Please ensure Javascript is enabled for purposes of website accessibility Skip to content

Today's Daf Yomi

March 18, 2021 | 讛壮 讘谞讬住谉 转砖驻状讗

Masechet Pesachim is sponsored by Sivya Twersky in honor of her daughter, Shoshana Baker, her grandson's upcoming Bar Mitzvah ,and in memory of her father, Harav Pesach Zachariah Halevi ben Reuven and Leah Z'late Z'L. He lived Torah and emunah by example to congregational and biological families. His yahrzeit falls within this masechet.

This month's shiurim are sponsored by Terri Krivosha in memory of her father Nahum Mayar ben Dovid Baer. Judge Norman Krivosha was a remarkable individual who, in the words of Mary Oliver, did far more than "simply visit this world". Yehi Zichro Baruch.

This month's shiurim are sponsored by Bill Futornick in memory of Rabbi David Teitelbaum Z"L, who led Congregation Beth Jacob in Redwood City, CA for 38 years. He was an extraordinary leader, teacher, moral exemplar聽and family man聽who truly fought for equality and deeply embraced ahavat tzion.

  • This month鈥檚 learning is sponsored by Jon and Yael Cohen in memory of Dr. Robert Van Amerongen.聽May his memory be blessed.

  • This month's learning is sponsored by Amy Cohn in memory of her father, Professor Dov Zlotnick who taught his five girls the love of learning.

Pesachim 117

The gemara brings a debate regarding various words in the Torah that end with “讬讛” – are they written as one word or two. What is the meaning of the word 讛诇诇讜讬讛? Who is the writing/first recitation of Hallel attributed to? Was the book of Psalms written by David as personal prayers or prayers for the community? Many Psalms begin with introductory words – what is the meaning of each of the different words? What state of mind should one be in before getting a prophecy, teaching a halacha and having a good dream? The gemara brings a list of people/situations throughout Jewish history who said Hallel. In what situations does one say Hallel? The word 讛诇诇讜讬讛 appears sometimes at the beginning and sometimes at the end of a chapter of Psalms. The gemara mentions several of them and discusses whether they are meant to be the last word of the chapter or the beginning of the next. Why is the blessing of the redeemer of Israel sometimes used in the present tense and sometimes past tense? The gemara discusses other places where similar blessings end with different wording. The third cup is said on birkhat hamazon and the fourth on the end of Hallel. One can drink other wine between all the cups, other than the last two.

讗诪专 专讘 讞住讚讗 讗诪专 专讘讬 讬讜讞谞谉 讛诇诇讜讬讛 讜讻住讬讛 讜讬讚讬讚讬讛 讗讞转 讛谉 专讘 讗诪专 讻住讬讛 讜诪专讞讘讬讛 讗讞转 讛谉 专讘讛 讗诪专 诪专讞讘讬讛 讘诇讘讚

The mishna states that we will say before Him: Halleluya. The Gemara discusses the meaning of this term. Rav 岣sda said that Rabbi Yo岣nan said: The word halleluya and the word kesya (Exodus 17:16) and the name Yedidya (II Samuel 12:25) are each regarded as a single word, not an amalgamation of two smaller words, i.e., Halleluya. Rav said that kesya and mer岣vya (Psalms 118:5) are single words. Rabba said: Only mer岣vya is a single word; the others are two words.

讗讬讘注讬讗 诇讛讜 诪专讞讘 讬讛 诇专讘 讞住讚讗 诪讗讬 转讬拽讜

A dilemma was raised before the Sages: According to the opinion of Rav 岣sda, what is the status of mer岣vya? Is it counted as two words or one? This dilemma was raised because Rav 岣sda himself did not mention this term. No answer was found for this dilemma, and therefore the Gemara states: Let it stand unresolved.

