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Today's Daf Yomi

February 2, 2022 | 讗壮 讘讗讚专 讗壮 转砖驻状讘

  • This month's learning is dedicated by Debbie and Yossi Gevir to Rabbanit Michelle and the Hadran Zoom group for their kindness, support, and care during a medically challenging year.

Moed Katan 21

This month鈥檚 shiurim are dedicated by Ruth Rotenberg in loving memory of her daughter Tanielle Miller, a”h, on her 17th yahrzeit and David Ze鈥檈v Rotenberg on his recent passing. 鈥淭oday we celebrate and commemorate Tanielle鈥檚 short and powerful life. She loved learning, Israel, and doing chessed. We are grateful to family and friends who have shared how they bring Tanielle’s essence into their lives as an inspiration. David Ze鈥檈v Rotenberg exuded warmth and love and was so proud to be living in Israel with his family around him. Thank you to Rabbanit Michelle Farber for making daf so inspiring and meaningful on a daily basis.鈥

This month鈥檚 shiurim are dedicated by Sharon Bartel and David Form in honor of their daughter Mia鈥檚 Bat Mitzvah and her siyum of Seder Moed. 鈥淲e are so proud of you and are impressed by your amazing accomplishment. Thank you for giving your family and friends something wonderful to celebrate.”

Rav Ashi questions Ameimar on the fact that he stood while tearing kriya – did you derive this from Job 1:20 where Job stood when he tore kriya, as also in the chalitza ceremony, it says one stands and says 鈥淚 am not interested in marrying her鈥 and yet, one is not required there to stand. Ameimar distinguishes between the two references. Rami bar Chama also derives it from Job, however, a different question is raised against it and it is learned in the end from King David. Could it be he was acting stringently and not according to the law? A braita lists what is forbidden to a mourner. Even though a mourner can鈥檛 learn Torah, if the community needs him, he can teach, like Rabbi Yosi in Tzipori. One cannot teach in that situation directly through a translator. Why? Can one wear tefillin during shiva? What is the tannaitic debate regarding this? What verses are used to probe each opinion? Once it is permitted to wear them, even if new people come who don鈥檛 know what day of shiva it is, can he can leave on the tefillin or does he need to remove them? This is also a subject of debate. According to who does Ulla hold? The Gemara tries to better understand what he holds. Rava holds that after the first day one can wear tefillin. How does that work with his psak about mourning before Yom Tov – that one needs three days in order for the holiday to cancel the mourning period? Other laws of mourning become more lenient after the first three days. In what way? One cannot greet others in the first three days. If so, how did Rabbi Akiva do that on the first day after his sons鈥 death? The Gemara brings a number of different sources that discuss different time frames for a mourner greeting others and others greeting the mourner and tries to reconcile the differences between them. After a certain amount of time passes – a year for a loss of a parent and thirty days for a loss of a different relative – it is not appropriate to console the mourner as it reopens the wound. But one can mention it gently without being explicit about it. If one relative finds out about the death a bit later than the other relatives, does that person count their own count of seven days or with the others? On what factors does it depend?

讗诇讗 诪注转讛 讜注诪讚 讜讗诪专 诇讗 讞驻爪转讬 诇拽讞转讛 讛讻讗 谞诪讬 讜讛讗 转谞讬讗 讘讬谉 讬讜砖讘 讘讬谉 注讜诪讚 讘讬谉 诪讜讟讛

Rav Ashi challenged him: However, if that is so, one should be required to stand while performing the ritual through which the brother-in-law frees the yevama of her levirate bonds [岣litza], as the verse states: 鈥淎nd if he stands and he says: I do not wish to take her鈥 (Deuteronomy 25:8). Here must he also stand for the ceremony? But isn鈥檛 it taught in a baraita that 岣litza may be performed whether the man is sitting, or standing, or reclining?

讗诪专 诇讬讛 讛转诐 诇讗 讻转讬讘 讜讬注诪讚 讜讬讗诪专 讛讻讗 讻转讬讘 讜讬拽诐 讜讬拽专注

He said to him: There, in the case of 岣litza, it is not written: And he will stand and he will say, which would imply an obligation to stand; whereas here, in the case of rending, it is written: 鈥淭hen Job arose, and rent his coat鈥 (Job 1:20).

讗诪专 专诪讬 讘专 讞诪讗 诪谞讬谉 诇拽专讬注讛 砖讛讬讗 诪注讜诪讚 砖谞讗诪专 讜讬拽诐 讗讬讜讘 讜讬拽专注 讚诇诪讗 诪讬诇转讗 讬转讬专转讗 讛讜讗 讚注讘讚 讚讗讬 诇讗 转讬诪讗 讛讻讬 讜讬讙讝 讗转 专讗砖讜 讛讻讬 谞诪讬

Rami bar 岣ma said: From where is it derived that rending must be performed while standing? As it is stated: 鈥淭hen Job arose, and tore his coat鈥 (Job 1:20). The Gemara asks: Perhaps he did something extra beyond what is required, and actually there is no obligation to stand; as, if you do not say that he did more than what was required of him, then how do you explain the continuation of the verse: 鈥淎nd he shaved his head鈥 (Job 1:20)? Is every mourner required to act in this manner also and shave his head?

讗诇讗 诪讛讻讗 讜讬拽诐 讛诪诇讱 讜讬拽专注 讗转 讘讙讚讬讜 讜讚诇诪讗 诪讬诇转讗 讬转讬专转讗 注讘讬讚 讚讗讬 诇讗 转讬诪讗 讛讻讬 讜讬砖讻讘 讗专爪讛 讛讻讬 谞诪讬

The Gemara concludes: Rather, this source must be rejected, and instead the halakha is derived from here, the verse that describes David鈥檚 mourning over his son: 鈥淭hen the king arose, and rent his garments鈥 (II聽Samuel 13:31). The Gemara asks: But perhaps he too did something extra beyond what is required, and he was not actually obligated to stand; as, if you do not say that he did more than what was required of him, then how do you explain the continuation of the verse: 鈥淎nd he lay on the earth鈥 (II聽Samuel 13:31)? Is every mourner required to act in this manner also?

讜讛转谞讬讗 讬砖讘 注诇 讙讘讬 诪讟讛 注诇 讙讘讬 讻住讗 注诇 讙讘讬 讗讜讚讬讬谞讬 讙讚讜诇讛 注诇 讙讘讬 拽专拽注 诪讻讜诇谉 诇讗 讬爪讗 讬讚讬 讞讜讘转讜 讜讗诪专 专讘讬 讬讜讞谞谉 砖诇讗 拽讬讬诐 讻驻讬讬转 讛诪讟讛

But isn鈥檛 it taught in a baraita: If a mourner sat on a bed,on a chair, on a large mortar [udyanei], or on the ground, he does not fulfill his obligation through any of them. And Rabbi Yo岣nan said: This is because he did not fulfill his obligation to overturn his bed, even if he lay on the ground. This indicates that there is no requirement whatsoever to lie on the ground.

讗诪专 诇讬讛 讻注讬谉 讗专爪讛

Ameimar said to Rav Ashi: The verse does not mean that David actually lay on the ground. Rather, it was as if he were on the ground, since he overturned his bed and brought it closer to the ground. If this is the case, then Ameimar acted correctly, and a mourner should rend his garments while standing.

