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Today's Daf Yomi

February 8, 2022 | 讝壮 讘讗讚专 讗壮 转砖驻状讘

  • This month's learning is dedicated by Debbie and Yossi Gevir to Rabbanit Michelle and the Hadran Zoom group for their kindness, support, and care during a medically challenging year.

Moed Katan 27

Today鈥檚 daf is sponsored by Lisa Wolkenfeld for the continued refuah shleima of Yakira Leeba bat Sara Gita.

Today鈥檚 daf is sponsored by Stacey Goodstein Ashtamker in loving memory of her father in law Eliyahu Ashtamker on the shloshim and her father Jack Goodstein. 鈥淢y father-in-law brought his young family including my husband on aliyah from India in 1970. He was a well-known Chazan in the B’nei Israel community. My father Jack Goodstein whose shiva ends today, was a kind, warm, smiling, smart man who will be missed by all who knew him. May both their neshamot have an aliyah.鈥

If someone left on a business trip and found out while away that a relative died, can he continue to do business? If so, in what manner? At what point do laws of mourning, such as turning over one’s bed begin? The details of turning over beds is discussed – i.e. they are put back for Shabbat on Friday afternoon, which beds in the house need to be turned over and which do not. There are different types of beds – some need to be turned over and some need to be stood up on their sides. One such bed is called a dargash. There is a debate about what type of bed it is. Several questions are raised on Ulla’s definition of the dargash, most are rejected but we are actually left with one difficulty and therefore an alternative is suggested. One can sweep and clean dishes in a mourner’s house. What about putting spices and incense to use as air fresheners? People would bring food to the mourners for the seudat havraa. The weather people would bring it in fancy dishes and the poor in simple dishes. In order not to embarrass the poor, they instituted that only simple dishes would be permitted. A series of changes in mourning practices were instituted in order to protect the poor or others from embarrassment. For example, they used to show the body of the dead but since the poor had faces blackened from famine, they stopped this practice. Also burial shrouds became much simpler so as not to differentiate between rich and poor. Rabban Gamliel led the way on this and even in his own death was dressed in simple shrouds. Certain practices are different on chol hamoed and certain ones remain the same. For example, there is an attempt to limit eulogies. However, for a Talmud scholar, this is overridden. At what point should people visiting the mourners leave the house? A mourner or a sick person do not need to stand up in respect for the nasi. Mourners should eat food from others at the seudat havraa – from where is this derived? Until one is buried, the people of the city should not be working as they need to help deal with the burial. One should not mourn excessively over one’s relative. A story is brought of a woman who mourned excessively over her son and was punished.

讗诐 讬讻讜诇 诇诪注讟 讘注住拽讜 讬诪注讟 讜讗诐 诇讗讜 讬讙诇讙诇 注诪讛谉

if he can reduce his business, he should reduce it; and if not, he may carry on with them, i.e., his business partners. He may act in partnership with the members of the group with which he is traveling, but he may not engage in business independently.

转谞讜 专讘谞谉 诪讗讬诪转讬 讻讜驻讬谉 讗转 讛诪讟讜转 诪砖讬爪讗 诪驻转讞 讘讬转讜 讚讘专讬 专讘讬 讗诇讬注讝专 专讘讬 讬讛讜砖注 讗讜诪专 诪砖讬住转诐 讛讙讜诇诇

The Sages taught the following baraita: From when do the mourners overturn their beds? From when the corpse is taken out of the opening of his house; this is the statement of Rabbi Eliezer. Rabbi Yehoshua says: From when the tomb is sealed with the grave cover.

诪注砖讛 砖诪转 专讘谉 讙诪诇讬讗诇 讛讝拽谉 讻讬讜谉 砖讬爪讗 诪驻转讞 讘讬转讜 讗诪专 诇讛诐 专讘讬 讗诇讬注讝专 讻驻讜 诪讟讜转讬讻诐 讜讻讬讜谉 砖谞住转诐 讛讙讜诇诇 讗诪专 诇讛诐 专讘讬 讬讛讜砖注 讻驻讜 诪讟讜转讬讻诐 讗诪专讜 诇讜 讻讘专 讻驻讬谞讜 注诇 驻讬 讝拽谉

There was an incident in which the Nasi Rabban Gamliel the Elder died, and once his body left the opening of his house, Rabbi Eliezer said to the members of the household: Overturn your beds. And once the tomb was sealed with the grave cover, Rabbi Yehoshua said to them: Overturn your beds. They then said to him: We already overturned them in accordance with the Elder, i.e., Rabbi Eliezer.

转谞讜 专讘谞谉 诪讗讬诪转讬 讝讜拽驻讬谉 讗转 讛诪讟讜转 讘注专讘 砖讘转 诪谉 讛诪谞讞讛 讜诇诪注诇讛 讗诪专 专讘讛 讘专 讛讜谞讗 讗祝 注诇 驻讬 讻谉 讗讬谞讜 讬讜砖讘 注诇讬讛 注讚 砖转讞砖讱 讜诇诪讜爪讗讬 砖讘转 讗祝 注诇 驻讬 砖讗讬谉 诇讜 诇讬砖讘 讗诇讗 讬讜诐 讗讞讚 讞讜讝专 讜讻讜驻讛

The Sages taught in a baraita: From when do the mourners stand their beds upright on Friday; as the rites of mourning are not observed on Shabbat, and the beds must be returned to their ordinary position beforehand? From min岣 time onward. Rabba bar Huna said: Even so, one may not sit down on his upright bed immediately. Rather, he must wait until it becomes dark to do so. And at the conclusion of Shabbat, even if he has only one more day to sit in mourning, i.e., his period of mourning concludes on Sunday, he must once again overturn his bed.

转谞讜 专讘谞谉 讛讻讜驻讛 诪讟转讜 诇讗 诪讟转讜 讘诇讘讚 讛讜讗 讻讜驻讛 讗诇讗 讻诇 诪讟讜转 砖讬砖 诇讜 讘转讜讱 讘讬转讜 讛讜讗 讻讜驻讛 讜讗驻讬诇讜 讬砖 诇讜 注砖专 诪讟讜转 讘注砖专讛 诪拽讜诪讜转 讻讜驻讛 讗转 讻讜诇谉 讜讗驻讬诇讜 讞诪砖讛 讗讞讬谉 讜诪转 讗讞讚 讻讜诇谉 讻讜驻讬谉

The Sages taught in a baraita: With regard to one who is in mourning and must overturn his bed, he overturns not only his own bed, but rather he overturns all the beds he has in his house. And even if he has ten beds in ten different places, he overturns them all.And even if there are five brothers and one of them died, all of them overturn their beds wherever they live.

讜讗诐 讛讬转讛 诪讟讛 讛诪讬讜讞讚转 诇讻诇讬诐 讗讬谉 爪专讬讱 诇讻驻讜转讛 讚专讙砖 讗讬谉 爪专讬讱 诇讻驻讜转讜 讗诇讗 讝讜拽驻讜 专讘谉 砖诪注讜谉 讘谉 讙诪诇讬讗诇 讗讜诪专 讚专讙砖 诪转讬专 讗转 拽专讘讬讟讬讜 讜讛讜讗 谞讜驻诇 诪讗讬诇讬讜

If, however, it is a bed designated for the storage of garments and not for sleeping, he is not required to overturn it. It is also not necessary to overturn a dargash, but rather he stands it upright. Rabban Shimon ben Gamliel says: With regard to a dargash, one loosens its loops [karbitav], which hold up the pillows, and it falls on its own.

诪讗讬 讚专讙砖 讗诪专 注讜诇讗 注专住讗 讚讙讚讗

The Gemara asks: What is the meaning of the word dargash? Ulla said: It is a good-luck [gada] bed, as it was common to have ornamental beds for good luck, which were not used for sleeping.

讗诪专 诇讬讛 专讘讛 讗诇讗 诪注转讛 讙讘讬 诪诇讱 讚转谞谉 讻诇 讛注诐 诪住讜讘讬诐 注诇 讛讗专抓 讜讛讜讗 诪讬住讘 注诇 讛讚专讙砖 诪讬 讗讬讻讗 诪讬讚讬 讚注讚 讛讗讬讚谞讗 诇讗 讗讜转讘讬谞讬讛 讜讛砖转讗 诪讜转讘讬谞谉 诇讬讛

Rabba said to him: However, if that is so, then the following statement with regard to a king is difficult, as we learned in a mishna (Sanhedrin 20a): When the mourner鈥檚 meal is served to the king and his family, all the people recline on the ground, and he, the king, due to his honor, reclines on a dargash. Is there anything upon which we would not have seated him until now, when he was not a mourner, but now, specifically during the mourning period, we seat him on it?

诪转拽讬祝 诇讛 专讘 讗砖讬 诪讗讬 拽讜砖讬讗 诪讬讚讬 讚讛讜讛 讗讗讻讬诇讛 讜砖转讬讛 讚注讚 讛讗讬讚谞讗 诇讗 讗讜讻诇讬谞讬讛 讜诇讗 讗砖拽讬谞讬讛 讛砖转讗 讗讜讻诇讬谞讬讛 讜讗砖拽讬谞讬讛

Rav Ashi strongly objects to this: What is the difficulty raised by Rabba? One can answer: The halakha is just as it is in the case of eating and drinking, that until now, before one became a mourner, we did not feed him or give him drink, but now that he is a mourner we feed him and give him drink during the first meal after the burial.

