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Daf Yomi

March 6, 2021 | ื›ืดื‘ ื‘ืื“ืจ ืชืฉืคืดื

Masechet Pesachim is sponsored by Sivya Twersky in honor of her daughter, Shoshana Baker, her grandson's upcoming Bar Mitzvah ,and in memory of her father, Harav Pesach Zachariah Halevi ben Reuven and Leah Z'late Z'L. He lived Torah and emunah by example to congregational and biological families. His yahrzeit falls within this masechet.

  • This month's learning is sponsored by Shifra Tyberg and Rephael Wenger in loving memory of Zvi ben Yisrael Yitzhak Tyberg on his yahrzeit, and in honor of their daughter Ayelet's upcoming marriage to Ori Kinberg.

  • This month's learning is sponsored by Rabbi Hayim Herring with pride and love, in honor of his spouse, Terri Krivosha, who received this year's Sidney Barrows Lifetime Commitment Award from the Mpls. And St. Paul Federations in recognition of her distinguished contribution to the Twin Cities Legal and Jewish Communities.ย 

Pesachim 105

Today’s Daf by is sponsored by Caroline Ben-Ari in memory of her beloved mother Daphne Rhodes (Dafna Devora bat Avraham ve-Chana) on her 4th yahrzeit.

In what different ways is the entry of Shabbat (kiddush) the same or different from the exit of Shabbat (havdala)? Are the laws regarding stopping a meal if one is in the middle when Shabbat comes in/goes out the same? Is it forbidden to eat and drink before making havdala, as is the case before making kiddush? If one forgot to smake Kiddush on Friday night, is it possible to do it the next day? Rav Nachman Bar Yitzchak says yes and the gemara raises some difficulties from other sources. In the context of the questions, a braita was quoted and the gemara derives eight laws/positions that clearly the one who wrote the braita held by.

ืงืฉื™ื ืœืขื•ืœื ืืžืจ ืœืš ืขื•ืœื ื”ื ื ืžื™ ื›ื‘ืจื›ืช ื”ืžืฆื•ืช ื“ืžื™ื ื‘ืจื›ืช ื”ืžืฆื•ืช ืžืื™ ื˜ืขืžื ืžืฉื•ื ื“ื”ื•ื“ืื” ื”ื™ื ื”ื ื ืžื™ ื”ื•ื“ืื” ื”ื™ื


This is difficult for the opinion of Ulla, who began but did not conclude the blessing of havdala with: Blessed. The Gemara answers: Ulla could have said to you: This blessing is also considered like a blessing over mitzvot, and therefore it does not require a separate conclusion. The Gemara clarifies this response: What is the reason that blessings over mitzvot do not require a distinctive conclusion? It is because a blessing over a mitzva is a statement of praise, and as it does not include anything unrelated to the praise, e.g., a request or supplication, it is unnecessary to add a separate concluding blessing. This havdala blessing also is comprised only of praise.


ืจื‘ ื—ื ื ื™ื ื‘ืจ ืฉืœืžื™ื ื•ืชืœืžื™ื“ื™ ื“ืจื‘ ื”ื•ื• ื™ืชื‘ื™ ื‘ืกืขื•ื“ืชื ื•ืงืื™ ืขืœื™ื™ื”ื• ืจื‘ ื”ืžื ื•ื ื ืกื‘ื ืืžืจื• ืœื™ื” ื–ื™ืœ ื—ื–ื™ ืื™ ืžืงื“ื™ืฉ ื™ื•ืžื ื ืคืกื™ืง ื•ื ื™ืงื‘ืขื™ื” ืœืฉื‘ืชื ืืžืจ ืœื”ื• ืœื ืฆืจื™ื›ื™ืชื• ืฉื‘ืชื ืงื‘ืขื” ื ืคืฉื”


The Gemara relates that Rav แธคananya bar Shelemya and other students of Rav were sitting at a meal on Shabbat eve shortly before nightfall, and Rav Hamnuna the Elder was standing over them to serve them. They said to him: Go and see if the day of Shabbat has become sanctified through nightfall. If so, we will interrupt our meal by removing the tables and establish its continuation as the meal for Shabbat. Rav Hamnuna the Elder said to them: You do not need to do this, as Shabbat establishes itself. Whatever you eat after nightfall is automatically considered a Shabbat meal, even without any specific action that designates it as such.


ื“ืืžืจ ืจื‘ ื›ืฉื ืฉื”ืฉื‘ืช ืงื•ื‘ืขืช ืœืžืขืฉืจ ื›ืš ืฉื‘ืช ืงื•ื‘ืขืช ืœืงื™ื“ื•ืฉ


Rav Hamnuna the Elder explained his ruling. As Rav said: Just as Shabbat establishes food consumption as a regular, set meal with regard to tithes, so Shabbat establishes the requirement to recite kiddush. Generally, one may eat untithed produce in a casual, incidental manner. On Shabbat, however, the strictures of a regular, set meal apply even to casual eating. Consequently, on Shabbat it is entirely prohibited to eat produce from which the appropriate dues and tithes have not yet been separated. Similarly, Shabbat automatically initiates the requirement to recite kiddush, and it is prohibited to eat until one does so. This halakha indicates that whatever one eats at this stage is considered part of his Shabbat meal, even if he does not remove the table and bring it back.


