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Daf Yomi

December 28, 2019 | 诇壮 讘讻住诇讜 转砖状驻

  • Masechet聽Bava Batra is sponsored by聽Lori Stark in loving memory of her mother in law, Sara Shapiro z"l and her father Nehemiah Sosewitz z"l.

  • Masechet Bava Metzia is sponsored by Rabbi Art Gould in memory of his beloved bride of 50 years, Carol Joy Robinson, Karina Gola bat Huddah v鈥橸ehuda Tzvi.

    专讘讜转 讘谞讜转 注砖讜 讞讬诇 讜讗转 注诇讬转 注诇志讻诇谞讛

  • This month's learning is sponsored by Shifra Tyberg and Rephael Wenger in loving memory of Zvi ben Yisrael Yitzhak Tyberg on his yahrzeit, and in honor of their daughter Ayelet's upcoming marriage to Ori Kinberg.

  • This month's learning is sponsored by Rabbi Hayim Herring with pride and love, in honor of his spouse, Terri Krivosha, who received this year's Sidney Barrows Lifetime Commitment Award from the Mpls. And St. Paul Federations in recognition of her distinguished contribution to the Twin Cities Legal and Jewish Communities.聽

  • Masechet Megilah is sponsored by Jordana and Kalman Schoor on behalf of their daughter Daria Esther who is completing Masechet Megilla in honor of her Bat Mitzva. Mazal tov!

  • Masechet Bava Kamma is sponsored by the Futornick Family in loving memory of their fathers and grandfathers, Phillip Kaufman and David Futornick.

  • Masechet Kiddushin is sponsored by Julie and Martin Mendelsohn in honor of their two children who were recently married

  • Masechet Gittin is sponsored by Elaine and聽Saul聽Schreiber in honor of their daughter-in-law Daniela Schreiber on receiving her Master of Science in Marriage and Family Therapy.

  • Masechet Sotah is sponsored by Ahava Leibtag in honor of Dr. Bryna Levy who helped her fall deep in love with learning.

  • Masechet Nazir is sponsored by the family of Rabbi Howard Alpert, HaRav Tzvi Lipa ben Hillel, in honor of his first yahrzeit.

  • Masechet Nedarim is sponsored by Aviva and Benny Adler in honor of our mother Lorraine Kahane and in loving memory of our parents Joseph Kahane z"l, Miriam and Ari Adler z"l.

  • Masechet Ketubot is sponsored by Erica and Rob Schwartz in honor of the 50th wedding anniversary of Erica's parents Sheira and Steve Schacter.

  • Masechet Yevamot is sponsored by Ahava Leibtag and family in memory of her grandparents, Leo and Esther Aaron. "They always stressed the importance of a Torah life, mesorah and family. May their memory always be a blessing for their children, grandchildren, great-grandchildren and great-great grandchildren".

Niddah 66

A woman who bleeds from having intercourse with her husband (meaning, it brings on her period), what does she do? What to do with a woman who each time she leaves the mikveh, she gets her period on the way home? Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi instituted an edict for women who lives in the fields due to concern that they didn’t know how to distinguish between niddah blood and zava blood or between colors of blood. He said that if a woman bled for one or two days, she needs to wait 6 more days before going to the mikveh and if she bled for three days, then she would need to wait seven clean days. Rabbi Zeira (living a few generations later) said that the women were stringent and waited always seven clean days, even if they only saw a tiny spot. Did everyone accept this stringency? Six halachot are brought in the name of Rava (five of them in today’s daf). 1. A woman may bleed in anticipation of the wedding and therefore needs seven clean days leading up to the wedding. 2. One can’t shampoo before going to the mikveh with natron or sand. 3. A woman must shampoo with hot water, not cold. 4. A woman must clean the folds of her body even if the water can’t get there. 5. If one finds dirt after going to mikveh, does one need to be concerned it was there when she went to the mikveh – how does one determine this?


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转讜讻谉 讝讛 转讜专讙诐 讙诐 诇: 注讘专讬转

讜转谞砖讗 诇讗讞专


and is married to another man. She is permitted to engage in intercourse with her second husband because it is possible that the bleeding was caused by engaging in intercourse with her first husband, and the issue will not reoccur when she engages in intercourse with a different man.


谞讬住转 诇讗讞专 讜专讗转讛 讚诐 诪讞诪转 转砖诪讬砖 诪砖诪砖转 驻注诐 专讗砖讜谞讛 讜砖谞讬讛 讜砖诇讬砖讬转 诪讻讗谉 讜讗讬诇讱 诇讗 转砖诪砖 注讚 砖转转讙专砖 讜转谞砖讗 诇讗讞专 谞讬住转 诇讗讞专 讜专讗转讛 讚诐 诪讞诪转 转砖诪讬砖 诪砖诪砖转 驻注诐 专讗砖讜谞讛 讜砖谞讬讛 讜砖诇讬砖讬转 诪讻讗谉 讜讗讬诇讱 诇讗 转砖诪砖 注讚 砖转讘讚讜拽 注爪诪讛


If she married another man and again saw blood due to sexual intercourse, she may engage in intercourse before the first time this occurs, before the second time this occurs, and before the third time this occurs. From this point forward she may not engage in intercourse until she is divorced from her second husband and is married to yet another man. If she married another man and again saw blood due to sexual intercourse, she may engage in intercourse the first time this occurs, the second time this occurs, and the third time this occurs. From this point forward there is a presumption that she always bleeds due to engaging in intercourse, and therefore she may not engage in intercourse or marry someone else until she examines herself.


讻讬爪讚 讘讜讚拽转 讗转 注爪诪讛 诪讘讬讗讛 砖驻讜驻专转 讜讘转讜讻讛 诪讻讞讜诇 讜诪讜讱 诪讜谞讞 注诇 专讗砖讜 讗诐 谞诪爪讗 讚诐 注诇 专讗砖 讛诪讜讱 讘讬讚讜注 砖诪谉 讛诪拽讜专 讛讜讗 讘讗 诇讗 谞诪爪讗 讚诐 注诇 专讗砖讜 讘讬讚讜注 砖诪谉 讛爪讚讚讬谉 讛讜讗 讘讗


How does she examine herself? She brings a tube, inside of which she places a cosmetic brush so that it is long enough to reach deeply into her vagina, and an absorbent cloth is placed on the tip of the brush. She inserts the tube with the brush and cloth within herself and then removes it. If blood is found on the top of the absorbent cloth, it is known that the blood comes from the uterus and she is ritually impure. If blood is not found on the top of the cloth, it is known that the blood comes from the sides of the vaginal walls and she is ritually pure, and she may resume engaging in intercourse with her husband.


讜讗诐 讬砖 诇讛 诪讻讛 讘讗讜转讜 诪拽讜诐 转讜诇讛 讘诪讻转讛 讜讗诐 讬砖 诇讛 讜住转 转讜诇讛 讘讜住转讛


And if she has a wound in that place, i.e., her vagina, she attributes the blood to her wound, and she is ritually pure, as it is assumed to not be uterine blood. And if she has a fixed menstrual cycle, i.e., she does not bleed every time she engages in intercourse with her husband, but only at fixed times, she attributes the blood to her fixed menstrual cycle, and she is permitted to engage in intercourse at other times.


讜讗诐 讛讬讛 讚诐 诪讻转讛 诪砖讜谞讛 诪讚诐 专讗讬讬转讛 讗讬谞讛 转讜诇讛 讜谞讗诪谞转 讗砖讛 诇讜诪专 诪讻讛 讬砖 诇讬 讘诪拽讜专 砖诪诪谞讛 讚诐 讬讜爪讗 讚讘专讬 专讘讬


And if the blood of her wound differed from the blood that she sees due to sexual intercourse, she may not attribute the blood to her wound. And a woman is deemed credible to say: I have a wound in my uterus, from where the blood is emerging. This is the statement of Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi.


