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Today's Daf Yomi

November 22, 2019 | 讻状讚 讘诪专讞砖讜讜谉 转砖状驻

  • This month's learning is sponsored by Terri Krivosha for the Refuah Shlemah of her husband Harav Hayim Yehuda Ben Faiga Rivah.聽

  • This month's learning is dedicated by Debbie and Yossi Gevir to Rabbanit Michelle and the Hadran Zoom group for their kindness, support, and care during a medically challenging year.

Niddah 30

From where does Beit Shammai derive 95 tevilot and Beit Hillel 35 in a case of a woman who forgets the date of her miscarriage? Is there a difference between the time it takes for a male or female fetus to develop? Can one learn it from experiments of Cleopatra? The gemara describes the like in the fetus as idyllic, based on verses from Job. A fetus has perpective, protection and also learns all the Torah which is taken away by an angel as it is born and is sworn by the angel to keep the commandments.


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转讜讻谉 讝讛 转讜专讙诐 讙诐 诇: 注讘专讬转

诪讻讚讬 讬诪讬 讟讛专讛 讻诪讛 讛讜讜 砖转讬谉 讜砖讬转讗 讚诇 砖讘讜注 砖诇讬砖讬 讚讗讟讘诇讬谞谉 诇讛 驻砖讜 诇讛讜 砖转讬谉 谞讻讬 讞讚讗 砖转讬谉 谞讻讬 讞讚讗 讜转诇转讬谉 讜讞诪砖 转砖注讬谉 讜讗专讘注 讛讜讬讬谉 转砖注讬谉 讜讞诪砖 诪讗讬 注讘讬讚转讬讬讛讜

The Gemara asks: Now consider, how many days of purity are there, in the case of a woman who gave birth to a female? There are sixty-six days. Therefore, in order to account for all of the nights that might occur immediately after the woman鈥檚 period of purity, she must immerse on sixty-six nights, according to Beit Shammai. Remove from this sum the immersions of the third week, when we require the woman to immerse seven times, and sixty less one are left. These sixty-less-one times she immerses after the third week and the thirty-five times she immerses during the first three weeks are together ninety-four immersions. If so, those ninety-five immersions, required by Beit Shammai, what is their purpose? Why do they require an extra immersion?

讗诪专 专讘 讬专诪讬讛 诪讚驻转讬 讻讙讜谉 砖讘讗转 诇驻谞讬谞讜 讘讬谉 讛砖诪砖讜转 讚讬讛讘讬谞谉 诇讛 讟讘讬诇讛 讬转讬专转讗

Rav Yirmeya of Difti says: The baraita is referring to a case where the woman came before us, i.e., she returned from her journey, during twilight, when it is halakhically uncertain whether it is day or night. The ruling is that in this case we give her another immersion, i.e., she is obligated to immerse on an additional day, in case she completed her days of impurity on the day she arrived, and that night is the night she must immerse.

讜诇讘讬转 讛诇诇 讚讗诪专讬 讟讘讜诇转 讬讜诐 讗专讜讱 诇讗 讘注讬 讟讘讬诇讛 转诇转讬谉 讜讞诪砖 诪讗讬 注讘讬讚转讬讬讛讜

The Gemara asks: And according to Beit Hillel, who say that a woman who immersed that long day, i.e., a woman observing her period of purity after childbirth, does not require immersion once her period of purity is over, those thirty-five immersions that they require, what is their purpose?

注砖专讬诐 讜转诪谞讬讗 讻讚讗诪专谉 讛讱 砖讘讜注 讞诪讬砖讬 诪讟讘诇讬谞谉 讻诇 诇讬诇讬讗 讜诇讬诇讬讗 讗讬诪专 住讜祝 谞讚讛 讛讬讗

The Gemara answers: Twenty-eight immersions are required as we said above, i.e., due to the end of the period of impurity in case the woman gave birth to a male or to a female, and due to the completion of the woman鈥檚 seven clean days in case she gave birth as a zava. In addition, during this fifth week we require the woman to immerse each and every night, as one can say that it is the end of her seven-day period as a menstruating woman.

注砖专讛 砖讘讜注讬谉 诇诪讛 诇讬 讘转诪谞讬讗 讜驻诇讙讗 住讙讬

The Gemara raises a further difficulty: Why do I need the baraita to state that after the woman did not experience any bleeding for the first three weeks after arriving, she alternated for ten weeks between experiencing bleeding every day for a week and not experiencing any bleeding for a week. How does this detail contribute to Beit Shammai鈥檚 ruling that the woman must immerse ninety-five times? After all, eight and a half weeks are sufficient. Combined with the first three weeks after the woman鈥檚 arrival, this period amounts to eighty days, which is the number of days on which the woman must immerse according to Beit Shammai, as each day might be the last of her period of purity.

讗讬讬讚讬 讚转谞讗 驻诇讙讗 讚砖讘讜注 诪住讬拽 诇讬讛 讜讗讬讬讚讬 讚转谞讗 砖讘讜注 讟诪讗 转谞讗 谞诪讬 砖讘讜注 讟讛讜专

The Gemara answers: Although eight and a half weeks are sufficient, since the baraita must teach half a week, it completes that week, for a total of nine weeks. And since the baraita teaches with regard to the ninth week that the woman is impure, it also taught with regard to the tenth week that the woman is pure, in accordance with the pattern of a week of purity following every week of impurity.

讜讛讗讬讻讗 讟讘讬诇转 讝讘讛

With regard to the opinion of Beit Hillel that the woman immerses only thirty-five times, the Gemara asks: But isn鈥檛 there the immersion that the woman is obligated to perform due to the possibility that she is a zava? It is possible that by the fourth week, the woman鈥檚 period of purity after childbirth has already ended, and the bleeding she experiences that week is menstrual blood, in which case the next week that she sees blood renders her a zava. If so, she must immerse at the end of that week, after counting seven clean days. The same applies to all the other weeks on which she experiences bleeding, apart from the fourth. Consequently, there are additional immersions not counted by Beit Hillel.

讚诇驻谞讬 转砖诪讬砖 拽讞砖讬讘 讚诇讗讞专 转砖诪讬砖 诇讗 拽讞砖讬讘

The Gemara answers: Beit Hillel count only the times that the woman is obligated to immerse before she is permitted to engage in intercourse with her husband, which amount to thirty-five. They do not count the times that she must immerse after she is permitted to engage in intercourse with her husband.

讜诇讘讬转 砖诪讗讬 讚讞砖讬讘 讚诇讗讞专 转砖诪讬砖 谞讬讞砖讜讘 谞诪讬 讟讘讬诇转 讝讘讛 讘诇讬讚讛 拽诪讬讬专讬 讘讝讬讘讛 诇讗 拽诪讬讬专讬

The Gemara asks: But according to Beit Shammai, who count the times that the woman is obligated to immerse after she is permitted to engage in intercourse in their total of ninety-five immersions, let them also count those immersions in which the woman is obligated due to the possibility that she is a zava. The Gemara answers: Beit Shammai deal with immersions that are due to the woman鈥檚 childbirth; they do not deal with immersions that are due to the possibility of ziva.

讜讛讗讬讻讗 讬讜诇讚转 讘讝讜讘 讬讜诇讚转 讘讝讜讘 拽讞砖讬讘 讝讬讘讛 讙专讬讚转讗 诇讗 拽讞砖讬讘

The Gemara questions this response: But there are immersions counted by Beit Shammai that are due to the possibility that she is a woman who gave birth as a zava. These immersions serve to purify the woman from her status as a zava, not as a woman after childbirth. The Gemara answers: Beit Shammai count immersions that are due to the possibility that she is a woman who gave birth as a zava. In such a scenario, immersion is delayed due to the childbirth, and is performed when the woman鈥檚 impurity period of ziva following childbirth is over. Therefore, these immersions are considered as connected to the childbirth. But Beit Shammai do not count immersions that are due to ziva alone.

砖讘讜注转讗 拽诪讗 讚讗转讬讗 诇拽诪谉 诇讬讟讘诇讛 讘讬讜诪讗 讚讬诇诪讗 讻诇 讬讜诪讗 讜讬讜诪讗 砖诇讬诪讜 诇讛 住驻讜专讬诐 讚讬讚讛

搂 With regard to the statement of the baraita that the woman immerses on every night of the first week in case her period of impurity after childbirth just ended, the Gemara asks: Besides immersing on every night of the first week after she came before us, let the woman immerse during the daytime of every day of that week as well, as perhaps she is a zava, and on each and every day it is possible that her counting of clean days are completed, and she must therefore immerse that morning. Accordingly, seven more immersions should be added to the count.

讛讗 诪谞讬 专讘讬 注拽讬讘讗 讛讬讗 讚讗诪专 讘注讬谞谉 住驻讜专讬诐 讘驻谞讬谞讜

The Gemara answers: In accordance with whose opinion is this statement? It is in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Akiva, who said that we require that the seven clean days of a zava must be counted in our presence, i.e., they must actually be counted. Since she did not know she should count before she arrived, she did not begin counting prior to her arrival. Therefore, her seven clean days begin only once she arrives, and she cannot immerse from her status as a zava of uncertain status before the end of the first week.

住讜祝 砖讘讜注 拽诪讗 诇讬讟讘诇讛 讞讚 讘砖讘讜注 诇讗 拽诪讬讬专讬

The Gemara raises a further difficulty: Even so, let her immerse at the end of the first week, on the morning of the seventh day, after counting seven clean days following her return. This adds one more immersion to the count. The Gemara answers: The baraita is not dealing with immersions that the woman is obligated to perform once a week.