转谞讜 专讘谞谉 讜讗诇讜 讚讘专讬诐 砖讗讘诇 讗住讜专 讘讛谉 讗住讜专 讘诪诇讗讻讛 讜讘专讞讬爪讛 讜讘住讬讻讛 讜讘转砖诪讬砖 讛诪讟讛 讜讘谞注讬诇转 讛住谞讚诇 讜讗住讜专 诇拽专讜转 讘转讜专讛 讜讘谞讘讬讗讬诐 讜讘讻转讜讘讬诐 讜诇砖谞讜转 讘诪砖谞讛 讘诪讚专砖 讜讘讛诇讻讜转 讜讘转诇诪讜讚 讜讘讗讙讚讜转 讜讗诐 讛讬讜 专讘讬诐 爪专讬讻讬谉 诇讜 讗讬谞讜 谞诪谞注 讜诪注砖讛 讜诪转 讘谞讜 砖诇 专讘讬 讬讜住讬 讘爪讬驻讜专讬 讜谞讻谞住 诇讘讬转 讛诪讚专砖 讜讚专砖 讻诇 讛讬讜诐 讻讜诇讜

The Sages taught: These are the activities that a mourner is prohibited from engaging in: He is prohibited from working, and from bathing, and from anointing himself with oil, and from engaging in sexual relations, and from wearing shoes. And he is prohibited from reading in the Torah, and in the Prophets, and in the Writings, and from studying in the Mishna, in the midrash, and in the halakhot, and in the Talmud, and in the aggadot. But if the public needs him to teach them these things, he need not refrain from doing so. There was an incident that the son of Rabbi Yosei died in Tzippori, and Rabbi Yosei entered the study hall and expounded there for the entire day.

专讘讛 讘专 讘专 讞谞讛 讗讬转专注讗 讘讬讛 诪讬诇转讗 住讘专 讚诇讗 诇诪讬驻拽 诇驻讬专拽讗 讗诪专 诇讬讛 专讘讬 讞谞讬谞讗 讗诐 讛讬讜 专讘讬诐 爪专讬讻讬谉 诇讜 讗讬谞讜 谞诪谞注 住讘专 诇讗讜拽诪讬 讗诪讜专讗 注诇讬讛 讗诪专 诇讬讛 专讘 转谞讬讗 讜讘诇讘讚 砖诇讗 讬注诪讬讚 转讜专讙诪谉

It was related that a calamity, i.e., a death in the family, once befell Rabba bar bar 岣na, and he thought not to go out to deliver his exposition. Rabbi 岣nina said to him: Is it not taught that if the public needs him to teach them these things, one need not refrain from doing so? He then thought to place an interpreter alongside him, who would sound his words to the public, as was normally done for such an exposition. Rav said to him: It is taught in a baraita similarly: Provided that he does not place the disseminator alongside him.

讜讗诇讗 讛讬讻讬 注讘讬讚 讻讬 讛讗 讚转谞讬讗 诪注砖讛 讜诪转 讘谞讜 砖诇 专讘讬 讬讛讜讚讛 讘专 讗讬诇注讗讬 讜谞讻谞住 诇讘讬转 讛诪讚专砖 讜谞讻谞住 专讘讬 讞谞谞讬讛 讘谉 注拽讘讬讗 讜讬砖讘 讘爪讚讜 讜诇讞砖 讛讜讗 诇专讘讬 讞谞谞讬讛 讘谉 注拽讘讬讗 讜专讘讬 讞谞谞讬讛 讘谉 注拽讘讬讗 诇转讜专讙诪谉 讜转讜专讙诪谉 讛砖诪讬注 诇专讘讬诐

The Gemara asks: But how, then, should he act so that he can be heard? The Gemara answers: It is like that which is taught in a baraita: There was an incident and the son of Rabbi Yehuda bar Ilai died, and Rabbi Yehuda entered the study hall. And Rabbi 岣nanya ben Akavya entered after him and sat by his side. Rabbi Yehuda bar Ilai then whispered his lecture to Rabbi 岣nanya ben Akavya, and Rabbi 岣nanya ben Akavya whispered it to the disseminator, and the disseminator sounded to the public what had been told to him. In this way, it became known that Rabbi Yehuda bar Ilai was in mourning.

转谞讜 专讘谞谉 讗讘诇 砖诇砖讛 讬诪讬诐 讛专讗砖讜谞讬诐 讗住讜专 诇讛谞讬讞 转驻讬诇讬谉 诪砖诇讬砖讬 讜讗讬诇讱 讜砖诇讬砖讬 讘讻诇诇 诪讜转专 诇讛谞讬讞 转驻讬诇讬谉 讜讗诐 讘讗讜 驻谞讬诐 讞讚砖讜转 讗讬谞讜 讞讜诇抓 讚讘专讬 专讘讬 讗诇讬注讝专 专讘讬 讬讛讜砖注 讗讜诪专 讗讘诇 砖谞讬 讬诪讬诐 讛专讗砖讜谞讬诐 讗住讜专 诇讛谞讬讞 转驻讬诇讬谉 诪砖谞讬 讜砖谞讬 讘讻诇诇 诪讜转专 诇讛谞讬讞 转驻讬诇讬谉 讜讗诐 讘讗讜 驻谞讬诐 讞讚砖讜转 讞讜诇抓

The Sages taught the following baraita: For the first three days, a mourner is prohibited from donning phylacteries. From the third day and on, and including the third day, he is permitted to don phylacteries. And if new faces, i.e., people who had not yet come to console him, come, he need not remove them, although these people may falsely conclude that he had also donned phylacteries during the first two days of his mourning; this is the statement of Rabbi Eliezer. Rabbi Yehoshua says: For the first two days, a mourner is prohibited from donning phylacteries. From the second day, and including the second day, he is permitted to wear phylacteries. But if new faces come in to console him, he must remove his phylacteries.

讗诪专 专讘 诪转谞讛 诪讗讬 讟注诪讗 讚专讘讬 讗诇讬注讝专 讚讻转讬讘 讜讬转诪讜 讬诪讬 讘讻讬 讗讘诇 诪砖讛 讗诪专 专讘 注讬谞讗 诪讗讬 讟注诪讗 讚专讘讬 讬讛讜砖注 讚讻转讬讘 讜讗讞专讬转讛 讻讬讜诐 诪专

Rav Mattana said: What is the reason of Rabbi Eliezer? As it is written: 鈥淎nd the days of weeping and mourning for Moses ended鈥 (Deuteronomy 34:8). The plural term 鈥渄ays鈥 implies a minimum of two, and it indicates that the main portion of the mourning period is the first two full days. Rav Eina said: What is the reason of Rabbi Yehoshua? As it is written: 鈥淎nd I will make it as the mourning for an only son, and its end as a bitter day鈥 (Amos 8:10), i.e., a single 鈥渄ay.鈥

讜专讘讬 讬讛讜砖注 谞诪讬 讛讗 讻转讬讘 讜讬转诪讜 讬诪讬 讜讙讜壮 讗诪专 诇讱 砖讗谞讬 诪砖讛 讚转拽讬祝 讗讘诇讬讛 讜专讘讬 讗诇讬注讝专 谞诪讬 讛讗 讻转讬讘 讜讗讞专讬转讛 讻讬讜诐 诪专 注讬拽专 诪专讬专讗 讞讚 讬讜诪讗 讛讜讗

The Gemara asks: But also for Rabbi Yehoshua, isn鈥檛 it written in the Torah: 鈥淎nd the days of weeping and mourning for Moses ended,鈥 thereby implying that this period lasts for two days? The Gemara answers: He could have said to you that Moses was different, because the mourning for him was more intense, and the people mourned for him longer than usual. The Gemara asks: But also for Rabbi Eliezer, isn鈥檛 it written in the Torah: 鈥淎nd its end as a bitter day鈥? The Gemara answers: He could have said to you that the main bitterness is only one day, but the severity of the mourning lasts for two days.