专讘谉 砖诪注讜谉 讘谉 讙诪诇讬讗诇 讗讜诪专 讚诐 诪讻讛 讛讘讗 诪谉 讛诪拽讜专 讟诪讗 讜专讘讜转讬谞讜 讛注讬讚讜 注诇 讚诐 讛诪讻讛 讛讘讗 诪谉 讛诪拽讜专 砖讛讜讗 讟讛讜专


Rabban Shimon ben Gamliel says: Blood of a wound that comes from the uterus is ritually impure as a primary category of impurity. Although this blood does not render it prohibited for her to engage in intercourse with her husband, it does render her impure with regard to eating ritually pure food. But our Sages testified that they had a tradition with regard to the blood of a wound that comes from the uterus, that it is ritually pure.


诪讗讬 讘讬谞讬讬讛讜 讗诪专 注讜诇讗 诪拽讜专 诪拽讜诪讜 讟诪讗 讗讬讻讗 讘讬谞讬讬讛讜


The Gemara asks: What is the difference between the opinion of those Sages and the opinion of Rabban Shimon ben Gamliel? Ulla said: The difference between them is whether the place of a woman鈥檚 uterus is impure, which means that any blood that passes through there is impure, even if it is blood from a wound. According to Rabban Shimon ben Gamliel, even the blood of a wound becomes impure if it passes through the uterus, whereas those Sages hold that only blood that originates in the uterus is impure.


砖驻讜驻专转 讗驻讙讜专讬 诪驻讙专讗 诇讛 讗诪专 砖诪讜讗诇 讘砖驻讜驻专转 砖诇 讗讘专 讜驻讬讛 专爪讜祝 诇转讜讻讛


With regard to the baraita that states that the test for a woman who experiences bleeding due to sexual intercourse is to insert a tube, the Gemara asks: But won鈥檛 a tube scratch her and cause her to bleed regardless? Shmuel said: The baraita is referring to a tube of lead, and the mouth, i.e., the end that is inserted, is folded inward so that it will not scratch her.


讗诪专 诇讬讛 专讬砖 诇拽讬砖 诇专讘讬 讬讜讞谞谉 讜转讘讚讜拽 注爪诪讛 讘讘讬讗讛 砖诇讬砖讬转 砖诇 讘注诇 讛专讗砖讜谉 讗诪专 诇讬讛 诇驻讬 砖讗讬谉 讻诇 讛讗爪讘注讜转 砖讜讜转


The baraita says that if a woman experiences bleeding on three occasions due to intercourse with her husband he must divorce her. Reish Lakish said to Rabbi Yo岣nan: But let her examine herself after the third act of intercourse with her first husband, so that he need not divorce her. Rabbi Yo岣nan said to him: It is preferable for her not to test herself and risk becoming forbidden to all men and instead to be divorced and remarry another, because not all fingers, i.e., penises, are equal. Since it is possible that sexual intercourse with her second husband might not cause her to bleed, she should not risk becoming forbidden to all men by performing the examination.


讗诪专 诇讬讛 讜转讘讚讜拽 注爪诪讛 讘讘讬讗讛 专讗砖讜谞讛 砖诇 讘注诇 砖诇讬砖讬 诇驻讬 砖讗讬谉 讻诇 讛讻讞讜转 砖讜讜转


Reish Lakish further said to Rabbi Yo岣nan: Why does she examine herself only after the third time she experiences bleeding due to sexual intercourse with her third husband? But let her examine herself after the first act of intercourse with her third husband. After the first occurrence this woman already has a presumptive status that all acts of intercourse cause her to bleed. Rabbi Yo岣nan answered: She does not perform the examination then, because not all forces are equal. It is possible that the manner in which the couple has intercourse causes her to bleed, and therefore it is only after three times that she has a presumptive status of bleeding after every act of intercourse.


讛讛讬讗 讚讗转讗讬 诇拽诪讬讛 讚专讘讬 讗诪专 诇讬讛 诇讗讘讚谉 讝讬诇 讘注转讛 讗讝诇 讘注转讛 讜谞驻诇 诪诪谞讛 讞专专转 讚诐 讗诪专 专讘讬 谞转专驻讗讛 讝讗转


The Gemara relates: There was a certain woman who experienced bleeding due to sexual intercourse who came before Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi and asked him what she should do. Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi said to the Sage Abdon, who was present at the time: Go and suddenly frighten this woman. Abdon went and frightened her, and a mass of congealed blood fell from her vagina. Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi said: This woman is now cured. She will no longer experience bleeding due to sexual intercourse, as this mass of blood was the source of the blood.


讛讛讬讗 讗转转讗 讚讗转讗讬 诇拽诪讬讛 讚诪专 砖诪讜讗诇 讗诪专 诇讬讛 诇专讘 讚讬诪讬 讘专 讬讜住祝 讝讬诇 讘注转讛 讗讝诇 讘注转讛 讜诇讗 谞驻诇 诪诪谞讛 讜诇讗 诪讬讚讬 讗诪专 砖诪讜讗诇 讝讜 诪诪诇讗讛 讜谞讜驻爪转 讛讬讗 讜讻诇 讛诪诪诇讗讛 讜谞讜驻爪转 讗讬谉 诇讛 转拽谞讛


The Gemara relates a similar incident: There was a certain woman who experienced bleeding due to sexual intercourse who came before Shmuel. Shmuel said to Rav Dimi bar Yosef: Go and frighten this woman. Rav Dimi went and frightened her, but nothing fell from her at all. Shmuel said: This woman is filled with blood, which falls out of her during intercourse. And any woman who is filled with blood that falls out during intercourse has no cure.


讛讛讬讗 讚讗转讗讬 诇拽诪讬讛 讚专讘讬 讬讜讞谞谉 讚讻诇 讗讬诪转 讚讛讜转 住诇拽讗 诪讟讘讬诇转 诪爪讜讛 讛讜转 拽讞讝讬讗 讚诪讗 讗诪专 诇讛 砖诪讗 讚讬诪转 注讬专讬讱 注诇转讛 讘讬讱 诇讻讬 讜讛讘注诇讬 诇讜 注诇 讙讘讬 讛谞讛专


The Gemara relates another incident: There was a certain woman who came before Rabbi Yo岣nan and told him that every time she emerged from immersion in a ritual bath, after completing the mitzva of purifying herself for her husband, she would see blood before she engaged in intercourse with him. Rabbi Yo岣nan said to her: Perhaps the gossip of the women in your city, who are jealous of the love between you and your husband, has reached you, and this evil eye causes you to bleed before you engage in intercourse. Go and immerse in the river and engage in intercourse with your husband on the bank of the river, so that the other women will not see you leaving the ritual bath and gossip about you.


讗讬讻讗 讚讗诪专 讗诪专 诇讛 转讙诇讬 诇讞讘专讜转讬讱 讻讬 讛讬讻讬 讚转讛讜讜 注诇讬讱 诇讛讱 讙讬住讗 谞转讛讜讜 注诇讱 诇讛讱 讙讬住讗 讜讗讬讻讗 讚讗诪专 讗诪专 诇讛 讙诇讬 诇讞讘专讜转讬讱 讻讬 讛讬讻讬 讚诇讘注讜 注诇讬讱 专讞诪讬诐 讚转谞讬讗 讜讟诪讗 讟诪讗 讬拽专讗 爪专讬讱 诇讛讜讚讬注 爪注专讜 诇专讘讬诐 讜专讘讬诐 诪讘拽砖讬诐 注诇讬讜 专讞诪讬诐


Some say that Rabbi Yo岣nan said to her: Reveal this fact to your friends, so that those women who were against you on this side, and gossiped about you, will be with you on that side, and be kind to you. And some say that Rabbi Yo岣nan said to her: Reveal this fact to your friends, in order that they will pray for mercy for you, as it is taught in a baraita discussing the verse: 鈥淎nd the leper in whom the mark is, his clothes shall be ripped and the hair of his head shall grow long and he will put a covering upon his upper lip and will cry: Impure, impure鈥 (Leviticus 13:45). The leper publicizes the fact that he is ritually impure, as he must announce his pain to the masses, and then the masses will pray for mercy on his behalf.


讗诪专 专讘 讬讜住祝 讛讜讛 注讜讘讚讗 讘驻讜诪讘讚讬转讗 讜讗转住讬


Rav Yosef said: There was a similar incident in Pumbedita of a woman who experienced bleeding immediately after immersing in a ritual bath, and she followed the advice given by Rabbi Yo岣nan and she was cured.


