Please ensure Javascript is enabled for purposes of website accessibility Skip to content

Today's Daf Yomi

December 10, 2019 | 讬状讘 讘讻住诇讜 转砖状驻

  • This month's learning is sponsored by Ron and Shira Krebs to commemorate the 73rd yahrzeit of Shira's grandfather (Yitzchak Leib Ben David Ber HaCohen v'Malka), the 1st yahrzeit of Shira's father (Gershon Pinya Ben Yitzchak Leib HaCohen v'Menucha Sara), and the bar mitzvah of their son Eytan who will be making a siyum on Mishna Shas this month.

  • This month's learning is sponsored for the refuah shleima of Naama bat Yael Esther.

Niddah 48

What is the meaning of “for boys and girls” in the braita where is says the age goes by full years? Is it for valuations or for issues in our chapter? Or both? What is the law regarding a woman who has breast development but no pubic hairs? Is she treated as a girl or as a woman? Is it possible for this to happen? Women would check girls regardibng hair development – is their testimony reliable for all purposes?


If the lesson doesn't play, click "Download"

转讜讻谉 讝讛 转讜专讙诐 讙诐 诇: 注讘专讬转

砖谞讬 转讘讜讗讜转 讬诪讻专 诇讱 驻注诪讬诐 砖讗转讛 诪讜讻专 砖诇砖讛 转讘讜讗讜转 讘砖转讬 砖谞讬诐

of years of the crops he shall sell to you鈥 (Leviticus 25:15). The plural form of both 鈥測ears鈥 and 鈥渃rops鈥 indicates that the number of years does not necessarily correspond to the quantity of crops. Consequently, sometimes you might sell three yields of crops in two years. If one purchases a field in the summer, when the produce has not yet been harvested, and he harvests that yield and subsequently grows and harvests two more crops before the completion of the whole two years, he will have gained three yields in less than two years.

砖砖 砖谞讛 砖讘注讘讚 注讘专讬 诪谞诇谉 讗诪专 拽专讗 砖砖 砖谞讬诐 讬注讘讚 讜讘砖讘讬注转 讜讘砖讘讬注讬转 谞诪讬 讬注讘讜讚

The Gemara asks: From where do we derive the halakha that the six years stated with regard to a Hebrew slave is calculated by whole years? The Gemara answers that the verse states: 鈥淪ix years he shall work, and in the seventh he shall go out free for nothing鈥 (Exodus 21:2). The word 鈥渁nd鈥 in the phrase 鈥渁nd in the seventh鈥 indicates that he shall also work in the seventh calendar year, if six full years have not passed since he was sold. For example, if he was sold in the month of Nisan, it means that five years and six months have passed when Tishrei, the first month of the seventh year, arrives; he has not yet completed six years of service, and he must work in this seventh calendar year as well, until the date on which he was sold.

砖讘讘谉 讜砖讘讘转 诇诪讗讬 讛诇讻转讗 讗诪专 专讘 讙讬讚诇 讗诪专 专讘 诇注谞讬谉 注专讻讬谉 讜专讘 讬讜住祝 讗诪专 诇驻专拽讬谉 讚讬讜爪讗 讚讜驻谉

The baraita mentions the years of a son and of a daughter among those calculated as full years. The Gemara asks: With regard to what halakha is this stated? Rav Giddel says that Rav says: With regard to valuations, i.e., the age of a valuated male or female is calculated in whole years from the date of his birth, not by calendar years. And Rav Yosef says: The halakha is stated with regard to the matters taught in our fifth chapter in tractate Nidda, which is named after its opening words: Yotze Dofen, meaning an offspring born by caesarean section. In other words, when a mishna in this chapter mentions years, it means full years, even when it does not state this explicitly.

讗诪专 诇讬讛 讗讘讬讬 诪讬 驻诇讬讙转 讗诪专 诇讬讛 诇讗 讛讜讗 讗诪专 讞讚讗 讜讗谞讗 讗诪讬谞讗 讞讚讗 讜诇讗 驻诇讬讙讬谞谉

Abaye said to Rav Yosef: Do you and Rav disagree with regard to this matter? In other words, as you interpreted the mention of a son and a daughter differently, does each of you reject the halakhic application of the other? Rav Yosef said to Abaye: No, he said one matter, and I said one different matter, but we do not disagree.

