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Today's Daf Yomi

December 16, 2019 | 讬状讞 讘讻住诇讜 转砖状驻

  • This month's learning is sponsored by Ron and Shira Krebs to commemorate the 73rd yahrzeit of Shira's grandfather (Yitzchak Leib Ben David Ber HaCohen v'Malka), the 1st yahrzeit of Shira's father (Gershon Pinya Ben Yitzchak Leib HaCohen v'Menucha Sara), and the bar mitzvah of their son Eytan who will be making a siyum on Mishna Shas this month.

  • This month's learning is sponsored for the refuah shleima of Naama bat Yael Esther.

Niddah 54

The gemara brings a lot of cases where a woman bleeds every other day or two days bleeds, two days doesn鈥檛 bleed, etc. How many days are each of these women permitted to their husbands? Does niddah blood and other items that carry impurity transmit impurity only if they are moist or also if they are dry? Does niddah blood create impurities of sitting and lying like the niddah herself?


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转讜讻谉 讝讛 转讜专讙诐 讙诐 诇: 注讘专讬转

砖讜讟讜转 谞讬谞讛讜 讟讜注讜转 谞讬谞讛讜 讗诇讗 转谞讬 讟讜注讜转

actually misguided? Since they are in doubt as to their status, would it not be more accurate to say that they are mistaken? The Gemara answers: Rather, this is how one should teach the statement of Rabbi Yehoshua in the mishna: Instead of making provisions to remedy the uncertainties of the mistaken, come and remedy the uncertainties of the competent women.

讚转谞讬讗 讬讜诐 讗讞讚 讟诪讗 讜讬讜诐 讗讞讚 讟讛讜专 诪砖诪砖转 砖诪讬谞讬 讜诇讬诇讜 注诪讜

As it is taught in a baraita with regard to these competent women: What is the halakha in the case of a woman who consistently has the following pattern for each pair of days: One day she is impure, i.e., she experiences bleeding, and one day she is pure, she does not experience bleeding? In what manner is it permitted for her to engage in intercourse with her husband? She may engage in intercourse with her husband on the eighth day from the first time that she experienced bleeding and its accompanying night. At that time she is pure from her menstruation, as she immersed and purified herself on the night of the seventh day. It is permitted for her to engage in intercourse during the eighth day and the following night, as she will not experience bleeding until the ninth day.

讜讗专讘注讛 诇讬诇讜转 诪转讜讱 砖诪讜谞讛 注砖专 讬讜诐 讜讗诐 讛讬转讛 专讜讗讛 诪讘注专讘 讗讬谞讛 诪砖诪砖转 讗诇讗 砖诪讬谞讬 讘诇讘讚

In addition, she may engage in intercourse four nights out of the cycle of eighteen days, which consist of the seven menstrual days and the eleven days of the flow of the zava. This woman will never become a greater zava, as she does not emit blood on consecutive days. Since she must observe a day of purity during the eleven days of ziva each time she experiences bleeding, she may engage in intercourse with her husband on the night following the tenth, twelfth, fourteen, and sixteenth days. The night after the eighteenth day is considered part of the next cycle of menstruation and ziva. But if she sees blood in the evening, she may engage in intercourse with her husband only on the eighth night and its day. During the eleven days of ziva she either experiences bleeding at night or is observing a day of purity for the blood she had emitted earlier.

砖谞讬 讬诪讬诐 讟诪讗讬谉 讜砖谞讬 讬诪讬诐 讟讛讜专讬谉 诪砖诪砖转 砖诪讬谞讬 讜砖谞讬诐 注砖专 讜砖砖讛 注砖专 讜注砖专讬诐

If in every set of four days, two days she is impure, i.e., experiences bleeding, and two days she is pure, she may engage in intercourse with her husband on the eighth day, in the day or at night, and also on the twelfth day, after observing the eleventh as a day of purity for the sightings of the ninth and tenth days, and by a similar calculation on the sixteenth day and on the twentieth day, as she has not yet seen the blood of menstruation in this new cycle.

讜转砖诪砖 谞诪讬 讘转砖住专 讗诪专 专讘 砖砖转 讝讗转 讗讜诪专转 讙专讙专谉 讚转谞谉 讗住讜专

The Gemara objects: And let her also engage in intercourse with her husband on the nineteenth day, as the eleven days of the flow of the zava have already passed at the end of the eighteenth day, and she is no longer required to observe a clean day for each day she experiences a discharge. Rav Sheshet says: That is to say that when we learned in a mishna (72a) that a husband who could not wait for the conclusion of the day after the last day of ziva before engaging in intercourse is a glutton, it means that it is actually prohibited for them to engage in intercourse.

专讘 讗砖讬 讗诪专 谞讛讬 讚讞讚 注砖专 诇讗 讘注讬 砖讬诪讜专 注砖讬专讬 诪讬讛讗 讘注讬 砖讬诪讜专

Rav Ashi says: In fact, it is not prohibited for a woman to engage in intercourse with her husband on the day after the end of the days of the flow of the zava even by rabbinic decree, as it is already the beginning of her menstrual days, and she is no longer required to observe a clean day for each day she experiences a discharge. But although there is no requirement to observe a clean day for the eleventh day of ziva, which is the eighteenth day of the full cycle, in any event there is a requirement to observe a clean day for the tenth day, i.e., the seventeenth of the entire cycle. Since she did not observe a clean day on the eighteenth day, as she saw blood on that day as well, she must observe the nineteenth day in purity.

砖诇砖讛 讬诪讬诐 讟诪讗讬谉 讜砖诇砖讛 讬诪讬诐 讟讛讜专讬谉 诪砖诪砖转 砖谞讬 讬诪讬诐 讜砖讜讘 讗讬谞讛 诪砖诪砖转 诇注讜诇诐

If out of every set of six days, three days she is impure, and three days she is pure, she may engage in intercourse with her husband during two of the days, and thereafter she may never again engage in intercourse with him. The eighth and ninth days, which are the first days of the flow of ziva, are the second and third of the three days on which she experiences bleeding. Therefore, she can immerse and purify herself on the night of the eleventh, and engage in intercourse with her husband on the eleventh and twelfth days. These are the only two days on which she is permitted to engage in intercourse with her husband, as afterward she will experience bleeding for three days during the days of the flow of the zava, and is thereby rendered a greater zava. Accordingly, she requires seven clean days to become pure again, which she will never attain, as she never has more than three clean days.

讗专讘注讛 讬诪讬诐 讟诪讗讬诐 讜讗专讘注讛 讬诪讬诐 讟讛讜专讬谉 诪砖诪砖转 讬讜诐 讗讞讚 讜砖讜讘 讗讬谞讛 诪砖诪砖转 诇注讜诇诐

If out of every set of eight days, four days she is impure, and four days she is pure, she may engage in intercourse with her husband during one of the days, the eighth, after her purification for menstruation, as it is the last of her first set of four days without blood, and thereafter she may never again engage in intercourse with him, as she will be rendered a greater zava by experiencing bleeding on the next three days.