讗诇讗 讗讬 拽砖讬讗 讛讗 拽砖讬讗 讚转谞谉 讚专讙砖 讗讬谞讜 爪专讬讱 诇讻驻讜转讜 讗诇讗 讝讜拽驻讜 讜讗讬 注专住讗 讚讙讚讗 讗诪讗讬 讗讬谞讜 爪专讬讱 诇讻驻讜转讜 讛讗 转谞谉 讛讻讜驻讛 诪讟转讜 诇讗 诪讟转讜 讘诇讘讚 讛讜讗 讻讜驻讛 讗诇讗 讻诇 诪讟讜转 砖讬砖 诇讜 讘转讜讱 讘讬转讜 讻讜驻讛

Rather, if it is difficult, this is difficult, as we learned in a baraita: It is not necessary to overturn a dargash, but rather he stands it upright. But if it is a good-luck bed, why is it not necessary to overturn it? Didn鈥檛 we learn: One who is in mourning and must overturn his bed overturns not only his own bed, but rather he overturns all the beds in his house, including this good luck bed?

讜诪讗讬 拽砖讬讗 诪讬讚讬 讚讛讜讛 讗诪讟讛 讛诪讬讜讞讚转 诇讻诇讬诐 讚转谞讬讗 讗诐 讛讬转讛 诪讟讛 讛诪讬讜讞讚转 诇讻诇讬诐 讗讬谞讜 爪专讬讱 诇讻驻讜转讛

The Gemara rejects this: And what is difficult in this? One can answer: The halakha is just as it is in the case of a bed designated for the storage of garments, as it is taught in a baraita: If it is a bed designated for the storage of garments, and not for sleeping, one is not required to overturn it. So too, one is not required to overturn a dargash, as it is a bed that is not used for sleeping.

讗诇讗 讗讬 拽砖讬讗 讛讗 拽砖讬讗 专讘谉 砖诪注讜谉 讘谉 讙诪诇讬讗诇 讗讜诪专 讚专讙砖 诪转讬专 拽专讘讬讟讬讜 讜讛讜讗 谞讜驻诇 诪讗讬诇讬讜 讜讗讬 住诇拽讗 讚注转讱 注专住讗 讚讙讚讗 诪讗讬 拽专讘讬讟讬谉 讗讬转 诇讬讛

Rather if it is difficult, this is the difficulty: It was taught in a baraita: Rabban Shimon ben Gamliel says: With regard to a dargash, one loosens the loops that hold up the pillows, and it falls on its own. And if it enters your mind to say that a dargash is a good-luck bed, it is like other beds, so what loops does it have?

讻讬 讗转讗 专讘讬谉 讗诪专 诇讬讛 讛讛讜讗 诪专讘谞谉 讜专讘 转讞诇讬驻讗 讘专 诪注专讘讗 砖诪讬讛 讚讛讜讛 砖讻讬讞 讘砖讜拽讗 讚讙讬诇讚讗讬 诪讗讬 讚专讙砖 注专住讗 讚爪诇讗

When Ravin came from Eretz Yisrael to Babylonia, one of the Sages, whose name was Rav Ta岣lifa from the West, and who was frequently found in the market of leather workers, said to him: What is a dargash? It is a leather bed.

讗讬转诪专 谞诪讬 讗诪专 专讘讬 讬专诪讬讛 讚专讙砖 住讬专讜讙讜 诪转讜讻讜 诪讟讛 住讬专讜讙讛 注诇 讙讘讛

It was also stated that Rabbi Yirmeya said: A dargash has its interlacing from the inside, i.e., attached to loops that go through holes that are made in the bed frame itself; whereas a bed has its interlacing from the outside, i.e., the strapping itself is looped around the wood of the frame, and therefore it cannot be loosened.

讗诪专 专讘讬 讬注拽讘 讘专 讗讞讗 讗诪专 专讘讬 讬讛讜砖注 讘谉 诇讜讬 讛诇讻讛 讻专讘谉 砖诪注讜谉 讘谉 讙诪诇讬讗诇 讗讬转诪专 谞诪讬 讗诪专 专讘讬 讬注拽讘 讘专 讗讞讗 讗诪专 专讘讬 讗住讬 诪讟讛 砖谞拽诇讬讟讬讛 讬讜爪讗讬谉 讝讜拽驻讛 讜讚讬讜

Rabbi Ya鈥檃kov bar A岣 said in the name of Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi: The halakha is in accordance with the opinion of Rabban Shimon ben Gamliel with regard to a dargash. It was also stated that Rabbi Ya鈥檃kov bar A岣 said in the name of Rabbi Asi: A bed whose posts [naklitin] extend, meaning that they are very long so that the bed will remain high off the ground even if it is overturned, may be stood upright and that is sufficient. That is to say, one is not required to overturn such a bed.

转谞讜 专讘谞谉 讬砖谉 注诇 讙讘讬 讻住讗 注诇 讙讘讬 讗讜讚讬讬谞讬 讙讚讜诇讛 注诇 讙讘讬 拽专拽注 诇讗 讬爪讗 讬讚讬 讞讜讘转讜 讗诪专 专讘讬 讬讜讞谞谉 砖诇讗 拽讬讬诐 讻驻讬讬转 讛诪讟讛

The Sages taught the following baraita: If the mourner sleeps on a chair, or on a large overturned mortar, or on the ground, he does not fulfill his obligation, even though he is uncomfortable while sleeping. Rabbi Yo岣nan said: This is because he did not fulfill the mitzva of overturning the bed.

转谞讜 专讘谞谉 诪讻讘讚讬谉 讜诪专讘讬爪讬谉 讘讘讬转 讛讗讘诇 讜诪讚讬讞讬谉 拽注专讜转 讜讻讜住讜转 讜爪诇讜讞讬讜转 讜拽讬转讜谞讬讜转 讘讘讬转 讛讗讘诇 讜讗讬谉 诪讘讬讗讬谉 讗转 讛诪讜讙诪专 讜讗转 讛讘砖诪讬诐 诇讘讬转 讛讗讘诇

The Sages taught another baraita: One may sweep and sprinkle water on a dirt floor in the house of a mourner,and one may wash bowls, cups, jugs, and pitchers in the house of a mourner. But one may not bring incense or fragrant spices into the house of a mourner.

讗讬谞讬 讜讛讗 转谞讬 讘专 拽驻专讗 讗讬谉 诪讘专讻讬谉 诇讗 注诇 讛诪讜讙诪专 讜诇讗 注诇 讛讘砖诪讬诐 讘讘讬转 讛讗讘诇 讘专讜讻讬 讛讜讗 讚诇讗 诪讘专讻讬谉 讛讗 讗转讜讬讬 诪讬讬转讬谞谉

The Gemara asks: Is that so? But doesn鈥檛 bar Kappara teach the following baraita: One may not recite a blessing either over incense or over fragrant spices in the house of a mourner? From this one may infer that one may not recite a blessing over these incense or spices, but one may bring them into the house of the mourner. This appears to contradict the previous baraita.

诇讗 拽砖讬讗 讛讗 讘讘讬转 讛讗讘诇 讛讗 讘讘讬转 讛诪谞讞诪讬谉

The Gemara explains: It is not difficult. Here, the baraita is referring to the house of a mourner, into which spices should not be taken; there, the baraita that states that one may not recite a blessing over them, is referring to the house of the consolers, his relatives, into which spices may be brought.

诪转谞讬壮 讗讬谉 诪讜诇讬讻讬谉 诇讘讬转 讛讗讘诇 诇讗 讘讟讘诇讗 讜诇讗 讘讗住拽讜讟诇讗 讜诇讗 讘拽谞讜谉 讗诇讗 讘住诇讬诐 讜讗讬谉 讗讜诪专讬诐 讘专讻转 讗讘诇讬诐 讘诪讜注讚 讗讘诇 注讜诪讚讬谉 讘砖讜专讛 讜诪谞讞诪讬谉 讜驻讜讟专讬谉 讗转 讛专讘讬诐

MISHNA: One does not bring the first meal after the burial to the house of mourning on a small tray [tavla], in a bowl [iskutla], or in a narrow-mouthed basket [kanon], but rather in ordinary baskets. And the mourners鈥 blessing is not recited on the intermediate days of a Festival, but the consolers may stand in a row when the mourners leave the cemetery and console them. And the mourners dismiss the many consolers, by telling them that they may return home after they have fulfilled the mitzva of consoling the mourners.

讗讬谉 诪谞讬讞讬谉 讗转 讛诪讟讛 讘专讞讜讘 砖诇讗 诇讛专讙讬诇 讗转 讛讛住驻讚 讜诇讗 砖诇 谞砖讬诐 诇注讜诇诐 诪驻谞讬 讛讻讘讜讚

The bier of the deceased is not set down in the street during the intermediate days of a Festival so as not to encourage eulogies. On an ordinary weekday, people would gather in the street around the bier to eulogize the deceased, but this should be avoided during the intermediate days of the Festival. And the biers of women are never set down, even if it is not the intermediate days of a Festival, due to their honor. Blood might drip from their bodies, and it would cause them dishonor if their blood stained the street.

讙诪壮 转谞讜 专讘谞谉 讘专讗砖讜谞讛 讛讬讜 诪讜诇讬讻讬谉 讘讘讬转 讛讗讘诇 注砖讬专讬诐 讘拽诇转讜转 砖诇 讻住祝 讜砖诇 讝讛讘 讜注谞讬讬诐 讘住诇讬 谞爪专讬诐 砖诇 注专讘讛 拽诇讜驻讛 讜讛讬讜 注谞讬讬诐 诪转讘讬讬砖讬诐 讛转拽讬谞讜 砖讬讛讜 讛讻诇 诪讘讬讗讬谉 讘住诇讬 谞爪专讬诐 砖诇 注专讘讛 拽诇讜驻讛 诪驻谞讬 讻讘讜讚谉 砖诇 注谞讬讬诐

GEMARA: The Sages taught the following baraita: At first, the meal after the burial would be brought to the house of the mourner in various ways. The wealthy would bring the meal in baskets of silver and gold, and the poor would bring it in baskets of peeled willow branches. And the poor were embarrassed, as everyone would see that they were poor.The Sages instituted that everyone should bring the meal in baskets of peeled willow branches, due to the honor of the poor.

