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Daf Yomi

March 9, 2021 | 讻状讛 讘讗讚专 转砖驻状讗

Masechet Pesachim is sponsored by Sivya Twersky in honor of her daughter, Shoshana Baker, her grandson's upcoming Bar Mitzvah ,and in memory of her father, Harav Pesach Zachariah Halevi ben Reuven and Leah Z'late Z'L. He lived Torah and emunah by example to congregational and biological families. His yahrzeit falls within this masechet.

This month's shiurim are sponsored by Terri Krivosha in memory of her father Nahum Mayar ben Dovid Baer. Judge Norman Krivosha was a remarkable individual who, in the words of Mary Oliver, did far more than "simply visit this world". Yehi Zichro Baruch.

Pesachim 108

Today鈥檚 daf is sponsored by Mark and Shoshana Baker in memory of the 48th Yartzeit of Mark鈥檚 late father, Anthony David Waltzer. And by Abby Flamholz in honor of her daughter-in-law Sigal on her Hebrew birthday. “A huge thank you for dragging me along on your daf yomi journey.”聽

Rabbi Sheshet would fast on the eve of Passover all day. Why? At what point of the seder does one need to recline? How does one recline? Who is required to recline? Women in the presence of their husbands do not need to recline but if they are important women, then they do? What does it mean “important women”? A son reclines at his father’s table. What about a student at his rabbi’s table? The servant serving the meal? Women are obligated in four cups (and other seder law) as women were also part of the miracle. What are the different interpretations for “part of the miracle?” The gemara brings in the name of Shmuel different laws relating to the wine for the four cups.聽 Other rabbis come and restrict his words. Do you need red wine? Where do we learn this from?

 

讘讬谉 讛讻讜住讜转 讛诇诇讜 讗诐 专爪讛 诇砖转讜转 讬砖转讛 讘讬谉 砖诇讬砖讬 诇专讘讬注讬 诇讗 讬砖转讛 讜讗讬 讗诪专转 诪住注讚 住注讬讚 讗诪讗讬 讬砖转讛 讛讗 拽讗 讗讻讬诇 诇诪爪讛 讗讻讬诇讛 讙住讛 讗诇讗 砖诪注 诪讬谞讛 诪讙专专 讙专讬专


During the Passover seder, between these cups that one is obligated to drink, e.g., between the first two of the four cups of wine, if one wants to drink he may drink. However, between the third and fourth cups, which are consumed after the meal, one may not drink. And if you say that wine satisfies a person, why may one drink extra cups? He will later eat matza when he is already satiated, which will constitute an excessive eating. Rather, learn from this that wine whets the appetite.


专讘 砖砖转 讛讜讛 讬转讬讘 讘转注谞讬转讗 讻诇 诪注诇讬 讬讜诪讗 讚驻住讞讗 谞讬诪讗 拽讗 住讘专 专讘 砖砖转 住诪讜讱 诇诪谞讞讛 讙讚讜诇讛 转谞谉 讜诪砖讜诐 驻住讞讗 讛讜讗 讚讬诇诪讗 诪讬诪砖讱 讜讗转讬 诇讗讬诪谞讜注讬 诪诇诪注讘讚 驻讬住讞讗 讛讜讗


The Gemara relates that Rav Sheshet would fast the entire eve of Passover. The Gemara asks: Shall we say that Rav Sheshet maintains that this practice was necessary because of two factors? First, when the mishna states that one may not eat adjacent to min岣 time, we learned this ruling with regard to the period of time adjacent to the greater min岣, and the reason for the prohibition is due to the Paschal lamb, lest one be drawn after one鈥檚 meal and come to refrain from performing the sacrifice of the Paschal lamb.


讜住讘专 诇讛 讻讬 讛讗 讚讗诪专 专讘讬 讗讜砖注讬讗 讗诪专 专讘讬 讗诇注讝专 诪讻砖讬专 讛讬讛 讘谉 讘转讬专讗 讘驻住讞 砖砖讞讟讜 砖讞专讬转 讘讗专讘注讛 注砖专 诇砖诪讜 讜诪爪驻专讗 讝诪谉 驻住讞讗 讛讜讗 讚讻讜诇讬 讬讜诪讗 讞讝讬 诇驻住讞讗


And second, Rav Sheshet maintains in accordance with that statement that Rabbi Oshaya said that Rabbi Elazar said: Ben Beteira would deem valid a Paschal lamb that was slaughtered in the morning on the fourteenth of Nisan for its own purpose, as from the morning it is already the time during which a Paschal lamb may be sacrificed, as the whole day is fit for the Paschal lamb.