ืกื‘ื•ืจ ืžื™ื ื” ื›ื™ ื”ื™ื›ื™ ื“ืงื‘ืขื” ืœืงื™ื“ื•ืฉ ื›ืš ืงื‘ืขื” ืœื”ื‘ื“ืœื” ืืžืจ ืœื”ื• ืจื‘ ืขืžืจื ื”ื›ื™ ืืžืจ ืจื‘ ืœืงื™ื“ื•ืฉ ืงื•ื‘ืขืช ื•ืœื ืœื”ื‘ื“ืœื” ืงื•ื‘ืขืช


They understood from it that just as the start of Shabbat automatically establishes the requirement to recite kiddush, so its conclusion establishes the requirement to recite havdala. This would mean that one must interrupt his meal to recite havdala, and whatever he eats after that would not be considered part of his Shabbat meal. Rav Amram said to them: This is what Rav said: Shabbat establishes an obligation to recite kiddush, but it does not establish an obligation to recite havdala.


ื•ื”ื ื™ ืžื™ืœื™ ืœืขื ื™ืŸ ืžื™ืคืกืง ื“ืœื ืžืคืกืงื™ื ืŸ ืื‘ืœ ืืชื—ื•ืœื™ ืœื ืžืชื—ืœื™ื ืŸ ื•ืžื™ืคืกืง ื ืžื™ ืœื ืืžืจืŸ ืืœื ื‘ืื›ื™ืœื” ืื‘ืœ ื‘ืฉืชื™ื” ืœื


The Gemara comments: And this applies only with regard to the matter of interrupting a meal that one has begun before the conclusion of Shabbat, that one does not have to interrupt to recite havdala. However, one may not begin a meal after nightfall until after reciting havdala. The Gemara adds: And with regard to interrupting also, we only said that one need not interrupt his eating; but with regard to drinking, which is considered less significant, no, one must interrupt his drinking upon nightfall, even if he began drinking before the conclusion of Shabbat.


ื•ืฉืชื™ื” ื ืžื™ ืœื ืืžืจืŸ ืืœื ื‘ื—ืžืจื ื•ืฉื™ื›ืจื ืื‘ืœ ืžื™ื ืœื™ืช ืœืŸ ื‘ื”


And with regard to drinking also, we only said it is prohibited to drink after nightfall before havdala with regard to wine and beer, which are significant beverages; but with regard to water, we have no problem with it. One may begin drinking water even after Shabbat has concluded and before he has recited havdala.


ื•ืคืœื™ื’ื ื“ืจื‘ ื”ื•ื ื ื“ืจื‘ ื”ื•ื ื ื—ื–ื™ื™ื” ืœื”ื”ื•ื ื’ื‘ืจื ื“ืฉืชื” ืžื™ื ืงื•ื“ื ื”ื‘ื“ืœื” ืืžืจ ืœื™ื” ืœื ืžื™ืกืชืคื™ ืžืจ ืžืืกื›ืจื” ื“ืชื ื ืžืฉืžื™ื” ื“ืจื‘ื™ ืขืงื™ื‘ื ื›ืœ ื”ื˜ื•ืขื ื›ืœื•ื ืงื•ื“ื ืฉื™ื‘ื“ื™ืœ ืžื™ืชืชื• ื‘ืืกื›ืจื” ืจื‘ื ืŸ ื“ื‘ื™ ืจื‘ ืืฉื™ ืœื ืงืคื“ื™ ืืžื™ื


The Gemara points out that this last statement disagrees with the opinion of Rav Huna. As Rav Huna saw a certain man drinking water before he recited havdala at the conclusion of Shabbat. He said to him: Is the Master not afraid of the ailment called askara? As it was taught in the name of Rabbi Akiva that whoever tastes anything before he recites havdala, his death will come through askara. Nevertheless, the Gemara notes that the Sages of the school of Rav Ashi were not particular with regard to water. They refrained only from drinking more significant beverages before havdala.


ื‘ืขื ืžื™ื ื™ื” ืจื‘ื™ื ื ืžืจื‘ ื ื—ืžืŸ ื‘ืจ ื™ืฆื—ืง ืžื™ ืฉืœื ืงื™ื“ืฉ ื‘ืขืจื‘ ืฉื‘ืช ืžื”ื• ืฉื™ืงื“ืฉ ื•ื”ื•ืœืš ื›ืœ ื”ื™ื•ื ื›ื•ืœื• ืืžืจ ืœื™ื” ืžื“ืืžืจื™ ื‘ื ื™ ืจื‘ื™ ื—ื™ื™ื ืžื™ ืฉืœื ื”ื‘ื“ื™ืœ ื‘ืžื•ืฆืื™ ืฉื‘ืช ืžื‘ื“ื™ืœ ื•ื”ื•ืœืš ื›ืœ ื”ืฉื‘ืช ื›ื•ืœื• ื”ื›ื ื ืžื™ ืžื™ ืฉืœื ืงื™ื“ืฉ ื‘ืขืจื‘ ืฉื‘ืช ืžืงื“ืฉ ื•ื”ื•ืœืš ื›ืœ ื”ื™ื•ื ื›ื•ืœื•


Ravina raised a dilemma before Rav Naแธฅman bar Yitzแธฅak: With regard to one who did not recite kiddush on Shabbat eve, i.e., on the night of Shabbat, what is the halakha with regard to his ability to recite kiddush at any time over the course of the entire day? May one recite kiddush later, or has he lost his opportunity by failing to recite kiddush at the proper time? Rav Naแธฅman bar Yitzแธฅak said to him: From the fact that the sons of Rabbi แธคiyya say that one who did not recite havdala at the conclusion of Shabbat may recite havdala any time over the course of the entire week, it can be inferred that here too, one who did not recite kiddush on Shabbat eve may recite kiddush at any time over the course of the entire day.