讗诪专 专讘 讬讜住祝 讗诪专 专讘 讬讛讜讚讛 讗诪专 专讘 讛转拽讬谉 专讘讬 讘砖讚讜转 专讗转讛 讬讜诐 讗讞讚 转砖讘 砖砖讛 讜讛讜讗


Rav Yosef says that Rav Yehuda says that Rav says: Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi decreed that in the fields, i.e., in those distant places where there were no Torah scholars and whose residents were not well versed in the halakhot of menstruating women and did not know how to distinguish between the days of menstruation and the days of ziva, if she saw blood on one day, she must sit and count six days and that first day. She must observe six clean days without a discharge despite the possibility that she might have experienced bleeding only in her period of ziva, in which case she would be impure for only one day.


砖谞讬诐 转砖讘 砖砖讛 讜讛谉 砖诇砖讛 转砖讘 砖讘注讛 谞拽讬讬诐


If she experiences bleeding for two days, she must sit and count six days and both of those first two days, for a total of eight days, in case the first day on which she bled was the last day of ziva, while the next day was the first day of her menstruation period. If she experiences bleeding for three days she must sit and count seven clean days, as she might be a greater zava, who must count seven clean days.


讗诪专 专讘讬 讝讬专讗 讘谞讜转 讬砖专讗诇 讛讞诪讬专讜 注诇 注爪诪谉 砖讗驻讬诇讜 专讜讗讜转 讟驻转 讚诐 讻讞专讚诇 讬讜砖讘讜转 注诇讬讛 砖讘注讛 谞拽讬讬诐


The Gemara cites a related statement. Rabbi Zeira says: Jewish women were stringent with themselves to the extent that even if they see a drop of blood the size of a mustard seed, they sit seven clean days for it. By Torah law, a woman who experiences menstrual bleeding waits seven days in total before immersing, regardless of whether she experienced bleeding on those days. If she experiences bleeding during the eleven days when she is not expected to experience menstrual bleeding, she is a lesser zava and waits one day without bleeding and then immerses. The Jewish women accepted upon themselves the stringency that if they experience any bleeding whatsoever, they treat it as the blood of a greater zava, which obligates one to count seven clean days before immersing (see Leviticus 15:25).


讗讚讘专讬讛 专讘讗 诇专讘 砖诪讜讗诇 讜讚专砖 拽砖转讛 砖谞讬 讬诪讬诐 讜诇砖诇讬砖讬 讛驻讬诇讛 转砖讘 砖讘注讛 谞拽讬讬诐 拽住讘专 讗讬谉 拽砖讜讬 诇谞驻诇讬诐 讜讗讬 讗驻砖专 诇驻转讬讞转 讛拽讘专 讘诇讗 讚诐


Rava authorized Rav Shmuel, and he taught: If a pregnant woman experienced labor pains for two days, and on the third day she miscarried, she must sit and count seven clean days. The Gemara explains that Rava holds that the principle that blood that emerges while the woman experiences labor pains is not ritually impure does not apply to miscarriages. And Rava further maintains that it is impossible for the womb to open without blood emerging. Therefore, when she miscarried she must have experienced a flow of blood, even if she did not notice it.


讗诪专 诇讬讛 专讘 驻驻讗 诇专讘讗 诪讗讬 讗专讬讗 拽砖转讛 砖谞讬 讬诪讬诐 讗驻讬诇讜 诪砖讛讜 讘注诇诪讗 讚讛讗 讗诪专 专讘讬 讝讬专讗 讘谞讜转 讬砖专讗诇 讛讞诪讬专讜 注诇 注爪诪谉 砖讗驻讬诇讜 专讜讗讜转 讟驻转 讚诐 讻讞专讚诇 讬讜砖讘讜转 注诇讬讛 砖讘注讛 谞拽讬讬诐


Rav Pappa said to Rava: For what reason did you teach this halakha specifically with regard to a woman who experiences labor pains for two days? Even if she merely discharges any amount of blood she should be impure, as Rabbi Zeira says: The Jewish women were stringent with themselves to the extent that even if they see a drop of blood of the size of a mustard seed, that woman sits seven clean days for it. Since it is impossible for the womb to open without the emergence of blood, when this woman miscarried there must have been blood, and therefore she must count seven clean days.


讗诪专 诇讬讛 讗诪讬谞讗 诇讱 讗讬住讜专讗 讜讗转 讗诪专转 诪谞讛讙讗 讛讬讻讗 讚讗讞诪讜专 讗讞诪讜专 讛讬讻讗 讚诇讗 讗讞诪讜专 诇讗 讗讞诪讜专


Rava said to Rav Pappa: I speak to you of a prohibition, i.e., that by Torah law a woman who experiences difficulty in childbirth for two days and on the third miscarries must count seven clean days as a greater zava, and you speak to me of a custom, a mere stringency. The stringency you mention does not apply in this case. Where the Jewish women were stringent, they were stringent, i.e., if they saw a drop of blood the size of a mustard seed. Where they were not stringent, i.e., in a case of blood due to labor, they were not stringent. By contrast, in the case I described the woman is obligated to count seven clean days by Torah law.


(转讘注讜讛 谞转专 讘讞诪讬谉 诇讟讘讜诇 拽诪讟讬诐 注诇 讙讘讬 谞诪诇 住讬诪谉) 讗诪专 专讘讗 转讘注讜讛 诇讬谞砖讗 讜谞转驻讬讬住讛 爪专讬讻讛 砖转砖讘 砖讘注讛 谞拽讬讬诐


The Gemara provides a mnemonic for the following discussions: One who proposed to her; natron; with hot water; to immerse; folds; on top of; a port. Rava says: With regard to one who proposed marriage to a woman and she accepted it, the emotional excitement might have caused her to have a flow of menstrual blood, which would render her ritually impure and prohibit her from engaging in intercourse. Even if she was unaware of any flow, she must consider the possibility that it occurred. Therefore, to purify herself she must wait seven consecutive days that are clean from any flow of menstrual blood and then immerse in a ritual bath. Only after that process may she marry.


专讘讬谞讗 讗讬注住拽 诇讬讛 诇讘专讬讛 讘讬 专讘 讞谞讬谞讗 讗诪专 诇讬讛 住讘专 诇讬讛 诪专 诇诪讻转讘 讻转讜讘讛 诇讗专讘注讛 讬讜诐 讗诪专 诇讬讛 讗讬谉 讻讬 诪讟讗 诇讗专讘注讛 谞讟专 注讚 讗专讘注讛 讗讞专讬谞讗 讗讬注讻讘 砖讘注讛 讬讜诪讬 讘转专 讛讛讜讗 讬讜诪讗


The Gemara cites a related incident: Ravina arranged for his son to marry into the family of Rav 岣nina, i.e., to marry Rav 岣nina鈥檚 daughter. Rav 岣nina said to Ravina: Does the Master hold that it is appropriate to write the marriage contract as stating that the wedding will take place in four days, i.e., on Wednesday? Ravina said: Yes. When the fourth day, i.e., Wednesday arrived, he waited until another fourth day before marrying her, until the following Wednesday, i.e., he delayed seven days after that day when he had planned to marry her.


讗诪专 诇讬讛 诪讗讬 讛讗讬 讗诪专 诇讬讛 诇讗 住讘专 诇讛 诪专 诇讛讗 讚专讘讗 讚讗诪专 专讘讗 转讘注讜讛 诇讬谞砖讗 讜谞转驻讬讬住讛 爪专讬讻讛 诇讬砖讘 砖讘注讛 谞拽讬讬诐 讗诪专 诇讬讛 讗讬诪专 讚讗诪专 专讘讗 讘讙讚讜诇讛 讚拽讞讝讬讗 讚诪讗 讗讘诇 讘拽讟谞讛 讚诇讗 讞讝讬讗 讚诪讗 诪讬 讗诪专


Rav 岣nina said to Ravina: What is this? Why did you delay the wedding by an extra week? Ravina said to Rav 岣nina: Doesn鈥檛 the Master hold in accordance with this statement of Rava, as Rava said: With regard to one who proposed marriage to a woman and she accepted it, she must wait seven consecutive days that are clean from any flow of menstrual blood and then immerse in a ritual bath? Rav 岣nina said to Ravina: One can say that Rava said this statement with regard to an adult woman, who has seen menstrual blood. But did Rava actually say this with regard to a minor girl, who has not yet seen menstrual blood?