转谞讜 专讘谞谉 讘专讗砖讜谞讛 讛讬讜 诪砖拽讬谉 讘讘讬转 讛讗讘诇 注砖讬专讬诐 讘讝讻讜讻讬转 诇讘谞讛 讜注谞讬讬诐 讘讝讻讜讻讬转 爪讘讜注讛 讜讛讬讜 注谞讬讬诐 诪转讘讬讬砖讬谉 讛转拽讬谞讜 砖讬讛讜 讛讻诇 诪砖拽讬谉 讘讝讻讜讻讬转 爪讘讜注讛 诪驻谞讬 讻讘讜讚谉 砖诇 注谞讬讬诐

The Sages taught a similar baraita: At first, they would serve wine in the house of the mourner during the first meal after the burial; the wealthy would do so in cups made from white glass, and the poor would serve this wine in cups of colored glass. And the poor were embarrassed, as everyone would see that they were poor. The Sages instituted that all should serve drinks in the house of the mourner in colored glass cups, due to the honor of the poor.

讘专讗砖讜谞讛 讛讬讜 诪讙诇讬谉 驻谞讬 注砖讬专讬诐 讜诪讻住讬谉 驻谞讬 注谞讬讬诐 诪驻谞讬 砖讛讬讜 诪讜砖讞专讬谉 驻谞讬讛谉 诪驻谞讬 讘爪讜专转 讜讛讬讜 注谞讬讬诐 诪转讘讬讬砖讬谉 讛转拽讬谞讜 砖讬讛讜 诪讻住讬谉 驻谞讬 讛讻诇 诪驻谞讬 讻讘讜讚谉 砖诇 注谞讬讬诐

Furthermore, at first they would uncover the faces of the wealthy who passed away and cover the faces of the poor,because their faces were blackened by famine. And the poor were embarrassed because they were buried in a different manner. The Sages instituted that everyone鈥檚 face should be covered, due to the honor of the poor.

讘专讗砖讜谞讛 讛讬讜 诪讜爪讬讗讬谉 注砖讬专讬诐 讘讚专讙砖 讜注谞讬讬诐

Additionally, at first the wealthy would take the deceased out for burial on a dargash, and the poor would take the deceased out

讘讻诇讬讻讛 讜讛讬讜 注谞讬讬诐 诪转讘讬讬砖讬谉 讛转拽讬谞讜 砖讬讛讜 讛讻诇 诪讜爪讬讗讬谉 讘讻诇讬讻讛 诪驻谞讬 讻讘讜讚谉 砖诇 注谞讬讬诐

on a plain bier made from poles that were strapped together, and the poor were embarrassed. The Sages instituted that everyone should be taken out for burial on a plain bier, due to the honor of the poor.

讘专讗砖讜谞讛 讛讬讜 诪谞讬讞讬谉 讗转 讛诪讜讙诪专 转讞转 讞讜诇讬 诪注讬诐 诪转讬诐 讜讛讬讜 讞讜诇讬 诪注讬诐 讞讬讬诐 诪转讘讬讬砖讬谉 讛转拽讬谞讜 砖讬讛讜 诪谞讬讞讬谉 转讞转 讛讻诇 诪驻谞讬 讻讘讜讚谉 砖诇 讞讜诇讬 诪注讬诐 讞讬讬诐

Similarly, at first they would place incense under the beds of those who died with an intestinal disease, because the body emitted an especially unpleasant odor. And those who were alive with an intestinal disease were embarrassed when they understood that they, too, would be treated in this manner after their death, and that everyone would know the cause of their death. The Sages instituted that incense should be placed under everyone, due to the honor of those with an intestinal disease who were still living.

讘专讗砖讜谞讛 讛讬讜 诪讟讘讬诇讬谉 讗转 讛讻诇讬诐 注诇 讙讘讬 谞讚讜转 诪转讜转 讜讛讬讜 谞讚讜转 讞讬讜转 诪转讘讬讬砖讜转 讛转拽讬谞讜 砖讬讛讜 诪讟讘讬诇讬谉 注诇 讙讘讬 讻诇 讛谞砖讬诐 诪驻谞讬 讻讘讜讚谉 砖诇 谞讚讜转 讞讬讜转 讘专讗砖讜谞讛 诪讟讘讬诇讬谉 注诇 讙讘讬 讝讘讬谉 诪转讬诐 讜讛讬讜 讝讘讬谉 讞讬讬诐 诪转讘讬讬砖讬谉 讛转拽讬谞讜 砖讬讛讜 诪讟讘讬诇讬谉 注诇 讙讘 讛讻诇 诪驻谞讬 讻讘讜讚谉 砖诇 讝讘讬谉 讞讬讬诐

Moreover, at first they would ritually immerse all the utensils that had been used by women who died while menstruating, which had thereby contracted ritual impurity. And due to this, the living menstruating women were embarrassed. The Sages instituted that the utensils that had been used by all dying women must be immersed, due to the honor of living menstruating women. And, at first they would ritually immerse all the utensils that had been used by zavin, men suffering from gonorrhea, who died, as the utensils had thereby contracted ritual impurity. And due to this the living zavin felt embarrassed. The Sages instituted that the utensils that had been used by all men must be immersed, due to the honor of the living zavin.

讘专讗砖讜谞讛 讛讬转讛 讛讜爪讗转 讛诪转 拽砖讛 诇拽专讜讘讬讜 讬讜转专 诪诪讬转转讜 注讚 砖讛讬讜 拽专讜讘讬讜 诪谞讬讞讬谉 讗讜转讜 讜讘讜专讞讬谉 注讚 砖讘讗 专讘谉 讙诪诇讬讗诇 讜谞讛讙 拽诇讜转 专讗砖 讘注爪诪讜 讜讬爪讗 讘讻诇讬 驻砖转谉 讜谞讛讙讜 讛注诐 讗讞专讬讜 诇爪讗转 讘讻诇讬 驻砖转谉 讗诪专 专讘 驻驻讗 讜讛讗讬讚谞讗 谞讛讜讙 注诇诪讗 讗驻讬诇讜 讘爪专讚讗 讘专 讝讜讝讗

Likewise, at first taking the dead out for burial was more difficult for the relatives than the actual death, because it was customary to bury the dead in expensive shrouds, which the poor could not afford. The problem grew to the point that relatives would sometimes abandon the corpse and run away. This lasted until Rabban Gamliel came and acted with frivolity, meaning that he waived his dignity, by leaving instructions that he be taken out for burial in linen garments. And the people adopted this practice after him and had themselves taken out for burial in linen garments. Rav Pappa said: And nowadays, everyone follows the practice of taking out the dead for burial even in plain hemp garments [tzerada] that cost only a dinar.

讗讬谉 诪谞讬讞讬谉 讗转 讛诪讟讛 讘专讞讜讘 讗诪专 专讘 驻驻讗 讗讬谉 诪讜注讚 讘驻谞讬 转诇诪讬讚 讞讻诐 讜讻诇 砖讻谉 讞谞讜讻讛 讜驻讜专讬诐

It is taught in the mishna: The bier of the deceased is not set down in the street during the intermediate days of a Festival, so as not to encourage eulogies. Rav Pappa said: There are no restrictions on eulogizing on the intermediate days of a Festival in the presence of a deceased Torah scholar, and therefore he may be eulogized in the ordinary manner during the Festival week. And all the more so a Torah scholar may be eulogized on the days of Hanukkah and Purim, which have less sanctity than the intermediate days of a Festival.

讜讛谞讬 诪讬诇讬 讘驻谞讬讜 讗讘诇 砖诇讗 讘驻谞讬讜 诇讗 讗讬谞讬 讜讛讗 专讘 讻讛谞讗 住驻讚讬讛 诇专讘 讝讘讬讚 诪谞讛专讚注讗 讘驻讜诐 谞讛专讗 讗诪专 专讘 驻驻讬 讬讜诐 砖诪讜注讛 讛讜讛 讜讻讘驻谞讬讜 讚诪讬

The Gemara comments: But this allowance to eulogize a Torah scholar during the intermediate days of a Festival applies only when the eulogy is in the presence of the deceased, before the bier. However, giving a eulogy that is not in his presence is not permitted. The Gemara asks: Is that so? But didn鈥檛 Rav Kahana eulogize Rav Zevid from Neharde鈥檃 in his city Pum Nahara during the intermediate days of a Festival? Rav Pappa said: It was the day on which Rav Kahana received the news of Rav Zevid鈥檚 death, and a eulogy in such a situation is considered as if it is in his presence.

讗诪专 注讜诇讗 讛住驻讚 注诇 诇讘 讚讻转讬讘 注诇 砖讚讬诐 住讜驻讚讬诐 讟讬驻讜讞 讘讬讚 拽讬诇讜住 讘专讙诇

The Gemara continues its discussion of the halakhot of mourning: Ulla said: Although hesped usually refers to a eulogy, strictly speaking, hesped is referring to striking oneself on the heart, as it is written: 鈥淪triking [sofedim] the breasts鈥 (Isaiah 32:12). The term tipua岣 is referring to striking with one hand against the other hand, i.e., clapping. The term killus is referring to stomping with one鈥檚 foot on the ground.