讜讛讻讬 谞诪讬 诪住转讘专讗 讚讗讬 住诇拽讗 讚注转讱 驻诇讬讙讬 诪讗谉 讚讗诪专 诇注专讻讬谉 诇讗 讗诪专 诇讬讜爪讗 讚讜驻谉 讜讛讗诪专 专讘 讛诇讻转讗 讘讻讜诇讛 驻专拽讬谉 诪注转 诇注转

The Gemara notes: And this, too, stands to reason, as if it enters your mind that they disagree with regard to this matter, then the one who said full years are required for determining valuations does not say that full years are necessary for the halakhot of this chapter, Yotze Dofen. But doesn鈥檛 Rav say, like Rav Yosef, that the halakha in this entire chapter with regard to all of the places where an age is mentioned in years is that even when the phrase: And one day, is not explicitly noted, they are all calculated from the time of year of birth until that same time of year in the age specified, not by calendar years?

讗诇讗 诇诪讗谉 讚讗诪专 诇注专讻讬谉 诪讗讬 讟注诪讗 诇讗 讗诪专 诇讬讜爪讗 讚讜驻谉 讚讜诪讬讗 讚讛谞讱 诪讛 讛谞讱 讚讻转讬讘谉 讗祝 讛谞讬 谞诪讬 讚讻转讬讘谉

The Gemara asks: But if that is correct, then according to Rav, who is the one who said that full years are required for determining valuations, what is the reason that he does not say in his interpretation of the baraita that full years are required for the halakhot of Yotze Dofen? The Gemara answers: Rav maintains that the years of a son and of a daughter mentioned in the baraita are similar to those other cases mentioned in the baraita: Just as those numbers of years are written in the Torah, so too these years of a son and of a daughter are referring to matters where the years are written in the Torah, i.e., the years of valuations, unlike the topics discussed in Yotze Dofen, where the years are not mentioned explicitly in the Torah.

讜讗讬讚讱 讛讗讬 砖讘讘谉 讜砖讘讘转 砖讘讝讻专 讜砖讘谞拽讘讛 诪讘注讬 诇讬讛

The Gemara asks: And how would the other amora, Rav Yosef, respond to this contention? The Gemara answers: He would maintain that if the baraita were referring to the years of valuations, which are written in the Torah, then this expression in the baraita: Of a son and of a daughter, is unsuitable. Rather, the baraita should have stated: Of the male and of the female, which are the terms the Torah uses with regard to valuations, whereas the terms: Son and daughter, are used in Yotze Dofen.

讗诪专 专讘 讬爪讞拽 讘专 谞讞诪谞讬 讗诪专 专讘讬 讗诇注讝专 讛诇讻讛 讻专讘讬 讬讜住讬 讘谉 讻讬驻专 砖讗诪专 诪砖讜诐 专讘讬 讗诇讬注讝专 讗诪专 专讘讬 讝讬专讗 讗讝讻讛 讜讗讬住拽 讜讗讙诪专 诇砖诪注转讗 诪驻讜诪讬讛 讚诪专讗

Rav Yitz岣k bar Na岣ani says that Rabbi Elazar says: The halakha is in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Yosei ben Keifar, who said his ruling in the name of Rabbi Eliezer, that a man nineteen years and thirty days of age who has not developed signs of puberty is deemed a sexually underdeveloped man. In this regard, the Gemara relates that Rabbi Zeira said: May it be God鈥檚 will that I merit to ascend to Eretz Yisrael, and that I learn this halakha from the mouth of its Master, Rabbi Elazar.

讻讬 住诇讬拽 讗砖讻讞讬讛 诇专讘讬 讗诇注讝专 讗诪专 诇讬讛 讗诪专转 讛诇讻讛 讻专讘讬 讬讜住讬 讘谉 讻讬驻专 讗诪专 诇讬讛 诪住转讘专讗 讗诪专讬 诪讚讻讜诇讬讛 驻讬专拽讬谉 转谞讬 讬讜诐 讗讞讚 讜讛讻讗 诇讗 拽转谞讬 砖诪注 诪讬谞讛 诪住转讘专讗 讻讜转讬讛

The Gemara recounts that when Rabbi Zeira eventually ascended to Eretz Yisrael he indeed found Rabbi Elazar and said to him: Did you say that the halakha is in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Yosei ben Keifar? Rabbi Elazar said to him: I said that it stands to reason that the halakha is in accordance with his opinion. He elaborated: From the fact that throughout the entire chapter the Mishna teaches: And one day, but here, in the last mishna, it does not teach this phrase, one can conclude from it that it stands to reason that there is a reason for this discrepancy, in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Yosei ben Keifar.