讚住讘专 讘讬谉 讛注专讘讬诐 讘讬谉 注专讘 讚讗转诪讜诇 诇注专讘 讚讛讗讬讚谞讗


As ben Beteira maintained that when the Torah says the Paschal lamb must be sacrificed bein ha鈥檃rbayim (Exodus 12:6), which literally means: Between the evenings, but is often rendered: In the afternoon, the term refers to any time between the evening of yesterday and the current evening of the fourteenth. In other words, as Rav Sheshet maintained that the reason one may not eat on Passover eve is to prevent him from being distracted from preparing the Paschal lamb, and he also maintained that the Paschal offering may be sacrificed during the entire day of the fourteenth of Nisan, therefore, he would not eat that entire day.


讗诪专讬 诇讗 砖讗谞讬 专讘 砖砖转 讚讗讬住转谞讬住 讛讜讛 讚讗讬 讟注讬诐 讘爪驻专讗 诪讬讚讬 诇讗讜专转讗 诇讗 讛讜讛 诪讛谞讬 诇讬讛 诪讬讻诇讗:


They say in response to this suggested interpretation of Rav Sheshet鈥檚 practice: No, it is by no means clear that this was his reasoning. Rav Sheshet was different, as he was delicate [istenis], for if he would taste some food in the morning, the food he ate at night would not be effective for him. He would therefore fast the whole day so that he could eat matza at night with a hearty appetite.


讜讗驻讬诇讜 注谞讬 砖讘讬砖专讗诇 诇讗 讬讗讻诇 注讚 砖讬住讘: 讗讬转诪专 诪爪讛 爪专讬讱 讛住讬讘讛 诪专讜专 讗讬谉 爪专讬讱 讛住讬讘讛 讬讬谉 讗讬转诪专 诪砖诪讬讛 讚专讘 谞讞诪谉 爪专讬讱 讛住讬讘讛 讜讗讬转诪专 诪砖诪讬讛 讚专讘 谞讞诪谉 讗讬谉 爪专讬讱 讛住讬讘讛


We learned in the mishna that even the poorest of Jews should not eat until he reclines. It was stated that amora鈥檌m discussed the requirement to recline. Everyone agrees that matza requires reclining, i.e., one must recline when eating matza, and bitter herbs do not require reclining. With regard to wine, it was stated in the name of Rav Na岣an that wine requires reclining, and it was also stated in the name of Rav Na岣an that wine does not require reclining.


讜诇讗 驻诇讬讙讬 讛讗 讘转专转讬 讻住讬 拽诪讗讬 讛讗 讘转专转讬 讻住讬 讘转专讗讬 讗诪专讬 诇讛 诇讛讗讬 讙讬住讗 讜讗诪专讬 诇讛 诇讛讗讬 讙讬住讗 讗诪专讬 诇讛 诇讛讗讬 讙讬住讗 转专讬 讻住讬 拽诪讗讬 讘注讜 讛住讬讘讛 讚讛砖转讗 讛讜讗 讚拽讗 诪转讞诇讗 诇讛 讞讬专讜转 转专讬 讻住讬 讘转专讗讬 诇讗 讘注讜 讛住讬讘讛 诪讗讬 讚讛讜讛 讛讜讛


The Gemara explains: And these two statements do not disagree with each other: This statement is referring to the first two cups, and that statement is referring to the last two cups. However, it was not clear which two cups require reclining according to Rav Na岣an. Some say the explanation in this manner and some say it in that manner. The Gemara elaborates: Some say it in this manner, that the first two cups require reclining, as it is now that freedom begins. Since reclining is a sign of freedom, while discussing the exodus from Egypt it is appropriate to drink while reclining. By contrast, the last two cups do not require reclining, because what was already was. In other words, by this point one has completed the discussion of the Exodus and has reached the latter stages of the seder.


讜讗诪专讬 诇讛 诇讛讗讬 讙讬住讗 讗讚专讘讛 转专讬 讻住讬 讘转专讗讬 讘注讜 讛住讬讘讛 讛讛讬讗 砖注转讗 讚拽讗 讛讜讬讗 讞讬专讜转 转专讬 讻住讬 拽诪讗讬 诇讗 讘注讜 讛住讬讘讛 讚讗讻转讬 注讘讚讬诐 讛讬讬谞讜 拽讗诪专 讛砖转讗 讚讗讬转诪专 讛讻讬 讜讗讬转诪专 讛讻讬 讗讬讚讬 讜讗讬讚讬 讘注讜 讛住讬讘讛


And some say it in that manner and claim that on the contrary, the last two cups require reclining, as it is at that time that there is freedom. However, the first two cups do not require reclining, as one still says: We were slaves. The Gemara concludes: Now that it was stated so, and it was stated so, i.e., there are two conflicting opinions and it cannot be proven which two cups require reclining, both these sets of cups and those require reclining.