讗诪专 诇讬讛 讘驻讬专讜砖 讗诪专 专讘讗 诇讗 砖谞讗 讙讚讜诇讛 诇讗 砖谞讗 拽讟谞讛 讙讚讜诇讛 讟注诪讗 诪讗讬 诪砖讜诐 讚诪讞诪讚讗 拽讟谞讛 谞诪讬 诪讞诪讚讗


Ravina said to Rav 岣nina: Rava said explicitly that there is no difference whether she is an adult woman and no difference whether she is a minor girl. What is the reason that an adult woman must wait for seven days? She must wait because she desires to marry her husband, and this might cause her to have a flow of blood. A minor girl also desires to marry her husband, which could cause a flow of blood.


讗诪专 专讘讗 讗砖讛


Rava says: A woman who is about to immerse herself in a ritual bath for purification


诇讗 转讞讜祝 诇讗 讘谞转专 讜诇讗 讘讞讜诇 讘谞转专 诪砖讜诐 讚诪拽讟祝 讜讘讞讜诇 诪砖讜诐 讚诪住专讬讱


may not wash her hair with natron or with sand. The reason she may not wash her hair with natron is because natron pulls out hair, and that hair may remain sitting on her head and serve as an interposition between her and the water of the ritual bath. And similarly, she may not wash her hair with sand, because it sticks to her hair and it also serves as an interposition.


讜讗诪专 讗诪讬诪专 诪砖诪讬讛 讚专讘讗 讗砖讛 诇讗 转讞讜祝 讗诇讗 讘讞诪讬谉 讗讘诇 诇讗 讘爪讜谞谉 讜讗驻讬诇讜 讘讞诪讬 讞诪讛 爪讜谞谉 诪讗讬 讟注诪讗 诇讗 诪砖讜诐 讚拽专讬专讬 讜诪砖专讜 诪讝讬讬讗


And Ameimar said in the name of Rava: A woman washes her hair only with hot water, but not with cold water. But she may wash her hair even with hot water that was heated in the sun. What is the reason that she may not wash her hair with cold water? Because it is cold and causes the hair to harden, and the dirt will remain in the hair.


讜讗诪专 专讘讗 诇注讜诇诐 讬诇诪讚 讗讚诐 讘转讜讱 讘讬转讜 砖转讛讗 讗砖讛 诪讚讬讞讛 讘讬转 拽诪讟讬讛 讘诪讬诐 诪讬转讬讘讬 讘讬转 讛拽诪讟讬诐 讜讘讬转 讛住转专讬诐 讗讬谞谉 爪专讬讻讬谉 诇讘讬讗转 诪讬诐


And Rava says: A man should always teach in his house that a woman should rinse any place with creases, e.g., her armpits, in water before she immerses in a ritual bath, to ensure that they are clean. The Gemara raises an objection from a baraita: Places with creases and any concealed part of the body do not require immersion in water. In other words, the immersion is valid even if the water does not touch those parts of the body. If so, why must she rinse them before immersing?


谞讛讬 讚讘讬讗转 诪讬诐 诇讗 讘注讬谞谉 诪拽讜诐 讛专讗讜讬 诇讘讬讗转 诪讬诐 讘注讬谞谉 讻讚专讘讬 讝讬专讗 讚讗诪专 专讘讬 讝讬专讗 讻诇 讛专讗讜讬 诇讘讬诇讛 讗讬谉 讘讬诇讛 诪注讻讘转 讘讜 讜砖讗讬谉 专讗讜讬 诇讘讬诇讛 讘讬诇讛 诪注讻讘转 讘讜


The Gemara answers: Granted that they do not require immersion in water, but we require that they must be a place that is suitable for immersion in water. This is in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Zeira, as Rabbi Zeira says: For any amount of flour suitable for mingling with oil in a meal offering, mingling is not indispensable for it, i.e., it is valid even if it is not mixed. But for any amount of flour not suitable for mingling, e.g., if the quantity of flour is so great that the ingredients cannot be properly mixed, mingling is indispensable for it, and such a meal offering is invalid. This teaches a halakhic principle: There are certain actions that prevent the fulfillment of a mitzva if they are impossible, even if the actual performance of those actions are not indispensable to the mitzva.


讗诪专 专讘讬谉 讘专 专讘 讗讚讗 讗诪专 专讘讬 讬爪讞拽 诪注砖讛 讘砖驻讞转讜 砖诇 专讘讬 砖讟讘诇讛 讜注诇转讛 讜谞诪爪讗 诇讛 注爪诐 讞讜爪抓 讘讬谉 砖讬谞讬讛 讜讛爪专讬讻讛 专讘讬 讟讘讬诇讛 讗讞专转


Ravin bar Rav Adda says that Rabbi Yitz岣k says: There was an incident involving a maidservant of Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi who immersed herself, and she ascended from her immersion and a bone was found interposed between her teeth, and Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi required her to perform another immersion. This demonstrates that according to Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi one may not have a foreign object even inside one鈥檚 mouth.


讜讗诪专 专讘讗 讟讘诇讛 讜注诇转讛 讜谞诪爪讗 注诇讬讛 讚讘专 讞讜爪抓 讗诐 住诪讜讱 诇讞驻讬驻讛 讟讘诇讛 讗讬谞讛 爪专讬讻讛 诇讞讜祝 讜诇讟讘讜诇 讜讗诐 诇讗讜 爪专讬讻讛 诇讞讜祝 讜诇讟讘讜诇


And Rava says: If a woman immersed in a ritual bath and ascended from the water, and she then found on her hair an item that interposes between her and the water, what is the halakha? If she immersed soon after washing her hair, she does not need to wash her hair and immerse in the ritual bath a second time, as it can be assumed that this item was not there when she immersed, since her hair had been cleaned. But if she did not wash her hair immediately before immersing, she must wash her hair and immerse in the ritual bath a second time.


讗讬讻讗 讚讗诪专讬 讗诐 讘讗讜转讜 讬讜诐 砖讞驻驻讛 讟讘诇讛 讗讬谞讛 爪专讬讻讛 诇讞讜祝 讜诇讟讘讜诇 讜讗诐 诇讗讜 爪专讬讻讛 诇讞讜祝 讜诇讟讘讜诇


There are those who state a slightly different version of Rava鈥檚 statement: If she immersed on the same day that she washed her hair, she does not need to wash her hair and to immerse in a ritual bath a second time. But if she did not wash her hair on the same day that she immersed, she must wash her hair and immerse in the ritual bath a second time.


诪讗讬 讘讬谞讬讬讛讜 讗讬讻讗 讘讬谞讬讬讛讜 诇诪住诪讱 诇讞驻讬驻讛 讟讘讬诇讛 诇诪讬讞祝 讘讬诪诪讗 讜诇诪讟讘诇 讘诇讬诇讬讗


The Gemara asks: What is the practical difference between these two versions of Rava鈥檚 statement? The Gemara answers: The practical difference between them is with regard to washing her hair close to immersion. According to the first version of Rava鈥檚 statement, she must wash her hair immediately before immersing, whereas according to the second version she has more time. Another difference between the two versions is with regard to washing her hair during the day and immersing at night immediately afterward. According to the first version of Rava鈥檚 statement, provided that she washed her hair immediately before immersing, it makes no difference whether or not she washed and immersed on the same day. Conversely, according to the second version she must wash her hair on the same day or night as her immersion.