讗诪专 注讜诇讗 讛诇讻讛 讻专讘讬 讗诇讬注讝专 讘讞诇讬爪讛 讜讛诇讻讛 讻专讘讬 讬讛讜砖注 讘讛谞讞讛

Ulla said: The halakha is in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Eliezer with regard to the removal of phylacteries. A mourner need not remove them when new people come in to console him. And the halakha is in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Yehoshua with regard to the donning of phylacteries, and so a mourner may already don phylacteries on the second day.

讗讬讘注讬讗 诇讛讜 讘砖谞讬 诇注讜诇讗 讞讜诇抓 讗讜 讗讬谞讜 讞讜诇抓

A dilemma was raised before the scholars: According to Ulla, who rules in accordance with Rabbi Yehoshua that a mourner may don phylacteries on his second day of mourning, is the mourner required to remove them if new people arrive on that day, or is he not required to remove them?

转讗 砖诪注 讗诪专 注讜诇讗 讞讜诇抓 讜诪谞讬讞 讗驻讬诇讜 诪讗讛 驻注诪讬诐 转谞讬讗 谞诪讬 讛讻讬 讬讛讜讚讛 讘谉 转讬诪讗 讗讜诪专 讞讜诇抓 讜诪谞讬讞 讗驻讬诇讜 诪讗讛 驻注诪讬诐

The Gemara answers: Come and hear what Ulla said explicitly: One removes his phylacteries when new people come to console him, and he dons them again when they leave, even if he must don and remove them a hundred times. This is also taught in a baraita: Yehuda ben Teima says: He removes his phylacteries and dons them again, even if he must do so a hundred times.

专讘讗 讗诪专 讻讬讜谉 砖讛谞讬讞 砖讜讘 讗讬谞讜 讞讜诇抓 讜讛讗 专讘讗 讛讜讗 讚讗诪专 讛诇讻讛 讻转谞讗 讚讬讚谉 讚讗诪专 砖诇砖讛

Rava said: Once he dons his phylacteries, he does not remove them again. The Gemara asks: But wasn鈥檛 it Rava himself who said: The halakha is in accordance with the opinion of the tanna of our mishna, who said that the most serious period of mourning is three days? How then does he rule in accordance with the baraita that a mourner may don phylacteries during these days?

诪爪讜讛 砖讗谞讬

The Gemara answers: A mitzva is different, and since it is a mitzva to put on phylacteries, the mourner is required to do so, even during the first three days.

转谞讜 专讘谞谉 讗讘诇 砖诇砖讛 讬诪讬诐 讛专讗砖讜谞讬诐 讗住讜专 讘诪诇讗讻讛 讜讗驻讬诇讜 注谞讬 讛诪转驻专谞住 诪谉 讛爪讚拽讛 诪讻讗谉 讜讗讬诇讱 注讜砖讛 讘爪讬谞注讗 讘转讜讱 讘讬转讜 讜讛讗砖讛 讟讜讜讛 讘驻诇讱 讘转讜讱 讘讬转讛

The Sages taught the following baraita: During the first three days after his bereavement, a mourner is prohibited from working, even if he is a poor person who is supported by charity. From this point forward, he may do work privately in his own home if he needs to do so. And similarly a woman may spin thread on a spindle in her own home when she is mourning.

转谞讜 专讘谞谉 讗讘诇 砖诇砖讛 讬诪讬诐 讛专讗砖讜谞讬诐 讗讬谞讜 讛讜诇讱 诇讘讬转 讛讗讘诇 诪讻讗谉 讜讗讬诇讱 讛讜诇讱 讜讗讬谞讜 讬讜砖讘 讘诪拽讜诐 讛诪谞讞诪讬谉 讗诇讗 讘诪拽讜诐 讛诪转谞讞诪讬谉

The Sages taught in another baraita: A mourner during the first three days after his bereavement may not go to another mourner鈥檚 house to console him. From this point forward, he may go, but he may not sit among the consolers, but rather in the place of those being consoled, i.e., with the mourners in that house.

转谞讜 专讘谞谉 讗讘诇 砖诇砖讛 讬诪讬诐 讛专讗砖讜谞讬诐 讗住讜专 讘砖讗讬诇转 砖诇讜诐 诪砖诇砖讛 讜注讚 砖讘注讛 诪砖讬讘 讜讗讬谞讜 砖讜讗诇 诪讻讗谉 讜讗讬诇讱 砖讜讗诇 讜诪砖讬讘 讻讚专讻讜

The Sages taught in yet another baraita: A mourner, during the first three days after his bereavement, is prohibited from extending greetings to others. From the third day to the seventh day, he may respond when other people address him, but he may not extend greetings to them. From this point forward, he may extend greetings and respond in his usual manner.鈥

砖诇砖讛 讬诪讬诐 讛专讗砖讜谞讬诐 讗住讜专 讘砖讗讬诇转 砖诇讜诐 讜讛转谞讬讗 诪注砖讛 讜诪转讜 讘谞讬讜 砖诇 专讘讬 注拽讬讘讗 谞讻谞住讜 讻诇 讬砖专讗诇 讜讛住驻讬讚讜诐 讛住驻讚 讙讚讜诇

The Gemara asks: Is he really prohibited from extending greetings during the first three days of mourning? But isn鈥檛 it taught in a baraita: There was an incident and the sons of Rabbi Akiva died, and all the Jews entered to eulogize them with a great eulogy.

讘砖注转 驻讟讬专转谉 注诪讚 专讘讬 注拽讬讘讗 注诇 住驻住诇 讙讚讜诇 讜讗诪专 讗讞讬谞讜 讘讬转 讬砖专讗诇 砖诪注讜 讗驻讬诇讜 砖谞讬 讘谞讬诐 讞转谞讬诐 诪谞讜讞诐 讛讜讗 讘砖讘讬诇 讻讘讜讚 砖注砖讬转诐 讜讗诐 讘砖讘讬诇 注拽讬讘讗 讘讗转诐 讛专讬 讻诪讛 注拽讬讘讗 讘砖讜拽 讗诇讗 讻讱 讗诪专转诐 转讜专转 讗诇讛讬讜 讘诇讘讜 讜讻诇 砖讻谉 砖砖讻专讻诐 讻驻讜诇 诇讻讜 诇讘转讬讻诐 诇砖诇讜诐

When they were about to take leave, Rabbi Akiva stood on a large bench and said: Our brothers, the house of Israel, listen! Even had my two sons been bridegrooms, I would have been consoled on account of the honor you have shown them. If you came to console for the sake of Akiva, there are many Akivas in the marketplace whom the Jews do all not come to console. Rather, certainly this is what you said to yourselves: 鈥淭he Torah of his God is in his heart鈥 (Psalms 37:31), and you wished to show your respect for the Torah. All the more so is your reward doubled, for you have consoled mourners and shown respect for the Torah. Return now to your homes in peace. This indicates that a mourner may greet other people even on the first day of his mourning.

讻讘讜讚 专讘讬诐 砖讗谞讬

The Gemara answers: Showing respect for the public is different. Rabbi Akiva was permitted to greet them to demonstrate courtesy and respect.

诪砖诇砖讛 讜注讚 砖讘注讛 诪砖讬讘 讜讗讬谞讜 砖讜讗诇 诪讻讗谉 讜讗讬诇讱 砖讜讗诇 讜诪砖讬讘 讻讚专讻讜

搂 It was taught in the aforementioned baraita: From the third day to the seventh day, he may respond when other people address him, but he may not extend greetings to them. From this point forward, he may extend greetings and respond in his usual manner.