驻专拽讚谉 诇讗 砖诪讬讛 讛住讬讘讛 讛住讬讘转 讬诪讬谉 诇讗 砖诪讛 讛住讬讘讛 讜诇讗 注讜讚 讗诇讗 砖诪讗 讬拽讚讬诐 拽谞讛 诇讜讜砖讟 讜讬讘讗 诇讬讚讬 住讻谞讛


The Gemara continues to discuss the halakha of reclining. Lying on one鈥檚 back is not called reclining. Reclining to the right is not called reclining, as free men do not recline in this manner. People prefer to recline on their left and use their right hand to eat, whereas they find it more difficult to eat the other way. And not only that, but if one reclines to the right, perhaps the windpipe will precede the esophagus. The food will enter the windpipe, and one will come into danger of choking.


讗砖讛 讗爪诇 讘注诇讛 诇讗 讘注讬讗 讛住讬讘讛 讜讗诐 讗砖讛 讞砖讜讘讛 讛讬讗 爪专讬讻讛 讛住讬讘讛 讘谉 讗爪诇 讗讘讬讜 讘注讬 讛住讬讘讛 讗讬讘注讬讗 诇讛讜 转诇诪讬讚 讗爪诇 专讘讜 诪讗讬


A woman who is with her husband is not required to recline, but if she is an important woman, she is required to recline. A son who is with his father is required to recline. A dilemma was raised before the Sages: What is the halakha with regard to a student who is with his teacher? Perhaps he is not obligated to recline, as he is in awe of his rabbi, and reclining is a sign of complete freedom and independence.


转讗 砖诪注 (讗诪专) 讗讘讬讬 讻讬 讛讜讬谞谉 讘讬 诪专 讝讙讬谞谉 讗讘讬专讻讬 讚讛讚讚讬 讻讬 讗转讬谞谉 诇讘讬 专讘 讬讜住祝 讗诪专 诇谉 诇讗 爪专讬讻转讜 诪讜专讗 专讘讱 讻诪讜专讗 砖诪讬诐


Come and hear a proof that Abaye said: When we were in the house of my Master, Rabba, there was not enough room for everyone to recline on Passover, so we reclined on each other鈥檚 knees, to fulfill the obligation to recline. When we came to the house of Rav Yosef, he said to us: You need not recline, as the fear of your teacher is like the fear of Heaven. A student is subject to the authority of his teacher and may not display freedom in his presence.


诪讬转讬讘讬 注诐 讛讻诇 讗讚诐 诪讬住讘 讜讗驻讬诇讜 转诇诪讬讚 讗爪诇 专讘讜 讻讬 转谞讬讗 讛讛讬讗 讘砖讜诇讬讗 讚谞讙专讬


The Gemara raises an objection: A person must recline in the presence of anyone, and even a student who is with his teacher must do so. This baraita directly contradicts the statement of Rav Yosef. The Gemara answers: When that baraita was taught, it was with regard to a craftsman鈥檚 apprentice, not a student of Torah in the company of his rabbi. One who is in the presence of a person teaching him a trade is not in awe of his instructor, and he is therefore obligated to recline.


讗讬讘注讬讗 诇讛讜 砖诪砖 诪讗讬 转讗 砖诪注 讚讗诪专 专讘讬 讬讛讜砖注 讘谉 诇讜讬 讛砖诪砖 砖讗讻诇 讻讝讬转 诪爪讛 讻砖讛讜讗 诪讬住讘 讬爪讗 诪讬住讘 讗讬谉 诇讗 诪讬住讘 诇讗 砖诪注 诪讬谞讛 讘注讬 讛住讬讘讛 砖诪注 诪讬谞讛


A dilemma was raised before the Sages: What is the halakha with regard to a waiter? Is a waiter obligated to recline? The Gemara answers: Come and hear a solution, as Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi said: A waiter who ate an olive-bulk of matza while reclining has fulfilled his obligation. The Gemara infers: If he ate matza while reclining, yes, he has fulfilled his obligation; if he was not reclining, no, he has not fulfilled the obligation. Learn from this that a waiter requires reclining. The Gemara concludes: Indeed, learn from it that this is the case.


讜讗诪专 专讘讬 讬讛讜砖注 讘谉 诇讜讬 谞砖讬诐 讞讬讬讘讜转 讘讗专讘注讛 讻讜住讜转 讛诇诇讜


And Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi said: Women are obligated in these four cups of wine at the Passover seder.


砖讗祝 讛谉 讛讬讜 讘讗讜转讜 讛谞住


As they too were included in that miracle of the Exodus, they are therefore obligated to participate in the celebration.


讗诪专 专讘 讬讛讜讚讛 讗诪专 砖诪讜讗诇 讗专讘注讛 讻讜住讜转 讛诇诇讜 爪专讬讱 砖讬讛讗 讘讛谉 讻讚讬 诪讝讬讙转 讻讜住 讬驻讛 砖转讗谉 讞讬 讬爪讗 砖转讗谉 讘讘转 讗讞转 讬爪讗 讛砖拽讛 诪讛谉 诇讘谞讬讜 讜诇讘谞讬 讘讬转讜 讬爪讗


Rav Yehuda said that Shmuel said: These four cups must contain enough undiluted wine to allow for diluting a significant cup. In talmudic times, people would not drink pure wine. They would dilute it with water, generally adding three times as much water as wine. If one drank them undiluted, he has fulfilled his obligation. If one drank them all at once, i.e., he poured all four cups of wine into one large cup and drank it, he has fulfilled the obligation. If one gave his sons or the members of his household to drink from them, he has nevertheless fulfilled the obligation.