讗诪专 专讘讗 讗砖讛 诇讗 转注诪讜讚 注诇 讙讘讬 讻诇讬 讞专住 讜转讟讘讜诇 住讘专 专讘 讻讛谞讗 诇诪讬诪专 讟注诪讗 诪讗讬 诪砖讜诐 讙讝讬专转 诪专讞爪讗讜转 讛讗 注诇 讙讘讬 住讬诇转讗 砖驻讬专 讚诪讬


Rava says: A woman may not stand on top of earthenware utensils that are submerged in the ritual bath and immerse. Rav Kahana thought to say: What is the reason for this? It is because the Sages issued a decree against immersing in this manner, as it appears like immersing in bathhouses, i.e., the purpose of the decree is to prevent women from thinking that it is permitted to immerse in a bathhouse, which contains drawn water and is not valid as a ritual bath. It can be inferred from this reasoning that it is permitted for a woman to stand on top of a plank of wood that is in the ritual bath.


讗诪专 诇讬讛 专讘 讞谞谉 诪谞讛专讚注讗 讛转诐 讟注诪讗 诪讗讬 诪砖讜诐 讚讘注讬转 住讬诇转讗 谞诪讬 讘注讬转讗


Rav 岣nan from Neharde鈥檃 said to Rav Kahana that this is not the reason for Rava鈥檚 statement. Rather, there, in the case of submerged earthenware utensils, what is the reason that she may not immerse? She may not immerse because she will be afraid that she might fall off, and consequently she will not immerse herself properly. By the same logic, she will also be afraid when she is standing on top of a plank of wood, and therefore this is also prohibited.


讗诪专 专讘 砖诪讜讗诇 讘专 专讘 讬爪讞拽 讗砖讛 诇讗 转讟讘讜诇


Rav Shmuel bar Rav Yitz岣k says: A woman may not immerse herself


  • Masechet聽Bava Batra is sponsored by聽Lori Stark in loving memory of her mother in law, Sara Shapiro z"l and her father Nehemiah Sosewitz z"l.

  • Masechet Bava Metzia is sponsored by Rabbi Art Gould in memory of his beloved bride of 50 years, Carol Joy Robinson, Karina Gola bat Huddah v鈥橸ehuda Tzvi.

    专讘讜转 讘谞讜转 注砖讜 讞讬诇 讜讗转 注诇讬转 注诇志讻诇谞讛

  • This month's learning is sponsored by Shifra Tyberg and Rephael Wenger in loving memory of Zvi ben Yisrael Yitzhak Tyberg on his yahrzeit, and in honor of their daughter Ayelet's upcoming marriage to Ori Kinberg.

  • This month's learning is sponsored by Rabbi Hayim Herring with pride and love, in honor of his spouse, Terri Krivosha, who received this year's Sidney Barrows Lifetime Commitment Award from the Mpls. And St. Paul Federations in recognition of her distinguished contribution to the Twin Cities Legal and Jewish Communities.聽

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Niddah 66

The William Davidson Talmud | Powered by Sefaria

Niddah 66

讜转谞砖讗 诇讗讞专


and is married to another man. She is permitted to engage in intercourse with her second husband because it is possible that the bleeding was caused by engaging in intercourse with her first husband, and the issue will not reoccur when she engages in intercourse with a different man.


谞讬住转 诇讗讞专 讜专讗转讛 讚诐 诪讞诪转 转砖诪讬砖 诪砖诪砖转 驻注诐 专讗砖讜谞讛 讜砖谞讬讛 讜砖诇讬砖讬转 诪讻讗谉 讜讗讬诇讱 诇讗 转砖诪砖 注讚 砖转转讙专砖 讜转谞砖讗 诇讗讞专 谞讬住转 诇讗讞专 讜专讗转讛 讚诐 诪讞诪转 转砖诪讬砖 诪砖诪砖转 驻注诐 专讗砖讜谞讛 讜砖谞讬讛 讜砖诇讬砖讬转 诪讻讗谉 讜讗讬诇讱 诇讗 转砖诪砖 注讚 砖转讘讚讜拽 注爪诪讛


If she married another man and again saw blood due to sexual intercourse, she may engage in intercourse before the first time this occurs, before the second time this occurs, and before the third time this occurs. From this point forward she may not engage in intercourse until she is divorced from her second husband and is married to yet another man. If she married another man and again saw blood due to sexual intercourse, she may engage in intercourse the first time this occurs, the second time this occurs, and the third time this occurs. From this point forward there is a presumption that she always bleeds due to engaging in intercourse, and therefore she may not engage in intercourse or marry someone else until she examines herself.


讻讬爪讚 讘讜讚拽转 讗转 注爪诪讛 诪讘讬讗讛 砖驻讜驻专转 讜讘转讜讻讛 诪讻讞讜诇 讜诪讜讱 诪讜谞讞 注诇 专讗砖讜 讗诐 谞诪爪讗 讚诐 注诇 专讗砖 讛诪讜讱 讘讬讚讜注 砖诪谉 讛诪拽讜专 讛讜讗 讘讗 诇讗 谞诪爪讗 讚诐 注诇 专讗砖讜 讘讬讚讜注 砖诪谉 讛爪讚讚讬谉 讛讜讗 讘讗


How does she examine herself? She brings a tube, inside of which she places a cosmetic brush so that it is long enough to reach deeply into her vagina, and an absorbent cloth is placed on the tip of the brush. She inserts the tube with the brush and cloth within herself and then removes it. If blood is found on the top of the absorbent cloth, it is known that the blood comes from the uterus and she is ritually impure. If blood is not found on the top of the cloth, it is known that the blood comes from the sides of the vaginal walls and she is ritually pure, and she may resume engaging in intercourse with her husband.


讜讗诐 讬砖 诇讛 诪讻讛 讘讗讜转讜 诪拽讜诐 转讜诇讛 讘诪讻转讛 讜讗诐 讬砖 诇讛 讜住转 转讜诇讛 讘讜住转讛


And if she has a wound in that place, i.e., her vagina, she attributes the blood to her wound, and she is ritually pure, as it is assumed to not be uterine blood. And if she has a fixed menstrual cycle, i.e., she does not bleed every time she engages in intercourse with her husband, but only at fixed times, she attributes the blood to her fixed menstrual cycle, and she is permitted to engage in intercourse at other times.


讜讗诐 讛讬讛 讚诐 诪讻转讛 诪砖讜谞讛 诪讚诐 专讗讬讬转讛 讗讬谞讛 转讜诇讛 讜谞讗诪谞转 讗砖讛 诇讜诪专 诪讻讛 讬砖 诇讬 讘诪拽讜专 砖诪诪谞讛 讚诐 讬讜爪讗 讚讘专讬 专讘讬


And if the blood of her wound differed from the blood that she sees due to sexual intercourse, she may not attribute the blood to her wound. And a woman is deemed credible to say: I have a wound in my uterus, from where the blood is emerging. This is the statement of Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi.


专讘谉 砖诪注讜谉 讘谉 讙诪诇讬讗诇 讗讜诪专 讚诐 诪讻讛 讛讘讗 诪谉 讛诪拽讜专 讟诪讗 讜专讘讜转讬谞讜 讛注讬讚讜 注诇 讚诐 讛诪讻讛 讛讘讗 诪谉 讛诪拽讜专 砖讛讜讗 讟讛讜专


Rabban Shimon ben Gamliel says: Blood of a wound that comes from the uterus is ritually impure as a primary category of impurity. Although this blood does not render it prohibited for her to engage in intercourse with her husband, it does render her impure with regard to eating ritually pure food. But our Sages testified that they had a tradition with regard to the blood of a wound that comes from the uterus, that it is ritually pure.


诪讗讬 讘讬谞讬讬讛讜 讗诪专 注讜诇讗 诪拽讜专 诪拽讜诪讜 讟诪讗 讗讬讻讗 讘讬谞讬讬讛讜


The Gemara asks: What is the difference between the opinion of those Sages and the opinion of Rabban Shimon ben Gamliel? Ulla said: The difference between them is whether the place of a woman鈥檚 uterus is impure, which means that any blood that passes through there is impure, even if it is blood from a wound. According to Rabban Shimon ben Gamliel, even the blood of a wound becomes impure if it passes through the uterus, whereas those Sages hold that only blood that originates in the uterus is impure.