讛讚专谉 注诇讱 讬讜爪讗 讚讜驻谉

 

诪转谞讬壮 讘讗 住讬诪谉 讛转讞转讜谉 注讚 砖诇讗 讘讗 讛注诇讬讜谉 讗讜 讞讜诇爪转 讗讜 诪转讬讘诪转

MISHNA: If the lower sign of puberty, two pubic hairs, appeared in a young woman before the upper sign, development of the breasts, appeared, then she is an adult, as the pubic hairs are an unequivocal sign. Therefore, if her childless husband died and she came before her husband鈥檚 brother [yavam] for levirate marriage, she either performs the ritual through which a yavam frees a yevama of her levirate bonds [岣litza] or enters into levirate marriage with her husband鈥檚 brother.

讘讗 讛注诇讬讜谉 注讚 砖诇讗 讘讗 讛转讞转讜谉 讗祝 注诇 驻讬 砖讗讬 讗驻砖专 专讘讬 诪讗讬专 讗讜诪专 诇讗 讞讜诇爪转 讜诇讗 诪转讬讘诪转

If the upper sign indicating puberty appeared before the lower sign appeared, i.e., the two pubic hairs are not visible, although that order of development is apparently impossible, Rabbi Meir says: In fact, it is possible for the breasts to develop before the growth of two pubic hairs, and the concern is that the two hairs did not grow and fall out but rather they never grew in the first place, which would mean that she remains a minor. Therefore, if her childless husband dies, she neither performs 岣litza nor does she enter into levirate marriage with her husband鈥檚 brother.

讜讞讻诪讬诐 讗讜诪专讬诐 讗讜 讞讜诇爪转 讗讜 诪转讬讘诪转 诪驻谞讬 砖讗诪专讜 讗驻砖专 诇转讞转讜谉 诇讘讗 注讚 砖诇讗 讘讗 讛注诇讬讜谉 讗讘诇 讗讬 讗驻砖专 诇注诇讬讜谉 诇讘讗 注讚 砖诇讗 讘讗 讛转讞转讜谉

And the Rabbis say: She has reached majority, and therefore if her childless husband dies she either performs 岣litza or enters into levirate marriage with her husband鈥檚 brother. That is due to the fact that the Sages said: It is possible for the lower sign of puberty to appear before the upper sign appears; but it is impossible for the upper sign to appear before the lower sign appears.

讙诪壮 讗祝 注诇 驻讬 砖讗讬 讗驻砖专 讜讛诇讗 讘讗 讘讗 诇专讘讬 诪讗讬专 讗祝 注诇 驻讬 砖讗讬 讗驻砖专 诇专讘谞谉

GEMARA: The mishna teaches that Rabbi Meir and the Rabbis disagree with regard to the halakha when the upper sign of puberty appears before the lower sign. The mishna stated about that case: Although that order of development is impossible. The Gemara raises a difficulty: But the mishna explicitly states that it is referring to a situation where the upper sign did appear before the lower one. The Gemara explains: When the mishna states that it did appear, that is according to the opinion of Rabbi Meir, who maintains that such an occurrence is possible, whereas when the mishna teaches: Although that order of development is impossible, it is referring to the opinion of the Rabbis, who contend that it is not possible.

讜诇转谞讬 讘讗 讛注诇讬讜谉 专讘讬 诪讗讬专 讗讜诪专 诇讗 讞讜诇爪转 讜诇讗 诪转讬讘诪转 讜讞讻诪讬诐 讗讜诪专讬诐 讗讜 讞讜诇爪转 讗讜 诪转讬讘诪转 讜讗谞讗 讬讚注谞讗 诪砖讜诐 讚讗讬 讗驻砖专 讛讜讗

The Gemara objects: But why is it necessary at all to mention the phrase: Although that order of development is impossible. Instead, let the mishna simply teach: If the upper sign of puberty appeared, Rabbi Meir says: She neither performs 岣litza nor does she enter into levirate marriage with her husband鈥檚 brother; and the Rabbis say: She either performs 岣litza or enters into levirate marriage with her husband鈥檚 brother. And I would know that the ruling of the Rabbis is due to the fact that it is impossible for the upper sign of puberty to appear before the lower sign.

讗讬 诇讗 转谞讗 讗祝 注诇 驻讬 砖讗讬 讗驻砖专 讛讜讛 讗诪讬谞讗 专讜讘 谞砖讬诐 转讞转讜谉 讗转讬 讘专讬砖讗 讜诪讬注讜讟 注诇讬讜谉 讗转讬 讘专讬砖讗 讜专讘讬 诪讗讬专 诇讟注诪讬讛 讚讞讬讬砖 诇诪讬注讜讟讗 讜专讘谞谉 诇讟注诪讬讬讛讜 讚诇讗 讞讬讬砖讬 诇诪讬注讜讟讗

The Gemara explains: If the mishna had not taught: Although that order of development is impossible, I would say that with regard to most women the lower sign appears first, before the upper sign; but in a minority of women, the upper sign appears first. And Rabbi Meir, who rules that she is a minor who may not perform either 岣litza or enter into levirate marriage, conforms to his standard line of reasoning, that one must be concerned for the minority. In other words, Rabbi Meir takes into account the minority of women in whom the upper sign appears first, and therefore he considers her to be a minor. And the Rabbis likewise conform to their standard line of reasoning that one need not be concerned for the minority, and therefore they consider the young woman to have reached majority.