转谞讜 专讘谞谉 讛诪拽诇住 诇讗 讬拽诇住 讘住谞讚诇 讗诇讗 讘诪谞注诇 诪驻谞讬 讛住讻谞讛

The Sages taught a baraita: One who stomps his foot on the ground as a sign of mourning should not stomp with a sandal, but rather he should do so wearing a shoe, due to the danger of being hurt. Because a sandal is easily torn, it is possible that something sharp on the ground will puncture his foot, or that he will suffer some other injury.

讗诪专 专讘讬 讬讜讞谞谉 讗讘诇 讻讬讜谉 砖谞讬注谞注 专讗砖讜 砖讜讘 讗讬谉 诪谞讞诪讬谉 专砖讗讬谉 诇讬砖讘 讗爪诇讜

Rabbi Yo岣nan said: Once a mourner nods his head to show that his grief has slightly diminished, the consolers may no longer sit next to him, as with his action the mourner shows that he no longer desires their presence.

讜讗诪专 专讘讬 讬讜讞谞谉 讛讻诇 讞讬讬讘讬谉 诇注诪讜讚 诪驻谞讬 谞砖讬讗 讞讜抓 诪讗讘诇 讜讞讜诇讛 讜讗诪专 专讘讬 讬讜讞谞谉 诇讻诇 讗讜诪专讬诐 诇讛诐 砖讘讜 讞讜抓 诪讗讘诇 讜讞讜诇讛

Rabbi Yo岣nan further said: All are obligated to stand in the presence of the Nasi, except for a mourner and one who is sick. Rabbi Yo岣nan said: To all who stand before a great person one says: Be seated, and only then may they sit down, except for a mourner and one who is sick. If they stood up they do not need permission to sit down, but rather they may do so if they wish.

讗诪专 专讘 讬讛讜讚讛 讗诪专 专讘 讗讘诇 讬讜诐 专讗砖讜谉 讗住讜专 诇讗讻讜诇 诇讞诐 诪砖诇讜 诪讚讗诪专 诇讬讛 专讞诪谞讗 诇讬讞讝拽讗诇 讜诇讞诐 讗谞砖讬诐 诇讗 转讗讻诇 专讘讛 讜专讘 讬讜住祝 诪讞诇驻讬 住注讜讚转讬讬讛讜 诇讛讚讚讬

Rav Yehuda said in the name of Rav: A mourner on the first day of his mourning is prohibited from eating of his own bread. From where is this derived? From what the Merciful One says to Ezekiel when the latter is in mourning: 鈥淣or eat the bread of men鈥 (Ezekiel 24:17), which indicates that other mourners must eat bread made by others. It was related that when Rabba and Rav Yosef were in mourning they would exchange their meals with each other.

讜讗诪专 专讘 讬讛讜讚讛 讗诪专 专讘 诪转 讘注讬专 讻诇 讘谞讬 讛注讬专 讗住讜专讬谉 讘注砖讬讬转 诪诇讗讻讛

And Rav Yehuda said in the name of Rav: When a person dies in a city, all of the residents of that city are prohibited from performing work until he has been buried.

专讘 讛诪谞讜谞讗 讗讬拽诇注 诇讚专讜诪转讗 砖诪注 拽讜诇 砖讬驻讜专讗 讚砖讻讘讗 讞讝讗 讛谞讱 讗讬谞砖讬 讚拽讗 注讘讚讬 注讘讬讚转讗 讗诪专 诇讛讜 诇讬讛讜讜 讛谞讱 讗讬谞砖讬 讘砖诪转讗 诇讗 砖讻讘讗 讗讬讻讗 讘诪转讗 讗诪专讜 诇讬讛 讞讘讜专转讗 讗讬讻讗 讘诪转讗 讗诪专 诇讛讜 讗讬 讛讻讬 砖专讬讗 诇讻讜

The Gemara relates that when Rav Hamnuna once happened to come to a place called Darumata he heard the sound of a shofar announcing that a person had died in the town. When he saw some people doing work he said to them: Let these people be under an excommunication. Is there not a dead person in town? They said to him: There are separate groups in the town, each one responsible for its own dead. Knowing that the deceased was not from our group, we continued our work. He said to them: If so, it is permitted to you, and he revoked his excommunication.

讜讗诪专 专讘 讬讛讜讚讛 讗诪专 专讘 讻诇 讛诪转拽砖讛 注诇 诪转讜 讬讜转专 诪讚讗讬 注诇 诪转 讗讞专 讛讜讗 讘讜讻讛 讛讛讬讗 讗讬转转讗 讚讛讜转 讘砖讬讘讘讜转讬讛 讚专讘 讛讜谞讗 讛讜讜 诇讛 砖讘注讛 讘谞讬 诪转 讞讚 诪讬谞讬讬讛讜 讛讜讜转 拽讗 讘讻讬讗 讘讬转讬专转讗 注诇讬讛 砖诇讞 诇讛 专讘 讛讜谞讗 诇讗 转注讘讚讬 讛讻讬 诇讗 讗砖讙讞讛 讘讬讛 砖诇讞 诇讛 讗讬 爪讬讬转转 诪讜讟讘 讜讗讬 诇讗 爪讘讬转 讝讜讜讚转讗 诇讗讬讚讱 诪讬转 讜诪讬转讜 讻讜诇讛讜 诇住讜祝 讗诪专 诇讛 转讬诪讜砖 讝讜讜讚转讗 诇谞驻砖讬讱 讜诪讬转讗

And Rav Yehuda said further in the name of Rav: Anyone who grieves excessively over his dead and does not allow himself to be consoled will in the end weep for another person. The Gemara relates that a certain woman who lived in the neighborhood of Rav Huna had seven sons. One of them died and she wept for him excessively. Rav Huna sent a message to her: Do not do this. But she took no heed of him. He then sent another message to her: If you listen to me, it is well, but if not, prepare shrouds for another death. But she would not listen and they all died. In the end, when she continued with her excessive mourning, he said to her: Since you are acting in this way, prepare shrouds for yourself, and soon thereafter she died.

讗诇 转讘讻讜 诇诪转 讜讗诇 转谞讜讚讜 诇讜 讗诇 转讘讻讜 诇诪转 讬讜转专 诪讚讗讬 讜讗诇 转谞讜讚讜 诇讜 讬讜转专 诪讻砖讬注讜专 讛讗 讻讬爪讚 砖诇砖讛 讬诪讬诐 诇讘讻讬 讜砖讘注讛 诇讛住驻讚 讜砖诇砖讬诐 诇讙讬讛讜抓 讜诇转住驻讜专转 诪讻讗谉 讜讗讬诇讱 讗诪专 讛拽讚讜砖 讘专讜讱 讛讜讗 讗讬 讗转诐 专讞诪谞讬诐 讘讜 讬讜转专 诪诪谞讬

The Sages taught in a baraita with regard to the verse that states: 鈥淲eep not for the dead, neither bemoan him鈥 (Jeremiah 22:10): 鈥淲eep not for the dead鈥 is referring to excessive mourning; 鈥渘either bemoan him鈥 more than the appropriate measure of time. How so? What is the appropriate measure? Three days for weeping, and seven for eulogizing, and thirty for the prohibition against ironing clothing and for the prohibition against cutting hair. From this point forward the Holy One, Blessed be He, says: Do not be more merciful with the deceased than I am. If the Torah commands one to mourn for a certain period of time, then that suffices.

讘讻讜 讘讻讜 诇讛讜诇讱 讗诪专 专讘 讬讛讜讚讛 诇讛讜诇讱 讘诇讗 讘谞讬诐 专讘讬 讬讛讜砖注 讘谉 诇讜讬 诇讗 讗讝诇 诇讘讬 讗讘诇讗 讗诇讗 诇诪讗谉 讚讗讝讬诇 讘诇讗 讘谞讬 讚讻转讬讘 讘讻讜 讘讻讜 诇讛讜诇讱 讻讬 诇讗 讬砖讜讘 注讜讚 讜专讗讛 讗转 讗专抓 诪讜诇讚转讜 专讘 讛讜谞讗 讗诪专 讝讛 砖注讘专 注讘讬专讛 讜砖谞讛 讘讛

It is stated in the continuation of the verse: 鈥淲eep sore for him that goes away.鈥 Rav Yehuda said: This is referring to one who leaves the world without children to survive him, since mourning for him is much more intense. It was related that Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi would go to a house of mourning only for one who passed away without children, as it is written: 鈥淲eep sore for him that goes away; for he shall return [yashuv] no more, nor see his native land鈥 (Jeremiah 22:10). Rav Huna disagreed with the interpretation of the verse and said: 鈥淗im that goes鈥 is one who committed a transgression and then repeated it, i.e., one who sins constantly and does not repent [yashav], and therefore loses his portion in the World-to-Come, his 鈥渘ative land.鈥

专讘 讛讜谞讗 诇讟注诪讬讛 讚讗诪专 专讘 讛讜谞讗 讻讬讜谉 砖注讘专 讗讚诐 注讘讬专讛 讜砖谞讛 讘讛 讛讜转专讛 诇讜 讛讜转专讛 诇讜 住诇拽讗 讚注转讱 讗诇讗 讗讬诪讗 谞注砖讬转 诇讜 讻讛讬转专

The Gemara notes that Rav Huna conforms to his standard line of reasoning, as Rav Huna said: Once a person commits a transgression and repeats it, it becomes permitted to him. The Gemara questions the wording used here: Does it enter your mind that it is actually permitted? How could it possibly be permitted for him to sin? Rather, say instead: It becomes as though it were permitted, for after doing it twice he no longer relates to his action as the violation of a serious prohibition.