讗讬讘注讬讗 诇讛讜 讬讚讬讚讬讛 诇专讘 诪讗讬 转讗 砖诪注 讚讗诪专 专讘 讬讚讬讚讬讛 谞讞诇拽 诇砖谞讬诐 诇驻讬讻讱 讬讚讬讚 讞讜诇 讬讛 拽讜讚砖

Another dilemma was raised before the Sages: According to the opinion of Rav, what is the status of the name Yedidya? The Gemara answers: Come and hear, as Rav said explicitly: Yedidya is divided into two separate names. Therefore, yedid is a mundane word, whereas ya is a sacred name, which must be treated respectfully like the other sacred names of God.

讗讬讘注讬讗 诇讛讜 讛诇诇讜讬讛 诇专讘 诪讗讬 转讗 砖诪注 讚讗诪专 专讘 讞讝讬谞讗 转讬诇讬 讚讘讬 讞讘讬讘讗 讚讻转讬讘 讘讛讜 讛诇诇讜 讘讞讚 讙讬住讗 讜讬讛 讘讞讚 讙讬住讗

A dilemma was raised before the Sages: According to the opinion of Rav, what is the status of halleluya? Is it one word or two? The Gemara answers: Come and hear, as Rav said: I saw a book of Psalms in the study hall of my uncle, Rabbi 岣yya, in which the word hallelu is written on one side, at the end of a line, and ya was written on one side, at the beginning of the next line. This shows that the word halleluya can indeed be split in two.

讜驻诇讬讙讗 讚专讘讬 讬讛讜砖注 讘谉 诇讜讬 讚讗诪专 专讘讬 讬讛讜砖注 讘谉 诇讜讬 诪讗讬 讛诇诇讜讬讛 讛诇诇讜讛讜 讘讛诇讜诇讬诐 讛专讘讛

The Gemara comments: This opinion disputes that of Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi, as Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi said: What is the meaning of the word halleluya? It means praise Him [halleluhu] with many praises [hillulim]. According to this opinion, the ya at the end of the word is a superlative, not a divine name.

讜驻诇讬讙讗 讚讬讚讬讛 讗讚讬讚讬讛 讚讗诪专 专讘讬 讬讛讜砖注 讘谉 诇讜讬 讘注砖专讛 诪讗诪专讜转 砖诇 砖讘讞 谞讗诪专 住驻专 转讛诇讬诐 讘谞讬爪讜讞 讘谞讙讜谉 讘诪砖讻讬诇 讘诪讝诪讜专 讘砖讬专 讘讗砖专讬 讘转讛诇讛 讘转驻诇讛 讘讛讜讚讗讛 讘讛诇诇讜讬讛 讙讚讜诇 诪讻讜诇谉 讛诇诇讜讬讛 砖讻讜诇诇 砖诐 讜砖讘讞 讘讘转 讗讞转

The Gemara adds: This statement of Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi disagrees with another ruling that he himself issued, as Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi said: The book of Psalms is said by means of ten expressions of praise: By nitzua岣, niggun, maskil, mizmor, shir, ashrei, tehilla, tefilla, hoda鈥檃, and halleluya. He continues: The greatest of them all is halleluya, as it includes God鈥檚 name and praise at one time. This statement indicates that Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi considers halleluya to be a combination of two words, one of which is the name of God.

讗诪专 专讘 讬讛讜讚讛 讗诪专 砖诪讜讗诇 砖讬专 砖讘转讜专讛 诪砖讛 讜讬砖专讗诇 讗诪专讜讛讜 讘砖注讛 砖注诇讜 诪谉 讛讬诐 讜讛诇诇 讝讛 诪讬 讗诪专讜 谞讘讬讗讬诐 砖讘讬谞讬讛谉 转拽谞讜 诇讛谉 诇讬砖专讗诇 砖讬讛讜 讗讜诪专讬谉 讗讜转讜 注诇 讻诇 驻专拽 讜驻专拽 讜注诇 讻诇 爪专讛 讜爪专讛 砖诇讗 转讘讗 注诇讬讛谉 讜诇讻砖谞讙讗诇讬谉 讗讜诪专讬诐 讗讜转讜 注诇 讙讗讜诇转谉