讬讜诪讗 拽诪讗 讚讗转讬讗 诇拽诪谉 诇讬讟讘诇讛 讚讬诇诪讗 砖讜诪专转 讬讜诐 讻谞讙讚 讬讜诐 讛讬讗 讘讝讘讛 讙讚讜诇讛 拽诪讬讬专讬 讘讝讘讛 拽讟谞讛 诇讗 拽诪讬讬专讬

The Gemara further inquires: Let the woman immerse on the first day that she came before us, as perhaps she is a lesser zava, i.e., a woman who experienced a discharge of uterine blood after her menstrual period for one or two consecutive days, and who therefore observes a clean day for a day she experiences a discharge. The Gemara answers: The baraita is dealing with a greater zava alone, i.e., one who experienced a discharge for three consecutive days and must therefore count seven clean days before immersing; it is not dealing with a lesser zava.

砖诪注 诪讬谞讛 转诇转 砖诪注 诪讬谞讛 专讘讬 注拽讬讘讗 讛讬讗 讚讗诪专 讘注讬谞谉 住驻讜专讬诐 讘驻谞讬谞讜

搂 The Gemara summarizes its analysis of the baraita: Conclude from it three conclusions. Conclude from it that the baraita is in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Akiva, who said that we require that the seven clean days of a zava must be counted in our presence.

讜砖诪注 诪讬谞讛 专讘讬 砖诪注讜谉 讛讬讗 讚讗诪专 讗讘诇 讗诪专讜 讞讻诪讬诐 讗住讜专 诇注砖讜转 讻谉 砖诪讗 转讘讗 诇讬讚讬 住驻拽

And conclude from it that the baraita is in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Shimon, who says that it is permitted in principle for a zava to engage in intercourse with her husband on her seventh clean day after immersing in a ritual bath, but that the Sages said that it is prohibited for her to do so, lest she come to a case of uncertainty, i.e., in case she experiences a discharge of blood after engaging in intercourse, which retroactively nullifies her entire seven clean days and renders her impure.

讜砖诪注 诪讬谞讛 讟讘讬诇讛 讘讝诪谞讛 诪爪讜讛 讜专讘讬 讬讜住讬 讘专讘讬 讬讛讜讚讛 讗讜诪专 讚讬讛 诇讟讘讬诇讛 讘讗讞专讜谞讛 讜诇讗 讗诪专讬谞谉 讟讘讬诇讛 讘讝诪谞讛 诪爪讜讛

And finally, conclude from it that immersion at its proper time is a mitzva, which is why the woman immerses every day despite the fact it remains prohibited for her to engage in intercourse. But Rabbi Yosei, son of Rabbi Yehuda, says: It is sufficient for the immersion to be at the end, and we do not say that immersion at its proper time is a mitzva in its own right. Consequently, the woman is obligated to perform only one immersion.

诪转谞讬壮 讛诪驻诇转 诇讬讜诐 讗专讘注讬诐 讗讬谞讛 讞讜砖砖转 诇讜诇讚 诇讬讜诐 讗专讘注讬诐 讜讗讞讚 转砖讘 诇讝讻专 讜诇谞拽讘讛 讜诇谞讚讛

MISHNA: A woman who discharges on the fortieth day since she immersed herself and engaged in intercourse with her husband need not be concerned that it might have been an offspring and she became impure with its miscarriage, as the formation of the offspring in the womb occurs only forty days after conception. But in the case of a woman who discharges on the forty-first day after immersion, there is concern that perhaps it was an offspring. Since its sex is unknown, she shall observe the period of impurity for a woman who gave birth to a male and for a woman who gave birth to a female; and for any blood that she sees, she observes the halakhot of a menstruating woman.

专讘讬 讬砖诪注讗诇 讗讜诪专 讬讜诐 讗专讘注讬诐 讜讗讞讚 转砖讘 诇讝讻专 讜诇谞讚讛 讬讜诐 砖诪讜谞讬诐 讜讗讞讚 转砖讘 诇讝讻专 讜诇谞拽讘讛 讜诇谞讚讛 砖讛讝讻专 谞讙诪专 诇讗专讘注讬诐 讜讗讞讚 讜讛谞拽讘讛 诇砖诪讜谞讬诐 讜讗讞讚 讜讞讻诪讬诐 讗讜诪专讬诐 讗讞讚 讘专讬讬转 讛讝讻专 讜讗讞讚 讘专讬讬转 讛谞拽讘讛 讝讛 讜讝讛 讗专讘注讬诐 讜讗讞讚

Rabbi Yishmael says: A woman who discharges on the forty-first day after immersion observes the seven days of impurity for a woman who gave birth to a male; and for any blood that she sees after seven days, she observes the halakhot of a menstruating woman. But a woman who discharges on the eighty-first day after immersion observes the strictures of a woman who gave birth both to a male and to a female, and also the strictures of a menstruating woman, as the formation of the male offspring concludes on the forty-first day and the formation of the female offspring concludes on the eighty-first day. And the Rabbis say: With regard to both the formation of the male and the formation of the female, this and that conclude on the forty-first day.

讙诪壮 诇诪讛 讛讜讝讻专 讝讻专

GEMARA: The Gemara discusses the statement of the mishna that a woman who discharges on the forty-first day after immersion observes the strictures of a woman who gave birth to both a male and a female, and the strictures of a menstruating woman. Why are the strictures of a woman who gave birth to a male mentioned in this statement? What additional strictures must the woman observe due to the possibility that she gave birth to a male, over and above those she observes for the birth of a female?

讗讬 诇讬诪讬 讟讜诪讗讛 讛讗 拽转谞讬 谞拽讘讛 讜讗讬 诇讬诪讬 讟讛专讛

If these strictures are mentioned due to the days of impurity that a woman who gave birth to a male must observe, doesn鈥檛 the mishna in any case teach that the woman observes the strictures of a woman who gave birth to a female? The seven days of impurity that are observed by a woman who gave birth to a male are included in the fourteen days of impurity that she observes for a female. And if these strictures are mentioned due to the days of purity that are observed by a woman who gave birth to a male, which are fewer than the days of purity that are observed for the birth of a female,

讛讗 拽转谞讬 谞讚讛

doesn鈥檛 the mishna teach that the woman observes the strictures of a menstruating woman, i.e., she is considered ritually impure every time she experiences bleeding, and does not observe any period of purity at all?

砖讗诐 转专讗讛 讬讜诐 砖诇讜砖讬诐 讜讗专讘注讛 讜转讞讝讜专 讜转专讗讛 讬讜诐 讗专讘注讬诐 讜讗讞讚 转讛讗 诪拽讜诇拽诇转 注讚 讗专讘注讬诐 讜砖诪讜谞讛

The Gemara answers: The mishna mentions that the woman observes the strictures of a woman who gave birth to a male to teach that if she sees blood on the thirty-fourth day after her miscarriage and again sees blood on the forty-first day, her purity status shall be ruined, i.e., she shall be prohibited from engaging in intercourse, until the forty-eighth day. If she were not observing the strictures of a woman who gave birth to a male, but only those of a menstruating woman and one who gave birth to a female, she would not have to wait seven days after seeing blood on the forty-first day. Instead, she would wait only one day, as her possible seven-day period of menstruation began on the thirty-fourth day and ended on the fortieth. Yet, as she might have given birth to a male, the forty-first day might be the first day after her period of purity, and therefore the first of her seven days of menstruation. Consequently, she must consider herself impure until the forty-eighth day.

讜讻谉 诇注谞讬谉 谞拽讘讛 砖讗诐 转专讗讛 讬讜诐 砖讘注讬诐 讜讗专讘注讛 讜转讞讝讜专 讜转专讗讛 讬讜诐 砖诪讜谞讬诐 讜讗讞讚 转讛讗 诪拽讜诇拽诇转 注讚 砖诪讜谞讬诐 讜砖诪讜谞讛

And similarly, with regard to the halakha that she observes the strictures of a woman who gave birth to a female, one ramification is that if she sees blood on the seventy-fourth day and again sees blood on the eighty-first day, her purity status shall be ruined until the eighty-eighth day. Although she observes ritual impurity after discovering bleeding on the seventy-fourth day, as perhaps she has the status of a menstruating woman, when she discovers bleeding on the eighty-first day she must begin the count of seven days of menstruation again, in case the seventy-fourth day was during her period of purity after having given birth to a female.

专讘讬 讬砖诪注讗诇 讗讜诪专 讬讜诐 讗专讘注讬诐 讜讗讞讚 转砖讘 诇讝讻专 讜诇谞讚讛 讻讜壮 转谞讬讗 专讘讬 讬砖诪注讗诇 讗讜诪专 讟讬诪讗 讜讟讬讛专 讘讝讻专 讜讟讬诪讗 讜讟讬讛专 讘谞拽讘讛

搂 The mishna teaches that Rabbi Yishmael says: A woman who discharges on the forty-first day after immersion observes both the strictures of a woman who gave birth to a male, and those of a menstruating woman, but not the strictures of a woman who gave birth to a female, as the formation of a male offspring takes forty-one days, whereas the formation of a female offspring takes eighty-one days. It is taught in a baraita that Rabbi Yishmael says, in explanation of his opinion: In the case of a woman who gave birth to a male, the verse deems her impure for seven days and deems her pure for an additional thirty-three days, for a total of forty days; and with regard to a woman who gave birth to a female, the verse deems her impure for fourteen days and deems her pure for another sixty-six days, for a total of eighty days.