砖驻讜驻专转 讗驻讙讜专讬 诪驻讙专讗 诇讛 讗诪专 砖诪讜讗诇 讘砖驻讜驻专转 砖诇 讗讘专 讜驻讬讛 专爪讜祝 诇转讜讻讛


With regard to the baraita that states that the test for a woman who experiences bleeding due to sexual intercourse is to insert a tube, the Gemara asks: But won鈥檛 a tube scratch her and cause her to bleed regardless? Shmuel said: The baraita is referring to a tube of lead, and the mouth, i.e., the end that is inserted, is folded inward so that it will not scratch her.


讗诪专 诇讬讛 专讬砖 诇拽讬砖 诇专讘讬 讬讜讞谞谉 讜转讘讚讜拽 注爪诪讛 讘讘讬讗讛 砖诇讬砖讬转 砖诇 讘注诇 讛专讗砖讜谉 讗诪专 诇讬讛 诇驻讬 砖讗讬谉 讻诇 讛讗爪讘注讜转 砖讜讜转


The baraita says that if a woman experiences bleeding on three occasions due to intercourse with her husband he must divorce her. Reish Lakish said to Rabbi Yo岣nan: But let her examine herself after the third act of intercourse with her first husband, so that he need not divorce her. Rabbi Yo岣nan said to him: It is preferable for her not to test herself and risk becoming forbidden to all men and instead to be divorced and remarry another, because not all fingers, i.e., penises, are equal. Since it is possible that sexual intercourse with her second husband might not cause her to bleed, she should not risk becoming forbidden to all men by performing the examination.


讗诪专 诇讬讛 讜转讘讚讜拽 注爪诪讛 讘讘讬讗讛 专讗砖讜谞讛 砖诇 讘注诇 砖诇讬砖讬 诇驻讬 砖讗讬谉 讻诇 讛讻讞讜转 砖讜讜转


Reish Lakish further said to Rabbi Yo岣nan: Why does she examine herself only after the third time she experiences bleeding due to sexual intercourse with her third husband? But let her examine herself after the first act of intercourse with her third husband. After the first occurrence this woman already has a presumptive status that all acts of intercourse cause her to bleed. Rabbi Yo岣nan answered: She does not perform the examination then, because not all forces are equal. It is possible that the manner in which the couple has intercourse causes her to bleed, and therefore it is only after three times that she has a presumptive status of bleeding after every act of intercourse.


讛讛讬讗 讚讗转讗讬 诇拽诪讬讛 讚专讘讬 讗诪专 诇讬讛 诇讗讘讚谉 讝讬诇 讘注转讛 讗讝诇 讘注转讛 讜谞驻诇 诪诪谞讛 讞专专转 讚诐 讗诪专 专讘讬 谞转专驻讗讛 讝讗转


The Gemara relates: There was a certain woman who experienced bleeding due to sexual intercourse who came before Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi and asked him what she should do. Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi said to the Sage Abdon, who was present at the time: Go and suddenly frighten this woman. Abdon went and frightened her, and a mass of congealed blood fell from her vagina. Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi said: This woman is now cured. She will no longer experience bleeding due to sexual intercourse, as this mass of blood was the source of the blood.


讛讛讬讗 讗转转讗 讚讗转讗讬 诇拽诪讬讛 讚诪专 砖诪讜讗诇 讗诪专 诇讬讛 诇专讘 讚讬诪讬 讘专 讬讜住祝 讝讬诇 讘注转讛 讗讝诇 讘注转讛 讜诇讗 谞驻诇 诪诪谞讛 讜诇讗 诪讬讚讬 讗诪专 砖诪讜讗诇 讝讜 诪诪诇讗讛 讜谞讜驻爪转 讛讬讗 讜讻诇 讛诪诪诇讗讛 讜谞讜驻爪转 讗讬谉 诇讛 转拽谞讛


The Gemara relates a similar incident: There was a certain woman who experienced bleeding due to sexual intercourse who came before Shmuel. Shmuel said to Rav Dimi bar Yosef: Go and frighten this woman. Rav Dimi went and frightened her, but nothing fell from her at all. Shmuel said: This woman is filled with blood, which falls out of her during intercourse. And any woman who is filled with blood that falls out during intercourse has no cure.


讛讛讬讗 讚讗转讗讬 诇拽诪讬讛 讚专讘讬 讬讜讞谞谉 讚讻诇 讗讬诪转 讚讛讜转 住诇拽讗 诪讟讘讬诇转 诪爪讜讛 讛讜转 拽讞讝讬讗 讚诪讗 讗诪专 诇讛 砖诪讗 讚讬诪转 注讬专讬讱 注诇转讛 讘讬讱 诇讻讬 讜讛讘注诇讬 诇讜 注诇 讙讘讬 讛谞讛专


The Gemara relates another incident: There was a certain woman who came before Rabbi Yo岣nan and told him that every time she emerged from immersion in a ritual bath, after completing the mitzva of purifying herself for her husband, she would see blood before she engaged in intercourse with him. Rabbi Yo岣nan said to her: Perhaps the gossip of the women in your city, who are jealous of the love between you and your husband, has reached you, and this evil eye causes you to bleed before you engage in intercourse. Go and immerse in the river and engage in intercourse with your husband on the bank of the river, so that the other women will not see you leaving the ritual bath and gossip about you.


讗讬讻讗 讚讗诪专 讗诪专 诇讛 转讙诇讬 诇讞讘专讜转讬讱 讻讬 讛讬讻讬 讚转讛讜讜 注诇讬讱 诇讛讱 讙讬住讗 谞转讛讜讜 注诇讱 诇讛讱 讙讬住讗 讜讗讬讻讗 讚讗诪专 讗诪专 诇讛 讙诇讬 诇讞讘专讜转讬讱 讻讬 讛讬讻讬 讚诇讘注讜 注诇讬讱 专讞诪讬诐 讚转谞讬讗 讜讟诪讗 讟诪讗 讬拽专讗 爪专讬讱 诇讛讜讚讬注 爪注专讜 诇专讘讬诐 讜专讘讬诐 诪讘拽砖讬诐 注诇讬讜 专讞诪讬诐


Some say that Rabbi Yo岣nan said to her: Reveal this fact to your friends, so that those women who were against you on this side, and gossiped about you, will be with you on that side, and be kind to you. And some say that Rabbi Yo岣nan said to her: Reveal this fact to your friends, in order that they will pray for mercy for you, as it is taught in a baraita discussing the verse: 鈥淎nd the leper in whom the mark is, his clothes shall be ripped and the hair of his head shall grow long and he will put a covering upon his upper lip and will cry: Impure, impure鈥 (Leviticus 13:45). The leper publicizes the fact that he is ritually impure, as he must announce his pain to the masses, and then the masses will pray for mercy on his behalf.


讗诪专 专讘 讬讜住祝 讛讜讛 注讜讘讚讗 讘驻讜诪讘讚讬转讗 讜讗转住讬


Rav Yosef said: There was a similar incident in Pumbedita of a woman who experienced bleeding immediately after immersing in a ritual bath, and she followed the advice given by Rabbi Yo岣nan and she was cured.


讗诪专 专讘 讬讜住祝 讗诪专 专讘 讬讛讜讚讛 讗诪专 专讘 讛转拽讬谉 专讘讬 讘砖讚讜转 专讗转讛 讬讜诐 讗讞讚 转砖讘 砖砖讛 讜讛讜讗


Rav Yosef says that Rav Yehuda says that Rav says: Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi decreed that in the fields, i.e., in those distant places where there were no Torah scholars and whose residents were not well versed in the halakhot of menstruating women and did not know how to distinguish between the days of menstruation and the days of ziva, if she saw blood on one day, she must sit and count six days and that first day. She must observe six clean days without a discharge despite the possibility that she might have experienced bleeding only in her period of ziva, in which case she would be impure for only one day.


砖谞讬诐 转砖讘 砖砖讛 讜讛谉 砖诇砖讛 转砖讘 砖讘注讛 谞拽讬讬诐


If she experiences bleeding for two days, she must sit and count six days and both of those first two days, for a total of eight days, in case the first day on which she bled was the last day of ziva, while the next day was the first day of her menstruation period. If she experiences bleeding for three days she must sit and count seven clean days, as she might be a greater zava, who must count seven clean days.