讞诪砖讛 讬诪讬诐 讟诪讗讬诐 讜讞诪砖讛 讬诪讬诐 讟讛讜专讬谉 诪砖诪砖转 砖诇砖讛 讬诪讬诐 讜砖讜讘 讗讬谞讛 诪砖诪砖转 诇注讜诇诐 砖砖讛 讬诪讬诐 讟诪讗讬谉 讜砖砖讛 讬诪讬诐 讟讛讜专讬谉 诪砖诪砖转 讞诪砖讛 讬诪讬诐 讜砖讜讘 讗讬谞讛 诪砖诪砖转 诇注讜诇诐

If out of every set of ten days, five days she is impure, and five days she is pure, she may engage in intercourse with her husband during three of the days, i.e., the eighth, ninth, and tenth, as she has completed her menstruation period and has not yet emitted the blood of ziva, and thereafter she may never again engage in intercourse with him. Similarly, if out of every set of twelve days, six days she is impure, and six days she is pure, she may engage in intercourse with her husband during five of the days, i.e., the eighth to the twelfth, and thereafter she may never again engage in intercourse with him.

砖讘注讛 讬诪讬诐 讟诪讗讬谉 讜砖讘注讛 讬诪讬诐 讟讛讜专讬谉 诪砖诪砖转 专讘讬注 讬诪讬讛 诪转讜讱 注砖专讬诐 讜砖诪讜谞讛 讬诪讬诐

If out of every set of fourteen days, seven days she is impure, and seven days she is pure, she may engage in intercourse with her husband during a quarter of the days of her life, i.e., seven out of every twenty-eight days. In the first seven days she is a menstruating woman, but during the next seven days she is pure. In the third set of seven days, when she again experiences bleeding, she becomes a zava, which means that in her last seven days, which are without blood, she counts the clean days for her ziva, after which this cycle of twenty-eight days begins afresh.

砖诪讜谞讛 讬诪讬诐 讟诪讗讬谉 讜砖诪讜谞讛 讬诪讬诐 讟讛讜专讬谉 诪砖诪砖转 讞诪砖讛 注砖专 讬讜诐 诪转讜讱 讗专讘注讬诐 讜砖诪讜谞讛

If out of every set of sixteen days, eight days she is impure, and eight days she is pure, she may engage in intercourse with her husband fifteen days out of every forty-eight days. The first eight days during which she experiences bleeding are the seven days of menstruation and one day of ziva, which renders her a lesser zava. Therefore, she must observe one clean day, after which she is pure for seven days. The first two days of the third set of eight are her last days of ziva, and the bleeding she experiences renders her again a lesser zava, while the next six are during her days of menstruation. Then she starts her fourth set of eight days, which are without blood. The first of these completes her days of menstruation, after which she may engage in intercourse for the subsequent seven days. During the fifth set of eight days she experiences bleeding, rendering her a greater zava. She counts her clean days in the sixth set, leaving her one day of purity, after which the cycle of forty-eight days starts again.

讛专讬 讗专讘讬住专 讛讜讜

The Gemara objects: But the days during which she is permitted are actually only fourteen, not fifteen. This objection is based on the assumption that a woman cannot count her clean days for ziva during days that are fit for menstruation. Consequently, the last four days of the fifth cycle are actually part of her days of menstruation, as her eleven days of ziva ended after the fourth day of that cycle. If so, the sixth set of eight days consists of three menstrual days followed by five days of ziva. Although she is not a menstruating woman in those three days, as she did not previously count seven clean days, they still do not count for her seven clean days of ziva, since they are fit to be menstrual days. She can start counting her seven clean days only on day forty-four, but on day forty-nine, before the seven clean days are finished, she will again experience bleeding. Therefore, it should not be permitted for her to engage in intercourse with her husband on the forty-eighth night.

讗诪专 专讘 讗讚讗 讘专 讬爪讞拽 讝讗转 讗讜诪专转 讬诪讬 谞讚转讛 砖讗讬谉 专讜讗讛 讘讛谉 注讜诇讬谉 诇住驻讬专转 讝讬讘转讛 讚讗讬讘注讬讗 诇讛讜

Rav Adda bar Yitz岣k says that this premise should be rejected: That is to say that her menstrual days on which she does not actually see blood do count toward her counting of her seven clean days of ziva. In other words, she begins counting the seven clean days during these menstrual days. As a dilemma was raised before the Sages with regard to this issue:

讬诪讬 诇讬讚讛 砖讗讬谞讛 专讜讗讛 讘讛谉 诪讛讜 砖讬注诇讜 诇住驻讬专转 讝讬讘转讛

What is the halakha in the case of a woman who gave birth when she was a zava? There are seven days of impurity following the birth of a son and fourteen days of impurity following the birth of a daughter, during which the mother is impure even if she did not experience bleeding. With regard to those days during this period on which she does not see blood, are they reckoned in the counting of her seven clean days required to become purified from the status of ziva?

讗诪专 专讘 讻讛谞讗 转讗 砖诪注 专讗转讛 砖谞讬诐 讜诇砖诇讬砖讬 讛驻讬诇讛 讜讗讬谞讛 讬讜讚注转 诪讛 讛驻讬诇讛

Rav Kahana says: Come and hear a baraita: A woman saw blood on two consecutive days during the period of ziva, and on the third day she miscarried, but she does not know what she miscarried, i.e., whether it was a stillborn human fetus for which a woman contracts the impurity of childbirth, or whether she discharged an amorphous piece of tissue. In addition, she does not know whether she emitted blood during the miscarriage.

讛专讬 讝讜 住驻拽 讝讬讘讛 住驻拽 诇讬讚讛

In such a case, it is uncertain whether she has the status of one who experienced ziva or whether she has the status of a woman who gave birth. If she gave birth to a fetus and did not emit blood, she is a woman after childbirth but not a zava. If the discharge was an amorphous piece of tissue and she saw blood, she is a zava. If it was a human fetus and she saw blood, she is one who gives birth as a zava. Finally, if she did not emit blood and it was a discharge of an amorphous piece of tissue, she is not obligated to bring an offering at all.

诪讘讬讗讛 拽专讘谉 讜讗讬谞讜 谞讗讻诇 讜讬诪讬 诇讬讚转讛 砖讗讬谉 专讜讗讛 讘讛谉 注讜诇讬谉 诇讛 诇住驻讬专转 讝讬讘转讛

Consequently, she brings an offering but it is not eaten by the priests, as it is uncertain whether it is an offering of ziva or an offering for her childbirth, or whether it is non-sacred. And the days of impurity following this uncertain birth, on which she does not see blood, are reckoned in the counting of her seven clean days required to become purified from the status of ziva. This resolves the dilemma raised by the Sages.