诪讛 讻砖讟讬诪讗 讜讟讬讛专 讘讝讻专 讬爪讬专转讜 讻讬讜爪讗 讘讜 讗祝 讻砖讟讬诪讗 讜讟讬讛专 讘谞拽讘讛 讬爪讬专转讛 讻讬讜爪讗 讘讛 讗诪专讜 诇讜 讗讬谉 诇诪讚讬谉 讬爪讬专讛 诪讟讜诪讗讛

It can therefore be inferred that just as when the verse deems a woman impure and then deems her pure for a total of forty days in the case of a male, its amount of time is parallel to the time of the formation of a male embryo; so too, when the verse deems a woman impure and deems her pure for a total of eighty days in the case of a female, its amount of time is parallel to the time of the formation of a female embryo. Accordingly, the formation of a female ends on the eighty-first day after conception. The Rabbis said to Rabbi Yishmael in response: One cannot derive the amount of time of the formation of an embryo from the extent of a woman鈥檚 period of impurity after giving birth.

讗诪专讜 诇讜 诇专讘讬 讬砖诪注讗诇 诪注砖讛 讘拽诇讬讗讜驻讟专讗 诪诇讻转 讗诇讻住谞讚专讜住 砖谞转讞讬讬讘讜 砖驻讞讜转讬讛 讛专讬讙讛 诇诪诇讻讜转 讜讘讚拽谉 讜诪爪讗谉 讝讛 讜讝讛 诇讗专讘注讬诐 讜讗讞讚 讗诪专 诇讛谉 讗谞讬 诪讘讬讗 诇讻诐 专讗讬讬讛 诪谉 讛转讜专讛 讜讗转诐 诪讘讬讗讬谉 诇讬 专讗讬讬讛 诪谉 讛砖讜讟讬诐

Furthermore, the Rabbis said to Rabbi Yishmael that there is a proof against his opinion from an incident involving Cleopatra, Queen of Alexandria. Since her maidservants were sentenced to death by the government, she took advantage of the opportunity and experimented on them in order to examine the amount of time it takes for an embryo to develop. She had her maidservants engage in intercourse and operated on them following their execution in order to determine the stage at which an embryo is fully formed, and found that both in this case, when the embryo is male, and that case, when it is female, the formation is complete on the forty-first day after conception. Rabbi Yishmael said to them in response: I bring you proof from the Torah, and you bring me proof from the fools?

诪讗讬 专讗讬讛 诪谉 讛转讜专讛 讗讬诇讬诪讗 讟讬诪讗 讜讟讬讛专 讘讝讻专 讜讟讬诪讗 讜讟讬讛专 讘谞拽讘讛 讻讜壮 讛讗 拽讗诪专讬 诇讬讛 讗讬谉 讚谞讬谉 讬爪讬专讛 诪讟讜诪讗讛

The Gemara asks: What proof from the Torah does Rabbi Yishmael bring for his opinion? If we say that his proof is the aforementioned derivation that in the case of a woman who gave birth to a male, the verse deems her impure for seven days and deems her pure for an additional thirty-three days, for a total of forty days; and in the case of a female, the verse deems her impure for fourteen days and deems her pure for an additional sixty-six days, for a total of eighty days, didn鈥檛 the Rabbis say to him in response that one cannot derive the amount of time that the formation of an embryo takes from the extent of a woman鈥檚 period of impurity after giving birth?

讗诪专 拽专讗 转诇讚 讛讜住讬祝 诇讛 讛讻转讜讘 诇讬讚讛 讗讞专转 讘谞拽讘讛

The Gemara answers: Rabbi Yishmael鈥檚 derivation is that the verse states: 鈥淚f a woman bears seed and gives birth to a male鈥nd if she gives birth to a female鈥 (Leviticus 12:2鈥5). The verse adds another explicit mention of childbirth with regard to a female, besides the mention of childbirth in the case of a male, when it could have simply stated: And if it is a female. Rabbi Yishmael derives from here that not only are the periods of ritual impurity and purity of one who gives birth to a female double those of a woman who gives birth to a male, but the formation of a female embryo also takes twice the time.

讜诪讗讬 专讗讬讛 诪谉 讛砖讜讟讬诐 讗讬诪专 谞拽讘讛 拽讚讬诐 讜讗讬注讘讜专 讗专讘注讬谉 讬讜诪讬谉 拽诪讬 讝讻专

The Gemara asks: And for what reason does Rabbi Yishmael refer to the proof that the Rabbis cited from Cleopatra鈥檚 experiment as a proof from the fools? The Gemara answers: One can say that the maidservant who was pregnant with a female embryo became pregnant first, forty days before the maidservant who was pregnant with a male embryo. Consequently, it took the female embryo eighty days to be develop, not forty.

讜专讘谞谉 住诪讗 讚谞驻爪讗 讗砖拽讬谞讛讜 讜专讘讬 讬砖诪注讗诇 讗讬讻讗 讙讜驻讗 讚诇讗 诪拽讘诇 住诪讗

The Gemara asks: And how would the Rabbis respond to this claim? The Gemara answers: Cleopatra gave the maidservants a purgative medicine to drink before they engaged in intercourse, which would have terminated any previous pregnancy. And Rabbi Yishmael would respond that there are bodies that are not affected by this medicine, i.e., certain pregnancies are not terminated by the medicine. Consequently, the maidservant who was pregnant with a female embryo might have been pregnant prior to the experiment.

讗诪专 诇讛诐 专讘讬 讬砖诪注讗诇 诪注砖讛 讘拽诇驻讟专讗 诪诇讻转 讬讜讜谞讬转 砖谞转讞讬讬讘讜 砖驻讞讜转讬讛 讛专讬讙讛 诇诪诇讻讜转 讜讘讚拽谉 讜诪爪讗谉 讝讻专 诇讗专讘注讬诐 讜讗讞讚 讜谞拽讘讛 诇砖诪讜谞讬诐 讜讗讞讚 讗诪专讜 诇讜 讗讬谉 诪讘讬讗讬谉 专讗讬讛 诪谉 讛砖讜讟讬诐

The Gemara cites another baraita that presents a different version of this exchange between Rabbi Yishmael and the Rabbis: Rabbi Yishmael said to the Rabbis that there is a proof for his opinion from an incident involving Cleopatra, the Greek queen, as her maidservants were sentenced to death by the government, and she experimented on them and found that a male embryo is fully formed on the forty-first day after conception, and a female embryo is formed on the eighty-first day. The Rabbis said to him: One does not bring proof from the fools.

诪讗讬 讟注诪讗 讛讱 讚谞拽讘讛 讗讬讬转专讛 讗专讘注讬谉 讬讜诪讬谉 讜讛讚专 讗讬注讘专

The Gemara explains: What is the reason the Rabbis consider this a proof from the fools? They claim that it is possible that this woman who was pregnant with a female embryo did not conceive when Cleopatra had her engage in intercourse; rather, she waited forty days, and then became pregnant when she again engaged in intercourse. Therefore, the embryo was formed in forty days.

讜专讘讬 讬砖诪注讗诇 诇砖讜诪专 诪住专讬谞讛讜 讜专讘谞谉 讗讬谉 讗驻讜讟专讜驻讜住 诇注专讬讜转 讗讬诪讗 砖讜诪专 讙讜驻讬讛 讘讗 注诇讬讛

And how would Rabbi Yishmael respond to this claim? He would claim that the maidservants could not have conceived on a later date, as Cleopatra transferred them to the custody of a steward, who made sure that they did not engage in intercourse during the experiment. And the Rabbis would say that there is no steward [apotropos] for restraining sexual intercourse, and therefore one can say that the warden himself engaged in intercourse with the maidservant.

讜讚讬诇诪讗 讗讬 拽专注讜讛讜 诇讛讱 讚谞拽讘讛 讘讗专讘注讬谉 讜讞讚 讛讜讛 诪砖转讻讞讗 讻讝讻专 讗诪专 讗讘讬讬 讘住讬诪谞讬讛讜谉 砖讜讬谉

The Gemara raises a difficulty with regard to Rabbi Yishmael鈥檚 proof: But how can one be sure that the female embryo was formed after eighty-one days? Perhaps if the womb of the woman carrying this female embryo would have been torn open on the forty-first day after conception, the female embryo would have already been found in it, just as in the case of a male embryo. Abaye says in response: It was a case where the indications of the ages of the two embryos, e.g., their hairs and fingernails, were identical. Evidently, the female embryo developed in eighty days to the same degree that the male embryo developed in forty days.

讜讞讻诪讬诐 讗讜诪专讬诐 讗讞讚 讘专讬讬转 讝讻专 讜讗讞讚 讘专讬讬转 谞拽讘讛 讜讻讜壮 讞讻诪讬诐 讛讬讬谞讜 转谞讗 拽诪讗

搂 The mishna teaches: And the Rabbis say: Both the formation of the male and the formation of the female conclude on the forty-first day. The Gemara asks: The statement of the Rabbis is identical to the statement of the first tanna. Why does the mishna repeat this opinion in the name of the Rabbis?

讜讻讬 转讬诪讗 诇诪住转诪讗 专讬砖讗 讻专讘谞谉 讜讬讞讬讚 讜专讘讬诐 讛诇讻讛 讻专讘讬诐 驻砖讬讟讗

And if you would say that the purpose is to teach that the unattributed opinion mentioned in the first clause of the mishna is in accordance with the opinion of the Rabbis, and therefore it is the halakha, as when there is a disagreement between an individual Sage and many Sages, the halakha is in accordance with the opinion of the many, this cannot be the reason. The Gemara explains: It is obvious that the halakha is in accordance with the unattributed opinion mentioned in the first clause of the mishna, as this is a general halakhic principle.