讜专诪讬谞讛讜 讛诪讜爪讗 讗转 讞讘讬专讜 讗讘诇 讘转讜讱 砖诇砖讬诐 讬讜诐 诪讚讘专 注诪讜 转谞讞讜诪讬谉 讜讗讬谞讜 砖讜讗诇 讘砖诇讜诪讜 诇讗讞专 砖诇砖讬诐 讬讜诐 砖讜讗诇 讘砖诇讜诪讜 讜讗讬谞讜 诪讚讘专 注诪讜 转谞讞讜诪讬谉

And the Gemara raises a contradiction from another baraita that states: One who finds another in mourning during the first thirty days of that person鈥檚 bereavement may still speak words of consolation to him, but he should not extend greetings toward him. If he finds him after thirty days, he may extend greetings toward him, but he should not speak words of consolation to him, so as not to remind him of his pain.

诪转讛 讗砖转讜 讜谞砖讗 讗砖讛 讗讞专转 讗讬谞讜 专砖讗讬 诇讬讻谞住 诇讘讬转讜 诇讚讘专 注诪讜 转谞讞讜诪讬谉 诪爪讗讜 讘砖讜拽 讗讜诪专 诇讜 讘砖驻讛 专驻讛 讜讘讻讜讘讚 专讗砖

If it was the mourner鈥檚 wife who died and he married another woman within thirty days of his first wife鈥檚 death, one may not enter his house to speak words of consolation with him, so as not to offend his new wife. If, however, he finds him alone in the marketplace, he may speak to him with gentle words and in a serious manner. This indicates that the prohibition against extending greetings lasts for thirty days and not just seven.

讗诪专 专讘 讗讬讚讬 讘专 讗讘讬谉 讛讜讗 砖讜讗诇 讘砖诇讜诐 讗讞专讬诐 砖讗讞专讬诐 砖专讜讬讬谉 讘砖诇讜诐 讗讞专讬诐 讗讬谉 砖讜讗诇讬谉 讘砖诇讜诪讜 砖讛讜讗 讗讬谞讜 砖专讜讬 讘砖诇讜诐

Rav Idi bar Avin said: The two baraitot refer to different situations: The first baraita is referring to the mourner himself, who may extend greetings [shalom] to others after the completion of his seven days of mourning, as the others are at peace [shalom]. The second baraita, which speaks of a prohibition that lasts thirty days, is referring to other people, who may not extend greetings to him, as he, the mourner, is not at peace.

讜讛讗 诪讚拽转谞讬 诪砖讬讘 诪讻诇诇 讚砖讬讬诇讬谞谉 诇讬讛 讚诇讗 讬讚注讬

The Gemara challenges: But from the fact that it teaches in a baraita that after the third day of his bereavement, the mourner may respond when other people address him, by inference others may extend greetings to him. The Gemara answers: This is referring to a case where people did not know that he was in mourning and unknowingly extended greetings to him.

讗讬 讛讻讬 讛转诐 谞诪讬 讛转诐 诪讜讚注 诇讛讜 讜诇讗 诪讛讚专 诇讛讜 讛讻讗 诇讗 爪专讬讱 诇讗讜讚讜注讬谞讛讜

The Gemara asks: If so, if the baraita speaks of a case where the people who greeted him were unaware that he was in mourning, then there also, during the first three days of his bereavement, he should be permitted to respond when other people address him. The Gemara answers: There, during the first three days, he must inform them that he is in mourning and not respond to their greetings. Here, after the first three days, he need not inform them about his bereavement, but rather he may respond to their greetings.

讜专诪讬谞讛讜 讛诪讜爪讗 讗转 讞讘专讜 讗讘诇 讘转讜讱 砖谞讬诐 注砖专 讞讚砖 诪讚讘专 注诪讜 转谞讞讜诪讬谉 讜讗讬谞讜 砖讜讗诇 讘砖诇讜诪讜 诇讗讞专 砖谞讬诐 注砖专 讞讚砖 砖讜讗诇 讘砖诇讜诪讜 讜讗讬谞讜 诪讚讘专 注诪讜 转谞讞讜诪讬谉 讗讘诇 诪讚讘专 注诪讜 诪谉 讛爪讚

And the Gemara raises a contradiction from another baraita that states: One who finds another in mourning during his twelve months of bereavement may still speak words of consolation to him, but he should not extend greetings toward him. If he finds him after twelve months, he may extend greetings toward him, and he should not speak words of consolation to him. He may, however, speak to him indirectly, i.e., he may say to him: May you be consoled, without mentioning the name of the deceased.

讗诪专 专讘讬 诪讗讬专 讛诪讜爪讗 讗转 讞讘专讜 讗讘诇 诇讗讞专 砖谞讬诐 注砖专 讞讚砖 讜诪讚讘专 注诪讜 转谞讞讜诪讬谉 诇诪讛 讛讜讗 讚讜诪讛 诇讗讚诐 砖谞砖讘专讛 专讙诇讜 讜讞讬转讛 诪爪讗讜 专讜驻讗 讜讗诪专 诇讜 讻诇讱 讗爪诇讬 砖讗谞讬 砖讜讘专讛 讜讗专驻讗谞讛 讻讚讬 砖转讚注 砖住诪诪谞讬谉 砖诇讬 讬驻讬谉

Rabbi Meir said: One who finds another in mourning after twelve months and speaks to him words of consolation, to what may this situation be likened? To a person who broke his leg and it healed, and afterward a physician found him and said to him: Come to me, for I will break it a second time and then I will heal it, so that you may know how good my medicines are and how well they work. One who consoles his friend after so much time has passed acts in a similar fashion, stirring up an old wound and then trying to heal it. In any event, it appears that one must not extend greetings to a mourner during the entire twelve-month mourning period.

诇讗 拽砖讬讗 讛讗 讘讗讘讬讜 讜讗诪讜 讛讗 讘砖讗专 拽专讜讘讬诐

The Gemara answers: This is not difficult. This baraita, which says that one must not extend greetings to a mourner for twelve months, is referring to one who lost his father or mother. That baraita, which teaches that a mourner may be greeted after seven days, is referring to one who is in mourning over other relatives.

讛转诐 谞诪讬 讬讚讘专 注诪讜 转谞讞讜诪讬谉 诪谉 讛爪讚 讗讬谉 讛讻讬 谞诪讬 讜诪讗讬 讗讬谞讜 诪讚讘专 注诪讜 转谞讞讜诪讬谉 讻讚专讻讜 讗讘诇 诪讚讘专 注诪讜 诪谉 讛爪讚

The Gemara asks: There too, in the case of other relatives after thirty days, let him speak words of consolation to him indirectly. Why does the baraita say that after thirty days he should not speak words of consolation to him at all? The Gemara answers: Yes, it is indeed so. And what is meant by the words: He should not speak words of consolation to him? This means that he may not console him in his usual manner, but he may speak to him indirectly.

转谞讜 专讘谞谉 讗讘诇 砖诇砖讛 讬诪讬诐 讛专讗砖讜谞讬诐 讘讗 诪诪拽讜诐 拽专讜讘 诪讜谞讛 注诪讛谉 讘讗 诪诪拽讜诐 专讞讜拽 诪讜谞讛 诇注爪诪讜 诪讻讗谉 讜讗讬诇讱 讗驻讬诇讜 讘讗 诪诪拽讜诐 拽专讜讘 诪讜谞讛 诇注爪诪讜 专讘讬 砖诪注讜谉 讗讜诪专 讗驻讬诇讜 讘讗 讘讬讜诐 讛砖讘讬注讬 诪诪拽讜诐 拽专讜讘 诪讜谞讛 注诪讛谉

The Sages taught the following baraita: If a mourner comes to the house of mourning from a nearby place during the first three days of mourning, he counts his days of mourning with the other mourners from the time of the burial and completes his mourning with them. This is the case even if he may end up observing mourning for only five or six days. But if he came from a distant place, he counts on his own seven complete days from the time that he was informed of his relative鈥檚 death. From this point forward, i.e., after the first three days of mourning, even if he came from a nearby place, he counts seven days on his own. Rabbi Shimon says: Even if he came on the seventh day from a nearby place, he counts and completes the seven-day period of mourning with the other mourners.