Rav Yehuda said that Shmuel said: The song in the Torah, i.e., the Song at the Sea (Exodus 15:1鈥19), Moses and the Jewish people recited it when they ascended from the sea. The Gemara asks: And who said this hallel mentioned in the mishna, Psalms 113鈥118? The Gemara answers: The Prophets among them established this hallel for the Jewish people, that they should recite it on every appropriate occasion; and for every trouble, may it not come upon them, they recite the supplications included in hallel. When they are redeemed, they recite it over their redemption, as hallel includes expressions of gratitude for the redemption.

转谞讬讗 讛讬讛 专讘讬 诪讗讬专 讗讜诪专 讻诇 转讜砖讘讞讜转 讛讗诪讜专讜转 讘住驻专 转讛诇讬诐 讻诇谉 讚讜讚 讗诪专谉 砖谞讗诪专 讻诇讜 转驻诇讜转 讚讜讚 讘谉 讬砖讬 讗诇 转讬拽专讬 讻诇讜 讗诇讗 讻诇 讗诇讜

It was taught in a baraita that Rabbi Meir would say: All the praises stated in the book of Psalms were recited by David, as it is stated: 鈥淭he prayers of David, son of Yishai, are ended [kalu]鈥 (Psalms 72:20). Do not read kalu; rather, read kol elu, all of these, which indicates that the entire book of Psalms consists of the prayers of King David.

讛诇诇 讝讛 诪讬 讗诪专讜 专讘讬 讬讜住讬 讗讜诪专 讗诇注讝专 讘谞讬 讗讜诪专 诪砖讛 讜讬砖专讗诇 讗诪专讜讛讜 讘砖注讛 砖注诇讜 诪谉 讛讬诐 讜讞诇讜拽讬谉 注诇讬讜 讞讘讬专讬讜 诇讜诪专 砖讚讜讚 讗诪专讜 讜谞专讗讬谉 讚讘专讬讜 诪讚讘专讬讛谉 讗驻砖专 讬砖专讗诇 砖讞讟讜 讗转 驻住讞讬讛谉 讜谞讟诇讜 诇讜诇讘讬讛谉 讜诇讗 讗诪专讜 砖讬专讛

The Gemara clarifies: According to those who dispute Rabbi Meir鈥檚 claim that the entire book of Psalms was composed by King David, who recited this hallel? Rabbi Yosei says: My son Elazar says that Moses and the Jewish people recited it when they ascended from the sea. And his colleagues dispute him, saying that it was recited by King David. And the statement of my son, Elazar, appears more accurate than their statement. The reason is as follows: Is it possible that the Jewish people slaughtered their Paschal lambs and took and waved their lulavim all those generations without reciting a song? Rather, the Jews must have recited a song each year. Since it is the custom to sing hallel nowadays, it is evidently an ancient institution.

讚讘专 讗讞专 驻住诇讜 砖诇 诪讬讻讛 注讜诪讚 讘讘讻讬 讜讬砖专讗诇 讗讜诪专讬诐 讗转 讛讛诇诇:

Alternatively, is it possible that Micah鈥檚 idol stood in tears, and the Jewish people were reciting hallel before it? The reference is to the idol of Micah, which was still standing in the days of David (see Judges 17). The Gemara states that the idol was crying, as a euphemism for its laughter, to avoid shaming the Jewish people (ge鈥檕nim). The point is that the Jews would not have chanted: 鈥淭hey who make them shall be like them鈥 (Psalms 115:8) at a time that they were worshipping idols. Rather, hallel must be older than that, and it dates back to the Song at the Sea.