ืื™ืชื™ื‘ื™ื” ืœื™ืœื™ ืฉื‘ืช ื•ืœื™ืœื™ ื™ื•ื ื˜ื•ื‘ ื™ืฉ ื‘ื”ืŸ ืงื“ื•ืฉื” ืขืœ ื”ื›ื•ืก ื•ื™ืฉ ื‘ื”ืŸ ื”ื–ื›ืจื” ื‘ื‘ืจื›ืช ื”ืžื–ื•ืŸ ืฉื‘ืช ื•ื™ื•ื ื˜ื•ื‘ ืื™ืŸ ื‘ื”ื ืงื“ื•ืฉื” ืขืœ ื”ื›ื•ืก ื•ื™ืฉ ื‘ื”ืŸ ื”ื–ื›ืจื” ื‘ื‘ืจื›ืช ื”ืžื–ื•ืŸ


Ravina raised an objection to the opinion of Rav Naแธฅman bar Yitzแธฅak from the Tosefta: On the nights of Shabbat and the nights of a Festival there is a mitzva of kiddush over a cup. And there is a requirement to mention the sanctity of the day in Grace after Meals, i.e., the paragraph: May it please [retzei], on Shabbat and: May there rise and come [yaโ€™aleh veyavo], on Festivals. On the day of Shabbat and Festivals, there is no mitzva of kiddush over a cup, but there is a requirement to mention the sanctity of the day in Grace after Meals.


ื•ืื™ ืกืœืงื ื“ืขืชืš ืžื™ ืฉืœื ืงื™ื“ืฉ ื‘ืขืจื‘ ืฉื‘ืช ืžืงื“ืฉ ื•ื”ื•ืœืš ื›ืœ ื”ื™ื•ื ื›ื•ืœื• ืฉื‘ืช ื•ื™ื•ื ื˜ื•ื‘ ื ืžื™ ืžืฉื›ื—ืช ืœื”ื• ื“ื™ืฉ ื‘ื”ืŸ ืงื“ื•ืฉื” ืขืœ ื”ื›ื•ืก ื“ืื™ ืœื ืงื™ื“ืฉ ืžืื•ืจืชื ืžืงื“ืฉ ืœืžื—ืจ ืืžืจ ืœื™ื” ื“ืื™ ืœื ืงืชื ื™


Ravina explains his objection: And if it could enter your mind to say that one who did not recite kiddush on Shabbat eve may recite kiddush any time over the course of the entire day, on Shabbat and a Festival too, it can be found that there is a mitzva of kiddush over a cup, for if one did not recite kiddush at night he may recite kiddush the following day. Rav Naแธฅman bar Yitzแธฅak said to him: The tanna does not teach cases of what if. In other words, the tanna does not take into consideration the uncommon circumstance of one who failed to recite kiddush on the night of Shabbat.


ืื™ืชื™ื‘ื™ื” ื›ื‘ื•ื“ ื™ื•ื ื•ื›ื‘ื•ื“ ืœื™ืœื” ื›ื‘ื•ื“ ื™ื•ื ืงื•ื“ื ื•ืื ืื™ืŸ ืœื• ืืœื ื›ื•ืก ืื—ื“ ืื•ืžืจ ืขืœื™ื•


Ravina raised an objection to the opinion of Rav Naแธฅman bar Yitzแธฅak from another source: If there is a choice between the honor of the day of Shabbat and the honor of the night, the honor of the day takes precedence. And if one has only one cup, he should recite over it


ืงื™ื“ื•ืฉ ื”ื™ื•ื ืžืคื ื™ ืฉืงื™ื“ื•ืฉ ื”ื™ื•ื ืงื•ื“ื ืœื›ื‘ื•ื“ ื™ื•ื (ื•ื›ื‘ื•ื“ ืœื™ืœื”) ื•ืื ืื™ืชื ืœื™ืฉื‘ืงื™ื” ืขื“ ืœืžื—ืจ ื•ืœื™ืขื‘ื™ื“ ื‘ื™ื” ืชืจืชื™ ืืžืจ ืœื™ื” ื—ื‘ื™ื‘ื” ืžืฆื•ื” ื‘ืฉืขืชื”


the sanctification of the day, i.e., kiddush at night, at the beginning of Shabbat, because the sanctification of the day takes precedence over the honor of the day and the honor of the night. And if it is so, that one who fails to recite kiddush at night may do so at any time during the day, let him leave over the cup of wine until the following day and use it for two mitzvot, as he can recite kiddush during the day and simultaneously honor the Shabbat day by drinking wine. Rav Naแธฅman bar Yitzแธฅak said to him: A mitzva is beloved in its proper time.