砖转讗谉 讞讬 讬爪讗 讗诪专 专讘讗 讬讚讬 讬讬谉 讬爪讗 讬讚讬 讞讬专讜转 诇讗 讬爪讗


The Gemara now addresses each of these rulings of Shmuel in turn. Shmuel said that if one drank them undiluted he has fulfilled his obligation. Rava said: He has fulfilled the obligation to drink the four cups of wine, but he has not fulfilled the obligation to drink in a way that expresses freedom, which is the preferable way to fulfill the mitzva, as aristocrats do not drink undiluted wine.


砖转讗谉 讘讘转 讗讞转 专讘 讗诪专 讬讚讬 讬讬谉 讬爪讗 讬讚讬 讗专讘注讛 讻讜住讜转 诇讗 讬爪讗 讛砖拽讛 诪讛谉 诇讘谞讬讜 讜诇讘谞讬 讘讬转讜 讬爪讗 讗诪专 专讘 谞讞诪谉 讘专 讬爪讞拽 讜讛讜讗 讚讗砖转讬 专讜讘讗 讚讻住讗


If one drank the four cups all at once, Rav said that he has fulfilled the obligation to drink wine as an expression of rejoicing on the Festival, but he has not fulfilled the obligation to drink four cups, which requires four distinct cups, each drunk separately. Shmuel also stated that if one gave his sons or the members of his household to drink from them, he has nevertheless fulfilled his obligation. Rav Na岣an bar Yitz岣k said: And this is the case only if he himself drank the majority of the cup.


诪讬转讬讘讬 讗专讘注讛 讻讜住讜转 讛诇诇讜 爪专讬讱 砖讬讛讗 讘讛谉 讻讚讬 专讘讬注讬转 讗讞讚 讞讬 讜讗讞讚 诪讝讜讙 讗讞讚 讞讚砖 讜讗讞讚 讬砖谉 专讘讬 讬讛讜讚讛 讗讜诪专 爪专讬讱 砖讬讛讗 讘讜 讟注诐 讜诪专讗讛 讬讬谉 拽转谞讬 诪讬讛转 讻讚讬 专讘讬注讬转 讜讗转 讗诪专转 讻讜住 讬驻讛


The Gemara raises an objection to the above rulings from a baraita: These four cups must contain one quarterlog, whether the wine is undiluted or diluted, whether it is new or aged. Rabbi Yehuda says: It must have the taste and appearance of wine. In any event, this baraita is teaching that each cup must contain at least the amount of one quarter-log, and yet you said that each must contain enough for diluting a significant cup.


讗诪专讬 讗讬讚讬 讜讗讬讚讬 讞讚 砖讬注讜专讗 讛讜讗 诪讗讬 讻讚讬 诪讝讬讙转 讻讜住 讬驻讛 讚拽讗诪专 诇讻诇 讞讚 讜讞讚 讚讛讜讬 诇讛讜 讻讜诇讛讜 专讘讬注讬转


They say in response that this and that are one and the same measure. The Gemara explains: What is the meaning of the expression: Enough for diluting a significant cup, which Shmuel said? He meant that there must be enough undiluted wine for each and every one of the cups, i.e., one quarter-log of diluted wine. This amounts to one quarterlog of undiluted wine for all of them combined. A significant cup contains one quarter-log. This quarter-log is comprised of one quarter undiluted wine and three quarters water. Therefore, each cup must contain at least one quarter of one quarter-log of undiluted wine, so that one consumes a full quarter-log of liquid from each cup.


专讘讬 讬讛讜讚讛 讗讜诪专 爪专讬讱 砖讬讛讗 讘讜 讟注诐 讜诪专讗讛 讗诪专 专讘讗 诪讗讬 讟注诪讗 讚专讘讬 讬讛讜讚讛 讚讻转讬讘 讗诇 转专讗 讬讬谉 讻讬 讬转讗讚诐


The baraita stated that Rabbi Yehuda says the cup from which one drinks must have the taste and appearance of wine. Rava said: What is the reason for the opinion of Rabbi Yehuda? As it is written: 鈥淟ook not upon wine when it is red鈥 (Proverbs 23:31). This verse proves that the appearance of wine and not only its taste is important.