讗诪专 专讘 驻驻讗 砖讗谞讬 讛转诐 讻讬讜谉 讚讗讬讻讗 诇诪讬诪专 讬讜诇讚转 讝讻专 讛讬讗 讜讻诇 讛谞讬 砖讘注讛 讬转讬专讬 讚拽讬讛讘讬谞谉 诇讛 住诇拽讬 诇讛 诇住驻讬专转 讝讬讘转讛

Rav Pappa says that this does not resolve the dilemma, as it is different there, since it can be said that she is a woman who gave birth to a male, and it is only for that reason that all of these additional seven days that we give her due to the concern that she might have given birth to a female, which would render her impure for fourteen days, are reckoned in the counting of her seven clean days of ziva. But if it was certain that she gave birth to a female, those days after the birth would not count toward her period of ziva.

讗诪专 诇讬讛 专讘 讛讜谞讗 讘专讬讛 讚专讘 讬讛讜砖注 诇专讘 驻驻讗 讘讬讜诇讚转 讝讻专 讗讬讻讗 诇住驻讜拽讬 讘讬讜诇讚转 谞拽讘讛 诇讬讻讗 诇住驻讜拽讬 讗诇讗 诇讗讜 砖诪注 诪讬谞讛 注讜诇讬谉 砖诪注 诪讬谞讛

Rav Huna, son of Rav Yehoshua, said to Rav Pappa: Is there uncertainty that perhaps she is a woman who gave birth to a male, but there is no uncertainty that she might be a woman who gave birth to a female? In fact, both possibilities must be taken into account. And yet, despite the fact that she might have given birth to a female, these seven days are included in the counting of her seven clean days. Rather, isn鈥檛 it correct to conclude from it that such days are reckoned in the counting? The Gemara comments: Indeed, conclude from the baraita that these days do count.

转砖注讛 讬诪讬诐 讟诪讗讬谉 讜转砖注讛 讬诪讬诐 讟讛讜专讬谉 诪砖诪砖转 砖诪讜谞讛 讬诪讬诐 诪转讜讱 砖诪讜谞讛 注砖专

The Gemara concludes its citation of the baraita: In the case of a woman whose set pattern is that nine days she is impure, i.e., experiences bleeding, and nine days she is pure, she may engage in intercourse with her husband during eight days out of eighteen. The last two days of the nine with blood are part of her ziva period, after which she must observe one clean day, leaving her with eight days when she may engage in intercourse before the cycle begins again.

注砖专讛 讬诪讬诐 讟诪讗讬谉 讜注砖专讛 讬诪讬诐 讟讛讜专讬诐 讬诪讬 砖诪讜砖讛 讻讬诪讬 讝讬讘转讛 讜讻谉 诇诪讗讛 讜讻谉 诇讗诇祝

In the case of a woman whose set pattern is that ten days she is impure and ten days she is pure, the number of days of her being permitted to engage in intercourse with her husband is equivalent to the number of days of her experiencing the flow of ziva. In the first seven days she is a menstruating woman, followed by three days of blood that render her a zava. She must count seven of the ten days without blood to be purified from her ziva, which leaves her three days in which she may engage in intercourse, exactly the same as the three days of ziva on which she saw blood. And so too, the same applies in the case of one hundred days, as she experiences bleeding of ziva for ninety-three days, and is subsequently permitted to her husband for ninety-three days, and so too in the case of one thousand days.

讛讚专谉 注诇讱 讘讗 住讬诪谉

 

诪转谞讬壮 讚诐 讛谞讚讛 讜讘砖专 讛诪转 诪讟诪讗讬谉 诇讞讬谉 讜诪讟诪讗讬谉 讬讘砖讬谉 讗讘诇 讛讝讜讘 讜讛谞讬注 讜讛专讜拽 讜讛砖专抓 讜讛谞讘诇讛 讜讛砖讻讘转 讝专注 诪讟诪讗讬谉 诇讞讬谉 讜讗讬谉 诪讟诪讗讬谉 讬讘砖讬谉 讜讗诐 讬讻讜诇讬谉 诇讛砖专讜转 讜诇讞讝讜专 诇讻诪讜转 砖讛谉 诪讟诪讗讬谉 诇讞讬谉 讜诪讟诪讗讬谉 讬讘砖讬谉

MISHNA: The blood of a menstruating woman and the flesh of a corpse transmit impurity by contact and by carrying when they are moist, and likewise transmit impurity when they are dry. But with regard to the gonorrhea-like discharge of a zav [ziva], and the mucus and the saliva of a zav, and the carcass of a creeping animal, and an animal carcass, and semen, all transmit impurity when they are moist but do not transmit impurity when they are dry. And if one could soak those dry substances in water and thereby restore them to their previous state, they transmit impurity when moist and transmit impurity when dry.

讜讻诪讛 讛讬讗 砖专讬讬转谉 讘驻讜砖专讬谉 诪注转 诇注转 专讘讬 讬讜住讬 讗讜诪专 讘砖专 讛诪转 讬讘砖 讜讗讬谞讜 讬讻讜诇 诇讛砖专讜转 讜诇讞讝讜专 诇讻诪讜转 砖讛讬讛 讟讛讜专

The mishna asks: And how long is the process of soaking these substances that determines whether they can be restored to their previous state? This is referring to soaking them in lukewarm water for a twenty-four-hour period. Rabbi Yosei says: With regard to the flesh of a corpse that is dry and cannot be soaked to restore it to its previous state, it is ritually pure, in the sense that an olive-bulk of the flesh does not transmit impurity imparted by a corpse. But a ladleful of the flesh transmits the impurity of the decayed flesh of a corpse.

讙诪壮 诪谞讗 讛谞讬 诪讬诇讬 讗诪专 讞讝拽讬讛 讚讗诪专 拽专讗 讜讛讚讜讛 讘谞讚转讛 诪讚讜讛 讻诪讜转讛 诪讛 讛讬讗 诪讟诪讗讛 讗祝 诪讚讜讛 诪讟诪讗讛

GEMARA: The mishna teaches that the blood of a menstruating woman transmits impurity by contact and by carrying both when moist and when dry. The Gemara asks: From where are these matters derived? 岣zkiyya says: They are derived from a verse, as the verse states with regard to a menstruating woman: 鈥淭his is the law of him that has an issue鈥And of her who experiences the flow of her menstrual impurity鈥 (Leviticus 15:32鈥33). The verse compares the status of the menstrual flow to that of the menstruating woman. This teaches that the status of the menstrual flow is like the status of the woman herself: Just as she transmits impurity by contact and by carrying, so too, the menstrual flow transmits impurity by contact and by carrying.

