak to you either bad or good鈥 (Genesis 24:50). From the Prophets, as it is written: 鈥淏ut his father and his mother knew not that it was of the Lord鈥 (Judges 14:4). From the Writings, as it is written: 鈥淗ouse and riches are the inheritance of fathers; but a prudent woman is from the Lord鈥 (Proverbs 19:14).

讜讗诪专 专讘 诪砖讜诐 专讘讬 专讗讜讘谉 讘谉 讗爪讟专讜讘讬诇讬 讜讗诪专讬 诇讛 讘诪转谞讬转讗 转谞讗 讗诪专 专讘讬 专讗讜讘谉 讘谉 讗爪讟专讜讘讬诇讬 讗讬谉 讗讚诐 谞讞砖讚 讘讚讘专 讗诇讗 讗诐 讻谉 注砖讗讜 讜讗诐 诇讗 注砖讛 讻讜诇讜 注砖讛 诪拽爪转讜 讜讗诐 诇讗 注砖讛 诪拽爪转讜 讛专讛专 讘诇讘讜 诇注砖讜转讜 讜讗诐 诇讗 讛专讛专 讘诇讘讜 诇注砖讜转讜 专讗讛 讗讞专讬诐 砖注砖讜 讜砖诪讞

搂 Apropos a teaching of Rabbi Reuven ben Itzterobili, the Gemara states that Rav said in the name of Rabbi Reuven ben Itzterobili, and some say that it was taught in a baraita that Rabbi Reuven ben Itzterobili said: A man is suspected of having done something wrong only if he has indeed done so. And if he did not do it wholly, then probably he did it partly. And if he did not do it even partly, then probably he thought in his heart to do it. And if he did not even think to himself to do it, then certainly he saw others doing it and was happy. Suspicions do not arbitrarily arise about a person; therefore is certainly some basis for them.

诪转讬讘 专讘讬 讬注拽讘 讜讬讞驻讗讜 讘谞讬 讬砖专讗诇 讚讘专讬诐 讗砖专 诇讗 讻谉 注诇 讛壮 讗诇讛讬讛诐 讛转诐 诇讛讻注讬住 讛讜讗 讚注讘讜讚

Rabbi Ya鈥檃kov raised an objection: Does the verse not say: 鈥淎nd the children of Israel fabricated matters that were not right against the Lord their God鈥 (II聽Kings 17:9), which indicates that it is possible to make up stories about someone else even though they are entirely baseless. The Gemara answers: There they did it in order to anger God, but they did not actually think that what they were saying was true.

转讗 砖诪注 讜讬拽谞讗讜 诇诪砖讛 讘诪讞谞讛 诇讗讛专谉 拽讚讜砖 讛壮 专讘 砖诪讜讗诇 讘专 讬爪讞拽 讗诪专 诪诇诪讚 砖讻诇 讗讞讚 拽讬谞讗 诇讗砖转讜 诪诪砖讛 讛转诐 诪砖讜诐 砖谞讗讛 讛讜讗 讚注讘讜讚

Come and hear a challenge from a different source: The verse states: 鈥淎nd they were jealous of Moses in the camp, of Aaron the Lord鈥檚 holy one鈥 (Psalms 106:16). Rav Shmuel bar Yitz岣k said: This verse teaches that every man warned his wife against seclusion with Moses because he was jealous. This implies that every man thought that his wife had secluded herself with Moses and sinned, although this was certainly not the case. This demonstrates that it is possible to suspect an absolutely innocent person. The Gemara answers: There they did it out of hatred for Moses. They did not actually suspect him of wrongdoing. Instead, their goal was to degrade him by leveling these false accusations against him.

转讗 砖诪注 讗诪专 专讘讬 讬讜住讬 讬讛讗 讞诇拽讬 注诐 诪讬 砖讞讜砖讚讬谉 讗讜转讜 讘讚讘专 讜讗讬谉 讘讜 讜讗诪专 专讘 驻驻讗 诇讚讬讚讬 讞砖讚讜谉 讜诇讗 讛讜讛 讘讬

The Gemara raises another challenge, based on yet another source: Come and hear that which Rabbi Yosei said: May my portion in the future world be with one who is suspected of a certain wrongdoing but is innocent, as the pain that such a person experiences atones for his sins. This statement also appears to imply that it is possible to suspect an absolutely innocent person. And Rav Pappa said: They suspected me of a certain wrongdoing but I was not guilty.