转谞讜 专讘谞谉 讛讻诇 讞讬讬讘讬谉 讘讗专讘注讛 讻讜住讜转 讛诇诇讜 讗讞讚 讗谞砖讬诐 讜讗讞讚 谞砖讬诐 讜讗讞讚 转讬谞讜拽讜转 讗诪专 专讘讬 讬讛讜讚讛 讜讻讬 诪讛 转讜注诇转 讬砖 诇转讬谞讜拽讜转 讘讬讬谉 讗诇讗 诪讞诇拽讬谉 诇讛谉


The Sages taught in a baraita: All are obligated in these four cups, including men, women, and children. Rabbi Yehuda said: What benefit do children receive from wine? They do not enjoy it. Rather, one distributes to them


Masechet Pesachim is sponsored by Sivya Twersky in honor of her daughter, Shoshana Baker, her grandson's upcoming Bar Mitzvah ,and in memory of her father, Harav Pesach Zachariah Halevi ben Reuven and Leah Z'late Z'L. He lived Torah and emunah by example to congregational and biological families. His yahrzeit falls within this masechet.

This month's shiurim are sponsored by Terri Krivosha in memory of her father Nahum Mayar ben Dovid Baer. Judge Norman Krivosha was a remarkable individual who, in the words of Mary Oliver, did far more than "simply visit this world". Yehi Zichro Baruch.

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The William Davidson Talmud | Powered by Sefaria

Pesachim 108

讘讬谉 讛讻讜住讜转 讛诇诇讜 讗诐 专爪讛 诇砖转讜转 讬砖转讛 讘讬谉 砖诇讬砖讬 诇专讘讬注讬 诇讗 讬砖转讛 讜讗讬 讗诪专转 诪住注讚 住注讬讚 讗诪讗讬 讬砖转讛 讛讗 拽讗 讗讻讬诇 诇诪爪讛 讗讻讬诇讛 讙住讛 讗诇讗 砖诪注 诪讬谞讛 诪讙专专 讙专讬专


During the Passover seder, between these cups that one is obligated to drink, e.g., between the first two of the four cups of wine, if one wants to drink he may drink. However, between the third and fourth cups, which are consumed after the meal, one may not drink. And if you say that wine satisfies a person, why may one drink extra cups? He will later eat matza when he is already satiated, which will constitute an excessive eating. Rather, learn from this that wine whets the appetite.


专讘 砖砖转 讛讜讛 讬转讬讘 讘转注谞讬转讗 讻诇 诪注诇讬 讬讜诪讗 讚驻住讞讗 谞讬诪讗 拽讗 住讘专 专讘 砖砖转 住诪讜讱 诇诪谞讞讛 讙讚讜诇讛 转谞谉 讜诪砖讜诐 驻住讞讗 讛讜讗 讚讬诇诪讗 诪讬诪砖讱 讜讗转讬 诇讗讬诪谞讜注讬 诪诇诪注讘讚 驻讬住讞讗 讛讜讗


The Gemara relates that Rav Sheshet would fast the entire eve of Passover. The Gemara asks: Shall we say that Rav Sheshet maintains that this practice was necessary because of two factors? First, when the mishna states that one may not eat adjacent to min岣 time, we learned this ruling with regard to the period of time adjacent to the greater min岣, and the reason for the prohibition is due to the Paschal lamb, lest one be drawn after one鈥檚 meal and come to refrain from performing the sacrifice of the Paschal lamb.


讜住讘专 诇讛 讻讬 讛讗 讚讗诪专 专讘讬 讗讜砖注讬讗 讗诪专 专讘讬 讗诇注讝专 诪讻砖讬专 讛讬讛 讘谉 讘转讬专讗 讘驻住讞 砖砖讞讟讜 砖讞专讬转 讘讗专讘注讛 注砖专 诇砖诪讜 讜诪爪驻专讗 讝诪谉 驻住讞讗 讛讜讗 讚讻讜诇讬 讬讜诪讗 讞讝讬 诇驻住讞讗


And second, Rav Sheshet maintains in accordance with that statement that Rabbi Oshaya said that Rabbi Elazar said: Ben Beteira would deem valid a Paschal lamb that was slaughtered in the morning on the fourteenth of Nisan for its own purpose, as from the morning it is already the time during which a Paschal lamb may be sacrificed, as the whole day is fit for the Paschal lamb.


讚住讘专 讘讬谉 讛注专讘讬诐 讘讬谉 注专讘 讚讗转诪讜诇 诇注专讘 讚讛讗讬讚谞讗


As ben Beteira maintained that when the Torah says the Paschal lamb must be sacrificed bein ha鈥檃rbayim (Exodus 12:6), which literally means: Between the evenings, but is often rendered: In the afternoon, the term refers to any time between the evening of yesterday and the current evening of the fourteenth. In other words, as Rav Sheshet maintained that the reason one may not eat on Passover eve is to prevent him from being distracted from preparing the Paschal lamb, and he also maintained that the Paschal offering may be sacrificed during the entire day of the fourteenth of Nisan, therefore, he would not eat that entire day.