讗诪专 诪专 砖诇砖讛 讬诪讬诐 讛专讗砖讜谞讬诐 讘讗 诪诪拽讜诐 拽专讜讘 诪讜谞讛 注诪讛谉 讗诪专 专讘讬 讞讬讬讗 讘专 讗讘讗 讗诪专 专讘讬 讬讜讞谞谉 讜讛讜讗 砖讬砖 讙讚讜诇 讛讘讬转 讘讘讬转

The Master said, citing the baraita: If a mourner comes to the house of mourning from a nearby place during the first three days of mourning, he counts his days of mourning with the other mourners and completes his mourning with them. Rabbi 岣yya bar Abba said that Rabbi Yo岣nan said: This is in a case where the principal member of the household is in the house, and therefore all the other family members follow his mourning. If, however, it is the principal member of the family who comes home, he certainly does not follow the other members, but rather he counts seven days on his own.

讗讬讘注讬讗 诇讛讜

A dilemma was raised before the scholars:

  • This month's learning is dedicated by Debbie and Yossi Gevir to Rabbanit Michelle and the Hadran Zoom group for their kindness, support, and care during a medically challenging year.

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Moed Katan 21

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Moed Katan 21

讗诇讗 诪注转讛 讜注诪讚 讜讗诪专 诇讗 讞驻爪转讬 诇拽讞转讛 讛讻讗 谞诪讬 讜讛讗 转谞讬讗 讘讬谉 讬讜砖讘 讘讬谉 注讜诪讚 讘讬谉 诪讜讟讛

Rav Ashi challenged him: However, if that is so, one should be required to stand while performing the ritual through which the brother-in-law frees the yevama of her levirate bonds [岣litza], as the verse states: 鈥淎nd if he stands and he says: I do not wish to take her鈥 (Deuteronomy 25:8). Here must he also stand for the ceremony? But isn鈥檛 it taught in a baraita that 岣litza may be performed whether the man is sitting, or standing, or reclining?

讗诪专 诇讬讛 讛转诐 诇讗 讻转讬讘 讜讬注诪讚 讜讬讗诪专 讛讻讗 讻转讬讘 讜讬拽诐 讜讬拽专注

He said to him: There, in the case of 岣litza, it is not written: And he will stand and he will say, which would imply an obligation to stand; whereas here, in the case of rending, it is written: 鈥淭hen Job arose, and rent his coat鈥 (Job 1:20).

讗诪专 专诪讬 讘专 讞诪讗 诪谞讬谉 诇拽专讬注讛 砖讛讬讗 诪注讜诪讚 砖谞讗诪专 讜讬拽诐 讗讬讜讘 讜讬拽专注 讚诇诪讗 诪讬诇转讗 讬转讬专转讗 讛讜讗 讚注讘讚 讚讗讬 诇讗 转讬诪讗 讛讻讬 讜讬讙讝 讗转 专讗砖讜 讛讻讬 谞诪讬

Rami bar 岣ma said: From where is it derived that rending must be performed while standing? As it is stated: 鈥淭hen Job arose, and tore his coat鈥 (Job 1:20). The Gemara asks: Perhaps he did something extra beyond what is required, and actually there is no obligation to stand; as, if you do not say that he did more than what was required of him, then how do you explain the continuation of the verse: 鈥淎nd he shaved his head鈥 (Job 1:20)? Is every mourner required to act in this manner also and shave his head?

讗诇讗 诪讛讻讗 讜讬拽诐 讛诪诇讱 讜讬拽专注 讗转 讘讙讚讬讜 讜讚诇诪讗 诪讬诇转讗 讬转讬专转讗 注讘讬讚 讚讗讬 诇讗 转讬诪讗 讛讻讬 讜讬砖讻讘 讗专爪讛 讛讻讬 谞诪讬

The Gemara concludes: Rather, this source must be rejected, and instead the halakha is derived from here, the verse that describes David鈥檚 mourning over his son: 鈥淭hen the king arose, and rent his garments鈥 (II聽Samuel 13:31). The Gemara asks: But perhaps he too did something extra beyond what is required, and he was not actually obligated to stand; as, if you do not say that he did more than what was required of him, then how do you explain the continuation of the verse: 鈥淎nd he lay on the earth鈥 (II聽Samuel 13:31)? Is every mourner required to act in this manner also?

讜讛转谞讬讗 讬砖讘 注诇 讙讘讬 诪讟讛 注诇 讙讘讬 讻住讗 注诇 讙讘讬 讗讜讚讬讬谞讬 讙讚讜诇讛 注诇 讙讘讬 拽专拽注 诪讻讜诇谉 诇讗 讬爪讗 讬讚讬 讞讜讘转讜 讜讗诪专 专讘讬 讬讜讞谞谉 砖诇讗 拽讬讬诐 讻驻讬讬转 讛诪讟讛

But isn鈥檛 it taught in a baraita: If a mourner sat on a bed,on a chair, on a large mortar [udyanei], or on the ground, he does not fulfill his obligation through any of them. And Rabbi Yo岣nan said: This is because he did not fulfill his obligation to overturn his bed, even if he lay on the ground. This indicates that there is no requirement whatsoever to lie on the ground.

讗诪专 诇讬讛 讻注讬谉 讗专爪讛

Ameimar said to Rav Ashi: The verse does not mean that David actually lay on the ground. Rather, it was as if he were on the ground, since he overturned his bed and brought it closer to the ground. If this is the case, then Ameimar acted correctly, and a mourner should rend his garments while standing.

转谞讜 专讘谞谉 讜讗诇讜 讚讘专讬诐 砖讗讘诇 讗住讜专 讘讛谉 讗住讜专 讘诪诇讗讻讛 讜讘专讞讬爪讛 讜讘住讬讻讛 讜讘转砖诪讬砖 讛诪讟讛 讜讘谞注讬诇转 讛住谞讚诇 讜讗住讜专 诇拽专讜转 讘转讜专讛 讜讘谞讘讬讗讬诐 讜讘讻转讜讘讬诐 讜诇砖谞讜转 讘诪砖谞讛 讘诪讚专砖 讜讘讛诇讻讜转 讜讘转诇诪讜讚 讜讘讗讙讚讜转 讜讗诐 讛讬讜 专讘讬诐 爪专讬讻讬谉 诇讜 讗讬谞讜 谞诪谞注 讜诪注砖讛 讜诪转 讘谞讜 砖诇 专讘讬 讬讜住讬 讘爪讬驻讜专讬 讜谞讻谞住 诇讘讬转 讛诪讚专砖 讜讚专砖 讻诇 讛讬讜诐 讻讜诇讜

The Sages taught: These are the activities that a mourner is prohibited from engaging in: He is prohibited from working, and from bathing, and from anointing himself with oil, and from engaging in sexual relations, and from wearing shoes. And he is prohibited from reading in the Torah, and in the Prophets, and in the Writings, and from studying in the Mishna, in the midrash, and in the halakhot, and in the Talmud, and in the aggadot. But if the public needs him to teach them these things, he need not refrain from doing so. There was an incident that the son of Rabbi Yosei died in Tzippori, and Rabbi Yosei entered the study hall and expounded there for the entire day.