讗诪专 专讘讬 诇讜讬 讗讘诇 砖诇砖讛 讬诪讬诐 讛专讗砖讜谞讬诐 讬专讗讛 讗转 注爪诪讜 讻讗讬诇讜 讞专讘 诪讜谞讞转 诇讜 讘讬谉 砖转讬 讬专讬讻讜转讬讜 诪砖诇砖讛 注讚 砖讘注讛 讻讗讬诇讜 诪讜谞讞转 诇讜 讻谞讙讚讜 讘拽专谉 讝讜讬转 诪讻讗谉 讜讗讬诇讱 讻讗讬诇讜 注讜讘专转 讻谞讙讚讜 讘砖讜拽

Rabbi Levi said: A mourner during the first three days of his mourning should see himself as though a sword were lying between his two thighs, meaning that he too may be facing imminent death. During this period he should live in dread. From the third to the seventh days he should conduct himself as if the sword were lying opposite him in the corner, but still threatening him. From this point forward it is as if the sword was moving before him in the marketplace, and the fear is not as great.

讜诇讗 砖诇 谞砖讬诐 诇注讜诇诐 诪驻谞讬 讛讻讘讜讚 讗诪专讬 谞讛专讚注讬 诇讗 砖谞讜

搂 The mishna teaches: And the biers of women are never set down, due to their honor. The Sages of Neharde鈥檃 say: They only taught this

  • This month's learning is dedicated by Debbie and Yossi Gevir to Rabbanit Michelle and the Hadran Zoom group for their kindness, support, and care during a medically challenging year.

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Moed Katan 27

讗诐 讬讻讜诇 诇诪注讟 讘注住拽讜 讬诪注讟 讜讗诐 诇讗讜 讬讙诇讙诇 注诪讛谉

if he can reduce his business, he should reduce it; and if not, he may carry on with them, i.e., his business partners. He may act in partnership with the members of the group with which he is traveling, but he may not engage in business independently.

转谞讜 专讘谞谉 诪讗讬诪转讬 讻讜驻讬谉 讗转 讛诪讟讜转 诪砖讬爪讗 诪驻转讞 讘讬转讜 讚讘专讬 专讘讬 讗诇讬注讝专 专讘讬 讬讛讜砖注 讗讜诪专 诪砖讬住转诐 讛讙讜诇诇

The Sages taught the following baraita: From when do the mourners overturn their beds? From when the corpse is taken out of the opening of his house; this is the statement of Rabbi Eliezer. Rabbi Yehoshua says: From when the tomb is sealed with the grave cover.

诪注砖讛 砖诪转 专讘谉 讙诪诇讬讗诇 讛讝拽谉 讻讬讜谉 砖讬爪讗 诪驻转讞 讘讬转讜 讗诪专 诇讛诐 专讘讬 讗诇讬注讝专 讻驻讜 诪讟讜转讬讻诐 讜讻讬讜谉 砖谞住转诐 讛讙讜诇诇 讗诪专 诇讛诐 专讘讬 讬讛讜砖注 讻驻讜 诪讟讜转讬讻诐 讗诪专讜 诇讜 讻讘专 讻驻讬谞讜 注诇 驻讬 讝拽谉

There was an incident in which the Nasi Rabban Gamliel the Elder died, and once his body left the opening of his house, Rabbi Eliezer said to the members of the household: Overturn your beds. And once the tomb was sealed with the grave cover, Rabbi Yehoshua said to them: Overturn your beds. They then said to him: We already overturned them in accordance with the Elder, i.e., Rabbi Eliezer.

转谞讜 专讘谞谉 诪讗讬诪转讬 讝讜拽驻讬谉 讗转 讛诪讟讜转 讘注专讘 砖讘转 诪谉 讛诪谞讞讛 讜诇诪注诇讛 讗诪专 专讘讛 讘专 讛讜谞讗 讗祝 注诇 驻讬 讻谉 讗讬谞讜 讬讜砖讘 注诇讬讛 注讚 砖转讞砖讱 讜诇诪讜爪讗讬 砖讘转 讗祝 注诇 驻讬 砖讗讬谉 诇讜 诇讬砖讘 讗诇讗 讬讜诐 讗讞讚 讞讜讝专 讜讻讜驻讛

The Sages taught in a baraita: From when do the mourners stand their beds upright on Friday; as the rites of mourning are not observed on Shabbat, and the beds must be returned to their ordinary position beforehand? From min岣 time onward. Rabba bar Huna said: Even so, one may not sit down on his upright bed immediately. Rather, he must wait until it becomes dark to do so. And at the conclusion of Shabbat, even if he has only one more day to sit in mourning, i.e., his period of mourning concludes on Sunday, he must once again overturn his bed.

转谞讜 专讘谞谉 讛讻讜驻讛 诪讟转讜 诇讗 诪讟转讜 讘诇讘讚 讛讜讗 讻讜驻讛 讗诇讗 讻诇 诪讟讜转 砖讬砖 诇讜 讘转讜讱 讘讬转讜 讛讜讗 讻讜驻讛 讜讗驻讬诇讜 讬砖 诇讜 注砖专 诪讟讜转 讘注砖专讛 诪拽讜诪讜转 讻讜驻讛 讗转 讻讜诇谉 讜讗驻讬诇讜 讞诪砖讛 讗讞讬谉 讜诪转 讗讞讚 讻讜诇谉 讻讜驻讬谉

The Sages taught in a baraita: With regard to one who is in mourning and must overturn his bed, he overturns not only his own bed, but rather he overturns all the beds he has in his house. And even if he has ten beds in ten different places, he overturns them all.And even if there are five brothers and one of them died, all of them overturn their beds wherever they live.

讜讗诐 讛讬转讛 诪讟讛 讛诪讬讜讞讚转 诇讻诇讬诐 讗讬谉 爪专讬讱 诇讻驻讜转讛 讚专讙砖 讗讬谉 爪专讬讱 诇讻驻讜转讜 讗诇讗 讝讜拽驻讜 专讘谉 砖诪注讜谉 讘谉 讙诪诇讬讗诇 讗讜诪专 讚专讙砖 诪转讬专 讗转 拽专讘讬讟讬讜 讜讛讜讗 谞讜驻诇 诪讗讬诇讬讜

If, however, it is a bed designated for the storage of garments and not for sleeping, he is not required to overturn it. It is also not necessary to overturn a dargash, but rather he stands it upright. Rabban Shimon ben Gamliel says: With regard to a dargash, one loosens its loops [karbitav], which hold up the pillows, and it falls on its own.

诪讗讬 讚专讙砖 讗诪专 注讜诇讗 注专住讗 讚讙讚讗

The Gemara asks: What is the meaning of the word dargash? Ulla said: It is a good-luck [gada] bed, as it was common to have ornamental beds for good luck, which were not used for sleeping.

讗诪专 诇讬讛 专讘讛 讗诇讗 诪注转讛 讙讘讬 诪诇讱 讚转谞谉 讻诇 讛注诐 诪住讜讘讬诐 注诇 讛讗专抓 讜讛讜讗 诪讬住讘 注诇 讛讚专讙砖 诪讬 讗讬讻讗 诪讬讚讬 讚注讚 讛讗讬讚谞讗 诇讗 讗讜转讘讬谞讬讛 讜讛砖转讗 诪讜转讘讬谞谉 诇讬讛

Rabba said to him: However, if that is so, then the following statement with regard to a king is difficult, as we learned in a mishna (Sanhedrin 20a): When the mourner鈥檚 meal is served to the king and his family, all the people recline on the ground, and he, the king, due to his honor, reclines on a dargash. Is there anything upon which we would not have seated him until now, when he was not a mourner, but now, specifically during the mourning period, we seat him on it?

诪转拽讬祝 诇讛 专讘 讗砖讬 诪讗讬 拽讜砖讬讗 诪讬讚讬 讚讛讜讛 讗讗讻讬诇讛 讜砖转讬讛 讚注讚 讛讗讬讚谞讗 诇讗 讗讜讻诇讬谞讬讛 讜诇讗 讗砖拽讬谞讬讛 讛砖转讗 讗讜讻诇讬谞讬讛 讜讗砖拽讬谞讬讛

Rav Ashi strongly objects to this: What is the difficulty raised by Rabba? One can answer: The halakha is just as it is in the case of eating and drinking, that until now, before one became a mourner, we did not feed him or give him drink, but now that he is a mourner we feed him and give him drink during the first meal after the burial.

讗诇讗 讗讬 拽砖讬讗 讛讗 拽砖讬讗 讚转谞谉 讚专讙砖 讗讬谞讜 爪专讬讱 诇讻驻讜转讜 讗诇讗 讝讜拽驻讜 讜讗讬 注专住讗 讚讙讚讗 讗诪讗讬 讗讬谞讜 爪专讬讱 诇讻驻讜转讜 讛讗 转谞谉 讛讻讜驻讛 诪讟转讜 诇讗 诪讟转讜 讘诇讘讚 讛讜讗 讻讜驻讛 讗诇讗 讻诇 诪讟讜转 砖讬砖 诇讜 讘转讜讱 讘讬转讜 讻讜驻讛

Rather, if it is difficult, this is difficult, as we learned in a baraita: It is not necessary to overturn a dargash, but rather he stands it upright. But if it is a good-luck bed, why is it not necessary to overturn it? Didn鈥檛 we learn: One who is in mourning and must overturn his bed overturns not only his own bed, but rather he overturns all the beds in his house, including this good luck bed?

讜诪讗讬 拽砖讬讗 诪讬讚讬 讚讛讜讛 讗诪讟讛 讛诪讬讜讞讚转 诇讻诇讬诐 讚转谞讬讗 讗诐 讛讬转讛 诪讟讛 讛诪讬讜讞讚转 诇讻诇讬诐 讗讬谞讜 爪专讬讱 诇讻驻讜转讛

The Gemara rejects this: And what is difficult in this? One can answer: The halakha is just as it is in the case of a bed designated for the storage of garments, as it is taught in a baraita: If it is a bed designated for the storage of garments, and not for sleeping, one is not required to overturn it. So too, one is not required to overturn a dargash, as it is a bed that is not used for sleeping.