ื•ืžื™ ืืžืจื™ื ืŸ ื—ื‘ื™ื‘ื” ืžืฆื•ื” ื‘ืฉืขืชื” ื•ื”ื ืชื ื™ื ื”ื ื›ื ืก ืœื‘ื™ืชื• ื‘ืžื•ืฆืื™ ืฉื‘ืช ืžื‘ืจืš ืขืœ ื”ื™ื™ืŸ ื•ืขืœ ื”ืžืื•ืจ ื•ืขืœ ื”ื‘ืฉืžื™ื ื•ืื—ืจ ื›ืš ืื•ืžืจ ื”ื‘ื“ืœื” ืขืœ ื”ื›ื•ืก ื•ืื ืื™ืŸ ืœื• ืืœื ื›ื•ืก ืื—ื“ ืžื ื™ื—ื• ืขื“ ืœืื—ืจ ื”ืžื–ื•ืŸ ื•ืžืฉืœืฉืœืŸ ื›ื•ืœืŸ ืœืื—ืจื™ื• ื•ืœื ืืžืจื™ื ืŸ ื—ื‘ื™ื‘ื” ืžืฆื•ื” ื‘ืฉืขืชื”


Ravina objected to this answer: And do we say that a mitzva is beloved in its proper time? But wasnโ€™t it taught in a baraita: One who enters his home at the conclusion of Shabbat recites the blessing over the wine, and then over the light, and then over the spices, and recites havdala thereafter over the cup of wine. And if he has only one cup of wine, he leaves it for after he eats his food, and uses it for Grace after Meals, and arranges all of the other blessings together thereafter. This baraita indicates that we do not say that a mitzva is beloved in its proper time, as one does not have to recite havdala immediately, i.e., before partaking of his meal.


ืืžืจ ืœื™ื” ืื ื ืœื ื—ื›ื™ืžืื” ืื ื ื•ืœื ื—ื•ื–ืื” ืื ื ื•ืœื ื™ื—ื™ื“ืื” ืื ื ืืœื ื’ืžืจื ื ื•ืกื“ืจื ื ืื ื ื•ื›ืŸ ืžื•ืจื™ืŸ ื‘ื‘ื™ ืžื“ืจืฉื ื›ื•ื•ืชื™ ืฉืื ื™ ืœืŸ ื‘ื™ืŸ ืขื™ื•ืœื™ ื™ื•ืžื ืœืืคื•ืงื™ ื™ื•ืžื ืขื™ื•ืœื™ ื™ื•ืžื ื›ืœ ื›ืžื” ื“ืžืงื“ืžื™ื ืŸ ืœื™ื” ืขื“ื™ืฃ ื•ืžื—ื‘ื‘ื™ื ืŸ ืœื™ื” ืืคื•ืงื™ ื™ื•ืžื ืžืื—ืจื™ื ืŸ ืœื™ื” ื›ื™ ื”ื™ื›ื™ ื“ืœื ืœื™ื”ื•ื™ ืขืœืŸ ื›ื˜ื•ื ื


He said to him: I am neither a scholar, nor a speculator, nor an important individual; rather, I teach and systematically arrange halakhic rulings, and the scholars instruct the students in the study hall in accordance with my opinion. I maintain that there is a difference for us between the arrival of the day of Shabbat and the departure of the day. With regard to the arrival of the day, the sooner we welcome the day by reciting kiddush the better, and we thereby express how beloved it is to us. With regard to the conclusion of the day, we delay it so that Shabbat will not appear to be like a burden to us.


ืฉืžืข ืžื™ื ื” ืžื™ื”ื ืžืชื ื™ืชื ืชืžื ื™ ืฉืžืข ืžื™ื ื” ื”ืžื‘ื“ื™ืœ ื‘ืชืคืœื” ืฆืจื™ืš ืฉื™ื‘ื“ื™ืœ ืขืœ ื”ื›ื•ืก


The Gemara points out that one may learn from this baraita eight halakhot. The Gemara elaborates: Learn from it that one who recites havdala in the evening prayer must also recite havdala over a cup. The baraita states that one who comes home must recite the blessing over wine and havdala, despite the fact that he has presumably already recited havdala in the evening prayer service.


ื•ืฉืžืข ืžื™ื ื” ื‘ืจื›ื” ื˜ืขื•ื ื” ื›ื•ืก ื•ืฉืžืข ืžื™ื ื” ื›ื•ืก ืฉืœ ื‘ืจื›ื” ืฆืจื™ืš ืฉื™ืขื•ืจ


And learn from it that one who recites the blessing of Grace after Meals requires a cup of wine. And learn from it that a cup of blessing requires a minimum measure, for otherwise it would have been possible for one who has only one cup of wine to simply divide it into two, recite havdala immediately, and still have a cup of wine left over for Grace after Meals.