诪讛讜 讚转讬诪讗 诪住转讘专讗 讟注诪讗 讚专讘讬 讬砖诪注讗诇 讚拽诪住讬讬注 诇讬讛 拽专讗讬 拽讗 诪砖诪注 诇谉

The Gemara answers: Lest you say that from the fact that the explanation of the opinion of Rabbi Yishmael stands to reason, as the verses apparently support it, the halakha should be in accordance with his opinion, therefore the mishna teaches us that the majority of Sages agree with the unattributed opinion mentioned in the first clause of the mishna.

讚专砖 专讘讬 砖诪诇讗讬 诇诪讛 讛讜诇讚 讚讜诪讛 讘诪注讬 讗诪讜 诇驻谞拽住 砖诪拽讜驻诇 讜诪讜谞讞 讬讚讬讜 注诇 砖转讬 爪讚注讬讜 砖转讬 讗爪讬诇讬讜 注诇 砖转讬 讗专讻讜讘讜转讬讜 讜砖谞讬 注拽讘讬讜 注诇 砖转讬 注讙讘讜转讬讜 讜专讗砖讜 诪讜谞讞 诇讜 讘讬谉 讘专讻讬讜 讜驻讬讜 住转讜诐 讜讟讘讜专讜 驻转讜讞 讜讗讜讻诇 诪诪讛 砖讗诪讜 讗讜讻诇转 讜砖讜转讛 诪诪讛 砖讗诪讜 砖讜转讛 讜讗讬谞讜 诪讜爪讬讗 专注讬 砖诪讗 讬讛专讜讙 讗转 讗诪讜 讜讻讬讜谉 砖讬爪讗 诇讗讜讬专 讛注讜诇诐 谞驻转讞 讛住转讜诐 讜谞住转诐 讛驻转讜讞 砖讗诇诪诇讗 讻谉 讗讬谞讜 讬讻讜诇 诇讞讬讜转 讗驻讬诇讜 砖注讛 讗讞转

Rabbi Samlai taught: To what is a fetus in its mother鈥檚 womb comparable? To a folded notebook [lefinkas]. And it rests with its hands on its two sides of its head, at the temples, its two arms [atzilav] on its two knees, and its two heels on its two buttocks, and its head rests between its knees, and its mouth is closed, and its umbilicus is open. And it eats from what its mother eats, and it drinks from what its mother drinks, and it does not emit excrement lest it kill its mother. But once it emerges into the airspace of the world, the closed limb, i.e., its mouth, opens, and the open limb, its umbilicus, closes, as otherwise it cannot live for even one hour.

讜谞专 讚诇讜拽 诇讜 注诇 专讗砖讜 讜爪讜驻讛 讜诪讘讬讟 诪住讜祝 讛注讜诇诐 讜注讚 住讜驻讜 砖谞讗诪专 讘讛诇讜 谞专讜 注诇讬 专讗砖讬 诇讗讜专讜 讗诇讱 讞砖讱 讜讗诇 转转诪讛 砖讛专讬 讗讚诐 讬砖谉 讻讗谉 讜专讜讗讛 讞诇讜诐 讘讗住驻诪讬讗

And a candle is lit for it above its head, and it gazes from one end of the world to the other, as it is stated: 鈥淲hen His lamp shined above my head, and by His light I walked through darkness鈥 (Job 29:3). And do not wonder how one can see from one end of the world to the other, as a person can sleep here, in this location, and see a dream that takes place in a place as distant as Spain [beAspamya].

讜讗讬谉 诇讱 讬诪讬诐 砖讗讚诐 砖专讜讬 讘讟讜讘讛 讬讜转专 诪讗讜转谉 讛讬诪讬诐 砖谞讗诪专 诪讬 讬转谞谞讬 讻讬专讞讬 拽讚诐 讻讬诪讬 讗诇讜讛 讬砖诪专谞讬 讜讗讬讝讛讜 讬诪讬诐 砖讬砖 讘讛诐 讬专讞讬诐 讜讗讬谉 讘讛诐 砖谞讬诐 讛讜讬 讗讜诪专 讗诇讜 讬专讞讬 诇讬讚讛

And there are no days when a person is in a more blissful state than those days when he is a fetus in his mother鈥檚 womb, as it is stated in the previous verse: 鈥淚f only I were as in the months of old, as in the days when God watched over me鈥 (Job 29:2). And the proof that this verse is referring to gestation is as follows: Which are the days that have months but do not have years? You must say that these are the months of gestation.

讜诪诇诪讚讬谉 讗讜转讜 讻诇 讛转讜专讛 讻讜诇讛 砖谞讗诪专 讜讬专谞讬 讜讬讗诪专 诇讬 讬转诪讱 讚讘专讬 诇讘讱 砖诪专 诪爪讜转讬 讜讞讬讛 讜讗讜诪专 讘住讜讚 讗诇讜讛 注诇讬 讗讛诇讬

And a fetus is taught the entire Torah while in the womb, as it is stated: 鈥淎nd He taught me and said to me: Let your heart hold fast My words; keep My commandments, and live鈥 (Proverbs 4:4). And it also states: 鈥淎s I was in the days of my youth, when the converse of God was upon my tent鈥 (Job 29:4).

诪讗讬 讜讗讜诪专 讜讻讬 转讬诪讗 谞讘讬讗 讛讜讗 讚拽讗诪专 转讗 砖诪注 讘住讜讚 讗诇讜讛 注诇讬 讗讛诇讬

The Gemara asks: What is the purpose of the statement: And it also states: 鈥淲hen the converse of God was upon my tent鈥? Why is it necessary to cite this verse in addition to the previously quoted verse from Proverbs? The Gemara explains: And if you would say that the verse in Proverbs is insufficient, as it is a prophet who is saying that he was taught the entire Torah in his mother鈥檚 womb, but this does not apply to ordinary people, come and hear the verse in Job: 鈥淲hen the converse of God was upon my tent.鈥

讜讻讬讜谉 砖讘讗 诇讗讜讬专 讛注讜诇诐 讘讗 诪诇讗讱 讜住讟专讜 注诇 驻讬讜 讜诪砖讻讞讜 讻诇 讛转讜专讛 讻讜诇讛 砖谞讗诪专 诇驻转讞 讞讟讗转 专讘抓

And once the fetus emerges into the airspace of the world, an angel comes and slaps it on its mouth, causing it to forget the entire Torah, as it is stated: 鈥淪in crouches at the entrance鈥 (Genesis 4:7), i.e., when a person enters the world he is immediately liable to sin due to his loss of Torah knowledge.

讜讗讬谞讜 讬讜爪讗 诪砖诐 注讚 砖诪砖讘讬注讬谉 讗讜转讜 砖谞讗诪专 讻讬 诇讬 转讻专注 讻诇 讘专讱 转砖讘注 讻诇 诇砖讜谉 讻讬 诇讬 转讻专注 讻诇 讘专讱 讝讛 讬讜诐 讛诪讬转讛 砖谞讗诪专 诇驻谞讬讜 讬讻专注讜 讻诇 讬讜专讚讬 注驻专 转砖讘注 讻诇 诇砖讜谉 讝讛 讬讜诐 讛诇讬讚讛 砖谞讗诪专 谞拽讬 讻驻讬诐 讜讘专 诇讘讘 讗砖专 诇讗 谞砖讗 诇砖讜讗 谞驻砖讜 讜诇讗 谞砖讘注 诇诪专诪讛

And a fetus does not leave the womb until the angels administer an oath to it, as it is stated: 鈥淭hat to Me every knee shall bow, every tongue shall swear鈥 (Isaiah 45:23). The verse is interpreted as follows: 鈥淭hat to Me every knee shall bow鈥; this is referring to the day of one鈥檚 death, as it is stated: 鈥淎ll those who go down to the dust shall kneel before Him鈥 (Psalms 22:30). 鈥淓very tongue shall swear鈥; this is referring to the day of one鈥檚 birth, as it is stated in description of a righteous person: 鈥淗e who has clean hands, and a pure heart, who has not taken My name in vain, and has not sworn deceitfully鈥 (Psalms 24:4), i.e., he has kept the oath that he took before he was born.

讜诪讛 讛讬讗 讛砖讘讜注讛 砖诪砖讘讬注讬谉 讗讜转讜 转讛讬 爪讚讬拽 讜讗诇 转讛讬 专砖注 讜讗驻讬诇讜 讻诇 讛注讜诇诐 讻讜诇讜 讗讜诪专讬诐 诇讱 爪讚讬拽 讗转讛 讛讬讛 讘注讬谞讬讱 讻专砖注 讜讛讜讬 讬讜讚注 砖讛拽讚讜砖 讘专讜讱 讛讜讗 讟讛讜专 讜诪砖专转讬讜 讟讛讜专讬诐 讜谞砖诪讛 砖谞转谉 讘讱 讟讛讜专讛 讛讬讗 讗诐 讗转讛 诪砖诪专讛 讘讟讛专讛 诪讜讟讘 讜讗诐 诇讗讜 讛专讬谞讬 谞讜讟诇讛 诪诪讱

And what is the oath that the angels administer to the fetus? Be righteous and do not be wicked. And even if the entire world says to you: You are righteous, consider yourself wicked. And know that the Holy One, Blessed be He, is pure, and His ministers are pure, and the soul that He gave you is pure. If you preserve it in a state of purity, all is well, but if you do not keep it pure, I, the angel, shall take it from you.

转谞讗 讚讘讬 专讘讬 讬砖诪注讗诇 诪砖诇 诇讻讛谉 砖诪住专 转专讜诪讛 诇注诐 讛讗专抓 讜讗诪专 诇讜 讗诐 讗转讛 诪砖诪专讛 讘讟讛专讛 诪讜讟讘 讜讗诐 诇讗讜 讛专讬谞讬 砖讜专驻讛 诇驻谞讬讱

The school of Rabbi Yishmael taught a parable: This matter is comparable to a priest who gave teruma, the portion of the produce designated for the priest, to one who is unreliable with regard to ritual impurity [am ha鈥檃retz], and therefore it is suspected that he might not maintain the purity of the teruma. And the priest said to him: If you keep it in a state of ritual purity, all is well, but if you do not keep it pure, I shall burn it before you.