讗砖讻讞谉 诇讞 讬讘砖 诪谞诇谉 讗诪专 专讘讬 讬爪讞拽 讗诪专 拽专讗 讬讛讬讛 讘讛讜讬转讜 讬讛讗

The Gemara asks: We found a source for the impurity of the menstrual blood when it is moist, since it is called the menstrual flow; from where do we derive that dry menstrual blood also transmits impurity? Rabbi Yitz岣k says that the verse states with regard to menstrual impurity: 鈥淎nd if a woman should have an issue, and her issue in her flesh shall be blood, she shall be in her impurity seven days, and whoever touches her shall be impure until the evening鈥 (Leviticus 15:19). The term 鈥渟hall be鈥 indicates that the blood shall remain in its impure status even once it is dry.

讜讗讬诪讗 讛谞讬 诪讬诇讬 讘诇讞 讜谞注砖讛 讬讘砖 讬讘砖 诪注讬拽专讜 诪谞诇谉 讜转讜 讛讗 讚转谞谉 讛诪驻诇转 讻诪讬谉 拽诇讬驻讛 讻诪讬谉 注驻专 讻诪讬谉 砖注专讛 讻诪讬谉 讬讘讞讜砖讬谉 讗讚讜诪讬诐 转讟讬诇 诇诪讬诐 讗诐 谞诪讜讞讜 讟诪讗 诪谞诇谉 讬讛讬讛 专讘讜讬讗 讛讜讗

The Gemara objects: But one may say that this statement applies only to blood that was initially moist and subsequently became dry, as it retains its initial status. With regard to blood that was dry at the outset, from where do we derive that it too transmits impurity? And furthermore, this inference does not provide a source for that which we learned in a mishna (21a): In the case of a woman who discharges an item whose shape is similar to a type of shell, similar to a type of soil, similar to a type of hair, or similar to a type of mosquito, if such items are red, she should cast them into water to ascertain their nature. If they dissolved, it is blood, and the woman is impure. From where do we derive that even this type of blood is impure? The Gemara explains: The term 鈥渟hall be鈥 is an amplification, indicating that menstrual blood in all these forms is impure.

讗讬 诪讛 讛讬讗 注讜砖讛 诪砖讻讘 讜诪讜砖讘 诇讟诪讗 讗讚诐 讜诇讟诪讗 讘讙讚讬诐 讗祝 讚诪讛 谞诪讬 注讜砖讛 诪砖讻讘 讜诪讜砖讘 诇讟诪讗 讗讚诐 讜诇讟诪讗 讘讙讚讬诐 讗讟讜 讚诪讛 讘专 诪砖讻讘 讜诪讜砖讘 讛讜讗

The Gemara objects: If so, one can likewise infer the following: Just as she, a menstruating woman, renders an item designated for lying or sitting impure to the extent that it transmits impurity to a person and to the extent that that person transmits impurity to his garments, despite the fact that the garments did not come into contact with the couch, so too, her blood also renders items designated for lying or sitting impure to the extent that they transmit impurity to a person and to the extent that he transmits impurity to his garments, in the manner of a primary source of ritual impurity. The Gemara replies: Is that to say that the concepts of lying and sitting apply to her menstrual blood? These categories of impurity are limited to people.

讜诇讟注诪讬讱 讗讘谉 诪谞讜讙注转 讘转 诪砖讻讘 讜诪讜砖讘 讛讬讗 讚讗讬爪讟专讬讱 拽专讗 诇诪注讜讟讬 讚转谞讬讗 讬讻讜诇 转讛讗 讗讘谉 诪谞讜讙注转 注讜砖讛 诪砖讻讘 讜诪讜砖讘 诇讟诪讗 讗讚诐 诇讟诪讗 讘讙讚讬诐

The Gemara asks: But according to your reasoning that this category of impurity is limited to people, do the concepts of lying and sitting apply to a stone afflicted with leprosy, so that a verse was necessary to exclude it? As it is taught in a baraita: One might have thought that a stone afflicted with leprosy should render an item designated for lying or sitting impure to the extent that it transmits impurity to a person and to the extent that he transmits impurity to his garments.

讜讚讬谉 讛讜讗 讜诪讛 讝讘 砖讗讬谞讜 诪讟诪讗 讘讘讬讗讛 注讜砖讛 诪砖讻讘 讜诪讜砖讘 诇讟诪讗 讗讚诐 诇讟诪讗 讘讙讚讬诐 讗讘谉 诪谞讜讙注转 砖诪讟诪讗讛 讘讘讬讗讛 讗讬谞讜 讚讬谉 砖诪讟诪讗讛 诪砖讻讘 讜诪讜砖讘 诇讟诪讗 讗讚诐 诇讟诪讗 讘讙讚讬诐

The baraita explains: And this ruling might be derived by logical inference: If one enters a house where there is a stone afflicted with leprosy he becomes impure, but one who enters a house together with a man who experienced a gonorrhea-like discharge [zav] does not become impure. One may therefore infer as follows: If a zav, who does not transmit impurity by entering a house, nevertheless renders an item designated for lying or sitting impure to the extent that it transmits impurity to a person and to the extent that that person transmits impurity to his garments, then with regard to a stone afflicted with leprosy, which does transmit impurity by entering a house, is it not logical that it renders an item designated for lying or sitting impure to the extent that it transmits impurity to a person and to the extent that he transmits impurity to the garments he is wearing?

转诇诪讜讚 诇讜诪专 讛讝讘 讛讝讘 讜诇讗 讗讘谉 诪谞讜讙注转 讟注诪讗 讚诪注讟讬讛 拽专讗 讛讗 诇讗讜 讛讻讬 诪讟诪讗讛

The baraita concludes: Therefore, the verse states: 鈥淓very bed upon which the zav lies shall be impure, and every item upon which he sits shall be impure鈥 (Leviticus 15:4). The term 鈥渢he zav indicates that only the zav, and not a stone afflicted with leprosy, renders items designated for lying or sitting impure. The Gemara infers from the baraita: The reason a stone afflicted with leprosy does not transmit impurity to items designated for lying or sitting is that the verse excluded it, but were it not so, the stone would transmit impurity to items designated for lying or sitting, despite the fact that the concepts of lying and sitting do not apply to a stone.

讜诪讬谞讛 诇讗讜 诪讬 讗诪专转 讛讝讘 讜诇讗 讗讘谉 诪谞讜讙注转 讛讻讬 谞诪讬 讗诪专 拽专讗 讗砖专 讛讬讗 讬讜砖讘转 注诇讬讜 讛讬讗 讜诇讗 讚诪讛

The Gemara replies that from this same derivation one can infer that menstrual blood does not render items designated for lying or sitting impure: Didn鈥檛 you say that the term 鈥渢he zav鈥 teaches that only the zav, and not a stone afflicted with leprosy, renders items designated for lying or sitting impure? So too, a verse excludes menstrual blood from this category of impurity, as the verse states: 鈥淎nd he if is on the bed, or on any item upon which she sits, when he touches it, he shall be impure until the evening鈥 (Leviticus 15:23). The term 鈥渟he鈥 indicates that she, the menstruating woman, but not her blood, transmits impurity to items designated for lying or sitting.