ื•ืฉืžืข ืžื™ื ื” ื”ืžื‘ืจืš ืฆืจื™ืš ืฉื™ื˜ืขื•ื ื•ืฉืžืข ืžื™ื ื” ื˜ืขืžื• ืคื’ืžื• ื•ืฉืžืข ืžื™ื ื” ื˜ืขื ืžื‘ื“ื™ืœ


And learn from it that one who recites a blessing must taste the food over which he recites the blessing. Otherwise, one who has only one cup of wine would be able to use it for both havdala and Grace after Meals. And learn from it that once he has tasted the wine in the cup he has disqualified it from further use as a cup of blessing. And learn from it that even if one has tasted food after Shabbat, he nevertheless recites havdala.


Masechet Pesachim is sponsored by Sivya Twersky in honor of her daughter, Shoshana Baker, her grandson's upcoming Bar Mitzvah ,and in memory of her father, Harav Pesach Zachariah Halevi ben Reuven and Leah Z'late Z'L. He lived Torah and emunah by example to congregational and biological families. His yahrzeit falls within this masechet.

  • This month's learning is sponsored by Shifra Tyberg and Rephael Wenger in loving memory of Zvi ben Yisrael Yitzhak Tyberg on his yahrzeit, and in honor of their daughter Ayelet's upcoming marriage to Ori Kinberg.

  • This month's learning is sponsored by Rabbi Hayim Herring with pride and love, in honor of his spouse, Terri Krivosha, who received this year's Sidney Barrows Lifetime Commitment Award from the Mpls. And St. Paul Federations in recognition of her distinguished contribution to the Twin Cities Legal and Jewish Communities.ย 

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Pesachim 105

ืงืฉื™ื ืœืขื•ืœื ืืžืจ ืœืš ืขื•ืœื ื”ื ื ืžื™ ื›ื‘ืจื›ืช ื”ืžืฆื•ืช ื“ืžื™ื ื‘ืจื›ืช ื”ืžืฆื•ืช ืžืื™ ื˜ืขืžื ืžืฉื•ื ื“ื”ื•ื“ืื” ื”ื™ื ื”ื ื ืžื™ ื”ื•ื“ืื” ื”ื™ื


This is difficult for the opinion of Ulla, who began but did not conclude the blessing of havdala with: Blessed. The Gemara answers: Ulla could have said to you: This blessing is also considered like a blessing over mitzvot, and therefore it does not require a separate conclusion. The Gemara clarifies this response: What is the reason that blessings over mitzvot do not require a distinctive conclusion? It is because a blessing over a mitzva is a statement of praise, and as it does not include anything unrelated to the praise, e.g., a request or supplication, it is unnecessary to add a separate concluding blessing. This havdala blessing also is comprised only of praise.


ืจื‘ ื—ื ื ื™ื ื‘ืจ ืฉืœืžื™ื ื•ืชืœืžื™ื“ื™ ื“ืจื‘ ื”ื•ื• ื™ืชื‘ื™ ื‘ืกืขื•ื“ืชื ื•ืงืื™ ืขืœื™ื™ื”ื• ืจื‘ ื”ืžื ื•ื ื ืกื‘ื ืืžืจื• ืœื™ื” ื–ื™ืœ ื—ื–ื™ ืื™ ืžืงื“ื™ืฉ ื™ื•ืžื ื ืคืกื™ืง ื•ื ื™ืงื‘ืขื™ื” ืœืฉื‘ืชื ืืžืจ ืœื”ื• ืœื ืฆืจื™ื›ื™ืชื• ืฉื‘ืชื ืงื‘ืขื” ื ืคืฉื”


The Gemara relates that Rav แธคananya bar Shelemya and other students of Rav were sitting at a meal on Shabbat eve shortly before nightfall, and Rav Hamnuna the Elder was standing over them to serve them. They said to him: Go and see if the day of Shabbat has become sanctified through nightfall. If so, we will interrupt our meal by removing the tables and establish its continuation as the meal for Shabbat. Rav Hamnuna the Elder said to them: You do not need to do this, as Shabbat establishes itself. Whatever you eat after nightfall is automatically considered a Shabbat meal, even without any specific action that designates it as such.


ื“ืืžืจ ืจื‘ ื›ืฉื ืฉื”ืฉื‘ืช ืงื•ื‘ืขืช ืœืžืขืฉืจ ื›ืš ืฉื‘ืช ืงื•ื‘ืขืช ืœืงื™ื“ื•ืฉ


Rav Hamnuna the Elder explained his ruling. As Rav said: Just as Shabbat establishes food consumption as a regular, set meal with regard to tithes, so Shabbat establishes the requirement to recite kiddush. Generally, one may eat untithed produce in a casual, incidental manner. On Shabbat, however, the strictures of a regular, set meal apply even to casual eating. Consequently, on Shabbat it is entirely prohibited to eat produce from which the appropriate dues and tithes have not yet been separated. Similarly, Shabbat automatically initiates the requirement to recite kiddush, and it is prohibited to eat until one does so. This halakha indicates that whatever one eats at this stage is considered part of his Shabbat meal, even if he does not remove the table and bring it back.