讗诪专 专讘讬 讗诇注讝专

Rabbi Elazar said:

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Niddah 30

The William Davidson Talmud | Powered by Sefaria

Niddah 30

诪讻讚讬 讬诪讬 讟讛专讛 讻诪讛 讛讜讜 砖转讬谉 讜砖讬转讗 讚诇 砖讘讜注 砖诇讬砖讬 讚讗讟讘诇讬谞谉 诇讛 驻砖讜 诇讛讜 砖转讬谉 谞讻讬 讞讚讗 砖转讬谉 谞讻讬 讞讚讗 讜转诇转讬谉 讜讞诪砖 转砖注讬谉 讜讗专讘注 讛讜讬讬谉 转砖注讬谉 讜讞诪砖 诪讗讬 注讘讬讚转讬讬讛讜

The Gemara asks: Now consider, how many days of purity are there, in the case of a woman who gave birth to a female? There are sixty-six days. Therefore, in order to account for all of the nights that might occur immediately after the woman鈥檚 period of purity, she must immerse on sixty-six nights, according to Beit Shammai. Remove from this sum the immersions of the third week, when we require the woman to immerse seven times, and sixty less one are left. These sixty-less-one times she immerses after the third week and the thirty-five times she immerses during the first three weeks are together ninety-four immersions. If so, those ninety-five immersions, required by Beit Shammai, what is their purpose? Why do they require an extra immersion?

讗诪专 专讘 讬专诪讬讛 诪讚驻转讬 讻讙讜谉 砖讘讗转 诇驻谞讬谞讜 讘讬谉 讛砖诪砖讜转 讚讬讛讘讬谞谉 诇讛 讟讘讬诇讛 讬转讬专转讗

Rav Yirmeya of Difti says: The baraita is referring to a case where the woman came before us, i.e., she returned from her journey, during twilight, when it is halakhically uncertain whether it is day or night. The ruling is that in this case we give her another immersion, i.e., she is obligated to immerse on an additional day, in case she completed her days of impurity on the day she arrived, and that night is the night she must immerse.

讜诇讘讬转 讛诇诇 讚讗诪专讬 讟讘讜诇转 讬讜诐 讗专讜讱 诇讗 讘注讬 讟讘讬诇讛 转诇转讬谉 讜讞诪砖 诪讗讬 注讘讬讚转讬讬讛讜

The Gemara asks: And according to Beit Hillel, who say that a woman who immersed that long day, i.e., a woman observing her period of purity after childbirth, does not require immersion once her period of purity is over, those thirty-five immersions that they require, what is their purpose?

注砖专讬诐 讜转诪谞讬讗 讻讚讗诪专谉 讛讱 砖讘讜注 讞诪讬砖讬 诪讟讘诇讬谞谉 讻诇 诇讬诇讬讗 讜诇讬诇讬讗 讗讬诪专 住讜祝 谞讚讛 讛讬讗

The Gemara answers: Twenty-eight immersions are required as we said above, i.e., due to the end of the period of impurity in case the woman gave birth to a male or to a female, and due to the completion of the woman鈥檚 seven clean days in case she gave birth as a zava. In addition, during this fifth week we require the woman to immerse each and every night, as one can say that it is the end of her seven-day period as a menstruating woman.

注砖专讛 砖讘讜注讬谉 诇诪讛 诇讬 讘转诪谞讬讗 讜驻诇讙讗 住讙讬

The Gemara raises a further difficulty: Why do I need the baraita to state that after the woman did not experience any bleeding for the first three weeks after arriving, she alternated for ten weeks between experiencing bleeding every day for a week and not experiencing any bleeding for a week. How does this detail contribute to Beit Shammai鈥檚 ruling that the woman must immerse ninety-five times? After all, eight and a half weeks are sufficient. Combined with the first three weeks after the woman鈥檚 arrival, this period amounts to eighty days, which is the number of days on which the woman must immerse according to Beit Shammai, as each day might be the last of her period of purity.

讗讬讬讚讬 讚转谞讗 驻诇讙讗 讚砖讘讜注 诪住讬拽 诇讬讛 讜讗讬讬讚讬 讚转谞讗 砖讘讜注 讟诪讗 转谞讗 谞诪讬 砖讘讜注 讟讛讜专

The Gemara answers: Although eight and a half weeks are sufficient, since the baraita must teach half a week, it completes that week, for a total of nine weeks. And since the baraita teaches with regard to the ninth week that the woman is impure, it also taught with regard to the tenth week that the woman is pure, in accordance with the pattern of a week of purity following every week of impurity.

讜讛讗讬讻讗 讟讘讬诇转 讝讘讛

With regard to the opinion of Beit Hillel that the woman immerses only thirty-five times, the Gemara asks: But isn鈥檛 there the immersion that the woman is obligated to perform due to the possibility that she is a zava? It is possible that by the fourth week, the woman鈥檚 period of purity after childbirth has already ended, and the bleeding she experiences that week is menstrual blood, in which case the next week that she sees blood renders her a zava. If so, she must immerse at the end of that week, after counting seven clean days. The same applies to all the other weeks on which she experiences bleeding, apart from the fourth. Consequently, there are additional immersions not counted by Beit Hillel.

讚诇驻谞讬 转砖诪讬砖 拽讞砖讬讘 讚诇讗讞专 转砖诪讬砖 诇讗 拽讞砖讬讘

The Gemara answers: Beit Hillel count only the times that the woman is obligated to immerse before she is permitted to engage in intercourse with her husband, which amount to thirty-five. They do not count the times that she must immerse after she is permitted to engage in intercourse with her husband.

讜诇讘讬转 砖诪讗讬 讚讞砖讬讘 讚诇讗讞专 转砖诪讬砖 谞讬讞砖讜讘 谞诪讬 讟讘讬诇转 讝讘讛 讘诇讬讚讛 拽诪讬讬专讬 讘讝讬讘讛 诇讗 拽诪讬讬专讬

The Gemara asks: But according to Beit Shammai, who count the times that the woman is obligated to immerse after she is permitted to engage in intercourse in their total of ninety-five immersions, let them also count those immersions in which the woman is obligated due to the possibility that she is a zava. The Gemara answers: Beit Shammai deal with immersions that are due to the woman鈥檚 childbirth; they do not deal with immersions that are due to the possibility of ziva.

讜讛讗讬讻讗 讬讜诇讚转 讘讝讜讘 讬讜诇讚转 讘讝讜讘 拽讞砖讬讘 讝讬讘讛 讙专讬讚转讗 诇讗 拽讞砖讬讘

The Gemara questions this response: But there are immersions counted by Beit Shammai that are due to the possibility that she is a woman who gave birth as a zava. These immersions serve to purify the woman from her status as a zava, not as a woman after childbirth. The Gemara answers: Beit Shammai count immersions that are due to the possibility that she is a woman who gave birth as a zava. In such a scenario, immersion is delayed due to the childbirth, and is performed when the woman鈥檚 impurity period of ziva following childbirth is over. Therefore, these immersions are considered as connected to the childbirth. But Beit Shammai do not count immersions that are due to ziva alone.

砖讘讜注转讗 拽诪讗 讚讗转讬讗 诇拽诪谉 诇讬讟讘诇讛 讘讬讜诪讗 讚讬诇诪讗 讻诇 讬讜诪讗 讜讬讜诪讗 砖诇讬诪讜 诇讛 住驻讜专讬诐 讚讬讚讛

搂 With regard to the statement of the baraita that the woman immerses on every night of the first week in case her period of impurity after childbirth just ended, the Gemara asks: Besides immersing on every night of the first week after she came before us, let the woman immerse during the daytime of every day of that week as well, as perhaps she is a zava, and on each and every day it is possible that her counting of clean days are completed, and she must therefore immerse that morning. Accordingly, seven more immersions should be added to the count.

讛讗 诪谞讬 专讘讬 注拽讬讘讗 讛讬讗 讚讗诪专 讘注讬谞谉 住驻讜专讬诐 讘驻谞讬谞讜

The Gemara answers: In accordance with whose opinion is this statement? It is in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Akiva, who said that we require that the seven clean days of a zava must be counted in our presence, i.e., they must actually be counted. Since she did not know she should count before she arrived, she did not begin counting prior to her arrival. Therefore, her seven clean days begin only once she arrives, and she cannot immerse from her status as a zava of uncertain status before the end of the first week.

住讜祝 砖讘讜注 拽诪讗 诇讬讟讘诇讛 讞讚 讘砖讘讜注 诇讗 拽诪讬讬专讬

The Gemara raises a further difficulty: Even so, let her immerse at the end of the first week, on the morning of the seventh day, after counting seven clean days following her return. This adds one more immersion to the count. The Gemara answers: The baraita is not dealing with immersions that the woman is obligated to perform once a week.

讬讜诪讗 拽诪讗 讚讗转讬讗 诇拽诪谉 诇讬讟讘诇讛 讚讬诇诪讗 砖讜诪专转 讬讜诐 讻谞讙讚 讬讜诐 讛讬讗 讘讝讘讛 讙讚讜诇讛 拽诪讬讬专讬 讘讝讘讛 拽讟谞讛 诇讗 拽诪讬讬专讬

The Gemara further inquires: Let the woman immerse on the first day that she came before us, as perhaps she is a lesser zava, i.e., a woman who experienced a discharge of uterine blood after her menstrual period for one or two consecutive days, and who therefore observes a clean day for a day she experiences a discharge. The Gemara answers: The baraita is dealing with a greater zava alone, i.e., one who experienced a discharge for three consecutive days and must therefore count seven clean days before immersing; it is not dealing with a lesser zava.