专讘讛 讘专 讘专 讞谞讛 讗讬转专注讗 讘讬讛 诪讬诇转讗 住讘专 讚诇讗 诇诪讬驻拽 诇驻讬专拽讗 讗诪专 诇讬讛 专讘讬 讞谞讬谞讗 讗诐 讛讬讜 专讘讬诐 爪专讬讻讬谉 诇讜 讗讬谞讜 谞诪谞注 住讘专 诇讗讜拽诪讬 讗诪讜专讗 注诇讬讛 讗诪专 诇讬讛 专讘 转谞讬讗 讜讘诇讘讚 砖诇讗 讬注诪讬讚 转讜专讙诪谉

It was related that a calamity, i.e., a death in the family, once befell Rabba bar bar 岣na, and he thought not to go out to deliver his exposition. Rabbi 岣nina said to him: Is it not taught that if the public needs him to teach them these things, one need not refrain from doing so? He then thought to place an interpreter alongside him, who would sound his words to the public, as was normally done for such an exposition. Rav said to him: It is taught in a baraita similarly: Provided that he does not place the disseminator alongside him.

讜讗诇讗 讛讬讻讬 注讘讬讚 讻讬 讛讗 讚转谞讬讗 诪注砖讛 讜诪转 讘谞讜 砖诇 专讘讬 讬讛讜讚讛 讘专 讗讬诇注讗讬 讜谞讻谞住 诇讘讬转 讛诪讚专砖 讜谞讻谞住 专讘讬 讞谞谞讬讛 讘谉 注拽讘讬讗 讜讬砖讘 讘爪讚讜 讜诇讞砖 讛讜讗 诇专讘讬 讞谞谞讬讛 讘谉 注拽讘讬讗 讜专讘讬 讞谞谞讬讛 讘谉 注拽讘讬讗 诇转讜专讙诪谉 讜转讜专讙诪谉 讛砖诪讬注 诇专讘讬诐

The Gemara asks: But how, then, should he act so that he can be heard? The Gemara answers: It is like that which is taught in a baraita: There was an incident and the son of Rabbi Yehuda bar Ilai died, and Rabbi Yehuda entered the study hall. And Rabbi 岣nanya ben Akavya entered after him and sat by his side. Rabbi Yehuda bar Ilai then whispered his lecture to Rabbi 岣nanya ben Akavya, and Rabbi 岣nanya ben Akavya whispered it to the disseminator, and the disseminator sounded to the public what had been told to him. In this way, it became known that Rabbi Yehuda bar Ilai was in mourning.

转谞讜 专讘谞谉 讗讘诇 砖诇砖讛 讬诪讬诐 讛专讗砖讜谞讬诐 讗住讜专 诇讛谞讬讞 转驻讬诇讬谉 诪砖诇讬砖讬 讜讗讬诇讱 讜砖诇讬砖讬 讘讻诇诇 诪讜转专 诇讛谞讬讞 转驻讬诇讬谉 讜讗诐 讘讗讜 驻谞讬诐 讞讚砖讜转 讗讬谞讜 讞讜诇抓 讚讘专讬 专讘讬 讗诇讬注讝专 专讘讬 讬讛讜砖注 讗讜诪专 讗讘诇 砖谞讬 讬诪讬诐 讛专讗砖讜谞讬诐 讗住讜专 诇讛谞讬讞 转驻讬诇讬谉 诪砖谞讬 讜砖谞讬 讘讻诇诇 诪讜转专 诇讛谞讬讞 转驻讬诇讬谉 讜讗诐 讘讗讜 驻谞讬诐 讞讚砖讜转 讞讜诇抓

The Sages taught the following baraita: For the first three days, a mourner is prohibited from donning phylacteries. From the third day and on, and including the third day, he is permitted to don phylacteries. And if new faces, i.e., people who had not yet come to console him, come, he need not remove them, although these people may falsely conclude that he had also donned phylacteries during the first two days of his mourning; this is the statement of Rabbi Eliezer. Rabbi Yehoshua says: For the first two days, a mourner is prohibited from donning phylacteries. From the second day, and including the second day, he is permitted to wear phylacteries. But if new faces come in to console him, he must remove his phylacteries.

讗诪专 专讘 诪转谞讛 诪讗讬 讟注诪讗 讚专讘讬 讗诇讬注讝专 讚讻转讬讘 讜讬转诪讜 讬诪讬 讘讻讬 讗讘诇 诪砖讛 讗诪专 专讘 注讬谞讗 诪讗讬 讟注诪讗 讚专讘讬 讬讛讜砖注 讚讻转讬讘 讜讗讞专讬转讛 讻讬讜诐 诪专

Rav Mattana said: What is the reason of Rabbi Eliezer? As it is written: 鈥淎nd the days of weeping and mourning for Moses ended鈥 (Deuteronomy 34:8). The plural term 鈥渄ays鈥 implies a minimum of two, and it indicates that the main portion of the mourning period is the first two full days. Rav Eina said: What is the reason of Rabbi Yehoshua? As it is written: 鈥淎nd I will make it as the mourning for an only son, and its end as a bitter day鈥 (Amos 8:10), i.e., a single 鈥渄ay.鈥

讜专讘讬 讬讛讜砖注 谞诪讬 讛讗 讻转讬讘 讜讬转诪讜 讬诪讬 讜讙讜壮 讗诪专 诇讱 砖讗谞讬 诪砖讛 讚转拽讬祝 讗讘诇讬讛 讜专讘讬 讗诇讬注讝专 谞诪讬 讛讗 讻转讬讘 讜讗讞专讬转讛 讻讬讜诐 诪专 注讬拽专 诪专讬专讗 讞讚 讬讜诪讗 讛讜讗

The Gemara asks: But also for Rabbi Yehoshua, isn鈥檛 it written in the Torah: 鈥淎nd the days of weeping and mourning for Moses ended,鈥 thereby implying that this period lasts for two days? The Gemara answers: He could have said to you that Moses was different, because the mourning for him was more intense, and the people mourned for him longer than usual. The Gemara asks: But also for Rabbi Eliezer, isn鈥檛 it written in the Torah: 鈥淎nd its end as a bitter day鈥? The Gemara answers: He could have said to you that the main bitterness is only one day, but the severity of the mourning lasts for two days.

讗诪专 注讜诇讗 讛诇讻讛 讻专讘讬 讗诇讬注讝专 讘讞诇讬爪讛 讜讛诇讻讛 讻专讘讬 讬讛讜砖注 讘讛谞讞讛

Ulla said: The halakha is in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Eliezer with regard to the removal of phylacteries. A mourner need not remove them when new people come in to console him. And the halakha is in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Yehoshua with regard to the donning of phylacteries, and so a mourner may already don phylacteries on the second day.

讗讬讘注讬讗 诇讛讜 讘砖谞讬 诇注讜诇讗 讞讜诇抓 讗讜 讗讬谞讜 讞讜诇抓

A dilemma was raised before the scholars: According to Ulla, who rules in accordance with Rabbi Yehoshua that a mourner may don phylacteries on his second day of mourning, is the mourner required to remove them if new people arrive on that day, or is he not required to remove them?

转讗 砖诪注 讗诪专 注讜诇讗 讞讜诇抓 讜诪谞讬讞 讗驻讬诇讜 诪讗讛 驻注诪讬诐 转谞讬讗 谞诪讬 讛讻讬 讬讛讜讚讛 讘谉 转讬诪讗 讗讜诪专 讞讜诇抓 讜诪谞讬讞 讗驻讬诇讜 诪讗讛 驻注诪讬诐

The Gemara answers: Come and hear what Ulla said explicitly: One removes his phylacteries when new people come to console him, and he dons them again when they leave, even if he must don and remove them a hundred times. This is also taught in a baraita: Yehuda ben Teima says: He removes his phylacteries and dons them again, even if he must do so a hundred times.