ืกื‘ื•ืจ ืžื™ื ื” ื›ื™ ื”ื™ื›ื™ ื“ืงื‘ืขื” ืœืงื™ื“ื•ืฉ ื›ืš ืงื‘ืขื” ืœื”ื‘ื“ืœื” ืืžืจ ืœื”ื• ืจื‘ ืขืžืจื ื”ื›ื™ ืืžืจ ืจื‘ ืœืงื™ื“ื•ืฉ ืงื•ื‘ืขืช ื•ืœื ืœื”ื‘ื“ืœื” ืงื•ื‘ืขืช


They understood from it that just as the start of Shabbat automatically establishes the requirement to recite kiddush, so its conclusion establishes the requirement to recite havdala. This would mean that one must interrupt his meal to recite havdala, and whatever he eats after that would not be considered part of his Shabbat meal. Rav Amram said to them: This is what Rav said: Shabbat establishes an obligation to recite kiddush, but it does not establish an obligation to recite havdala.


ื•ื”ื ื™ ืžื™ืœื™ ืœืขื ื™ืŸ ืžื™ืคืกืง ื“ืœื ืžืคืกืงื™ื ืŸ ืื‘ืœ ืืชื—ื•ืœื™ ืœื ืžืชื—ืœื™ื ืŸ ื•ืžื™ืคืกืง ื ืžื™ ืœื ืืžืจืŸ ืืœื ื‘ืื›ื™ืœื” ืื‘ืœ ื‘ืฉืชื™ื” ืœื


The Gemara comments: And this applies only with regard to the matter of interrupting a meal that one has begun before the conclusion of Shabbat, that one does not have to interrupt to recite havdala. However, one may not begin a meal after nightfall until after reciting havdala. The Gemara adds: And with regard to interrupting also, we only said that one need not interrupt his eating; but with regard to drinking, which is considered less significant, no, one must interrupt his drinking upon nightfall, even if he began drinking before the conclusion of Shabbat.


ื•ืฉืชื™ื” ื ืžื™ ืœื ืืžืจืŸ ืืœื ื‘ื—ืžืจื ื•ืฉื™ื›ืจื ืื‘ืœ ืžื™ื ืœื™ืช ืœืŸ ื‘ื”


And with regard to drinking also, we only said it is prohibited to drink after nightfall before havdala with regard to wine and beer, which are significant beverages; but with regard to water, we have no problem with it. One may begin drinking water even after Shabbat has concluded and before he has recited havdala.


ื•ืคืœื™ื’ื ื“ืจื‘ ื”ื•ื ื ื“ืจื‘ ื”ื•ื ื ื—ื–ื™ื™ื” ืœื”ื”ื•ื ื’ื‘ืจื ื“ืฉืชื” ืžื™ื ืงื•ื“ื ื”ื‘ื“ืœื” ืืžืจ ืœื™ื” ืœื ืžื™ืกืชืคื™ ืžืจ ืžืืกื›ืจื” ื“ืชื ื ืžืฉืžื™ื” ื“ืจื‘ื™ ืขืงื™ื‘ื ื›ืœ ื”ื˜ื•ืขื ื›ืœื•ื ืงื•ื“ื ืฉื™ื‘ื“ื™ืœ ืžื™ืชืชื• ื‘ืืกื›ืจื” ืจื‘ื ืŸ ื“ื‘ื™ ืจื‘ ืืฉื™ ืœื ืงืคื“ื™ ืืžื™ื


The Gemara points out that this last statement disagrees with the opinion of Rav Huna. As Rav Huna saw a certain man drinking water before he recited havdala at the conclusion of Shabbat. He said to him: Is the Master not afraid of the ailment called askara? As it was taught in the name of Rabbi Akiva that whoever tastes anything before he recites havdala, his death will come through askara. Nevertheless, the Gemara notes that the Sages of the school of Rav Ashi were not particular with regard to water. They refrained only from drinking more significant beverages before havdala.


ื‘ืขื ืžื™ื ื™ื” ืจื‘ื™ื ื ืžืจื‘ ื ื—ืžืŸ ื‘ืจ ื™ืฆื—ืง ืžื™ ืฉืœื ืงื™ื“ืฉ ื‘ืขืจื‘ ืฉื‘ืช ืžื”ื• ืฉื™ืงื“ืฉ ื•ื”ื•ืœืš ื›ืœ ื”ื™ื•ื ื›ื•ืœื• ืืžืจ ืœื™ื” ืžื“ืืžืจื™ ื‘ื ื™ ืจื‘ื™ ื—ื™ื™ื ืžื™ ืฉืœื ื”ื‘ื“ื™ืœ ื‘ืžื•ืฆืื™ ืฉื‘ืช ืžื‘ื“ื™ืœ ื•ื”ื•ืœืš ื›ืœ ื”ืฉื‘ืช ื›ื•ืœื• ื”ื›ื ื ืžื™ ืžื™ ืฉืœื ืงื™ื“ืฉ ื‘ืขืจื‘ ืฉื‘ืช ืžืงื“ืฉ ื•ื”ื•ืœืš ื›ืœ ื”ื™ื•ื ื›ื•ืœื•


Ravina raised a dilemma before Rav Naแธฅman bar Yitzแธฅak: With regard to one who did not recite kiddush on Shabbat eve, i.e., on the night of Shabbat, what is the halakha with regard to his ability to recite kiddush at any time over the course of the entire day? May one recite kiddush later, or has he lost his opportunity by failing to recite kiddush at the proper time? Rav Naแธฅman bar Yitzแธฅak said to him: From the fact that the sons of Rabbi แธคiyya say that one who did not recite havdala at the conclusion of Shabbat may recite havdala any time over the course of the entire week, it can be inferred that here too, one who did not recite kiddush on Shabbat eve may recite kiddush at any time over the course of the entire day.