讗诪专 专讘讬 讝讬专讗 讘谞讜转 讬砖专讗诇 讛讞诪讬专讜 注诇 注爪诪谉 砖讗驻讬诇讜 专讜讗讜转 讟驻转 讚诐 讻讞专讚诇 讬讜砖讘讜转 注诇讬讛 砖讘注讛 谞拽讬讬诐


The Gemara cites a related statement. Rabbi Zeira says: Jewish women were stringent with themselves to the extent that even if they see a drop of blood the size of a mustard seed, they sit seven clean days for it. By Torah law, a woman who experiences menstrual bleeding waits seven days in total before immersing, regardless of whether she experienced bleeding on those days. If she experiences bleeding during the eleven days when she is not expected to experience menstrual bleeding, she is a lesser zava and waits one day without bleeding and then immerses. The Jewish women accepted upon themselves the stringency that if they experience any bleeding whatsoever, they treat it as the blood of a greater zava, which obligates one to count seven clean days before immersing (see Leviticus 15:25).


讗讚讘专讬讛 专讘讗 诇专讘 砖诪讜讗诇 讜讚专砖 拽砖转讛 砖谞讬 讬诪讬诐 讜诇砖诇讬砖讬 讛驻讬诇讛 转砖讘 砖讘注讛 谞拽讬讬诐 拽住讘专 讗讬谉 拽砖讜讬 诇谞驻诇讬诐 讜讗讬 讗驻砖专 诇驻转讬讞转 讛拽讘专 讘诇讗 讚诐


Rava authorized Rav Shmuel, and he taught: If a pregnant woman experienced labor pains for two days, and on the third day she miscarried, she must sit and count seven clean days. The Gemara explains that Rava holds that the principle that blood that emerges while the woman experiences labor pains is not ritually impure does not apply to miscarriages. And Rava further maintains that it is impossible for the womb to open without blood emerging. Therefore, when she miscarried she must have experienced a flow of blood, even if she did not notice it.


讗诪专 诇讬讛 专讘 驻驻讗 诇专讘讗 诪讗讬 讗专讬讗 拽砖转讛 砖谞讬 讬诪讬诐 讗驻讬诇讜 诪砖讛讜 讘注诇诪讗 讚讛讗 讗诪专 专讘讬 讝讬专讗 讘谞讜转 讬砖专讗诇 讛讞诪讬专讜 注诇 注爪诪谉 砖讗驻讬诇讜 专讜讗讜转 讟驻转 讚诐 讻讞专讚诇 讬讜砖讘讜转 注诇讬讛 砖讘注讛 谞拽讬讬诐


Rav Pappa said to Rava: For what reason did you teach this halakha specifically with regard to a woman who experiences labor pains for two days? Even if she merely discharges any amount of blood she should be impure, as Rabbi Zeira says: The Jewish women were stringent with themselves to the extent that even if they see a drop of blood of the size of a mustard seed, that woman sits seven clean days for it. Since it is impossible for the womb to open without the emergence of blood, when this woman miscarried there must have been blood, and therefore she must count seven clean days.


讗诪专 诇讬讛 讗诪讬谞讗 诇讱 讗讬住讜专讗 讜讗转 讗诪专转 诪谞讛讙讗 讛讬讻讗 讚讗讞诪讜专 讗讞诪讜专 讛讬讻讗 讚诇讗 讗讞诪讜专 诇讗 讗讞诪讜专


Rava said to Rav Pappa: I speak to you of a prohibition, i.e., that by Torah law a woman who experiences difficulty in childbirth for two days and on the third miscarries must count seven clean days as a greater zava, and you speak to me of a custom, a mere stringency. The stringency you mention does not apply in this case. Where the Jewish women were stringent, they were stringent, i.e., if they saw a drop of blood the size of a mustard seed. Where they were not stringent, i.e., in a case of blood due to labor, they were not stringent. By contrast, in the case I described the woman is obligated to count seven clean days by Torah law.


(转讘注讜讛 谞转专 讘讞诪讬谉 诇讟讘讜诇 拽诪讟讬诐 注诇 讙讘讬 谞诪诇 住讬诪谉) 讗诪专 专讘讗 转讘注讜讛 诇讬谞砖讗 讜谞转驻讬讬住讛 爪专讬讻讛 砖转砖讘 砖讘注讛 谞拽讬讬诐


The Gemara provides a mnemonic for the following discussions: One who proposed to her; natron; with hot water; to immerse; folds; on top of; a port. Rava says: With regard to one who proposed marriage to a woman and she accepted it, the emotional excitement might have caused her to have a flow of menstrual blood, which would render her ritually impure and prohibit her from engaging in intercourse. Even if she was unaware of any flow, she must consider the possibility that it occurred. Therefore, to purify herself she must wait seven consecutive days that are clean from any flow of menstrual blood and then immerse in a ritual bath. Only after that process may she marry.


专讘讬谞讗 讗讬注住拽 诇讬讛 诇讘专讬讛 讘讬 专讘 讞谞讬谞讗 讗诪专 诇讬讛 住讘专 诇讬讛 诪专 诇诪讻转讘 讻转讜讘讛 诇讗专讘注讛 讬讜诐 讗诪专 诇讬讛 讗讬谉 讻讬 诪讟讗 诇讗专讘注讛 谞讟专 注讚 讗专讘注讛 讗讞专讬谞讗 讗讬注讻讘 砖讘注讛 讬讜诪讬 讘转专 讛讛讜讗 讬讜诪讗


The Gemara cites a related incident: Ravina arranged for his son to marry into the family of Rav 岣nina, i.e., to marry Rav 岣nina鈥檚 daughter. Rav 岣nina said to Ravina: Does the Master hold that it is appropriate to write the marriage contract as stating that the wedding will take place in four days, i.e., on Wednesday? Ravina said: Yes. When the fourth day, i.e., Wednesday arrived, he waited until another fourth day before marrying her, until the following Wednesday, i.e., he delayed seven days after that day when he had planned to marry her.


讗诪专 诇讬讛 诪讗讬 讛讗讬 讗诪专 诇讬讛 诇讗 住讘专 诇讛 诪专 诇讛讗 讚专讘讗 讚讗诪专 专讘讗 转讘注讜讛 诇讬谞砖讗 讜谞转驻讬讬住讛 爪专讬讻讛 诇讬砖讘 砖讘注讛 谞拽讬讬诐 讗诪专 诇讬讛 讗讬诪专 讚讗诪专 专讘讗 讘讙讚讜诇讛 讚拽讞讝讬讗 讚诪讗 讗讘诇 讘拽讟谞讛 讚诇讗 讞讝讬讗 讚诪讗 诪讬 讗诪专


Rav 岣nina said to Ravina: What is this? Why did you delay the wedding by an extra week? Ravina said to Rav 岣nina: Doesn鈥檛 the Master hold in accordance with this statement of Rava, as Rava said: With regard to one who proposed marriage to a woman and she accepted it, she must wait seven consecutive days that are clean from any flow of menstrual blood and then immerse in a ritual bath? Rav 岣nina said to Ravina: One can say that Rava said this statement with regard to an adult woman, who has seen menstrual blood. But did Rava actually say this with regard to a minor girl, who has not yet seen menstrual blood?


讗诪专 诇讬讛 讘驻讬专讜砖 讗诪专 专讘讗 诇讗 砖谞讗 讙讚讜诇讛 诇讗 砖谞讗 拽讟谞讛 讙讚讜诇讛 讟注诪讗 诪讗讬 诪砖讜诐 讚诪讞诪讚讗 拽讟谞讛 谞诪讬 诪讞诪讚讗


Ravina said to Rav 岣nina: Rava said explicitly that there is no difference whether she is an adult woman and no difference whether she is a minor girl. What is the reason that an adult woman must wait for seven days? She must wait because she desires to marry her husband, and this might cause her to have a flow of blood. A minor girl also desires to marry her husband, which could cause a flow of blood.


讗诪专 专讘讗 讗砖讛


Rava says: A woman who is about to immerse herself in a ritual bath for purification


诇讗 转讞讜祝 诇讗 讘谞转专 讜诇讗 讘讞讜诇 讘谞转专 诪砖讜诐 讚诪拽讟祝 讜讘讞讜诇 诪砖讜诐 讚诪住专讬讱


may not wash her hair with natron or with sand. The reason she may not wash her hair with natron is because natron pulls out hair, and that hair may remain sitting on her head and serve as an interposition between her and the water of the ritual bath. And similarly, she may not wash her hair with sand, because it sticks to her hair and it also serves as an interposition.