专讘讗 讗诪专 讻讬讜谉 砖讛谞讬讞 砖讜讘 讗讬谞讜 讞讜诇抓 讜讛讗 专讘讗 讛讜讗 讚讗诪专 讛诇讻讛 讻转谞讗 讚讬讚谉 讚讗诪专 砖诇砖讛

Rava said: Once he dons his phylacteries, he does not remove them again. The Gemara asks: But wasn鈥檛 it Rava himself who said: The halakha is in accordance with the opinion of the tanna of our mishna, who said that the most serious period of mourning is three days? How then does he rule in accordance with the baraita that a mourner may don phylacteries during these days?

诪爪讜讛 砖讗谞讬

The Gemara answers: A mitzva is different, and since it is a mitzva to put on phylacteries, the mourner is required to do so, even during the first three days.

转谞讜 专讘谞谉 讗讘诇 砖诇砖讛 讬诪讬诐 讛专讗砖讜谞讬诐 讗住讜专 讘诪诇讗讻讛 讜讗驻讬诇讜 注谞讬 讛诪转驻专谞住 诪谉 讛爪讚拽讛 诪讻讗谉 讜讗讬诇讱 注讜砖讛 讘爪讬谞注讗 讘转讜讱 讘讬转讜 讜讛讗砖讛 讟讜讜讛 讘驻诇讱 讘转讜讱 讘讬转讛

The Sages taught the following baraita: During the first three days after his bereavement, a mourner is prohibited from working, even if he is a poor person who is supported by charity. From this point forward, he may do work privately in his own home if he needs to do so. And similarly a woman may spin thread on a spindle in her own home when she is mourning.

转谞讜 专讘谞谉 讗讘诇 砖诇砖讛 讬诪讬诐 讛专讗砖讜谞讬诐 讗讬谞讜 讛讜诇讱 诇讘讬转 讛讗讘诇 诪讻讗谉 讜讗讬诇讱 讛讜诇讱 讜讗讬谞讜 讬讜砖讘 讘诪拽讜诐 讛诪谞讞诪讬谉 讗诇讗 讘诪拽讜诐 讛诪转谞讞诪讬谉

The Sages taught in another baraita: A mourner during the first three days after his bereavement may not go to another mourner鈥檚 house to console him. From this point forward, he may go, but he may not sit among the consolers, but rather in the place of those being consoled, i.e., with the mourners in that house.

转谞讜 专讘谞谉 讗讘诇 砖诇砖讛 讬诪讬诐 讛专讗砖讜谞讬诐 讗住讜专 讘砖讗讬诇转 砖诇讜诐 诪砖诇砖讛 讜注讚 砖讘注讛 诪砖讬讘 讜讗讬谞讜 砖讜讗诇 诪讻讗谉 讜讗讬诇讱 砖讜讗诇 讜诪砖讬讘 讻讚专讻讜

The Sages taught in yet another baraita: A mourner, during the first three days after his bereavement, is prohibited from extending greetings to others. From the third day to the seventh day, he may respond when other people address him, but he may not extend greetings to them. From this point forward, he may extend greetings and respond in his usual manner.鈥

砖诇砖讛 讬诪讬诐 讛专讗砖讜谞讬诐 讗住讜专 讘砖讗讬诇转 砖诇讜诐 讜讛转谞讬讗 诪注砖讛 讜诪转讜 讘谞讬讜 砖诇 专讘讬 注拽讬讘讗 谞讻谞住讜 讻诇 讬砖专讗诇 讜讛住驻讬讚讜诐 讛住驻讚 讙讚讜诇

The Gemara asks: Is he really prohibited from extending greetings during the first three days of mourning? But isn鈥檛 it taught in a baraita: There was an incident and the sons of Rabbi Akiva died, and all the Jews entered to eulogize them with a great eulogy.

讘砖注转 驻讟讬专转谉 注诪讚 专讘讬 注拽讬讘讗 注诇 住驻住诇 讙讚讜诇 讜讗诪专 讗讞讬谞讜 讘讬转 讬砖专讗诇 砖诪注讜 讗驻讬诇讜 砖谞讬 讘谞讬诐 讞转谞讬诐 诪谞讜讞诐 讛讜讗 讘砖讘讬诇 讻讘讜讚 砖注砖讬转诐 讜讗诐 讘砖讘讬诇 注拽讬讘讗 讘讗转诐 讛专讬 讻诪讛 注拽讬讘讗 讘砖讜拽 讗诇讗 讻讱 讗诪专转诐 转讜专转 讗诇讛讬讜 讘诇讘讜 讜讻诇 砖讻谉 砖砖讻专讻诐 讻驻讜诇 诇讻讜 诇讘转讬讻诐 诇砖诇讜诐

When they were about to take leave, Rabbi Akiva stood on a large bench and said: Our brothers, the house of Israel, listen! Even had my two sons been bridegrooms, I would have been consoled on account of the honor you have shown them. If you came to console for the sake of Akiva, there are many Akivas in the marketplace whom the Jews do all not come to console. Rather, certainly this is what you said to yourselves: 鈥淭he Torah of his God is in his heart鈥 (Psalms 37:31), and you wished to show your respect for the Torah. All the more so is your reward doubled, for you have consoled mourners and shown respect for the Torah. Return now to your homes in peace. This indicates that a mourner may greet other people even on the first day of his mourning.

讻讘讜讚 专讘讬诐 砖讗谞讬

The Gemara answers: Showing respect for the public is different. Rabbi Akiva was permitted to greet them to demonstrate courtesy and respect.

诪砖诇砖讛 讜注讚 砖讘注讛 诪砖讬讘 讜讗讬谞讜 砖讜讗诇 诪讻讗谉 讜讗讬诇讱 砖讜讗诇 讜诪砖讬讘 讻讚专讻讜

搂 It was taught in the aforementioned baraita: From the third day to the seventh day, he may respond when other people address him, but he may not extend greetings to them. From this point forward, he may extend greetings and respond in his usual manner.

讜专诪讬谞讛讜 讛诪讜爪讗 讗转 讞讘讬专讜 讗讘诇 讘转讜讱 砖诇砖讬诐 讬讜诐 诪讚讘专 注诪讜 转谞讞讜诪讬谉 讜讗讬谞讜 砖讜讗诇 讘砖诇讜诪讜 诇讗讞专 砖诇砖讬诐 讬讜诐 砖讜讗诇 讘砖诇讜诪讜 讜讗讬谞讜 诪讚讘专 注诪讜 转谞讞讜诪讬谉

And the Gemara raises a contradiction from another baraita that states: One who finds another in mourning during the first thirty days of that person鈥檚 bereavement may still speak words of consolation to him, but he should not extend greetings toward him. If he finds him after thirty days, he may extend greetings toward him, but he should not speak words of consolation to him, so as not to remind him of his pain.

诪转讛 讗砖转讜 讜谞砖讗 讗砖讛 讗讞专转 讗讬谞讜 专砖讗讬 诇讬讻谞住 诇讘讬转讜 诇讚讘专 注诪讜 转谞讞讜诪讬谉 诪爪讗讜 讘砖讜拽 讗讜诪专 诇讜 讘砖驻讛 专驻讛 讜讘讻讜讘讚 专讗砖

If it was the mourner鈥檚 wife who died and he married another woman within thirty days of his first wife鈥檚 death, one may not enter his house to speak words of consolation with him, so as not to offend his new wife. If, however, he finds him alone in the marketplace, he may speak to him with gentle words and in a serious manner. This indicates that the prohibition against extending greetings lasts for thirty days and not just seven.