讗诪专讬 诇讗 砖讗谞讬 专讘 砖砖转 讚讗讬住转谞讬住 讛讜讛 讚讗讬 讟注讬诐 讘爪驻专讗 诪讬讚讬 诇讗讜专转讗 诇讗 讛讜讛 诪讛谞讬 诇讬讛 诪讬讻诇讗:


They say in response to this suggested interpretation of Rav Sheshet鈥檚 practice: No, it is by no means clear that this was his reasoning. Rav Sheshet was different, as he was delicate [istenis], for if he would taste some food in the morning, the food he ate at night would not be effective for him. He would therefore fast the whole day so that he could eat matza at night with a hearty appetite.


讜讗驻讬诇讜 注谞讬 砖讘讬砖专讗诇 诇讗 讬讗讻诇 注讚 砖讬住讘: 讗讬转诪专 诪爪讛 爪专讬讱 讛住讬讘讛 诪专讜专 讗讬谉 爪专讬讱 讛住讬讘讛 讬讬谉 讗讬转诪专 诪砖诪讬讛 讚专讘 谞讞诪谉 爪专讬讱 讛住讬讘讛 讜讗讬转诪专 诪砖诪讬讛 讚专讘 谞讞诪谉 讗讬谉 爪专讬讱 讛住讬讘讛


We learned in the mishna that even the poorest of Jews should not eat until he reclines. It was stated that amora鈥檌m discussed the requirement to recline. Everyone agrees that matza requires reclining, i.e., one must recline when eating matza, and bitter herbs do not require reclining. With regard to wine, it was stated in the name of Rav Na岣an that wine requires reclining, and it was also stated in the name of Rav Na岣an that wine does not require reclining.


讜诇讗 驻诇讬讙讬 讛讗 讘转专转讬 讻住讬 拽诪讗讬 讛讗 讘转专转讬 讻住讬 讘转专讗讬 讗诪专讬 诇讛 诇讛讗讬 讙讬住讗 讜讗诪专讬 诇讛 诇讛讗讬 讙讬住讗 讗诪专讬 诇讛 诇讛讗讬 讙讬住讗 转专讬 讻住讬 拽诪讗讬 讘注讜 讛住讬讘讛 讚讛砖转讗 讛讜讗 讚拽讗 诪转讞诇讗 诇讛 讞讬专讜转 转专讬 讻住讬 讘转专讗讬 诇讗 讘注讜 讛住讬讘讛 诪讗讬 讚讛讜讛 讛讜讛


The Gemara explains: And these two statements do not disagree with each other: This statement is referring to the first two cups, and that statement is referring to the last two cups. However, it was not clear which two cups require reclining according to Rav Na岣an. Some say the explanation in this manner and some say it in that manner. The Gemara elaborates: Some say it in this manner, that the first two cups require reclining, as it is now that freedom begins. Since reclining is a sign of freedom, while discussing the exodus from Egypt it is appropriate to drink while reclining. By contrast, the last two cups do not require reclining, because what was already was. In other words, by this point one has completed the discussion of the Exodus and has reached the latter stages of the seder.


讜讗诪专讬 诇讛 诇讛讗讬 讙讬住讗 讗讚专讘讛 转专讬 讻住讬 讘转专讗讬 讘注讜 讛住讬讘讛 讛讛讬讗 砖注转讗 讚拽讗 讛讜讬讗 讞讬专讜转 转专讬 讻住讬 拽诪讗讬 诇讗 讘注讜 讛住讬讘讛 讚讗讻转讬 注讘讚讬诐 讛讬讬谞讜 拽讗诪专 讛砖转讗 讚讗讬转诪专 讛讻讬 讜讗讬转诪专 讛讻讬 讗讬讚讬 讜讗讬讚讬 讘注讜 讛住讬讘讛


And some say it in that manner and claim that on the contrary, the last two cups require reclining, as it is at that time that there is freedom. However, the first two cups do not require reclining, as one still says: We were slaves. The Gemara concludes: Now that it was stated so, and it was stated so, i.e., there are two conflicting opinions and it cannot be proven which two cups require reclining, both these sets of cups and those require reclining.


驻专拽讚谉 诇讗 砖诪讬讛 讛住讬讘讛 讛住讬讘转 讬诪讬谉 诇讗 砖诪讛 讛住讬讘讛 讜诇讗 注讜讚 讗诇讗 砖诪讗 讬拽讚讬诐 拽谞讛 诇讜讜砖讟 讜讬讘讗 诇讬讚讬 住讻谞讛


The Gemara continues to discuss the halakha of reclining. Lying on one鈥檚 back is not called reclining. Reclining to the right is not called reclining, as free men do not recline in this manner. People prefer to recline on their left and use their right hand to eat, whereas they find it more difficult to eat the other way. And not only that, but if one reclines to the right, perhaps the windpipe will precede the esophagus. The food will enter the windpipe, and one will come into danger of choking.