砖诪注 诪讬谞讛 转诇转 砖诪注 诪讬谞讛 专讘讬 注拽讬讘讗 讛讬讗 讚讗诪专 讘注讬谞谉 住驻讜专讬诐 讘驻谞讬谞讜

搂 The Gemara summarizes its analysis of the baraita: Conclude from it three conclusions. Conclude from it that the baraita is in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Akiva, who said that we require that the seven clean days of a zava must be counted in our presence.

讜砖诪注 诪讬谞讛 专讘讬 砖诪注讜谉 讛讬讗 讚讗诪专 讗讘诇 讗诪专讜 讞讻诪讬诐 讗住讜专 诇注砖讜转 讻谉 砖诪讗 转讘讗 诇讬讚讬 住驻拽

And conclude from it that the baraita is in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Shimon, who says that it is permitted in principle for a zava to engage in intercourse with her husband on her seventh clean day after immersing in a ritual bath, but that the Sages said that it is prohibited for her to do so, lest she come to a case of uncertainty, i.e., in case she experiences a discharge of blood after engaging in intercourse, which retroactively nullifies her entire seven clean days and renders her impure.

讜砖诪注 诪讬谞讛 讟讘讬诇讛 讘讝诪谞讛 诪爪讜讛 讜专讘讬 讬讜住讬 讘专讘讬 讬讛讜讚讛 讗讜诪专 讚讬讛 诇讟讘讬诇讛 讘讗讞专讜谞讛 讜诇讗 讗诪专讬谞谉 讟讘讬诇讛 讘讝诪谞讛 诪爪讜讛

And finally, conclude from it that immersion at its proper time is a mitzva, which is why the woman immerses every day despite the fact it remains prohibited for her to engage in intercourse. But Rabbi Yosei, son of Rabbi Yehuda, says: It is sufficient for the immersion to be at the end, and we do not say that immersion at its proper time is a mitzva in its own right. Consequently, the woman is obligated to perform only one immersion.

诪转谞讬壮 讛诪驻诇转 诇讬讜诐 讗专讘注讬诐 讗讬谞讛 讞讜砖砖转 诇讜诇讚 诇讬讜诐 讗专讘注讬诐 讜讗讞讚 转砖讘 诇讝讻专 讜诇谞拽讘讛 讜诇谞讚讛

MISHNA: A woman who discharges on the fortieth day since she immersed herself and engaged in intercourse with her husband need not be concerned that it might have been an offspring and she became impure with its miscarriage, as the formation of the offspring in the womb occurs only forty days after conception. But in the case of a woman who discharges on the forty-first day after immersion, there is concern that perhaps it was an offspring. Since its sex is unknown, she shall observe the period of impurity for a woman who gave birth to a male and for a woman who gave birth to a female; and for any blood that she sees, she observes the halakhot of a menstruating woman.

专讘讬 讬砖诪注讗诇 讗讜诪专 讬讜诐 讗专讘注讬诐 讜讗讞讚 转砖讘 诇讝讻专 讜诇谞讚讛 讬讜诐 砖诪讜谞讬诐 讜讗讞讚 转砖讘 诇讝讻专 讜诇谞拽讘讛 讜诇谞讚讛 砖讛讝讻专 谞讙诪专 诇讗专讘注讬诐 讜讗讞讚 讜讛谞拽讘讛 诇砖诪讜谞讬诐 讜讗讞讚 讜讞讻诪讬诐 讗讜诪专讬诐 讗讞讚 讘专讬讬转 讛讝讻专 讜讗讞讚 讘专讬讬转 讛谞拽讘讛 讝讛 讜讝讛 讗专讘注讬诐 讜讗讞讚

Rabbi Yishmael says: A woman who discharges on the forty-first day after immersion observes the seven days of impurity for a woman who gave birth to a male; and for any blood that she sees after seven days, she observes the halakhot of a menstruating woman. But a woman who discharges on the eighty-first day after immersion observes the strictures of a woman who gave birth both to a male and to a female, and also the strictures of a menstruating woman, as the formation of the male offspring concludes on the forty-first day and the formation of the female offspring concludes on the eighty-first day. And the Rabbis say: With regard to both the formation of the male and the formation of the female, this and that conclude on the forty-first day.

讙诪壮 诇诪讛 讛讜讝讻专 讝讻专

GEMARA: The Gemara discusses the statement of the mishna that a woman who discharges on the forty-first day after immersion observes the strictures of a woman who gave birth to both a male and a female, and the strictures of a menstruating woman. Why are the strictures of a woman who gave birth to a male mentioned in this statement? What additional strictures must the woman observe due to the possibility that she gave birth to a male, over and above those she observes for the birth of a female?

讗讬 诇讬诪讬 讟讜诪讗讛 讛讗 拽转谞讬 谞拽讘讛 讜讗讬 诇讬诪讬 讟讛专讛

If these strictures are mentioned due to the days of impurity that a woman who gave birth to a male must observe, doesn鈥檛 the mishna in any case teach that the woman observes the strictures of a woman who gave birth to a female? The seven days of impurity that are observed by a woman who gave birth to a male are included in the fourteen days of impurity that she observes for a female. And if these strictures are mentioned due to the days of purity that are observed by a woman who gave birth to a male, which are fewer than the days of purity that are observed for the birth of a female,

讛讗 拽转谞讬 谞讚讛

doesn鈥檛 the mishna teach that the woman observes the strictures of a menstruating woman, i.e., she is considered ritually impure every time she experiences bleeding, and does not observe any period of purity at all?

砖讗诐 转专讗讛 讬讜诐 砖诇讜砖讬诐 讜讗专讘注讛 讜转讞讝讜专 讜转专讗讛 讬讜诐 讗专讘注讬诐 讜讗讞讚 转讛讗 诪拽讜诇拽诇转 注讚 讗专讘注讬诐 讜砖诪讜谞讛

The Gemara answers: The mishna mentions that the woman observes the strictures of a woman who gave birth to a male to teach that if she sees blood on the thirty-fourth day after her miscarriage and again sees blood on the forty-first day, her purity status shall be ruined, i.e., she shall be prohibited from engaging in intercourse, until the forty-eighth day. If she were not observing the strictures of a woman who gave birth to a male, but only those of a menstruating woman and one who gave birth to a female, she would not have to wait seven days after seeing blood on the forty-first day. Instead, she would wait only one day, as her possible seven-day period of menstruation began on the thirty-fourth day and ended on the fortieth. Yet, as she might have given birth to a male, the forty-first day might be the first day after her period of purity, and therefore the first of her seven days of menstruation. Consequently, she must consider herself impure until the forty-eighth day.

讜讻谉 诇注谞讬谉 谞拽讘讛 砖讗诐 转专讗讛 讬讜诐 砖讘注讬诐 讜讗专讘注讛 讜转讞讝讜专 讜转专讗讛 讬讜诐 砖诪讜谞讬诐 讜讗讞讚 转讛讗 诪拽讜诇拽诇转 注讚 砖诪讜谞讬诐 讜砖诪讜谞讛

And similarly, with regard to the halakha that she observes the strictures of a woman who gave birth to a female, one ramification is that if she sees blood on the seventy-fourth day and again sees blood on the eighty-first day, her purity status shall be ruined until the eighty-eighth day. Although she observes ritual impurity after discovering bleeding on the seventy-fourth day, as perhaps she has the status of a menstruating woman, when she discovers bleeding on the eighty-first day she must begin the count of seven days of menstruation again, in case the seventy-fourth day was during her period of purity after having given birth to a female.

专讘讬 讬砖诪注讗诇 讗讜诪专 讬讜诐 讗专讘注讬诐 讜讗讞讚 转砖讘 诇讝讻专 讜诇谞讚讛 讻讜壮 转谞讬讗 专讘讬 讬砖诪注讗诇 讗讜诪专 讟讬诪讗 讜讟讬讛专 讘讝讻专 讜讟讬诪讗 讜讟讬讛专 讘谞拽讘讛

搂 The mishna teaches that Rabbi Yishmael says: A woman who discharges on the forty-first day after immersion observes both the strictures of a woman who gave birth to a male, and those of a menstruating woman, but not the strictures of a woman who gave birth to a female, as the formation of a male offspring takes forty-one days, whereas the formation of a female offspring takes eighty-one days. It is taught in a baraita that Rabbi Yishmael says, in explanation of his opinion: In the case of a woman who gave birth to a male, the verse deems her impure for seven days and deems her pure for an additional thirty-three days, for a total of forty days; and with regard to a woman who gave birth to a female, the verse deems her impure for fourteen days and deems her pure for another sixty-six days, for a total of eighty days.

诪讛 讻砖讟讬诪讗 讜讟讬讛专 讘讝讻专 讬爪讬专转讜 讻讬讜爪讗 讘讜 讗祝 讻砖讟讬诪讗 讜讟讬讛专 讘谞拽讘讛 讬爪讬专转讛 讻讬讜爪讗 讘讛 讗诪专讜 诇讜 讗讬谉 诇诪讚讬谉 讬爪讬专讛 诪讟讜诪讗讛

It can therefore be inferred that just as when the verse deems a woman impure and then deems her pure for a total of forty days in the case of a male, its amount of time is parallel to the time of the formation of a male embryo; so too, when the verse deems a woman impure and deems her pure for a total of eighty days in the case of a female, its amount of time is parallel to the time of the formation of a female embryo. Accordingly, the formation of a female ends on the eighty-first day after conception. The Rabbis said to Rabbi Yishmael in response: One cannot derive the amount of time of the formation of an embryo from the extent of a woman鈥檚 period of impurity after giving birth.