讜讛谞讬 诪讬诇讬 讘住转诪讗 讗讘诇 讛讬讻讗 讚讘讚拽谉 讜诇讗 讗砖讻讞谉 讗讬诪专 诪讜讚讜 诇讬讛 专讘谞谉 诇专讘讬 诪讗讬专 讚注诇讬讜谉 拽讚讬诐

And this statement, that one can rely on the assumption that if a woman has the upper sign then she certainly has the lower sign, while the minority of cases are not taken into account, applies only in an ordinary case, where the woman was not examined to determine if she had the lower sign. But in a case where we examined her and did not find the lower sign, one might say that the Rabbis concede to Rabbi Meir that the upper sign appeared before the lower sign, and therefore she neither performs 岣litza nor enters into levirate marriage with her husband鈥檚 brother.

拽讗 诪砖诪注 诇谉 讚讗讬 讗驻砖专 讜讚讗讬 讗转讬 讜诪谞转专 讛讜讗 讚谞转专

Therefore, the mishna teaches us that according to the Rabbis it is impossible for the upper sign to precede the lower sign, which means that even if she was examined and no lower sign was found, the assumption is that the two hairs of the lower sign had certainly appeared, but later they fell out.

讘砖诇诪讗 诇专讘讬 诪讗讬专 讛讬讬谞讜 讚讻转讬讘 砖讚讬诐 谞讻谞讜 讜砖注专讱 爪诪讞 讗诇讗 诇专讘谞谉 讗讬驻讻讗 诪讘注讬 诇讬讛 讛讻讬 拽讗诪专 讻讬讜谉 砖砖讚讬诐 谞讻谞讜 讘讬讚讜注 砖砖注专讱 爪诪讞

The Gemara raises a difficulty: Granted, according to the opinion of Rabbi Meir, who holds that it is possible for the upper sign to precede the lower, that accounts for that verse which is written with regard to a maturing young woman: 鈥淎nd you increased and grew up, and you came to excellent beauty; your breasts were fashioned, and your hair was grown鈥 (Ezekiel 16:7). This verse mentions the upper sign before the lower sign. But according to the opinion of the Rabbis, the verse should have said the reverse, first stating 鈥測our hair has grown,鈥 and then stating 鈥測our breasts were fashioned.鈥 The Gemara answers that this is what the verse is saying: Since your breasts were fashioned, it is known that your hair was already grown.

讘砖诇诪讗 诇专讘讬 诪讗讬专 讛讬讬谞讜 讚讻转讬讘 讘注砖讜转 诪诪爪专讬诐 讚讚讬讱 诇诪注谉 砖讚讬 谞注讜专讬讱 讗诇讗 诇专讘谞谉 讗讬驻讻讗 诪讘注讬 诇讬讛

The Gemara raises a further difficulty: Granted, according to the opinion of Rabbi Meir, this accounts for that which is written: 鈥淲hen they from Egypt bruised your breasts for the sprouting forth of your young womanhood鈥 (Ezekiel 23:21). This verse, which compares the Jewish people to a promiscuous girl, describes how, in her childhood, Egyptian men would play with her by pressing her breasts in order to engage in licentious sexual intercourse with her when she became a young woman, i.e., once the pubic hairs that indicate puberty developed. This indicates that it is possible for the upper sign to appear before the lower sign. But according to the opinion of the Rabbis, the verse should have said the reverse.

讛讻讬 拽讗诪专 讻讬讜谉 砖讘讗讜 讚讚讬讱 讘讬讚讜注 砖讘讗讜 谞注讜专讬讱 讜讗讬讘注讬转 讗讬诪讗 诪讗讬 砖讚讬 讻讜诇讛 讘讚讚讬 讻转讬讘 讜讛讻讬 拽讗诪专 讛拽讚讜砖 讘专讜讱 讛讜讗 诇讬砖专讗诇

The Gemara similarly answers that this is what the verse is saying: Since your breasts appeared, it is known that the pubic hairs, which are the sign of your young womanhood, have already appeared. Or if you wish, say instead: What is the meaning of the phrase: The sprouting forth of [shedei] your young womanhood? It is not speaking of the lower sign, but rather of the upper sign, i.e., the entire verse is written in reference to the breasts, shadayim in Hebrew. And this is what the Holy One, Blessed be He, is saying to the Jewish people:

  • This month's learning is sponsored by Ron and Shira Krebs to commemorate the 73rd yahrzeit of Shira's grandfather (Yitzchak Leib Ben David Ber HaCohen v'Malka), the 1st yahrzeit of Shira's father (Gershon Pinya Ben Yitzchak Leib HaCohen v'Menucha Sara), and the bar mitzvah of their son Eytan who will be making a siyum on Mishna Shas this month.