  • This month's learning is sponsored by Ron and Shira Krebs to commemorate the 73rd yahrzeit of Shira's grandfather (Yitzchak Leib Ben David Ber HaCohen v'Malka), the 1st yahrzeit of Shira's father (Gershon Pinya Ben Yitzchak Leib HaCohen v'Menucha Sara), and the bar mitzvah of their son Eytan who will be making a siyum on Mishna Shas this month.

  • This month's learning is sponsored for the refuah shleima of Naama bat Yael Esther.

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Niddah 54

The William Davidson Talmud | Powered by Sefaria

Niddah 54

砖讜讟讜转 谞讬谞讛讜 讟讜注讜转 谞讬谞讛讜 讗诇讗 转谞讬 讟讜注讜转

actually misguided? Since they are in doubt as to their status, would it not be more accurate to say that they are mistaken? The Gemara answers: Rather, this is how one should teach the statement of Rabbi Yehoshua in the mishna: Instead of making provisions to remedy the uncertainties of the mistaken, come and remedy the uncertainties of the competent women.

讚转谞讬讗 讬讜诐 讗讞讚 讟诪讗 讜讬讜诐 讗讞讚 讟讛讜专 诪砖诪砖转 砖诪讬谞讬 讜诇讬诇讜 注诪讜

As it is taught in a baraita with regard to these competent women: What is the halakha in the case of a woman who consistently has the following pattern for each pair of days: One day she is impure, i.e., she experiences bleeding, and one day she is pure, she does not experience bleeding? In what manner is it permitted for her to engage in intercourse with her husband? She may engage in intercourse with her husband on the eighth day from the first time that she experienced bleeding and its accompanying night. At that time she is pure from her menstruation, as she immersed and purified herself on the night of the seventh day. It is permitted for her to engage in intercourse during the eighth day and the following night, as she will not experience bleeding until the ninth day.

讜讗专讘注讛 诇讬诇讜转 诪转讜讱 砖诪讜谞讛 注砖专 讬讜诐 讜讗诐 讛讬转讛 专讜讗讛 诪讘注专讘 讗讬谞讛 诪砖诪砖转 讗诇讗 砖诪讬谞讬 讘诇讘讚

In addition, she may engage in intercourse four nights out of the cycle of eighteen days, which consist of the seven menstrual days and the eleven days of the flow of the zava. This woman will never become a greater zava, as she does not emit blood on consecutive days. Since she must observe a day of purity during the eleven days of ziva each time she experiences bleeding, she may engage in intercourse with her husband on the night following the tenth, twelfth, fourteen, and sixteenth days. The night after the eighteenth day is considered part of the next cycle of menstruation and ziva. But if she sees blood in the evening, she may engage in intercourse with her husband only on the eighth night and its day. During the eleven days of ziva she either experiences bleeding at night or is observing a day of purity for the blood she had emitted earlier.

砖谞讬 讬诪讬诐 讟诪讗讬谉 讜砖谞讬 讬诪讬诐 讟讛讜专讬谉 诪砖诪砖转 砖诪讬谞讬 讜砖谞讬诐 注砖专 讜砖砖讛 注砖专 讜注砖专讬诐

If in every set of four days, two days she is impure, i.e., experiences bleeding, and two days she is pure, she may engage in intercourse with her husband on the eighth day, in the day or at night, and also on the twelfth day, after observing the eleventh as a day of purity for the sightings of the ninth and tenth days, and by a similar calculation on the sixteenth day and on the twentieth day, as she has not yet seen the blood of menstruation in this new cycle.

讜转砖诪砖 谞诪讬 讘转砖住专 讗诪专 专讘 砖砖转 讝讗转 讗讜诪专转 讙专讙专谉 讚转谞谉 讗住讜专

The Gemara objects: And let her also engage in intercourse with her husband on the nineteenth day, as the eleven days of the flow of the zava have already passed at the end of the eighteenth day, and she is no longer required to observe a clean day for each day she experiences a discharge. Rav Sheshet says: That is to say that when we learned in a mishna (72a) that a husband who could not wait for the conclusion of the day after the last day of ziva before engaging in intercourse is a glutton, it means that it is actually prohibited for them to engage in intercourse.

专讘 讗砖讬 讗诪专 谞讛讬 讚讞讚 注砖专 诇讗 讘注讬 砖讬诪讜专 注砖讬专讬 诪讬讛讗 讘注讬 砖讬诪讜专

Rav Ashi says: In fact, it is not prohibited for a woman to engage in intercourse with her husband on the day after the end of the days of the flow of the zava even by rabbinic decree, as it is already the beginning of her menstrual days, and she is no longer required to observe a clean day for each day she experiences a discharge. But although there is no requirement to observe a clean day for the eleventh day of ziva, which is the eighteenth day of the full cycle, in any event there is a requirement to observe a clean day for the tenth day, i.e., the seventeenth of the entire cycle. Since she did not observe a clean day on the eighteenth day, as she saw blood on that day as well, she must observe the nineteenth day in purity.

砖诇砖讛 讬诪讬诐 讟诪讗讬谉 讜砖诇砖讛 讬诪讬诐 讟讛讜专讬谉 诪砖诪砖转 砖谞讬 讬诪讬诐 讜砖讜讘 讗讬谞讛 诪砖诪砖转 诇注讜诇诐

If out of every set of six days, three days she is impure, and three days she is pure, she may engage in intercourse with her husband during two of the days, and thereafter she may never again engage in intercourse with him. The eighth and ninth days, which are the first days of the flow of ziva, are the second and third of the three days on which she experiences bleeding. Therefore, she can immerse and purify herself on the night of the eleventh, and engage in intercourse with her husband on the eleventh and twelfth days. These are the only two days on which she is permitted to engage in intercourse with her husband, as afterward she will experience bleeding for three days during the days of the flow of the zava, and is thereby rendered a greater zava. Accordingly, she requires seven clean days to become pure again, which she will never attain, as she never has more than three clean days.

讗专讘注讛 讬诪讬诐 讟诪讗讬诐 讜讗专讘注讛 讬诪讬诐 讟讛讜专讬谉 诪砖诪砖转 讬讜诐 讗讞讚 讜砖讜讘 讗讬谞讛 诪砖诪砖转 诇注讜诇诐

If out of every set of eight days, four days she is impure, and four days she is pure, she may engage in intercourse with her husband during one of the days, the eighth, after her purification for menstruation, as it is the last of her first set of four days without blood, and thereafter she may never again engage in intercourse with him, as she will be rendered a greater zava by experiencing bleeding on the next three days.