讗诇讗 讗讬 拽砖讬讗 讛讗 拽砖讬讗 专讘谉 砖诪注讜谉 讘谉 讙诪诇讬讗诇 讗讜诪专 讚专讙砖 诪转讬专 拽专讘讬讟讬讜 讜讛讜讗 谞讜驻诇 诪讗讬诇讬讜 讜讗讬 住诇拽讗 讚注转讱 注专住讗 讚讙讚讗 诪讗讬 拽专讘讬讟讬谉 讗讬转 诇讬讛

Rather if it is difficult, this is the difficulty: It was taught in a baraita: Rabban Shimon ben Gamliel says: With regard to a dargash, one loosens the loops that hold up the pillows, and it falls on its own. And if it enters your mind to say that a dargash is a good-luck bed, it is like other beds, so what loops does it have?

讻讬 讗转讗 专讘讬谉 讗诪专 诇讬讛 讛讛讜讗 诪专讘谞谉 讜专讘 转讞诇讬驻讗 讘专 诪注专讘讗 砖诪讬讛 讚讛讜讛 砖讻讬讞 讘砖讜拽讗 讚讙讬诇讚讗讬 诪讗讬 讚专讙砖 注专住讗 讚爪诇讗

When Ravin came from Eretz Yisrael to Babylonia, one of the Sages, whose name was Rav Ta岣lifa from the West, and who was frequently found in the market of leather workers, said to him: What is a dargash? It is a leather bed.

讗讬转诪专 谞诪讬 讗诪专 专讘讬 讬专诪讬讛 讚专讙砖 住讬专讜讙讜 诪转讜讻讜 诪讟讛 住讬专讜讙讛 注诇 讙讘讛

It was also stated that Rabbi Yirmeya said: A dargash has its interlacing from the inside, i.e., attached to loops that go through holes that are made in the bed frame itself; whereas a bed has its interlacing from the outside, i.e., the strapping itself is looped around the wood of the frame, and therefore it cannot be loosened.

讗诪专 专讘讬 讬注拽讘 讘专 讗讞讗 讗诪专 专讘讬 讬讛讜砖注 讘谉 诇讜讬 讛诇讻讛 讻专讘谉 砖诪注讜谉 讘谉 讙诪诇讬讗诇 讗讬转诪专 谞诪讬 讗诪专 专讘讬 讬注拽讘 讘专 讗讞讗 讗诪专 专讘讬 讗住讬 诪讟讛 砖谞拽诇讬讟讬讛 讬讜爪讗讬谉 讝讜拽驻讛 讜讚讬讜

Rabbi Ya鈥檃kov bar A岣 said in the name of Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi: The halakha is in accordance with the opinion of Rabban Shimon ben Gamliel with regard to a dargash. It was also stated that Rabbi Ya鈥檃kov bar A岣 said in the name of Rabbi Asi: A bed whose posts [naklitin] extend, meaning that they are very long so that the bed will remain high off the ground even if it is overturned, may be stood upright and that is sufficient. That is to say, one is not required to overturn such a bed.

转谞讜 专讘谞谉 讬砖谉 注诇 讙讘讬 讻住讗 注诇 讙讘讬 讗讜讚讬讬谞讬 讙讚讜诇讛 注诇 讙讘讬 拽专拽注 诇讗 讬爪讗 讬讚讬 讞讜讘转讜 讗诪专 专讘讬 讬讜讞谞谉 砖诇讗 拽讬讬诐 讻驻讬讬转 讛诪讟讛

The Sages taught the following baraita: If the mourner sleeps on a chair, or on a large overturned mortar, or on the ground, he does not fulfill his obligation, even though he is uncomfortable while sleeping. Rabbi Yo岣nan said: This is because he did not fulfill the mitzva of overturning the bed.

转谞讜 专讘谞谉 诪讻讘讚讬谉 讜诪专讘讬爪讬谉 讘讘讬转 讛讗讘诇 讜诪讚讬讞讬谉 拽注专讜转 讜讻讜住讜转 讜爪诇讜讞讬讜转 讜拽讬转讜谞讬讜转 讘讘讬转 讛讗讘诇 讜讗讬谉 诪讘讬讗讬谉 讗转 讛诪讜讙诪专 讜讗转 讛讘砖诪讬诐 诇讘讬转 讛讗讘诇

The Sages taught another baraita: One may sweep and sprinkle water on a dirt floor in the house of a mourner,and one may wash bowls, cups, jugs, and pitchers in the house of a mourner. But one may not bring incense or fragrant spices into the house of a mourner.

讗讬谞讬 讜讛讗 转谞讬 讘专 拽驻专讗 讗讬谉 诪讘专讻讬谉 诇讗 注诇 讛诪讜讙诪专 讜诇讗 注诇 讛讘砖诪讬诐 讘讘讬转 讛讗讘诇 讘专讜讻讬 讛讜讗 讚诇讗 诪讘专讻讬谉 讛讗 讗转讜讬讬 诪讬讬转讬谞谉

The Gemara asks: Is that so? But doesn鈥檛 bar Kappara teach the following baraita: One may not recite a blessing either over incense or over fragrant spices in the house of a mourner? From this one may infer that one may not recite a blessing over these incense or spices, but one may bring them into the house of the mourner. This appears to contradict the previous baraita.

诇讗 拽砖讬讗 讛讗 讘讘讬转 讛讗讘诇 讛讗 讘讘讬转 讛诪谞讞诪讬谉

The Gemara explains: It is not difficult. Here, the baraita is referring to the house of a mourner, into which spices should not be taken; there, the baraita that states that one may not recite a blessing over them, is referring to the house of the consolers, his relatives, into which spices may be brought.

诪转谞讬壮 讗讬谉 诪讜诇讬讻讬谉 诇讘讬转 讛讗讘诇 诇讗 讘讟讘诇讗 讜诇讗 讘讗住拽讜讟诇讗 讜诇讗 讘拽谞讜谉 讗诇讗 讘住诇讬诐 讜讗讬谉 讗讜诪专讬诐 讘专讻转 讗讘诇讬诐 讘诪讜注讚 讗讘诇 注讜诪讚讬谉 讘砖讜专讛 讜诪谞讞诪讬谉 讜驻讜讟专讬谉 讗转 讛专讘讬诐

MISHNA: One does not bring the first meal after the burial to the house of mourning on a small tray [tavla], in a bowl [iskutla], or in a narrow-mouthed basket [kanon], but rather in ordinary baskets. And the mourners鈥 blessing is not recited on the intermediate days of a Festival, but the consolers may stand in a row when the mourners leave the cemetery and console them. And the mourners dismiss the many consolers, by telling them that they may return home after they have fulfilled the mitzva of consoling the mourners.

讗讬谉 诪谞讬讞讬谉 讗转 讛诪讟讛 讘专讞讜讘 砖诇讗 诇讛专讙讬诇 讗转 讛讛住驻讚 讜诇讗 砖诇 谞砖讬诐 诇注讜诇诐 诪驻谞讬 讛讻讘讜讚

The bier of the deceased is not set down in the street during the intermediate days of a Festival so as not to encourage eulogies. On an ordinary weekday, people would gather in the street around the bier to eulogize the deceased, but this should be avoided during the intermediate days of the Festival. And the biers of women are never set down, even if it is not the intermediate days of a Festival, due to their honor. Blood might drip from their bodies, and it would cause them dishonor if their blood stained the street.

讙诪壮 转谞讜 专讘谞谉 讘专讗砖讜谞讛 讛讬讜 诪讜诇讬讻讬谉 讘讘讬转 讛讗讘诇 注砖讬专讬诐 讘拽诇转讜转 砖诇 讻住祝 讜砖诇 讝讛讘 讜注谞讬讬诐 讘住诇讬 谞爪专讬诐 砖诇 注专讘讛 拽诇讜驻讛 讜讛讬讜 注谞讬讬诐 诪转讘讬讬砖讬诐 讛转拽讬谞讜 砖讬讛讜 讛讻诇 诪讘讬讗讬谉 讘住诇讬 谞爪专讬诐 砖诇 注专讘讛 拽诇讜驻讛 诪驻谞讬 讻讘讜讚谉 砖诇 注谞讬讬诐

GEMARA: The Sages taught the following baraita: At first, the meal after the burial would be brought to the house of the mourner in various ways. The wealthy would bring the meal in baskets of silver and gold, and the poor would bring it in baskets of peeled willow branches. And the poor were embarrassed, as everyone would see that they were poor.The Sages instituted that everyone should bring the meal in baskets of peeled willow branches, due to the honor of the poor.

转谞讜 专讘谞谉 讘专讗砖讜谞讛 讛讬讜 诪砖拽讬谉 讘讘讬转 讛讗讘诇 注砖讬专讬诐 讘讝讻讜讻讬转 诇讘谞讛 讜注谞讬讬诐 讘讝讻讜讻讬转 爪讘讜注讛 讜讛讬讜 注谞讬讬诐 诪转讘讬讬砖讬谉 讛转拽讬谞讜 砖讬讛讜 讛讻诇 诪砖拽讬谉 讘讝讻讜讻讬转 爪讘讜注讛 诪驻谞讬 讻讘讜讚谉 砖诇 注谞讬讬诐

The Sages taught a similar baraita: At first, they would serve wine in the house of the mourner during the first meal after the burial; the wealthy would do so in cups made from white glass, and the poor would serve this wine in cups of colored glass. And the poor were embarrassed, as everyone would see that they were poor. The Sages instituted that all should serve drinks in the house of the mourner in colored glass cups, due to the honor of the poor.