讗砖讛 讗爪诇 讘注诇讛 诇讗 讘注讬讗 讛住讬讘讛 讜讗诐 讗砖讛 讞砖讜讘讛 讛讬讗 爪专讬讻讛 讛住讬讘讛 讘谉 讗爪诇 讗讘讬讜 讘注讬 讛住讬讘讛 讗讬讘注讬讗 诇讛讜 转诇诪讬讚 讗爪诇 专讘讜 诪讗讬


A woman who is with her husband is not required to recline, but if she is an important woman, she is required to recline. A son who is with his father is required to recline. A dilemma was raised before the Sages: What is the halakha with regard to a student who is with his teacher? Perhaps he is not obligated to recline, as he is in awe of his rabbi, and reclining is a sign of complete freedom and independence.


转讗 砖诪注 (讗诪专) 讗讘讬讬 讻讬 讛讜讬谞谉 讘讬 诪专 讝讙讬谞谉 讗讘讬专讻讬 讚讛讚讚讬 讻讬 讗转讬谞谉 诇讘讬 专讘 讬讜住祝 讗诪专 诇谉 诇讗 爪专讬讻转讜 诪讜专讗 专讘讱 讻诪讜专讗 砖诪讬诐


Come and hear a proof that Abaye said: When we were in the house of my Master, Rabba, there was not enough room for everyone to recline on Passover, so we reclined on each other鈥檚 knees, to fulfill the obligation to recline. When we came to the house of Rav Yosef, he said to us: You need not recline, as the fear of your teacher is like the fear of Heaven. A student is subject to the authority of his teacher and may not display freedom in his presence.


诪讬转讬讘讬 注诐 讛讻诇 讗讚诐 诪讬住讘 讜讗驻讬诇讜 转诇诪讬讚 讗爪诇 专讘讜 讻讬 转谞讬讗 讛讛讬讗 讘砖讜诇讬讗 讚谞讙专讬


The Gemara raises an objection: A person must recline in the presence of anyone, and even a student who is with his teacher must do so. This baraita directly contradicts the statement of Rav Yosef. The Gemara answers: When that baraita was taught, it was with regard to a craftsman鈥檚 apprentice, not a student of Torah in the company of his rabbi. One who is in the presence of a person teaching him a trade is not in awe of his instructor, and he is therefore obligated to recline.


讗讬讘注讬讗 诇讛讜 砖诪砖 诪讗讬 转讗 砖诪注 讚讗诪专 专讘讬 讬讛讜砖注 讘谉 诇讜讬 讛砖诪砖 砖讗讻诇 讻讝讬转 诪爪讛 讻砖讛讜讗 诪讬住讘 讬爪讗 诪讬住讘 讗讬谉 诇讗 诪讬住讘 诇讗 砖诪注 诪讬谞讛 讘注讬 讛住讬讘讛 砖诪注 诪讬谞讛


A dilemma was raised before the Sages: What is the halakha with regard to a waiter? Is a waiter obligated to recline? The Gemara answers: Come and hear a solution, as Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi said: A waiter who ate an olive-bulk of matza while reclining has fulfilled his obligation. The Gemara infers: If he ate matza while reclining, yes, he has fulfilled his obligation; if he was not reclining, no, he has not fulfilled the obligation. Learn from this that a waiter requires reclining. The Gemara concludes: Indeed, learn from it that this is the case.


讜讗诪专 专讘讬 讬讛讜砖注 讘谉 诇讜讬 谞砖讬诐 讞讬讬讘讜转 讘讗专讘注讛 讻讜住讜转 讛诇诇讜


And Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi said: Women are obligated in these four cups of wine at the Passover seder.


砖讗祝 讛谉 讛讬讜 讘讗讜转讜 讛谞住


As they too were included in that miracle of the Exodus, they are therefore obligated to participate in the celebration.


讗诪专 专讘 讬讛讜讚讛 讗诪专 砖诪讜讗诇 讗专讘注讛 讻讜住讜转 讛诇诇讜 爪专讬讱 砖讬讛讗 讘讛谉 讻讚讬 诪讝讬讙转 讻讜住 讬驻讛 砖转讗谉 讞讬 讬爪讗 砖转讗谉 讘讘转 讗讞转 讬爪讗 讛砖拽讛 诪讛谉 诇讘谞讬讜 讜诇讘谞讬 讘讬转讜 讬爪讗


Rav Yehuda said that Shmuel said: These four cups must contain enough undiluted wine to allow for diluting a significant cup. In talmudic times, people would not drink pure wine. They would dilute it with water, generally adding three times as much water as wine. If one drank them undiluted, he has fulfilled his obligation. If one drank them all at once, i.e., he poured all four cups of wine into one large cup and drank it, he has fulfilled the obligation. If one gave his sons or the members of his household to drink from them, he has nevertheless fulfilled the obligation.