讞诪砖讛 讬诪讬诐 讟诪讗讬诐 讜讞诪砖讛 讬诪讬诐 讟讛讜专讬谉 诪砖诪砖转 砖诇砖讛 讬诪讬诐 讜砖讜讘 讗讬谞讛 诪砖诪砖转 诇注讜诇诐 砖砖讛 讬诪讬诐 讟诪讗讬谉 讜砖砖讛 讬诪讬诐 讟讛讜专讬谉 诪砖诪砖转 讞诪砖讛 讬诪讬诐 讜砖讜讘 讗讬谞讛 诪砖诪砖转 诇注讜诇诐

If out of every set of ten days, five days she is impure, and five days she is pure, she may engage in intercourse with her husband during three of the days, i.e., the eighth, ninth, and tenth, as she has completed her menstruation period and has not yet emitted the blood of ziva, and thereafter she may never again engage in intercourse with him. Similarly, if out of every set of twelve days, six days she is impure, and six days she is pure, she may engage in intercourse with her husband during five of the days, i.e., the eighth to the twelfth, and thereafter she may never again engage in intercourse with him.

砖讘注讛 讬诪讬诐 讟诪讗讬谉 讜砖讘注讛 讬诪讬诐 讟讛讜专讬谉 诪砖诪砖转 专讘讬注 讬诪讬讛 诪转讜讱 注砖专讬诐 讜砖诪讜谞讛 讬诪讬诐

If out of every set of fourteen days, seven days she is impure, and seven days she is pure, she may engage in intercourse with her husband during a quarter of the days of her life, i.e., seven out of every twenty-eight days. In the first seven days she is a menstruating woman, but during the next seven days she is pure. In the third set of seven days, when she again experiences bleeding, she becomes a zava, which means that in her last seven days, which are without blood, she counts the clean days for her ziva, after which this cycle of twenty-eight days begins afresh.

砖诪讜谞讛 讬诪讬诐 讟诪讗讬谉 讜砖诪讜谞讛 讬诪讬诐 讟讛讜专讬谉 诪砖诪砖转 讞诪砖讛 注砖专 讬讜诐 诪转讜讱 讗专讘注讬诐 讜砖诪讜谞讛

If out of every set of sixteen days, eight days she is impure, and eight days she is pure, she may engage in intercourse with her husband fifteen days out of every forty-eight days. The first eight days during which she experiences bleeding are the seven days of menstruation and one day of ziva, which renders her a lesser zava. Therefore, she must observe one clean day, after which she is pure for seven days. The first two days of the third set of eight are her last days of ziva, and the bleeding she experiences renders her again a lesser zava, while the next six are during her days of menstruation. Then she starts her fourth set of eight days, which are without blood. The first of these completes her days of menstruation, after which she may engage in intercourse for the subsequent seven days. During the fifth set of eight days she experiences bleeding, rendering her a greater zava. She counts her clean days in the sixth set, leaving her one day of purity, after which the cycle of forty-eight days starts again.

讛专讬 讗专讘讬住专 讛讜讜

The Gemara objects: But the days during which she is permitted are actually only fourteen, not fifteen. This objection is based on the assumption that a woman cannot count her clean days for ziva during days that are fit for menstruation. Consequently, the last four days of the fifth cycle are actually part of her days of menstruation, as her eleven days of ziva ended after the fourth day of that cycle. If so, the sixth set of eight days consists of three menstrual days followed by five days of ziva. Although she is not a menstruating woman in those three days, as she did not previously count seven clean days, they still do not count for her seven clean days of ziva, since they are fit to be menstrual days. She can start counting her seven clean days only on day forty-four, but on day forty-nine, before the seven clean days are finished, she will again experience bleeding. Therefore, it should not be permitted for her to engage in intercourse with her husband on the forty-eighth night.

讗诪专 专讘 讗讚讗 讘专 讬爪讞拽 讝讗转 讗讜诪专转 讬诪讬 谞讚转讛 砖讗讬谉 专讜讗讛 讘讛谉 注讜诇讬谉 诇住驻讬专转 讝讬讘转讛 讚讗讬讘注讬讗 诇讛讜

Rav Adda bar Yitz岣k says that this premise should be rejected: That is to say that her menstrual days on which she does not actually see blood do count toward her counting of her seven clean days of ziva. In other words, she begins counting the seven clean days during these menstrual days. As a dilemma was raised before the Sages with regard to this issue:

讬诪讬 诇讬讚讛 砖讗讬谞讛 专讜讗讛 讘讛谉 诪讛讜 砖讬注诇讜 诇住驻讬专转 讝讬讘转讛

What is the halakha in the case of a woman who gave birth when she was a zava? There are seven days of impurity following the birth of a son and fourteen days of impurity following the birth of a daughter, during which the mother is impure even if she did not experience bleeding. With regard to those days during this period on which she does not see blood, are they reckoned in the counting of her seven clean days required to become purified from the status of ziva?

讗诪专 专讘 讻讛谞讗 转讗 砖诪注 专讗转讛 砖谞讬诐 讜诇砖诇讬砖讬 讛驻讬诇讛 讜讗讬谞讛 讬讜讚注转 诪讛 讛驻讬诇讛

Rav Kahana says: Come and hear a baraita: A woman saw blood on two consecutive days during the period of ziva, and on the third day she miscarried, but she does not know what she miscarried, i.e., whether it was a stillborn human fetus for which a woman contracts the impurity of childbirth, or whether she discharged an amorphous piece of tissue. In addition, she does not know whether she emitted blood during the miscarriage.

讛专讬 讝讜 住驻拽 讝讬讘讛 住驻拽 诇讬讚讛

In such a case, it is uncertain whether she has the status of one who experienced ziva or whether she has the status of a woman who gave birth. If she gave birth to a fetus and did not emit blood, she is a woman after childbirth but not a zava. If the discharge was an amorphous piece of tissue and she saw blood, she is a zava. If it was a human fetus and she saw blood, she is one who gives birth as a zava. Finally, if she did not emit blood and it was a discharge of an amorphous piece of tissue, she is not obligated to bring an offering at all.

诪讘讬讗讛 拽专讘谉 讜讗讬谞讜 谞讗讻诇 讜讬诪讬 诇讬讚转讛 砖讗讬谉 专讜讗讛 讘讛谉 注讜诇讬谉 诇讛 诇住驻讬专转 讝讬讘转讛

Consequently, she brings an offering but it is not eaten by the priests, as it is uncertain whether it is an offering of ziva or an offering for her childbirth, or whether it is non-sacred. And the days of impurity following this uncertain birth, on which she does not see blood, are reckoned in the counting of her seven clean days required to become purified from the status of ziva. This resolves the dilemma raised by the Sages.