讗诪专讜 诇讜 诇专讘讬 讬砖诪注讗诇 诪注砖讛 讘拽诇讬讗讜驻讟专讗 诪诇讻转 讗诇讻住谞讚专讜住 砖谞转讞讬讬讘讜 砖驻讞讜转讬讛 讛专讬讙讛 诇诪诇讻讜转 讜讘讚拽谉 讜诪爪讗谉 讝讛 讜讝讛 诇讗专讘注讬诐 讜讗讞讚 讗诪专 诇讛谉 讗谞讬 诪讘讬讗 诇讻诐 专讗讬讬讛 诪谉 讛转讜专讛 讜讗转诐 诪讘讬讗讬谉 诇讬 专讗讬讬讛 诪谉 讛砖讜讟讬诐

Furthermore, the Rabbis said to Rabbi Yishmael that there is a proof against his opinion from an incident involving Cleopatra, Queen of Alexandria. Since her maidservants were sentenced to death by the government, she took advantage of the opportunity and experimented on them in order to examine the amount of time it takes for an embryo to develop. She had her maidservants engage in intercourse and operated on them following their execution in order to determine the stage at which an embryo is fully formed, and found that both in this case, when the embryo is male, and that case, when it is female, the formation is complete on the forty-first day after conception. Rabbi Yishmael said to them in response: I bring you proof from the Torah, and you bring me proof from the fools?

诪讗讬 专讗讬讛 诪谉 讛转讜专讛 讗讬诇讬诪讗 讟讬诪讗 讜讟讬讛专 讘讝讻专 讜讟讬诪讗 讜讟讬讛专 讘谞拽讘讛 讻讜壮 讛讗 拽讗诪专讬 诇讬讛 讗讬谉 讚谞讬谉 讬爪讬专讛 诪讟讜诪讗讛

The Gemara asks: What proof from the Torah does Rabbi Yishmael bring for his opinion? If we say that his proof is the aforementioned derivation that in the case of a woman who gave birth to a male, the verse deems her impure for seven days and deems her pure for an additional thirty-three days, for a total of forty days; and in the case of a female, the verse deems her impure for fourteen days and deems her pure for an additional sixty-six days, for a total of eighty days, didn鈥檛 the Rabbis say to him in response that one cannot derive the amount of time that the formation of an embryo takes from the extent of a woman鈥檚 period of impurity after giving birth?

讗诪专 拽专讗 转诇讚 讛讜住讬祝 诇讛 讛讻转讜讘 诇讬讚讛 讗讞专转 讘谞拽讘讛

The Gemara answers: Rabbi Yishmael鈥檚 derivation is that the verse states: 鈥淚f a woman bears seed and gives birth to a male鈥nd if she gives birth to a female鈥 (Leviticus 12:2鈥5). The verse adds another explicit mention of childbirth with regard to a female, besides the mention of childbirth in the case of a male, when it could have simply stated: And if it is a female. Rabbi Yishmael derives from here that not only are the periods of ritual impurity and purity of one who gives birth to a female double those of a woman who gives birth to a male, but the formation of a female embryo also takes twice the time.

讜诪讗讬 专讗讬讛 诪谉 讛砖讜讟讬诐 讗讬诪专 谞拽讘讛 拽讚讬诐 讜讗讬注讘讜专 讗专讘注讬谉 讬讜诪讬谉 拽诪讬 讝讻专

The Gemara asks: And for what reason does Rabbi Yishmael refer to the proof that the Rabbis cited from Cleopatra鈥檚 experiment as a proof from the fools? The Gemara answers: One can say that the maidservant who was pregnant with a female embryo became pregnant first, forty days before the maidservant who was pregnant with a male embryo. Consequently, it took the female embryo eighty days to be develop, not forty.

讜专讘谞谉 住诪讗 讚谞驻爪讗 讗砖拽讬谞讛讜 讜专讘讬 讬砖诪注讗诇 讗讬讻讗 讙讜驻讗 讚诇讗 诪拽讘诇 住诪讗

The Gemara asks: And how would the Rabbis respond to this claim? The Gemara answers: Cleopatra gave the maidservants a purgative medicine to drink before they engaged in intercourse, which would have terminated any previous pregnancy. And Rabbi Yishmael would respond that there are bodies that are not affected by this medicine, i.e., certain pregnancies are not terminated by the medicine. Consequently, the maidservant who was pregnant with a female embryo might have been pregnant prior to the experiment.

讗诪专 诇讛诐 专讘讬 讬砖诪注讗诇 诪注砖讛 讘拽诇驻讟专讗 诪诇讻转 讬讜讜谞讬转 砖谞转讞讬讬讘讜 砖驻讞讜转讬讛 讛专讬讙讛 诇诪诇讻讜转 讜讘讚拽谉 讜诪爪讗谉 讝讻专 诇讗专讘注讬诐 讜讗讞讚 讜谞拽讘讛 诇砖诪讜谞讬诐 讜讗讞讚 讗诪专讜 诇讜 讗讬谉 诪讘讬讗讬谉 专讗讬讛 诪谉 讛砖讜讟讬诐

The Gemara cites another baraita that presents a different version of this exchange between Rabbi Yishmael and the Rabbis: Rabbi Yishmael said to the Rabbis that there is a proof for his opinion from an incident involving Cleopatra, the Greek queen, as her maidservants were sentenced to death by the government, and she experimented on them and found that a male embryo is fully formed on the forty-first day after conception, and a female embryo is formed on the eighty-first day. The Rabbis said to him: One does not bring proof from the fools.

诪讗讬 讟注诪讗 讛讱 讚谞拽讘讛 讗讬讬转专讛 讗专讘注讬谉 讬讜诪讬谉 讜讛讚专 讗讬注讘专

The Gemara explains: What is the reason the Rabbis consider this a proof from the fools? They claim that it is possible that this woman who was pregnant with a female embryo did not conceive when Cleopatra had her engage in intercourse; rather, she waited forty days, and then became pregnant when she again engaged in intercourse. Therefore, the embryo was formed in forty days.

讜专讘讬 讬砖诪注讗诇 诇砖讜诪专 诪住专讬谞讛讜 讜专讘谞谉 讗讬谉 讗驻讜讟专讜驻讜住 诇注专讬讜转 讗讬诪讗 砖讜诪专 讙讜驻讬讛 讘讗 注诇讬讛

And how would Rabbi Yishmael respond to this claim? He would claim that the maidservants could not have conceived on a later date, as Cleopatra transferred them to the custody of a steward, who made sure that they did not engage in intercourse during the experiment. And the Rabbis would say that there is no steward [apotropos] for restraining sexual intercourse, and therefore one can say that the warden himself engaged in intercourse with the maidservant.

讜讚讬诇诪讗 讗讬 拽专注讜讛讜 诇讛讱 讚谞拽讘讛 讘讗专讘注讬谉 讜讞讚 讛讜讛 诪砖转讻讞讗 讻讝讻专 讗诪专 讗讘讬讬 讘住讬诪谞讬讛讜谉 砖讜讬谉

The Gemara raises a difficulty with regard to Rabbi Yishmael鈥檚 proof: But how can one be sure that the female embryo was formed after eighty-one days? Perhaps if the womb of the woman carrying this female embryo would have been torn open on the forty-first day after conception, the female embryo would have already been found in it, just as in the case of a male embryo. Abaye says in response: It was a case where the indications of the ages of the two embryos, e.g., their hairs and fingernails, were identical. Evidently, the female embryo developed in eighty days to the same degree that the male embryo developed in forty days.

讜讞讻诪讬诐 讗讜诪专讬诐 讗讞讚 讘专讬讬转 讝讻专 讜讗讞讚 讘专讬讬转 谞拽讘讛 讜讻讜壮 讞讻诪讬诐 讛讬讬谞讜 转谞讗 拽诪讗

搂 The mishna teaches: And the Rabbis say: Both the formation of the male and the formation of the female conclude on the forty-first day. The Gemara asks: The statement of the Rabbis is identical to the statement of the first tanna. Why does the mishna repeat this opinion in the name of the Rabbis?

讜讻讬 转讬诪讗 诇诪住转诪讗 专讬砖讗 讻专讘谞谉 讜讬讞讬讚 讜专讘讬诐 讛诇讻讛 讻专讘讬诐 驻砖讬讟讗

And if you would say that the purpose is to teach that the unattributed opinion mentioned in the first clause of the mishna is in accordance with the opinion of the Rabbis, and therefore it is the halakha, as when there is a disagreement between an individual Sage and many Sages, the halakha is in accordance with the opinion of the many, this cannot be the reason. The Gemara explains: It is obvious that the halakha is in accordance with the unattributed opinion mentioned in the first clause of the mishna, as this is a general halakhic principle.

诪讛讜 讚转讬诪讗 诪住转讘专讗 讟注诪讗 讚专讘讬 讬砖诪注讗诇 讚拽诪住讬讬注 诇讬讛 拽专讗讬 拽讗 诪砖诪注 诇谉

The Gemara answers: Lest you say that from the fact that the explanation of the opinion of Rabbi Yishmael stands to reason, as the verses apparently support it, the halakha should be in accordance with his opinion, therefore the mishna teaches us that the majority of Sages agree with the unattributed opinion mentioned in the first clause of the mishna.