讜讗诪专 讗诪讬诪专 诪砖诪讬讛 讚专讘讗 讗砖讛 诇讗 转讞讜祝 讗诇讗 讘讞诪讬谉 讗讘诇 诇讗 讘爪讜谞谉 讜讗驻讬诇讜 讘讞诪讬 讞诪讛 爪讜谞谉 诪讗讬 讟注诪讗 诇讗 诪砖讜诐 讚拽专讬专讬 讜诪砖专讜 诪讝讬讬讗


And Ameimar said in the name of Rava: A woman washes her hair only with hot water, but not with cold water. But she may wash her hair even with hot water that was heated in the sun. What is the reason that she may not wash her hair with cold water? Because it is cold and causes the hair to harden, and the dirt will remain in the hair.


讜讗诪专 专讘讗 诇注讜诇诐 讬诇诪讚 讗讚诐 讘转讜讱 讘讬转讜 砖转讛讗 讗砖讛 诪讚讬讞讛 讘讬转 拽诪讟讬讛 讘诪讬诐 诪讬转讬讘讬 讘讬转 讛拽诪讟讬诐 讜讘讬转 讛住转专讬诐 讗讬谞谉 爪专讬讻讬谉 诇讘讬讗转 诪讬诐


And Rava says: A man should always teach in his house that a woman should rinse any place with creases, e.g., her armpits, in water before she immerses in a ritual bath, to ensure that they are clean. The Gemara raises an objection from a baraita: Places with creases and any concealed part of the body do not require immersion in water. In other words, the immersion is valid even if the water does not touch those parts of the body. If so, why must she rinse them before immersing?


谞讛讬 讚讘讬讗转 诪讬诐 诇讗 讘注讬谞谉 诪拽讜诐 讛专讗讜讬 诇讘讬讗转 诪讬诐 讘注讬谞谉 讻讚专讘讬 讝讬专讗 讚讗诪专 专讘讬 讝讬专讗 讻诇 讛专讗讜讬 诇讘讬诇讛 讗讬谉 讘讬诇讛 诪注讻讘转 讘讜 讜砖讗讬谉 专讗讜讬 诇讘讬诇讛 讘讬诇讛 诪注讻讘转 讘讜


The Gemara answers: Granted that they do not require immersion in water, but we require that they must be a place that is suitable for immersion in water. This is in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Zeira, as Rabbi Zeira says: For any amount of flour suitable for mingling with oil in a meal offering, mingling is not indispensable for it, i.e., it is valid even if it is not mixed. But for any amount of flour not suitable for mingling, e.g., if the quantity of flour is so great that the ingredients cannot be properly mixed, mingling is indispensable for it, and such a meal offering is invalid. This teaches a halakhic principle: There are certain actions that prevent the fulfillment of a mitzva if they are impossible, even if the actual performance of those actions are not indispensable to the mitzva.


讗诪专 专讘讬谉 讘专 专讘 讗讚讗 讗诪专 专讘讬 讬爪讞拽 诪注砖讛 讘砖驻讞转讜 砖诇 专讘讬 砖讟讘诇讛 讜注诇转讛 讜谞诪爪讗 诇讛 注爪诐 讞讜爪抓 讘讬谉 砖讬谞讬讛 讜讛爪专讬讻讛 专讘讬 讟讘讬诇讛 讗讞专转


Ravin bar Rav Adda says that Rabbi Yitz岣k says: There was an incident involving a maidservant of Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi who immersed herself, and she ascended from her immersion and a bone was found interposed between her teeth, and Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi required her to perform another immersion. This demonstrates that according to Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi one may not have a foreign object even inside one鈥檚 mouth.


讜讗诪专 专讘讗 讟讘诇讛 讜注诇转讛 讜谞诪爪讗 注诇讬讛 讚讘专 讞讜爪抓 讗诐 住诪讜讱 诇讞驻讬驻讛 讟讘诇讛 讗讬谞讛 爪专讬讻讛 诇讞讜祝 讜诇讟讘讜诇 讜讗诐 诇讗讜 爪专讬讻讛 诇讞讜祝 讜诇讟讘讜诇


And Rava says: If a woman immersed in a ritual bath and ascended from the water, and she then found on her hair an item that interposes between her and the water, what is the halakha? If she immersed soon after washing her hair, she does not need to wash her hair and immerse in the ritual bath a second time, as it can be assumed that this item was not there when she immersed, since her hair had been cleaned. But if she did not wash her hair immediately before immersing, she must wash her hair and immerse in the ritual bath a second time.


讗讬讻讗 讚讗诪专讬 讗诐 讘讗讜转讜 讬讜诐 砖讞驻驻讛 讟讘诇讛 讗讬谞讛 爪专讬讻讛 诇讞讜祝 讜诇讟讘讜诇 讜讗诐 诇讗讜 爪专讬讻讛 诇讞讜祝 讜诇讟讘讜诇


There are those who state a slightly different version of Rava鈥檚 statement: If she immersed on the same day that she washed her hair, she does not need to wash her hair and to immerse in a ritual bath a second time. But if she did not wash her hair on the same day that she immersed, she must wash her hair and immerse in the ritual bath a second time.


诪讗讬 讘讬谞讬讬讛讜 讗讬讻讗 讘讬谞讬讬讛讜 诇诪住诪讱 诇讞驻讬驻讛 讟讘讬诇讛 诇诪讬讞祝 讘讬诪诪讗 讜诇诪讟讘诇 讘诇讬诇讬讗


The Gemara asks: What is the practical difference between these two versions of Rava鈥檚 statement? The Gemara answers: The practical difference between them is with regard to washing her hair close to immersion. According to the first version of Rava鈥檚 statement, she must wash her hair immediately before immersing, whereas according to the second version she has more time. Another difference between the two versions is with regard to washing her hair during the day and immersing at night immediately afterward. According to the first version of Rava鈥檚 statement, provided that she washed her hair immediately before immersing, it makes no difference whether or not she washed and immersed on the same day. Conversely, according to the second version she must wash her hair on the same day or night as her immersion.


讗诪专 专讘讗 讗砖讛 诇讗 转注诪讜讚 注诇 讙讘讬 讻诇讬 讞专住 讜转讟讘讜诇 住讘专 专讘 讻讛谞讗 诇诪讬诪专 讟注诪讗 诪讗讬 诪砖讜诐 讙讝讬专转 诪专讞爪讗讜转 讛讗 注诇 讙讘讬 住讬诇转讗 砖驻讬专 讚诪讬


Rava says: A woman may not stand on top of earthenware utensils that are submerged in the ritual bath and immerse. Rav Kahana thought to say: What is the reason for this? It is because the Sages issued a decree against immersing in this manner, as it appears like immersing in bathhouses, i.e., the purpose of the decree is to prevent women from thinking that it is permitted to immerse in a bathhouse, which contains drawn water and is not valid as a ritual bath. It can be inferred from this reasoning that it is permitted for a woman to stand on top of a plank of wood that is in the ritual bath.


讗诪专 诇讬讛 专讘 讞谞谉 诪谞讛专讚注讗 讛转诐 讟注诪讗 诪讗讬 诪砖讜诐 讚讘注讬转 住讬诇转讗 谞诪讬 讘注讬转讗


Rav 岣nan from Neharde鈥檃 said to Rav Kahana that this is not the reason for Rava鈥檚 statement. Rather, there, in the case of submerged earthenware utensils, what is the reason that she may not immerse? She may not immerse because she will be afraid that she might fall off, and consequently she will not immerse herself properly. By the same logic, she will also be afraid when she is standing on top of a plank of wood, and therefore this is also prohibited.


讗诪专 专讘 砖诪讜讗诇 讘专 专讘 讬爪讞拽 讗砖讛 诇讗 转讟讘讜诇


Rav Shmuel bar Rav Yitz岣k says: A woman may not immerse herself


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