ืื™ืชื™ื‘ื™ื” ืœื™ืœื™ ืฉื‘ืช ื•ืœื™ืœื™ ื™ื•ื ื˜ื•ื‘ ื™ืฉ ื‘ื”ืŸ ืงื“ื•ืฉื” ืขืœ ื”ื›ื•ืก ื•ื™ืฉ ื‘ื”ืŸ ื”ื–ื›ืจื” ื‘ื‘ืจื›ืช ื”ืžื–ื•ืŸ ืฉื‘ืช ื•ื™ื•ื ื˜ื•ื‘ ืื™ืŸ ื‘ื”ื ืงื“ื•ืฉื” ืขืœ ื”ื›ื•ืก ื•ื™ืฉ ื‘ื”ืŸ ื”ื–ื›ืจื” ื‘ื‘ืจื›ืช ื”ืžื–ื•ืŸ


Ravina raised an objection to the opinion of Rav Naแธฅman bar Yitzแธฅak from the Tosefta: On the nights of Shabbat and the nights of a Festival there is a mitzva of kiddush over a cup. And there is a requirement to mention the sanctity of the day in Grace after Meals, i.e., the paragraph: May it please [retzei], on Shabbat and: May there rise and come [yaโ€™aleh veyavo], on Festivals. On the day of Shabbat and Festivals, there is no mitzva of kiddush over a cup, but there is a requirement to mention the sanctity of the day in Grace after Meals.


ื•ืื™ ืกืœืงื ื“ืขืชืš ืžื™ ืฉืœื ืงื™ื“ืฉ ื‘ืขืจื‘ ืฉื‘ืช ืžืงื“ืฉ ื•ื”ื•ืœืš ื›ืœ ื”ื™ื•ื ื›ื•ืœื• ืฉื‘ืช ื•ื™ื•ื ื˜ื•ื‘ ื ืžื™ ืžืฉื›ื—ืช ืœื”ื• ื“ื™ืฉ ื‘ื”ืŸ ืงื“ื•ืฉื” ืขืœ ื”ื›ื•ืก ื“ืื™ ืœื ืงื™ื“ืฉ ืžืื•ืจืชื ืžืงื“ืฉ ืœืžื—ืจ ืืžืจ ืœื™ื” ื“ืื™ ืœื ืงืชื ื™


Ravina explains his objection: And if it could enter your mind to say that one who did not recite kiddush on Shabbat eve may recite kiddush any time over the course of the entire day, on Shabbat and a Festival too, it can be found that there is a mitzva of kiddush over a cup, for if one did not recite kiddush at night he may recite kiddush the following day. Rav Naแธฅman bar Yitzแธฅak said to him: The tanna does not teach cases of what if. In other words, the tanna does not take into consideration the uncommon circumstance of one who failed to recite kiddush on the night of Shabbat.


ืื™ืชื™ื‘ื™ื” ื›ื‘ื•ื“ ื™ื•ื ื•ื›ื‘ื•ื“ ืœื™ืœื” ื›ื‘ื•ื“ ื™ื•ื ืงื•ื“ื ื•ืื ืื™ืŸ ืœื• ืืœื ื›ื•ืก ืื—ื“ ืื•ืžืจ ืขืœื™ื•


Ravina raised an objection to the opinion of Rav Naแธฅman bar Yitzแธฅak from another source: If there is a choice between the honor of the day of Shabbat and the honor of the night, the honor of the day takes precedence. And if one has only one cup, he should recite over it


ืงื™ื“ื•ืฉ ื”ื™ื•ื ืžืคื ื™ ืฉืงื™ื“ื•ืฉ ื”ื™ื•ื ืงื•ื“ื ืœื›ื‘ื•ื“ ื™ื•ื (ื•ื›ื‘ื•ื“ ืœื™ืœื”) ื•ืื ืื™ืชื ืœื™ืฉื‘ืงื™ื” ืขื“ ืœืžื—ืจ ื•ืœื™ืขื‘ื™ื“ ื‘ื™ื” ืชืจืชื™ ืืžืจ ืœื™ื” ื—ื‘ื™ื‘ื” ืžืฆื•ื” ื‘ืฉืขืชื”


the sanctification of the day, i.e., kiddush at night, at the beginning of Shabbat, because the sanctification of the day takes precedence over the honor of the day and the honor of the night. And if it is so, that one who fails to recite kiddush at night may do so at any time during the day, let him leave over the cup of wine until the following day and use it for two mitzvot, as he can recite kiddush during the day and simultaneously honor the Shabbat day by drinking wine. Rav Naแธฅman bar Yitzแธฅak said to him: A mitzva is beloved in its proper time.