讗诪专 专讘 讗讬讚讬 讘专 讗讘讬谉 讛讜讗 砖讜讗诇 讘砖诇讜诐 讗讞专讬诐 砖讗讞专讬诐 砖专讜讬讬谉 讘砖诇讜诐 讗讞专讬诐 讗讬谉 砖讜讗诇讬谉 讘砖诇讜诪讜 砖讛讜讗 讗讬谞讜 砖专讜讬 讘砖诇讜诐

Rav Idi bar Avin said: The two baraitot refer to different situations: The first baraita is referring to the mourner himself, who may extend greetings [shalom] to others after the completion of his seven days of mourning, as the others are at peace [shalom]. The second baraita, which speaks of a prohibition that lasts thirty days, is referring to other people, who may not extend greetings to him, as he, the mourner, is not at peace.

讜讛讗 诪讚拽转谞讬 诪砖讬讘 诪讻诇诇 讚砖讬讬诇讬谞谉 诇讬讛 讚诇讗 讬讚注讬

The Gemara challenges: But from the fact that it teaches in a baraita that after the third day of his bereavement, the mourner may respond when other people address him, by inference others may extend greetings to him. The Gemara answers: This is referring to a case where people did not know that he was in mourning and unknowingly extended greetings to him.

讗讬 讛讻讬 讛转诐 谞诪讬 讛转诐 诪讜讚注 诇讛讜 讜诇讗 诪讛讚专 诇讛讜 讛讻讗 诇讗 爪专讬讱 诇讗讜讚讜注讬谞讛讜

The Gemara asks: If so, if the baraita speaks of a case where the people who greeted him were unaware that he was in mourning, then there also, during the first three days of his bereavement, he should be permitted to respond when other people address him. The Gemara answers: There, during the first three days, he must inform them that he is in mourning and not respond to their greetings. Here, after the first three days, he need not inform them about his bereavement, but rather he may respond to their greetings.

讜专诪讬谞讛讜 讛诪讜爪讗 讗转 讞讘专讜 讗讘诇 讘转讜讱 砖谞讬诐 注砖专 讞讚砖 诪讚讘专 注诪讜 转谞讞讜诪讬谉 讜讗讬谞讜 砖讜讗诇 讘砖诇讜诪讜 诇讗讞专 砖谞讬诐 注砖专 讞讚砖 砖讜讗诇 讘砖诇讜诪讜 讜讗讬谞讜 诪讚讘专 注诪讜 转谞讞讜诪讬谉 讗讘诇 诪讚讘专 注诪讜 诪谉 讛爪讚

And the Gemara raises a contradiction from another baraita that states: One who finds another in mourning during his twelve months of bereavement may still speak words of consolation to him, but he should not extend greetings toward him. If he finds him after twelve months, he may extend greetings toward him, and he should not speak words of consolation to him. He may, however, speak to him indirectly, i.e., he may say to him: May you be consoled, without mentioning the name of the deceased.

讗诪专 专讘讬 诪讗讬专 讛诪讜爪讗 讗转 讞讘专讜 讗讘诇 诇讗讞专 砖谞讬诐 注砖专 讞讚砖 讜诪讚讘专 注诪讜 转谞讞讜诪讬谉 诇诪讛 讛讜讗 讚讜诪讛 诇讗讚诐 砖谞砖讘专讛 专讙诇讜 讜讞讬转讛 诪爪讗讜 专讜驻讗 讜讗诪专 诇讜 讻诇讱 讗爪诇讬 砖讗谞讬 砖讜讘专讛 讜讗专驻讗谞讛 讻讚讬 砖转讚注 砖住诪诪谞讬谉 砖诇讬 讬驻讬谉

Rabbi Meir said: One who finds another in mourning after twelve months and speaks to him words of consolation, to what may this situation be likened? To a person who broke his leg and it healed, and afterward a physician found him and said to him: Come to me, for I will break it a second time and then I will heal it, so that you may know how good my medicines are and how well they work. One who consoles his friend after so much time has passed acts in a similar fashion, stirring up an old wound and then trying to heal it. In any event, it appears that one must not extend greetings to a mourner during the entire twelve-month mourning period.

诇讗 拽砖讬讗 讛讗 讘讗讘讬讜 讜讗诪讜 讛讗 讘砖讗专 拽专讜讘讬诐

The Gemara answers: This is not difficult. This baraita, which says that one must not extend greetings to a mourner for twelve months, is referring to one who lost his father or mother. That baraita, which teaches that a mourner may be greeted after seven days, is referring to one who is in mourning over other relatives.

讛转诐 谞诪讬 讬讚讘专 注诪讜 转谞讞讜诪讬谉 诪谉 讛爪讚 讗讬谉 讛讻讬 谞诪讬 讜诪讗讬 讗讬谞讜 诪讚讘专 注诪讜 转谞讞讜诪讬谉 讻讚专讻讜 讗讘诇 诪讚讘专 注诪讜 诪谉 讛爪讚

The Gemara asks: There too, in the case of other relatives after thirty days, let him speak words of consolation to him indirectly. Why does the baraita say that after thirty days he should not speak words of consolation to him at all? The Gemara answers: Yes, it is indeed so. And what is meant by the words: He should not speak words of consolation to him? This means that he may not console him in his usual manner, but he may speak to him indirectly.

转谞讜 专讘谞谉 讗讘诇 砖诇砖讛 讬诪讬诐 讛专讗砖讜谞讬诐 讘讗 诪诪拽讜诐 拽专讜讘 诪讜谞讛 注诪讛谉 讘讗 诪诪拽讜诐 专讞讜拽 诪讜谞讛 诇注爪诪讜 诪讻讗谉 讜讗讬诇讱 讗驻讬诇讜 讘讗 诪诪拽讜诐 拽专讜讘 诪讜谞讛 诇注爪诪讜 专讘讬 砖诪注讜谉 讗讜诪专 讗驻讬诇讜 讘讗 讘讬讜诐 讛砖讘讬注讬 诪诪拽讜诐 拽专讜讘 诪讜谞讛 注诪讛谉

The Sages taught the following baraita: If a mourner comes to the house of mourning from a nearby place during the first three days of mourning, he counts his days of mourning with the other mourners from the time of the burial and completes his mourning with them. This is the case even if he may end up observing mourning for only five or six days. But if he came from a distant place, he counts on his own seven complete days from the time that he was informed of his relative鈥檚 death. From this point forward, i.e., after the first three days of mourning, even if he came from a nearby place, he counts seven days on his own. Rabbi Shimon says: Even if he came on the seventh day from a nearby place, he counts and completes the seven-day period of mourning with the other mourners.

讗诪专 诪专 砖诇砖讛 讬诪讬诐 讛专讗砖讜谞讬诐 讘讗 诪诪拽讜诐 拽专讜讘 诪讜谞讛 注诪讛谉 讗诪专 专讘讬 讞讬讬讗 讘专 讗讘讗 讗诪专 专讘讬 讬讜讞谞谉 讜讛讜讗 砖讬砖 讙讚讜诇 讛讘讬转 讘讘讬转

The Master said, citing the baraita: If a mourner comes to the house of mourning from a nearby place during the first three days of mourning, he counts his days of mourning with the other mourners and completes his mourning with them. Rabbi 岣yya bar Abba said that Rabbi Yo岣nan said: This is in a case where the principal member of the household is in the house, and therefore all the other family members follow his mourning. If, however, it is the principal member of the family who comes home, he certainly does not follow the other members, but rather he counts seven days on his own.

讗讬讘注讬讗 诇讛讜

A dilemma was raised before the scholars:

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