讚专砖 专讘讬 砖诪诇讗讬 诇诪讛 讛讜诇讚 讚讜诪讛 讘诪注讬 讗诪讜 诇驻谞拽住 砖诪拽讜驻诇 讜诪讜谞讞 讬讚讬讜 注诇 砖转讬 爪讚注讬讜 砖转讬 讗爪讬诇讬讜 注诇 砖转讬 讗专讻讜讘讜转讬讜 讜砖谞讬 注拽讘讬讜 注诇 砖转讬 注讙讘讜转讬讜 讜专讗砖讜 诪讜谞讞 诇讜 讘讬谉 讘专讻讬讜 讜驻讬讜 住转讜诐 讜讟讘讜专讜 驻转讜讞 讜讗讜讻诇 诪诪讛 砖讗诪讜 讗讜讻诇转 讜砖讜转讛 诪诪讛 砖讗诪讜 砖讜转讛 讜讗讬谞讜 诪讜爪讬讗 专注讬 砖诪讗 讬讛专讜讙 讗转 讗诪讜 讜讻讬讜谉 砖讬爪讗 诇讗讜讬专 讛注讜诇诐 谞驻转讞 讛住转讜诐 讜谞住转诐 讛驻转讜讞 砖讗诇诪诇讗 讻谉 讗讬谞讜 讬讻讜诇 诇讞讬讜转 讗驻讬诇讜 砖注讛 讗讞转

Rabbi Samlai taught: To what is a fetus in its mother鈥檚 womb comparable? To a folded notebook [lefinkas]. And it rests with its hands on its two sides of its head, at the temples, its two arms [atzilav] on its two knees, and its two heels on its two buttocks, and its head rests between its knees, and its mouth is closed, and its umbilicus is open. And it eats from what its mother eats, and it drinks from what its mother drinks, and it does not emit excrement lest it kill its mother. But once it emerges into the airspace of the world, the closed limb, i.e., its mouth, opens, and the open limb, its umbilicus, closes, as otherwise it cannot live for even one hour.

讜谞专 讚诇讜拽 诇讜 注诇 专讗砖讜 讜爪讜驻讛 讜诪讘讬讟 诪住讜祝 讛注讜诇诐 讜注讚 住讜驻讜 砖谞讗诪专 讘讛诇讜 谞专讜 注诇讬 专讗砖讬 诇讗讜专讜 讗诇讱 讞砖讱 讜讗诇 转转诪讛 砖讛专讬 讗讚诐 讬砖谉 讻讗谉 讜专讜讗讛 讞诇讜诐 讘讗住驻诪讬讗

And a candle is lit for it above its head, and it gazes from one end of the world to the other, as it is stated: 鈥淲hen His lamp shined above my head, and by His light I walked through darkness鈥 (Job 29:3). And do not wonder how one can see from one end of the world to the other, as a person can sleep here, in this location, and see a dream that takes place in a place as distant as Spain [beAspamya].

讜讗讬谉 诇讱 讬诪讬诐 砖讗讚诐 砖专讜讬 讘讟讜讘讛 讬讜转专 诪讗讜转谉 讛讬诪讬诐 砖谞讗诪专 诪讬 讬转谞谞讬 讻讬专讞讬 拽讚诐 讻讬诪讬 讗诇讜讛 讬砖诪专谞讬 讜讗讬讝讛讜 讬诪讬诐 砖讬砖 讘讛诐 讬专讞讬诐 讜讗讬谉 讘讛诐 砖谞讬诐 讛讜讬 讗讜诪专 讗诇讜 讬专讞讬 诇讬讚讛

And there are no days when a person is in a more blissful state than those days when he is a fetus in his mother鈥檚 womb, as it is stated in the previous verse: 鈥淚f only I were as in the months of old, as in the days when God watched over me鈥 (Job 29:2). And the proof that this verse is referring to gestation is as follows: Which are the days that have months but do not have years? You must say that these are the months of gestation.

讜诪诇诪讚讬谉 讗讜转讜 讻诇 讛转讜专讛 讻讜诇讛 砖谞讗诪专 讜讬专谞讬 讜讬讗诪专 诇讬 讬转诪讱 讚讘专讬 诇讘讱 砖诪专 诪爪讜转讬 讜讞讬讛 讜讗讜诪专 讘住讜讚 讗诇讜讛 注诇讬 讗讛诇讬

And a fetus is taught the entire Torah while in the womb, as it is stated: 鈥淎nd He taught me and said to me: Let your heart hold fast My words; keep My commandments, and live鈥 (Proverbs 4:4). And it also states: 鈥淎s I was in the days of my youth, when the converse of God was upon my tent鈥 (Job 29:4).

诪讗讬 讜讗讜诪专 讜讻讬 转讬诪讗 谞讘讬讗 讛讜讗 讚拽讗诪专 转讗 砖诪注 讘住讜讚 讗诇讜讛 注诇讬 讗讛诇讬

The Gemara asks: What is the purpose of the statement: And it also states: 鈥淲hen the converse of God was upon my tent鈥? Why is it necessary to cite this verse in addition to the previously quoted verse from Proverbs? The Gemara explains: And if you would say that the verse in Proverbs is insufficient, as it is a prophet who is saying that he was taught the entire Torah in his mother鈥檚 womb, but this does not apply to ordinary people, come and hear the verse in Job: 鈥淲hen the converse of God was upon my tent.鈥

讜讻讬讜谉 砖讘讗 诇讗讜讬专 讛注讜诇诐 讘讗 诪诇讗讱 讜住讟专讜 注诇 驻讬讜 讜诪砖讻讞讜 讻诇 讛转讜专讛 讻讜诇讛 砖谞讗诪专 诇驻转讞 讞讟讗转 专讘抓

And once the fetus emerges into the airspace of the world, an angel comes and slaps it on its mouth, causing it to forget the entire Torah, as it is stated: 鈥淪in crouches at the entrance鈥 (Genesis 4:7), i.e., when a person enters the world he is immediately liable to sin due to his loss of Torah knowledge.

讜讗讬谞讜 讬讜爪讗 诪砖诐 注讚 砖诪砖讘讬注讬谉 讗讜转讜 砖谞讗诪专 讻讬 诇讬 转讻专注 讻诇 讘专讱 转砖讘注 讻诇 诇砖讜谉 讻讬 诇讬 转讻专注 讻诇 讘专讱 讝讛 讬讜诐 讛诪讬转讛 砖谞讗诪专 诇驻谞讬讜 讬讻专注讜 讻诇 讬讜专讚讬 注驻专 转砖讘注 讻诇 诇砖讜谉 讝讛 讬讜诐 讛诇讬讚讛 砖谞讗诪专 谞拽讬 讻驻讬诐 讜讘专 诇讘讘 讗砖专 诇讗 谞砖讗 诇砖讜讗 谞驻砖讜 讜诇讗 谞砖讘注 诇诪专诪讛

And a fetus does not leave the womb until the angels administer an oath to it, as it is stated: 鈥淭hat to Me every knee shall bow, every tongue shall swear鈥 (Isaiah 45:23). The verse is interpreted as follows: 鈥淭hat to Me every knee shall bow鈥; this is referring to the day of one鈥檚 death, as it is stated: 鈥淎ll those who go down to the dust shall kneel before Him鈥 (Psalms 22:30). 鈥淓very tongue shall swear鈥; this is referring to the day of one鈥檚 birth, as it is stated in description of a righteous person: 鈥淗e who has clean hands, and a pure heart, who has not taken My name in vain, and has not sworn deceitfully鈥 (Psalms 24:4), i.e., he has kept the oath that he took before he was born.

讜诪讛 讛讬讗 讛砖讘讜注讛 砖诪砖讘讬注讬谉 讗讜转讜 转讛讬 爪讚讬拽 讜讗诇 转讛讬 专砖注 讜讗驻讬诇讜 讻诇 讛注讜诇诐 讻讜诇讜 讗讜诪专讬诐 诇讱 爪讚讬拽 讗转讛 讛讬讛 讘注讬谞讬讱 讻专砖注 讜讛讜讬 讬讜讚注 砖讛拽讚讜砖 讘专讜讱 讛讜讗 讟讛讜专 讜诪砖专转讬讜 讟讛讜专讬诐 讜谞砖诪讛 砖谞转谉 讘讱 讟讛讜专讛 讛讬讗 讗诐 讗转讛 诪砖诪专讛 讘讟讛专讛 诪讜讟讘 讜讗诐 诇讗讜 讛专讬谞讬 谞讜讟诇讛 诪诪讱

And what is the oath that the angels administer to the fetus? Be righteous and do not be wicked. And even if the entire world says to you: You are righteous, consider yourself wicked. And know that the Holy One, Blessed be He, is pure, and His ministers are pure, and the soul that He gave you is pure. If you preserve it in a state of purity, all is well, but if you do not keep it pure, I, the angel, shall take it from you.

转谞讗 讚讘讬 专讘讬 讬砖诪注讗诇 诪砖诇 诇讻讛谉 砖诪住专 转专讜诪讛 诇注诐 讛讗专抓 讜讗诪专 诇讜 讗诐 讗转讛 诪砖诪专讛 讘讟讛专讛 诪讜讟讘 讜讗诐 诇讗讜 讛专讬谞讬 砖讜专驻讛 诇驻谞讬讱

The school of Rabbi Yishmael taught a parable: This matter is comparable to a priest who gave teruma, the portion of the produce designated for the priest, to one who is unreliable with regard to ritual impurity [am ha鈥檃retz], and therefore it is suspected that he might not maintain the purity of the teruma. And the priest said to him: If you keep it in a state of ritual purity, all is well, but if you do not keep it pure, I shall burn it before you.

讗诪专 专讘讬 讗诇注讝专

Rabbi Elazar said:

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