  • This month's learning is sponsored for the refuah shleima of Naama bat Yael Esther.

Want to explore more about the Daf?

See insights from our partners, contributors and community of women learners

Sorry, there aren't any posts in this category yet. We're adding more soon!

Niddah 48

The William Davidson Talmud | Powered by Sefaria

Niddah 48

砖谞讬 转讘讜讗讜转 讬诪讻专 诇讱 驻注诪讬诐 砖讗转讛 诪讜讻专 砖诇砖讛 转讘讜讗讜转 讘砖转讬 砖谞讬诐

of years of the crops he shall sell to you鈥 (Leviticus 25:15). The plural form of both 鈥測ears鈥 and 鈥渃rops鈥 indicates that the number of years does not necessarily correspond to the quantity of crops. Consequently, sometimes you might sell three yields of crops in two years. If one purchases a field in the summer, when the produce has not yet been harvested, and he harvests that yield and subsequently grows and harvests two more crops before the completion of the whole two years, he will have gained three yields in less than two years.

砖砖 砖谞讛 砖讘注讘讚 注讘专讬 诪谞诇谉 讗诪专 拽专讗 砖砖 砖谞讬诐 讬注讘讚 讜讘砖讘讬注转 讜讘砖讘讬注讬转 谞诪讬 讬注讘讜讚

The Gemara asks: From where do we derive the halakha that the six years stated with regard to a Hebrew slave is calculated by whole years? The Gemara answers that the verse states: 鈥淪ix years he shall work, and in the seventh he shall go out free for nothing鈥 (Exodus 21:2). The word 鈥渁nd鈥 in the phrase 鈥渁nd in the seventh鈥 indicates that he shall also work in the seventh calendar year, if six full years have not passed since he was sold. For example, if he was sold in the month of Nisan, it means that five years and six months have passed when Tishrei, the first month of the seventh year, arrives; he has not yet completed six years of service, and he must work in this seventh calendar year as well, until the date on which he was sold.

砖讘讘谉 讜砖讘讘转 诇诪讗讬 讛诇讻转讗 讗诪专 专讘 讙讬讚诇 讗诪专 专讘 诇注谞讬谉 注专讻讬谉 讜专讘 讬讜住祝 讗诪专 诇驻专拽讬谉 讚讬讜爪讗 讚讜驻谉

The baraita mentions the years of a son and of a daughter among those calculated as full years. The Gemara asks: With regard to what halakha is this stated? Rav Giddel says that Rav says: With regard to valuations, i.e., the age of a valuated male or female is calculated in whole years from the date of his birth, not by calendar years. And Rav Yosef says: The halakha is stated with regard to the matters taught in our fifth chapter in tractate Nidda, which is named after its opening words: Yotze Dofen, meaning an offspring born by caesarean section. In other words, when a mishna in this chapter mentions years, it means full years, even when it does not state this explicitly.

讗诪专 诇讬讛 讗讘讬讬 诪讬 驻诇讬讙转 讗诪专 诇讬讛 诇讗 讛讜讗 讗诪专 讞讚讗 讜讗谞讗 讗诪讬谞讗 讞讚讗 讜诇讗 驻诇讬讙讬谞谉

Abaye said to Rav Yosef: Do you and Rav disagree with regard to this matter? In other words, as you interpreted the mention of a son and a daughter differently, does each of you reject the halakhic application of the other? Rav Yosef said to Abaye: No, he said one matter, and I said one different matter, but we do not disagree.

讜讛讻讬 谞诪讬 诪住转讘专讗 讚讗讬 住诇拽讗 讚注转讱 驻诇讬讙讬 诪讗谉 讚讗诪专 诇注专讻讬谉 诇讗 讗诪专 诇讬讜爪讗 讚讜驻谉 讜讛讗诪专 专讘 讛诇讻转讗 讘讻讜诇讛 驻专拽讬谉 诪注转 诇注转

The Gemara notes: And this, too, stands to reason, as if it enters your mind that they disagree with regard to this matter, then the one who said full years are required for determining valuations does not say that full years are necessary for the halakhot of this chapter, Yotze Dofen. But doesn鈥檛 Rav say, like Rav Yosef, that the halakha in this entire chapter with regard to all of the places where an age is mentioned in years is that even when the phrase: And one day, is not explicitly noted, they are all calculated from the time of year of birth until that same time of year in the age specified, not by calendar years?