诇讗 拽砖讬讗 讛讗 讘拽诇讗 讚驻住讬拽 讛讗 讘拽诇讗 讚诇讗 驻住讬拽 讜拽诇讗 讚诇讗 驻住讬拽 注讚 讻诪讛 讗诪专 讗讘讬讬 讗诪专讛 诇讬 讗诐 讚讜诪讬 讚诪转讗 讬讜诪讗 讜驻诇讙讗

The Gemara answers: It is not difficult. This is referring to a rumor that stops, and therefore it is possible that it is groundless, whereas that is referring to a rumor that does not stop, and in that case there must be a factual basis for the suspicion. The Gemara asks: To be considered a rumor that does not stop, for how long must it persist? Abaye said: My nurse told me: Local gossip lasts for a day and a half, and then it is deemed to be a rumor that does not stop.

讜讛谞讬 诪讬诇讬 讚诇讗 驻住拽 讘讬谞讬 讘讬谞讬 讗讘诇 驻住拽 讘讬谞讬 讘讬谞讬 诇讬转 诇谉 讘讛 讜讻讬 驻住拽 讘讬谞讬 讘讬谞讬 诇讗 讗诪专谉 讗诇讗 讚诇讗 驻住拽 诪讞诪转 讬专讗讛 讗讘诇 驻住拽 诪讞诪转 讬专讗讛 诇讗

The Gemara comments: This applies only if the rumor did not stop in between, during the day and a half, but if it stopped in between then we have no problem with it, and it is not a persistent rumor. And if the rumor stopped in between, we said that it is considered baseless only if it stopped of its own accord and not out of fear, i.e., because the suspect is violent and therefore people are afraid to speak badly about him. But if the rumor stopped out of fear, then this dispensation does not apply, and it is still assumed that there must be some basis to the rumor.

讜诇讗 讗诪专谉 讗诇讗 讚诇讗 讛讚专 谞讘讟 讗讘诇 讛讚专 谞讘讟 诇讗 讜诇讗 讗诪专谉 讗诇讗 讚诇讬转 诇讬讛 讗讜讬讘讬诐 讗讘诇 讗讬转 诇讬讛 讗讜讬讘讬诐 讗讜讬讘讬诐 讛讜讗 讚讗驻拽讜讛 诇拽诇讗

And we said that a rumor that stopped is assumed to be baseless only if it did not arise again. But if it arose again, then this does not apply. And we said that a rumor that does not stop must be taken seriously only if the slandered person has no enemies. But if he has known enemies, then it can be assumed that it was the enemies who disseminated the rumor.

诪转谞讬壮 讗讬谉 讻讜转讘讬谉 砖讟专讬 讞讜讘 讘诪讜注讚 讜讗诐 讗讬谞讜 诪讗诪讬谞讜 讗讜 砖讗讬谉 诇讜 诪讛 讬讗讻诇 讛专讬 讝讛 讬讻转讜讘

MISHNA: One may not write bills of debt on the intermediate days of a Festival. But if the lender does not trust the borrower, and he is concerned that the borrower will later deny the loan, or if the scribe has nothing to eat, then he may write a bill of debt during the Festival week.

讗讬谉 讻讜转讘讬谉 住驻专讬诐 转驻讬诇讬谉 讜诪讝讜讝讜转 讘诪讜注讚 讜讗讬谉 诪讙讬讛讬谉 讗讜转 讗讞转 讗驻讬诇讜 讘住驻专 注讝专讗 专讘讬 讬讛讜讚讛 讗讜诪专 讻讜转讘 讗讚诐 转驻讬诇讬谉 讜诪讝讜讝讜转 诇注爪诪讜

One may not write Torah scrolls, phylacteries, or mezuzot on the intermediate days of a Festival, nor may one correct a single letter, even in the Torah scroll of Ezra, which was kept in the Temple and upon which all the Jewish communities relied. Rabbi Yehuda says: One may write phylacteries and mezuzot for himself on the intermediate days of a Festival if he needs them.

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