讗诪专 专讘 驻驻讗 砖讗谞讬 讛转诐 讻讬讜谉 讚讗讬讻讗 诇诪讬诪专 讬讜诇讚转 讝讻专 讛讬讗 讜讻诇 讛谞讬 砖讘注讛 讬转讬专讬 讚拽讬讛讘讬谞谉 诇讛 住诇拽讬 诇讛 诇住驻讬专转 讝讬讘转讛

Rav Pappa says that this does not resolve the dilemma, as it is different there, since it can be said that she is a woman who gave birth to a male, and it is only for that reason that all of these additional seven days that we give her due to the concern that she might have given birth to a female, which would render her impure for fourteen days, are reckoned in the counting of her seven clean days of ziva. But if it was certain that she gave birth to a female, those days after the birth would not count toward her period of ziva.

讗诪专 诇讬讛 专讘 讛讜谞讗 讘专讬讛 讚专讘 讬讛讜砖注 诇专讘 驻驻讗 讘讬讜诇讚转 讝讻专 讗讬讻讗 诇住驻讜拽讬 讘讬讜诇讚转 谞拽讘讛 诇讬讻讗 诇住驻讜拽讬 讗诇讗 诇讗讜 砖诪注 诪讬谞讛 注讜诇讬谉 砖诪注 诪讬谞讛

Rav Huna, son of Rav Yehoshua, said to Rav Pappa: Is there uncertainty that perhaps she is a woman who gave birth to a male, but there is no uncertainty that she might be a woman who gave birth to a female? In fact, both possibilities must be taken into account. And yet, despite the fact that she might have given birth to a female, these seven days are included in the counting of her seven clean days. Rather, isn鈥檛 it correct to conclude from it that such days are reckoned in the counting? The Gemara comments: Indeed, conclude from the baraita that these days do count.

转砖注讛 讬诪讬诐 讟诪讗讬谉 讜转砖注讛 讬诪讬诐 讟讛讜专讬谉 诪砖诪砖转 砖诪讜谞讛 讬诪讬诐 诪转讜讱 砖诪讜谞讛 注砖专

The Gemara concludes its citation of the baraita: In the case of a woman whose set pattern is that nine days she is impure, i.e., experiences bleeding, and nine days she is pure, she may engage in intercourse with her husband during eight days out of eighteen. The last two days of the nine with blood are part of her ziva period, after which she must observe one clean day, leaving her with eight days when she may engage in intercourse before the cycle begins again.

注砖专讛 讬诪讬诐 讟诪讗讬谉 讜注砖专讛 讬诪讬诐 讟讛讜专讬诐 讬诪讬 砖诪讜砖讛 讻讬诪讬 讝讬讘转讛 讜讻谉 诇诪讗讛 讜讻谉 诇讗诇祝

In the case of a woman whose set pattern is that ten days she is impure and ten days she is pure, the number of days of her being permitted to engage in intercourse with her husband is equivalent to the number of days of her experiencing the flow of ziva. In the first seven days she is a menstruating woman, followed by three days of blood that render her a zava. She must count seven of the ten days without blood to be purified from her ziva, which leaves her three days in which she may engage in intercourse, exactly the same as the three days of ziva on which she saw blood. And so too, the same applies in the case of one hundred days, as she experiences bleeding of ziva for ninety-three days, and is subsequently permitted to her husband for ninety-three days, and so too in the case of one thousand days.

讛讚专谉 注诇讱 讘讗 住讬诪谉

 

诪转谞讬壮 讚诐 讛谞讚讛 讜讘砖专 讛诪转 诪讟诪讗讬谉 诇讞讬谉 讜诪讟诪讗讬谉 讬讘砖讬谉 讗讘诇 讛讝讜讘 讜讛谞讬注 讜讛专讜拽 讜讛砖专抓 讜讛谞讘诇讛 讜讛砖讻讘转 讝专注 诪讟诪讗讬谉 诇讞讬谉 讜讗讬谉 诪讟诪讗讬谉 讬讘砖讬谉 讜讗诐 讬讻讜诇讬谉 诇讛砖专讜转 讜诇讞讝讜专 诇讻诪讜转 砖讛谉 诪讟诪讗讬谉 诇讞讬谉 讜诪讟诪讗讬谉 讬讘砖讬谉

MISHNA: The blood of a menstruating woman and the flesh of a corpse transmit impurity by contact and by carrying when they are moist, and likewise transmit impurity when they are dry. But with regard to the gonorrhea-like discharge of a zav [ziva], and the mucus and the saliva of a zav, and the carcass of a creeping animal, and an animal carcass, and semen, all transmit impurity when they are moist but do not transmit impurity when they are dry. And if one could soak those dry substances in water and thereby restore them to their previous state, they transmit impurity when moist and transmit impurity when dry.

讜讻诪讛 讛讬讗 砖专讬讬转谉 讘驻讜砖专讬谉 诪注转 诇注转 专讘讬 讬讜住讬 讗讜诪专 讘砖专 讛诪转 讬讘砖 讜讗讬谞讜 讬讻讜诇 诇讛砖专讜转 讜诇讞讝讜专 诇讻诪讜转 砖讛讬讛 讟讛讜专

The mishna asks: And how long is the process of soaking these substances that determines whether they can be restored to their previous state? This is referring to soaking them in lukewarm water for a twenty-four-hour period. Rabbi Yosei says: With regard to the flesh of a corpse that is dry and cannot be soaked to restore it to its previous state, it is ritually pure, in the sense that an olive-bulk of the flesh does not transmit impurity imparted by a corpse. But a ladleful of the flesh transmits the impurity of the decayed flesh of a corpse.

讙诪壮 诪谞讗 讛谞讬 诪讬诇讬 讗诪专 讞讝拽讬讛 讚讗诪专 拽专讗 讜讛讚讜讛 讘谞讚转讛 诪讚讜讛 讻诪讜转讛 诪讛 讛讬讗 诪讟诪讗讛 讗祝 诪讚讜讛 诪讟诪讗讛

GEMARA: The mishna teaches that the blood of a menstruating woman transmits impurity by contact and by carrying both when moist and when dry. The Gemara asks: From where are these matters derived? 岣zkiyya says: They are derived from a verse, as the verse states with regard to a menstruating woman: 鈥淭his is the law of him that has an issue鈥And of her who experiences the flow of her menstrual impurity鈥 (Leviticus 15:32鈥33). The verse compares the status of the menstrual flow to that of the menstruating woman. This teaches that the status of the menstrual flow is like the status of the woman herself: Just as she transmits impurity by contact and by carrying, so too, the menstrual flow transmits impurity by contact and by carrying.