讗诇讗 诇诪讗谉 讚讗诪专 诇注专讻讬谉 诪讗讬 讟注诪讗 诇讗 讗诪专 诇讬讜爪讗 讚讜驻谉 讚讜诪讬讗 讚讛谞讱 诪讛 讛谞讱 讚讻转讬讘谉 讗祝 讛谞讬 谞诪讬 讚讻转讬讘谉

The Gemara asks: But if that is correct, then according to Rav, who is the one who said that full years are required for determining valuations, what is the reason that he does not say in his interpretation of the baraita that full years are required for the halakhot of Yotze Dofen? The Gemara answers: Rav maintains that the years of a son and of a daughter mentioned in the baraita are similar to those other cases mentioned in the baraita: Just as those numbers of years are written in the Torah, so too these years of a son and of a daughter are referring to matters where the years are written in the Torah, i.e., the years of valuations, unlike the topics discussed in Yotze Dofen, where the years are not mentioned explicitly in the Torah.

讜讗讬讚讱 讛讗讬 砖讘讘谉 讜砖讘讘转 砖讘讝讻专 讜砖讘谞拽讘讛 诪讘注讬 诇讬讛

The Gemara asks: And how would the other amora, Rav Yosef, respond to this contention? The Gemara answers: He would maintain that if the baraita were referring to the years of valuations, which are written in the Torah, then this expression in the baraita: Of a son and of a daughter, is unsuitable. Rather, the baraita should have stated: Of the male and of the female, which are the terms the Torah uses with regard to valuations, whereas the terms: Son and daughter, are used in Yotze Dofen.

讗诪专 专讘 讬爪讞拽 讘专 谞讞诪谞讬 讗诪专 专讘讬 讗诇注讝专 讛诇讻讛 讻专讘讬 讬讜住讬 讘谉 讻讬驻专 砖讗诪专 诪砖讜诐 专讘讬 讗诇讬注讝专 讗诪专 专讘讬 讝讬专讗 讗讝讻讛 讜讗讬住拽 讜讗讙诪专 诇砖诪注转讗 诪驻讜诪讬讛 讚诪专讗

Rav Yitz岣k bar Na岣ani says that Rabbi Elazar says: The halakha is in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Yosei ben Keifar, who said his ruling in the name of Rabbi Eliezer, that a man nineteen years and thirty days of age who has not developed signs of puberty is deemed a sexually underdeveloped man. In this regard, the Gemara relates that Rabbi Zeira said: May it be God鈥檚 will that I merit to ascend to Eretz Yisrael, and that I learn this halakha from the mouth of its Master, Rabbi Elazar.

讻讬 住诇讬拽 讗砖讻讞讬讛 诇专讘讬 讗诇注讝专 讗诪专 诇讬讛 讗诪专转 讛诇讻讛 讻专讘讬 讬讜住讬 讘谉 讻讬驻专 讗诪专 诇讬讛 诪住转讘专讗 讗诪专讬 诪讚讻讜诇讬讛 驻讬专拽讬谉 转谞讬 讬讜诐 讗讞讚 讜讛讻讗 诇讗 拽转谞讬 砖诪注 诪讬谞讛 诪住转讘专讗 讻讜转讬讛

The Gemara recounts that when Rabbi Zeira eventually ascended to Eretz Yisrael he indeed found Rabbi Elazar and said to him: Did you say that the halakha is in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Yosei ben Keifar? Rabbi Elazar said to him: I said that it stands to reason that the halakha is in accordance with his opinion. He elaborated: From the fact that throughout the entire chapter the Mishna teaches: And one day, but here, in the last mishna, it does not teach this phrase, one can conclude from it that it stands to reason that there is a reason for this discrepancy, in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Yosei ben Keifar.

讛讚专谉 注诇讱 讬讜爪讗 讚讜驻谉

 

诪转谞讬壮 讘讗 住讬诪谉 讛转讞转讜谉 注讚 砖诇讗 讘讗 讛注诇讬讜谉 讗讜 讞讜诇爪转 讗讜 诪转讬讘诪转

MISHNA: If the lower sign of puberty, two pubic hairs, appeared in a young woman before the upper sign, development of the breasts, appeared, then she is an adult, as the pubic hairs are an unequivocal sign. Therefore, if her childless husband died and she came before her husband鈥檚 brother [yavam] for levirate marriage, she either performs the ritual through which a yavam frees a yevama of her levirate bonds [岣litza] or enters into levirate marriage with her husband鈥檚 brother.