ื•ืžื™ ืืžืจื™ื ืŸ ื—ื‘ื™ื‘ื” ืžืฆื•ื” ื‘ืฉืขืชื” ื•ื”ื ืชื ื™ื ื”ื ื›ื ืก ืœื‘ื™ืชื• ื‘ืžื•ืฆืื™ ืฉื‘ืช ืžื‘ืจืš ืขืœ ื”ื™ื™ืŸ ื•ืขืœ ื”ืžืื•ืจ ื•ืขืœ ื”ื‘ืฉืžื™ื ื•ืื—ืจ ื›ืš ืื•ืžืจ ื”ื‘ื“ืœื” ืขืœ ื”ื›ื•ืก ื•ืื ืื™ืŸ ืœื• ืืœื ื›ื•ืก ืื—ื“ ืžื ื™ื—ื• ืขื“ ืœืื—ืจ ื”ืžื–ื•ืŸ ื•ืžืฉืœืฉืœืŸ ื›ื•ืœืŸ ืœืื—ืจื™ื• ื•ืœื ืืžืจื™ื ืŸ ื—ื‘ื™ื‘ื” ืžืฆื•ื” ื‘ืฉืขืชื”


Ravina objected to this answer: And do we say that a mitzva is beloved in its proper time? But wasnโ€™t it taught in a baraita: One who enters his home at the conclusion of Shabbat recites the blessing over the wine, and then over the light, and then over the spices, and recites havdala thereafter over the cup of wine. And if he has only one cup of wine, he leaves it for after he eats his food, and uses it for Grace after Meals, and arranges all of the other blessings together thereafter. This baraita indicates that we do not say that a mitzva is beloved in its proper time, as one does not have to recite havdala immediately, i.e., before partaking of his meal.


ืืžืจ ืœื™ื” ืื ื ืœื ื—ื›ื™ืžืื” ืื ื ื•ืœื ื—ื•ื–ืื” ืื ื ื•ืœื ื™ื—ื™ื“ืื” ืื ื ืืœื ื’ืžืจื ื ื•ืกื“ืจื ื ืื ื ื•ื›ืŸ ืžื•ืจื™ืŸ ื‘ื‘ื™ ืžื“ืจืฉื ื›ื•ื•ืชื™ ืฉืื ื™ ืœืŸ ื‘ื™ืŸ ืขื™ื•ืœื™ ื™ื•ืžื ืœืืคื•ืงื™ ื™ื•ืžื ืขื™ื•ืœื™ ื™ื•ืžื ื›ืœ ื›ืžื” ื“ืžืงื“ืžื™ื ืŸ ืœื™ื” ืขื“ื™ืฃ ื•ืžื—ื‘ื‘ื™ื ืŸ ืœื™ื” ืืคื•ืงื™ ื™ื•ืžื ืžืื—ืจื™ื ืŸ ืœื™ื” ื›ื™ ื”ื™ื›ื™ ื“ืœื ืœื™ื”ื•ื™ ืขืœืŸ ื›ื˜ื•ื ื


He said to him: I am neither a scholar, nor a speculator, nor an important individual; rather, I teach and systematically arrange halakhic rulings, and the scholars instruct the students in the study hall in accordance with my opinion. I maintain that there is a difference for us between the arrival of the day of Shabbat and the departure of the day. With regard to the arrival of the day, the sooner we welcome the day by reciting kiddush the better, and we thereby express how beloved it is to us. With regard to the conclusion of the day, we delay it so that Shabbat will not appear to be like a burden to us.


ืฉืžืข ืžื™ื ื” ืžื™ื”ื ืžืชื ื™ืชื ืชืžื ื™ ืฉืžืข ืžื™ื ื” ื”ืžื‘ื“ื™ืœ ื‘ืชืคืœื” ืฆืจื™ืš ืฉื™ื‘ื“ื™ืœ ืขืœ ื”ื›ื•ืก


The Gemara points out that one may learn from this baraita eight halakhot. The Gemara elaborates: Learn from it that one who recites havdala in the evening prayer must also recite havdala over a cup. The baraita states that one who comes home must recite the blessing over wine and havdala, despite the fact that he has presumably already recited havdala in the evening prayer service.


ื•ืฉืžืข ืžื™ื ื” ื‘ืจื›ื” ื˜ืขื•ื ื” ื›ื•ืก ื•ืฉืžืข ืžื™ื ื” ื›ื•ืก ืฉืœ ื‘ืจื›ื” ืฆืจื™ืš ืฉื™ืขื•ืจ


And learn from it that one who recites the blessing of Grace after Meals requires a cup of wine. And learn from it that a cup of blessing requires a minimum measure, for otherwise it would have been possible for one who has only one cup of wine to simply divide it into two, recite havdala immediately, and still have a cup of wine left over for Grace after Meals.


ื•ืฉืžืข ืžื™ื ื” ื”ืžื‘ืจืš ืฆืจื™ืš ืฉื™ื˜ืขื•ื ื•ืฉืžืข ืžื™ื ื” ื˜ืขืžื• ืคื’ืžื• ื•ืฉืžืข ืžื™ื ื” ื˜ืขื ืžื‘ื“ื™ืœ


And learn from it that one who recites a blessing must taste the food over which he recites the blessing. Otherwise, one who has only one cup of wine would be able to use it for both havdala and Grace after Meals. And learn from it that once he has tasted the wine in the cup he has disqualified it from further use as a cup of blessing. And learn from it that even if one has tasted food after Shabbat, he nevertheless recites havdala.


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