讗砖讻讞谉 诇讞 讬讘砖 诪谞诇谉 讗诪专 专讘讬 讬爪讞拽 讗诪专 拽专讗 讬讛讬讛 讘讛讜讬转讜 讬讛讗

The Gemara asks: We found a source for the impurity of the menstrual blood when it is moist, since it is called the menstrual flow; from where do we derive that dry menstrual blood also transmits impurity? Rabbi Yitz岣k says that the verse states with regard to menstrual impurity: 鈥淎nd if a woman should have an issue, and her issue in her flesh shall be blood, she shall be in her impurity seven days, and whoever touches her shall be impure until the evening鈥 (Leviticus 15:19). The term 鈥渟hall be鈥 indicates that the blood shall remain in its impure status even once it is dry.

讜讗讬诪讗 讛谞讬 诪讬诇讬 讘诇讞 讜谞注砖讛 讬讘砖 讬讘砖 诪注讬拽专讜 诪谞诇谉 讜转讜 讛讗 讚转谞谉 讛诪驻诇转 讻诪讬谉 拽诇讬驻讛 讻诪讬谉 注驻专 讻诪讬谉 砖注专讛 讻诪讬谉 讬讘讞讜砖讬谉 讗讚讜诪讬诐 转讟讬诇 诇诪讬诐 讗诐 谞诪讜讞讜 讟诪讗 诪谞诇谉 讬讛讬讛 专讘讜讬讗 讛讜讗

The Gemara objects: But one may say that this statement applies only to blood that was initially moist and subsequently became dry, as it retains its initial status. With regard to blood that was dry at the outset, from where do we derive that it too transmits impurity? And furthermore, this inference does not provide a source for that which we learned in a mishna (21a): In the case of a woman who discharges an item whose shape is similar to a type of shell, similar to a type of soil, similar to a type of hair, or similar to a type of mosquito, if such items are red, she should cast them into water to ascertain their nature. If they dissolved, it is blood, and the woman is impure. From where do we derive that even this type of blood is impure? The Gemara explains: The term 鈥渟hall be鈥 is an amplification, indicating that menstrual blood in all these forms is impure.

讗讬 诪讛 讛讬讗 注讜砖讛 诪砖讻讘 讜诪讜砖讘 诇讟诪讗 讗讚诐 讜诇讟诪讗 讘讙讚讬诐 讗祝 讚诪讛 谞诪讬 注讜砖讛 诪砖讻讘 讜诪讜砖讘 诇讟诪讗 讗讚诐 讜诇讟诪讗 讘讙讚讬诐 讗讟讜 讚诪讛 讘专 诪砖讻讘 讜诪讜砖讘 讛讜讗

The Gemara objects: If so, one can likewise infer the following: Just as she, a menstruating woman, renders an item designated for lying or sitting impure to the extent that it transmits impurity to a person and to the extent that that person transmits impurity to his garments, despite the fact that the garments did not come into contact with the couch, so too, her blood also renders items designated for lying or sitting impure to the extent that they transmit impurity to a person and to the extent that he transmits impurity to his garments, in the manner of a primary source of ritual impurity. The Gemara replies: Is that to say that the concepts of lying and sitting apply to her menstrual blood? These categories of impurity are limited to people.

讜诇讟注诪讬讱 讗讘谉 诪谞讜讙注转 讘转 诪砖讻讘 讜诪讜砖讘 讛讬讗 讚讗讬爪讟专讬讱 拽专讗 诇诪注讜讟讬 讚转谞讬讗 讬讻讜诇 转讛讗 讗讘谉 诪谞讜讙注转 注讜砖讛 诪砖讻讘 讜诪讜砖讘 诇讟诪讗 讗讚诐 诇讟诪讗 讘讙讚讬诐

The Gemara asks: But according to your reasoning that this category of impurity is limited to people, do the concepts of lying and sitting apply to a stone afflicted with leprosy, so that a verse was necessary to exclude it? As it is taught in a baraita: One might have thought that a stone afflicted with leprosy should render an item designated for lying or sitting impure to the extent that it transmits impurity to a person and to the extent that he transmits impurity to his garments.

讜讚讬谉 讛讜讗 讜诪讛 讝讘 砖讗讬谞讜 诪讟诪讗 讘讘讬讗讛 注讜砖讛 诪砖讻讘 讜诪讜砖讘 诇讟诪讗 讗讚诐 诇讟诪讗 讘讙讚讬诐 讗讘谉 诪谞讜讙注转 砖诪讟诪讗讛 讘讘讬讗讛 讗讬谞讜 讚讬谉 砖诪讟诪讗讛 诪砖讻讘 讜诪讜砖讘 诇讟诪讗 讗讚诐 诇讟诪讗 讘讙讚讬诐

The baraita explains: And this ruling might be derived by logical inference: If one enters a house where there is a stone afflicted with leprosy he becomes impure, but one who enters a house together with a man who experienced a gonorrhea-like discharge [zav] does not become impure. One may therefore infer as follows: If a zav, who does not transmit impurity by entering a house, nevertheless renders an item designated for lying or sitting impure to the extent that it transmits impurity to a person and to the extent that that person transmits impurity to his garments, then with regard to a stone afflicted with leprosy, which does transmit impurity by entering a house, is it not logical that it renders an item designated for lying or sitting impure to the extent that it transmits impurity to a person and to the extent that he transmits impurity to the garments he is wearing?

转诇诪讜讚 诇讜诪专 讛讝讘 讛讝讘 讜诇讗 讗讘谉 诪谞讜讙注转 讟注诪讗 讚诪注讟讬讛 拽专讗 讛讗 诇讗讜 讛讻讬 诪讟诪讗讛

The baraita concludes: Therefore, the verse states: 鈥淓very bed upon which the zav lies shall be impure, and every item upon which he sits shall be impure鈥 (Leviticus 15:4). The term 鈥渢he zav indicates that only the zav, and not a stone afflicted with leprosy, renders items designated for lying or sitting impure. The Gemara infers from the baraita: The reason a stone afflicted with leprosy does not transmit impurity to items designated for lying or sitting is that the verse excluded it, but were it not so, the stone would transmit impurity to items designated for lying or sitting, despite the fact that the concepts of lying and sitting do not apply to a stone.

讜诪讬谞讛 诇讗讜 诪讬 讗诪专转 讛讝讘 讜诇讗 讗讘谉 诪谞讜讙注转 讛讻讬 谞诪讬 讗诪专 拽专讗 讗砖专 讛讬讗 讬讜砖讘转 注诇讬讜 讛讬讗 讜诇讗 讚诪讛

The Gemara replies that from this same derivation one can infer that menstrual blood does not render items designated for lying or sitting impure: Didn鈥檛 you say that the term 鈥渢he zav鈥 teaches that only the zav, and not a stone afflicted with leprosy, renders items designated for lying or sitting impure? So too, a verse excludes menstrual blood from this category of impurity, as the verse states: 鈥淎nd he if is on the bed, or on any item upon which she sits, when he touches it, he shall be impure until the evening鈥 (Leviticus 15:23). The term 鈥渟he鈥 indicates that she, the menstruating woman, but not her blood, transmits impurity to items designated for lying or sitting.

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