讘讗 讛注诇讬讜谉 注讚 砖诇讗 讘讗 讛转讞转讜谉 讗祝 注诇 驻讬 砖讗讬 讗驻砖专 专讘讬 诪讗讬专 讗讜诪专 诇讗 讞讜诇爪转 讜诇讗 诪转讬讘诪转

If the upper sign indicating puberty appeared before the lower sign appeared, i.e., the two pubic hairs are not visible, although that order of development is apparently impossible, Rabbi Meir says: In fact, it is possible for the breasts to develop before the growth of two pubic hairs, and the concern is that the two hairs did not grow and fall out but rather they never grew in the first place, which would mean that she remains a minor. Therefore, if her childless husband dies, she neither performs 岣litza nor does she enter into levirate marriage with her husband鈥檚 brother.

讜讞讻诪讬诐 讗讜诪专讬诐 讗讜 讞讜诇爪转 讗讜 诪转讬讘诪转 诪驻谞讬 砖讗诪专讜 讗驻砖专 诇转讞转讜谉 诇讘讗 注讚 砖诇讗 讘讗 讛注诇讬讜谉 讗讘诇 讗讬 讗驻砖专 诇注诇讬讜谉 诇讘讗 注讚 砖诇讗 讘讗 讛转讞转讜谉

And the Rabbis say: She has reached majority, and therefore if her childless husband dies she either performs 岣litza or enters into levirate marriage with her husband鈥檚 brother. That is due to the fact that the Sages said: It is possible for the lower sign of puberty to appear before the upper sign appears; but it is impossible for the upper sign to appear before the lower sign appears.

讙诪壮 讗祝 注诇 驻讬 砖讗讬 讗驻砖专 讜讛诇讗 讘讗 讘讗 诇专讘讬 诪讗讬专 讗祝 注诇 驻讬 砖讗讬 讗驻砖专 诇专讘谞谉

GEMARA: The mishna teaches that Rabbi Meir and the Rabbis disagree with regard to the halakha when the upper sign of puberty appears before the lower sign. The mishna stated about that case: Although that order of development is impossible. The Gemara raises a difficulty: But the mishna explicitly states that it is referring to a situation where the upper sign did appear before the lower one. The Gemara explains: When the mishna states that it did appear, that is according to the opinion of Rabbi Meir, who maintains that such an occurrence is possible, whereas when the mishna teaches: Although that order of development is impossible, it is referring to the opinion of the Rabbis, who contend that it is not possible.

讜诇转谞讬 讘讗 讛注诇讬讜谉 专讘讬 诪讗讬专 讗讜诪专 诇讗 讞讜诇爪转 讜诇讗 诪转讬讘诪转 讜讞讻诪讬诐 讗讜诪专讬诐 讗讜 讞讜诇爪转 讗讜 诪转讬讘诪转 讜讗谞讗 讬讚注谞讗 诪砖讜诐 讚讗讬 讗驻砖专 讛讜讗

The Gemara objects: But why is it necessary at all to mention the phrase: Although that order of development is impossible. Instead, let the mishna simply teach: If the upper sign of puberty appeared, Rabbi Meir says: She neither performs 岣litza nor does she enter into levirate marriage with her husband鈥檚 brother; and the Rabbis say: She either performs 岣litza or enters into levirate marriage with her husband鈥檚 brother. And I would know that the ruling of the Rabbis is due to the fact that it is impossible for the upper sign of puberty to appear before the lower sign.

讗讬 诇讗 转谞讗 讗祝 注诇 驻讬 砖讗讬 讗驻砖专 讛讜讛 讗诪讬谞讗 专讜讘 谞砖讬诐 转讞转讜谉 讗转讬 讘专讬砖讗 讜诪讬注讜讟 注诇讬讜谉 讗转讬 讘专讬砖讗 讜专讘讬 诪讗讬专 诇讟注诪讬讛 讚讞讬讬砖 诇诪讬注讜讟讗 讜专讘谞谉 诇讟注诪讬讬讛讜 讚诇讗 讞讬讬砖讬 诇诪讬注讜讟讗

The Gemara explains: If the mishna had not taught: Although that order of development is impossible, I would say that with regard to most women the lower sign appears first, before the upper sign; but in a minority of women, the upper sign appears first. And Rabbi Meir, who rules that she is a minor who may not perform either 岣litza or enter into levirate marriage, conforms to his standard line of reasoning, that one must be concerned for the minority. In other words, Rabbi Meir takes into account the minority of women in whom the upper sign appears first, and therefore he considers her to be a minor. And the Rabbis likewise conform to their standard line of reasoning that one need not be concerned for the minority, and therefore they consider the young woman to have reached majority.