讘专讗砖讜谞讛 讛讬讜 诪讙诇讬谉 驻谞讬 注砖讬专讬诐 讜诪讻住讬谉 驻谞讬 注谞讬讬诐 诪驻谞讬 砖讛讬讜 诪讜砖讞专讬谉 驻谞讬讛谉 诪驻谞讬 讘爪讜专转 讜讛讬讜 注谞讬讬诐 诪转讘讬讬砖讬谉 讛转拽讬谞讜 砖讬讛讜 诪讻住讬谉 驻谞讬 讛讻诇 诪驻谞讬 讻讘讜讚谉 砖诇 注谞讬讬诐

Furthermore, at first they would uncover the faces of the wealthy who passed away and cover the faces of the poor,because their faces were blackened by famine. And the poor were embarrassed because they were buried in a different manner. The Sages instituted that everyone鈥檚 face should be covered, due to the honor of the poor.

讘专讗砖讜谞讛 讛讬讜 诪讜爪讬讗讬谉 注砖讬专讬诐 讘讚专讙砖 讜注谞讬讬诐

Additionally, at first the wealthy would take the deceased out for burial on a dargash, and the poor would take the deceased out

讘讻诇讬讻讛 讜讛讬讜 注谞讬讬诐 诪转讘讬讬砖讬谉 讛转拽讬谞讜 砖讬讛讜 讛讻诇 诪讜爪讬讗讬谉 讘讻诇讬讻讛 诪驻谞讬 讻讘讜讚谉 砖诇 注谞讬讬诐

on a plain bier made from poles that were strapped together, and the poor were embarrassed. The Sages instituted that everyone should be taken out for burial on a plain bier, due to the honor of the poor.

讘专讗砖讜谞讛 讛讬讜 诪谞讬讞讬谉 讗转 讛诪讜讙诪专 转讞转 讞讜诇讬 诪注讬诐 诪转讬诐 讜讛讬讜 讞讜诇讬 诪注讬诐 讞讬讬诐 诪转讘讬讬砖讬谉 讛转拽讬谞讜 砖讬讛讜 诪谞讬讞讬谉 转讞转 讛讻诇 诪驻谞讬 讻讘讜讚谉 砖诇 讞讜诇讬 诪注讬诐 讞讬讬诐

Similarly, at first they would place incense under the beds of those who died with an intestinal disease, because the body emitted an especially unpleasant odor. And those who were alive with an intestinal disease were embarrassed when they understood that they, too, would be treated in this manner after their death, and that everyone would know the cause of their death. The Sages instituted that incense should be placed under everyone, due to the honor of those with an intestinal disease who were still living.

讘专讗砖讜谞讛 讛讬讜 诪讟讘讬诇讬谉 讗转 讛讻诇讬诐 注诇 讙讘讬 谞讚讜转 诪转讜转 讜讛讬讜 谞讚讜转 讞讬讜转 诪转讘讬讬砖讜转 讛转拽讬谞讜 砖讬讛讜 诪讟讘讬诇讬谉 注诇 讙讘讬 讻诇 讛谞砖讬诐 诪驻谞讬 讻讘讜讚谉 砖诇 谞讚讜转 讞讬讜转 讘专讗砖讜谞讛 诪讟讘讬诇讬谉 注诇 讙讘讬 讝讘讬谉 诪转讬诐 讜讛讬讜 讝讘讬谉 讞讬讬诐 诪转讘讬讬砖讬谉 讛转拽讬谞讜 砖讬讛讜 诪讟讘讬诇讬谉 注诇 讙讘 讛讻诇 诪驻谞讬 讻讘讜讚谉 砖诇 讝讘讬谉 讞讬讬诐

Moreover, at first they would ritually immerse all the utensils that had been used by women who died while menstruating, which had thereby contracted ritual impurity. And due to this, the living menstruating women were embarrassed. The Sages instituted that the utensils that had been used by all dying women must be immersed, due to the honor of living menstruating women. And, at first they would ritually immerse all the utensils that had been used by zavin, men suffering from gonorrhea, who died, as the utensils had thereby contracted ritual impurity. And due to this the living zavin felt embarrassed. The Sages instituted that the utensils that had been used by all men must be immersed, due to the honor of the living zavin.

讘专讗砖讜谞讛 讛讬转讛 讛讜爪讗转 讛诪转 拽砖讛 诇拽专讜讘讬讜 讬讜转专 诪诪讬转转讜 注讚 砖讛讬讜 拽专讜讘讬讜 诪谞讬讞讬谉 讗讜转讜 讜讘讜专讞讬谉 注讚 砖讘讗 专讘谉 讙诪诇讬讗诇 讜谞讛讙 拽诇讜转 专讗砖 讘注爪诪讜 讜讬爪讗 讘讻诇讬 驻砖转谉 讜谞讛讙讜 讛注诐 讗讞专讬讜 诇爪讗转 讘讻诇讬 驻砖转谉 讗诪专 专讘 驻驻讗 讜讛讗讬讚谞讗 谞讛讜讙 注诇诪讗 讗驻讬诇讜 讘爪专讚讗 讘专 讝讜讝讗

Likewise, at first taking the dead out for burial was more difficult for the relatives than the actual death, because it was customary to bury the dead in expensive shrouds, which the poor could not afford. The problem grew to the point that relatives would sometimes abandon the corpse and run away. This lasted until Rabban Gamliel came and acted with frivolity, meaning that he waived his dignity, by leaving instructions that he be taken out for burial in linen garments. And the people adopted this practice after him and had themselves taken out for burial in linen garments. Rav Pappa said: And nowadays, everyone follows the practice of taking out the dead for burial even in plain hemp garments [tzerada] that cost only a dinar.

讗讬谉 诪谞讬讞讬谉 讗转 讛诪讟讛 讘专讞讜讘 讗诪专 专讘 驻驻讗 讗讬谉 诪讜注讚 讘驻谞讬 转诇诪讬讚 讞讻诐 讜讻诇 砖讻谉 讞谞讜讻讛 讜驻讜专讬诐

It is taught in the mishna: The bier of the deceased is not set down in the street during the intermediate days of a Festival, so as not to encourage eulogies. Rav Pappa said: There are no restrictions on eulogizing on the intermediate days of a Festival in the presence of a deceased Torah scholar, and therefore he may be eulogized in the ordinary manner during the Festival week. And all the more so a Torah scholar may be eulogized on the days of Hanukkah and Purim, which have less sanctity than the intermediate days of a Festival.

讜讛谞讬 诪讬诇讬 讘驻谞讬讜 讗讘诇 砖诇讗 讘驻谞讬讜 诇讗 讗讬谞讬 讜讛讗 专讘 讻讛谞讗 住驻讚讬讛 诇专讘 讝讘讬讚 诪谞讛专讚注讗 讘驻讜诐 谞讛专讗 讗诪专 专讘 驻驻讬 讬讜诐 砖诪讜注讛 讛讜讛 讜讻讘驻谞讬讜 讚诪讬

The Gemara comments: But this allowance to eulogize a Torah scholar during the intermediate days of a Festival applies only when the eulogy is in the presence of the deceased, before the bier. However, giving a eulogy that is not in his presence is not permitted. The Gemara asks: Is that so? But didn鈥檛 Rav Kahana eulogize Rav Zevid from Neharde鈥檃 in his city Pum Nahara during the intermediate days of a Festival? Rav Pappa said: It was the day on which Rav Kahana received the news of Rav Zevid鈥檚 death, and a eulogy in such a situation is considered as if it is in his presence.

讗诪专 注讜诇讗 讛住驻讚 注诇 诇讘 讚讻转讬讘 注诇 砖讚讬诐 住讜驻讚讬诐 讟讬驻讜讞 讘讬讚 拽讬诇讜住 讘专讙诇

The Gemara continues its discussion of the halakhot of mourning: Ulla said: Although hesped usually refers to a eulogy, strictly speaking, hesped is referring to striking oneself on the heart, as it is written: 鈥淪triking [sofedim] the breasts鈥 (Isaiah 32:12). The term tipua岣 is referring to striking with one hand against the other hand, i.e., clapping. The term killus is referring to stomping with one鈥檚 foot on the ground.

转谞讜 专讘谞谉 讛诪拽诇住 诇讗 讬拽诇住 讘住谞讚诇 讗诇讗 讘诪谞注诇 诪驻谞讬 讛住讻谞讛

The Sages taught a baraita: One who stomps his foot on the ground as a sign of mourning should not stomp with a sandal, but rather he should do so wearing a shoe, due to the danger of being hurt. Because a sandal is easily torn, it is possible that something sharp on the ground will puncture his foot, or that he will suffer some other injury.

讗诪专 专讘讬 讬讜讞谞谉 讗讘诇 讻讬讜谉 砖谞讬注谞注 专讗砖讜 砖讜讘 讗讬谉 诪谞讞诪讬谉 专砖讗讬谉 诇讬砖讘 讗爪诇讜

Rabbi Yo岣nan said: Once a mourner nods his head to show that his grief has slightly diminished, the consolers may no longer sit next to him, as with his action the mourner shows that he no longer desires their presence.