砖转讗谉 讞讬 讬爪讗 讗诪专 专讘讗 讬讚讬 讬讬谉 讬爪讗 讬讚讬 讞讬专讜转 诇讗 讬爪讗


The Gemara now addresses each of these rulings of Shmuel in turn. Shmuel said that if one drank them undiluted he has fulfilled his obligation. Rava said: He has fulfilled the obligation to drink the four cups of wine, but he has not fulfilled the obligation to drink in a way that expresses freedom, which is the preferable way to fulfill the mitzva, as aristocrats do not drink undiluted wine.


砖转讗谉 讘讘转 讗讞转 专讘 讗诪专 讬讚讬 讬讬谉 讬爪讗 讬讚讬 讗专讘注讛 讻讜住讜转 诇讗 讬爪讗 讛砖拽讛 诪讛谉 诇讘谞讬讜 讜诇讘谞讬 讘讬转讜 讬爪讗 讗诪专 专讘 谞讞诪谉 讘专 讬爪讞拽 讜讛讜讗 讚讗砖转讬 专讜讘讗 讚讻住讗


If one drank the four cups all at once, Rav said that he has fulfilled the obligation to drink wine as an expression of rejoicing on the Festival, but he has not fulfilled the obligation to drink four cups, which requires four distinct cups, each drunk separately. Shmuel also stated that if one gave his sons or the members of his household to drink from them, he has nevertheless fulfilled his obligation. Rav Na岣an bar Yitz岣k said: And this is the case only if he himself drank the majority of the cup.


诪讬转讬讘讬 讗专讘注讛 讻讜住讜转 讛诇诇讜 爪专讬讱 砖讬讛讗 讘讛谉 讻讚讬 专讘讬注讬转 讗讞讚 讞讬 讜讗讞讚 诪讝讜讙 讗讞讚 讞讚砖 讜讗讞讚 讬砖谉 专讘讬 讬讛讜讚讛 讗讜诪专 爪专讬讱 砖讬讛讗 讘讜 讟注诐 讜诪专讗讛 讬讬谉 拽转谞讬 诪讬讛转 讻讚讬 专讘讬注讬转 讜讗转 讗诪专转 讻讜住 讬驻讛


The Gemara raises an objection to the above rulings from a baraita: These four cups must contain one quarterlog, whether the wine is undiluted or diluted, whether it is new or aged. Rabbi Yehuda says: It must have the taste and appearance of wine. In any event, this baraita is teaching that each cup must contain at least the amount of one quarter-log, and yet you said that each must contain enough for diluting a significant cup.


讗诪专讬 讗讬讚讬 讜讗讬讚讬 讞讚 砖讬注讜专讗 讛讜讗 诪讗讬 讻讚讬 诪讝讬讙转 讻讜住 讬驻讛 讚拽讗诪专 诇讻诇 讞讚 讜讞讚 讚讛讜讬 诇讛讜 讻讜诇讛讜 专讘讬注讬转


They say in response that this and that are one and the same measure. The Gemara explains: What is the meaning of the expression: Enough for diluting a significant cup, which Shmuel said? He meant that there must be enough undiluted wine for each and every one of the cups, i.e., one quarter-log of diluted wine. This amounts to one quarterlog of undiluted wine for all of them combined. A significant cup contains one quarter-log. This quarter-log is comprised of one quarter undiluted wine and three quarters water. Therefore, each cup must contain at least one quarter of one quarter-log of undiluted wine, so that one consumes a full quarter-log of liquid from each cup.


专讘讬 讬讛讜讚讛 讗讜诪专 爪专讬讱 砖讬讛讗 讘讜 讟注诐 讜诪专讗讛 讗诪专 专讘讗 诪讗讬 讟注诪讗 讚专讘讬 讬讛讜讚讛 讚讻转讬讘 讗诇 转专讗 讬讬谉 讻讬 讬转讗讚诐


The baraita stated that Rabbi Yehuda says the cup from which one drinks must have the taste and appearance of wine. Rava said: What is the reason for the opinion of Rabbi Yehuda? As it is written: 鈥淟ook not upon wine when it is red鈥 (Proverbs 23:31). This verse proves that the appearance of wine and not only its taste is important.


转谞讜 专讘谞谉 讛讻诇 讞讬讬讘讬谉 讘讗专讘注讛 讻讜住讜转 讛诇诇讜 讗讞讚 讗谞砖讬诐 讜讗讞讚 谞砖讬诐 讜讗讞讚 转讬谞讜拽讜转 讗诪专 专讘讬 讬讛讜讚讛 讜讻讬 诪讛 转讜注诇转 讬砖 诇转讬谞讜拽讜转 讘讬讬谉 讗诇讗 诪讞诇拽讬谉 诇讛谉


The Sages taught in a baraita: All are obligated in these four cups, including men, women, and children. Rabbi Yehuda said: What benefit do children receive from wine? They do not enjoy it. Rather, one distributes to them


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