讜讛谞讬 诪讬诇讬 讘住转诪讗 讗讘诇 讛讬讻讗 讚讘讚拽谉 讜诇讗 讗砖讻讞谉 讗讬诪专 诪讜讚讜 诇讬讛 专讘谞谉 诇专讘讬 诪讗讬专 讚注诇讬讜谉 拽讚讬诐

And this statement, that one can rely on the assumption that if a woman has the upper sign then she certainly has the lower sign, while the minority of cases are not taken into account, applies only in an ordinary case, where the woman was not examined to determine if she had the lower sign. But in a case where we examined her and did not find the lower sign, one might say that the Rabbis concede to Rabbi Meir that the upper sign appeared before the lower sign, and therefore she neither performs 岣litza nor enters into levirate marriage with her husband鈥檚 brother.

拽讗 诪砖诪注 诇谉 讚讗讬 讗驻砖专 讜讚讗讬 讗转讬 讜诪谞转专 讛讜讗 讚谞转专

Therefore, the mishna teaches us that according to the Rabbis it is impossible for the upper sign to precede the lower sign, which means that even if she was examined and no lower sign was found, the assumption is that the two hairs of the lower sign had certainly appeared, but later they fell out.

讘砖诇诪讗 诇专讘讬 诪讗讬专 讛讬讬谞讜 讚讻转讬讘 砖讚讬诐 谞讻谞讜 讜砖注专讱 爪诪讞 讗诇讗 诇专讘谞谉 讗讬驻讻讗 诪讘注讬 诇讬讛 讛讻讬 拽讗诪专 讻讬讜谉 砖砖讚讬诐 谞讻谞讜 讘讬讚讜注 砖砖注专讱 爪诪讞

The Gemara raises a difficulty: Granted, according to the opinion of Rabbi Meir, who holds that it is possible for the upper sign to precede the lower, that accounts for that verse which is written with regard to a maturing young woman: 鈥淎nd you increased and grew up, and you came to excellent beauty; your breasts were fashioned, and your hair was grown鈥 (Ezekiel 16:7). This verse mentions the upper sign before the lower sign. But according to the opinion of the Rabbis, the verse should have said the reverse, first stating 鈥測our hair has grown,鈥 and then stating 鈥測our breasts were fashioned.鈥 The Gemara answers that this is what the verse is saying: Since your breasts were fashioned, it is known that your hair was already grown.

讘砖诇诪讗 诇专讘讬 诪讗讬专 讛讬讬谞讜 讚讻转讬讘 讘注砖讜转 诪诪爪专讬诐 讚讚讬讱 诇诪注谉 砖讚讬 谞注讜专讬讱 讗诇讗 诇专讘谞谉 讗讬驻讻讗 诪讘注讬 诇讬讛

The Gemara raises a further difficulty: Granted, according to the opinion of Rabbi Meir, this accounts for that which is written: 鈥淲hen they from Egypt bruised your breasts for the sprouting forth of your young womanhood鈥 (Ezekiel 23:21). This verse, which compares the Jewish people to a promiscuous girl, describes how, in her childhood, Egyptian men would play with her by pressing her breasts in order to engage in licentious sexual intercourse with her when she became a young woman, i.e., once the pubic hairs that indicate puberty developed. This indicates that it is possible for the upper sign to appear before the lower sign. But according to the opinion of the Rabbis, the verse should have said the reverse.

讛讻讬 拽讗诪专 讻讬讜谉 砖讘讗讜 讚讚讬讱 讘讬讚讜注 砖讘讗讜 谞注讜专讬讱 讜讗讬讘注讬转 讗讬诪讗 诪讗讬 砖讚讬 讻讜诇讛 讘讚讚讬 讻转讬讘 讜讛讻讬 拽讗诪专 讛拽讚讜砖 讘专讜讱 讛讜讗 诇讬砖专讗诇

The Gemara similarly answers that this is what the verse is saying: Since your breasts appeared, it is known that the pubic hairs, which are the sign of your young womanhood, have already appeared. Or if you wish, say instead: What is the meaning of the phrase: The sprouting forth of [shedei] your young womanhood? It is not speaking of the lower sign, but rather of the upper sign, i.e., the entire verse is written in reference to the breasts, shadayim in Hebrew. And this is what the Holy One, Blessed be He, is saying to the Jewish people:

Scroll To Top