讜讗诪专 专讘讬 讬讜讞谞谉 讛讻诇 讞讬讬讘讬谉 诇注诪讜讚 诪驻谞讬 谞砖讬讗 讞讜抓 诪讗讘诇 讜讞讜诇讛 讜讗诪专 专讘讬 讬讜讞谞谉 诇讻诇 讗讜诪专讬诐 诇讛诐 砖讘讜 讞讜抓 诪讗讘诇 讜讞讜诇讛

Rabbi Yo岣nan further said: All are obligated to stand in the presence of the Nasi, except for a mourner and one who is sick. Rabbi Yo岣nan said: To all who stand before a great person one says: Be seated, and only then may they sit down, except for a mourner and one who is sick. If they stood up they do not need permission to sit down, but rather they may do so if they wish.

讗诪专 专讘 讬讛讜讚讛 讗诪专 专讘 讗讘诇 讬讜诐 专讗砖讜谉 讗住讜专 诇讗讻讜诇 诇讞诐 诪砖诇讜 诪讚讗诪专 诇讬讛 专讞诪谞讗 诇讬讞讝拽讗诇 讜诇讞诐 讗谞砖讬诐 诇讗 转讗讻诇 专讘讛 讜专讘 讬讜住祝 诪讞诇驻讬 住注讜讚转讬讬讛讜 诇讛讚讚讬

Rav Yehuda said in the name of Rav: A mourner on the first day of his mourning is prohibited from eating of his own bread. From where is this derived? From what the Merciful One says to Ezekiel when the latter is in mourning: 鈥淣or eat the bread of men鈥 (Ezekiel 24:17), which indicates that other mourners must eat bread made by others. It was related that when Rabba and Rav Yosef were in mourning they would exchange their meals with each other.

讜讗诪专 专讘 讬讛讜讚讛 讗诪专 专讘 诪转 讘注讬专 讻诇 讘谞讬 讛注讬专 讗住讜专讬谉 讘注砖讬讬转 诪诇讗讻讛

And Rav Yehuda said in the name of Rav: When a person dies in a city, all of the residents of that city are prohibited from performing work until he has been buried.

专讘 讛诪谞讜谞讗 讗讬拽诇注 诇讚专讜诪转讗 砖诪注 拽讜诇 砖讬驻讜专讗 讚砖讻讘讗 讞讝讗 讛谞讱 讗讬谞砖讬 讚拽讗 注讘讚讬 注讘讬讚转讗 讗诪专 诇讛讜 诇讬讛讜讜 讛谞讱 讗讬谞砖讬 讘砖诪转讗 诇讗 砖讻讘讗 讗讬讻讗 讘诪转讗 讗诪专讜 诇讬讛 讞讘讜专转讗 讗讬讻讗 讘诪转讗 讗诪专 诇讛讜 讗讬 讛讻讬 砖专讬讗 诇讻讜

The Gemara relates that when Rav Hamnuna once happened to come to a place called Darumata he heard the sound of a shofar announcing that a person had died in the town. When he saw some people doing work he said to them: Let these people be under an excommunication. Is there not a dead person in town? They said to him: There are separate groups in the town, each one responsible for its own dead. Knowing that the deceased was not from our group, we continued our work. He said to them: If so, it is permitted to you, and he revoked his excommunication.

讜讗诪专 专讘 讬讛讜讚讛 讗诪专 专讘 讻诇 讛诪转拽砖讛 注诇 诪转讜 讬讜转专 诪讚讗讬 注诇 诪转 讗讞专 讛讜讗 讘讜讻讛 讛讛讬讗 讗讬转转讗 讚讛讜转 讘砖讬讘讘讜转讬讛 讚专讘 讛讜谞讗 讛讜讜 诇讛 砖讘注讛 讘谞讬 诪转 讞讚 诪讬谞讬讬讛讜 讛讜讜转 拽讗 讘讻讬讗 讘讬转讬专转讗 注诇讬讛 砖诇讞 诇讛 专讘 讛讜谞讗 诇讗 转注讘讚讬 讛讻讬 诇讗 讗砖讙讞讛 讘讬讛 砖诇讞 诇讛 讗讬 爪讬讬转转 诪讜讟讘 讜讗讬 诇讗 爪讘讬转 讝讜讜讚转讗 诇讗讬讚讱 诪讬转 讜诪讬转讜 讻讜诇讛讜 诇住讜祝 讗诪专 诇讛 转讬诪讜砖 讝讜讜讚转讗 诇谞驻砖讬讱 讜诪讬转讗

And Rav Yehuda said further in the name of Rav: Anyone who grieves excessively over his dead and does not allow himself to be consoled will in the end weep for another person. The Gemara relates that a certain woman who lived in the neighborhood of Rav Huna had seven sons. One of them died and she wept for him excessively. Rav Huna sent a message to her: Do not do this. But she took no heed of him. He then sent another message to her: If you listen to me, it is well, but if not, prepare shrouds for another death. But she would not listen and they all died. In the end, when she continued with her excessive mourning, he said to her: Since you are acting in this way, prepare shrouds for yourself, and soon thereafter she died.

讗诇 转讘讻讜 诇诪转 讜讗诇 转谞讜讚讜 诇讜 讗诇 转讘讻讜 诇诪转 讬讜转专 诪讚讗讬 讜讗诇 转谞讜讚讜 诇讜 讬讜转专 诪讻砖讬注讜专 讛讗 讻讬爪讚 砖诇砖讛 讬诪讬诐 诇讘讻讬 讜砖讘注讛 诇讛住驻讚 讜砖诇砖讬诐 诇讙讬讛讜抓 讜诇转住驻讜专转 诪讻讗谉 讜讗讬诇讱 讗诪专 讛拽讚讜砖 讘专讜讱 讛讜讗 讗讬 讗转诐 专讞诪谞讬诐 讘讜 讬讜转专 诪诪谞讬

The Sages taught in a baraita with regard to the verse that states: 鈥淲eep not for the dead, neither bemoan him鈥 (Jeremiah 22:10): 鈥淲eep not for the dead鈥 is referring to excessive mourning; 鈥渘either bemoan him鈥 more than the appropriate measure of time. How so? What is the appropriate measure? Three days for weeping, and seven for eulogizing, and thirty for the prohibition against ironing clothing and for the prohibition against cutting hair. From this point forward the Holy One, Blessed be He, says: Do not be more merciful with the deceased than I am. If the Torah commands one to mourn for a certain period of time, then that suffices.

讘讻讜 讘讻讜 诇讛讜诇讱 讗诪专 专讘 讬讛讜讚讛 诇讛讜诇讱 讘诇讗 讘谞讬诐 专讘讬 讬讛讜砖注 讘谉 诇讜讬 诇讗 讗讝诇 诇讘讬 讗讘诇讗 讗诇讗 诇诪讗谉 讚讗讝讬诇 讘诇讗 讘谞讬 讚讻转讬讘 讘讻讜 讘讻讜 诇讛讜诇讱 讻讬 诇讗 讬砖讜讘 注讜讚 讜专讗讛 讗转 讗专抓 诪讜诇讚转讜 专讘 讛讜谞讗 讗诪专 讝讛 砖注讘专 注讘讬专讛 讜砖谞讛 讘讛

It is stated in the continuation of the verse: 鈥淲eep sore for him that goes away.鈥 Rav Yehuda said: This is referring to one who leaves the world without children to survive him, since mourning for him is much more intense. It was related that Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi would go to a house of mourning only for one who passed away without children, as it is written: 鈥淲eep sore for him that goes away; for he shall return [yashuv] no more, nor see his native land鈥 (Jeremiah 22:10). Rav Huna disagreed with the interpretation of the verse and said: 鈥淗im that goes鈥 is one who committed a transgression and then repeated it, i.e., one who sins constantly and does not repent [yashav], and therefore loses his portion in the World-to-Come, his 鈥渘ative land.鈥

专讘 讛讜谞讗 诇讟注诪讬讛 讚讗诪专 专讘 讛讜谞讗 讻讬讜谉 砖注讘专 讗讚诐 注讘讬专讛 讜砖谞讛 讘讛 讛讜转专讛 诇讜 讛讜转专讛 诇讜 住诇拽讗 讚注转讱 讗诇讗 讗讬诪讗 谞注砖讬转 诇讜 讻讛讬转专

The Gemara notes that Rav Huna conforms to his standard line of reasoning, as Rav Huna said: Once a person commits a transgression and repeats it, it becomes permitted to him. The Gemara questions the wording used here: Does it enter your mind that it is actually permitted? How could it possibly be permitted for him to sin? Rather, say instead: It becomes as though it were permitted, for after doing it twice he no longer relates to his action as the violation of a serious prohibition.

讗诪专 专讘讬 诇讜讬 讗讘诇 砖诇砖讛 讬诪讬诐 讛专讗砖讜谞讬诐 讬专讗讛 讗转 注爪诪讜 讻讗讬诇讜 讞专讘 诪讜谞讞转 诇讜 讘讬谉 砖转讬 讬专讬讻讜转讬讜 诪砖诇砖讛 注讚 砖讘注讛 讻讗讬诇讜 诪讜谞讞转 诇讜 讻谞讙讚讜 讘拽专谉 讝讜讬转 诪讻讗谉 讜讗讬诇讱 讻讗讬诇讜 注讜讘专转 讻谞讙讚讜 讘砖讜拽

Rabbi Levi said: A mourner during the first three days of his mourning should see himself as though a sword were lying between his two thighs, meaning that he too may be facing imminent death. During this period he should live in dread. From the third to the seventh days he should conduct himself as if the sword were lying opposite him in the corner, but still threatening him. From this point forward it is as if the sword was moving before him in the marketplace, and the fear is not as great.

讜诇讗 砖诇 谞砖讬诐 诇注讜诇诐 诪驻谞讬 讛讻讘讜讚 讗诪专讬 谞讛专讚注讬 诇讗 砖谞讜

搂 The mishna teaches: And the biers of women are never set down, due to their honor. The Sages of Neharde鈥檃 say: They only taught this

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