转谞讜 专讘谞谉 讻诇 砖讬专讜转 讜转讜砖讘讞讜转 砖讗诪专 讚讜讚 讘住驻专 转讛诇讬诐 专讘讬 讗诇讬注讝专 讗讜诪专 讻谞讙讚 注爪诪讜 讗诪专谉 专讘讬 讬讛讜砖注 讗讜诪专 讻谞讙讚 爪讬讘讜专 讗诪专谉 讜讞讻诪讬诐 讗讜诪专讬诐 讬砖 诪讛谉 讻谞讙讚 爪讬讘讜专 讜讬砖 诪讛谉 讻谞讙讚 注爪诪讜 讛讗诪讜专讜转 讘诇砖讜谉 讬讞讬讚 讻谞讙讚 注爪诪讜 讛讗诪讜专讜转 讘诇砖讜谉 专讘讬诐 讻谞讙讚 爪讬讘讜专

The Sages taught in a baraita that with regard to all the songs and praise that David recited in the book of Psalms, Rabbi Eliezer says: David said them about himself. They were the praises of an individual that were later transmitted to the community. Rabbi Yehoshua says: He originally said them about the community. He composed all of the psalms for the people, including those he wrote about himself. And the Rabbis say: There are among these psalms some that are about the community, and there are among these psalms some that are about himself. The Rabbis clarify their opinion: The psalms that are stated in the singular form are about himself, and those stated in the plural form are about the community.

谞讬爪讜讞 讜谞讬讙讜谉 诇注转讬讚 诇讘讗 诪砖讻讬诇 注诇 讬讚讬 转讜专讙诪谉 诇讚讜讚 诪讝诪讜专 诪诇诪讚 砖砖专转讛 注诇讬讜 砖讻讬谞讛 讜讗讞专 讻讱 讗诪专 砖讬专讛 诪讝诪讜专 诇讚讜讚 诪诇诪讚 砖讗诪专 砖讬专讛 讜讗讞专 讻讱 砖专转讛 注诇讬讜 砖讻讬谞讛

The Gemara continues to discuss the book of Psalms. If a psalm begins with the terms nitzua岣 or niggun, this indicates that its praise will be fulfilled in the future. Psalms that begin with the word maskil were delivered by means of a disseminator, a spokesman in a public address. The lecturer would speak softly, followed by a repetition of his discourse in the disseminator鈥檚 louder voice, so that everyone could hear. If a psalm begins: Of David a psalm, this teaches that the Divine Presence rested upon him first and afterward he recited the song. However, if a psalm opens with: A psalm of David, this teaches that he first recited the song, and afterward the Divine Presence rested upon him.

诇诇诪讚讱 砖讗讬谉 讛砖讻讬谞讛 砖讜专讛 诇讗 诪转讜讱 注爪诇讜转 讜诇讗 诪转讜讱 注爪讘讜转 讜诇讗 诪转讜讱 砖讞讜拽 讜诇讗 诪转讜讱 拽诇讜转 专讗砖 讜诇讗 诪转讜讱 讚讘专讬诐 讘讟诇讬诐 讗诇讗 诪转讜讱 讚讘专 砖诪讞讛 砖诇 诪爪讜讛 砖谞讗诪专 讜注转讛 拽讞讜 诇讬 诪谞讙谉 讜讛讬讛 讻谞讙谉 讛诪谞讙谉 讜转讛讬 注诇讬讜 讬讚 讛壮

The Gemara adds: Incidentally, this serves to teach you that the Divine Presence rests upon an individual neither from an atmosphere of sadness, nor from an atmosphere of laziness, nor from an atmosphere of laughter, nor from an atmosphere of frivolity, nor from an atmosphere of idle conversation, nor from an atmosphere of idle chatter, but rather from an atmosphere imbued with the joy of a mitzva. As it is stated with regard to Elisha, after he became angry at the king of Israel, his prophetic spirit left him until he requested: 鈥淏ut now bring me a minstrel; and it came to pass when the minstrel played, that the hand of the Lord came upon him鈥 (II Kings 3:15).

讗诪专 专讘 讬讛讜讚讛 讗诪专 专讘 讜讻谉 诇讚讘专 讛诇讻讛 讗诪专 专讘 谞讞诪谉 讜讻谉 诇讞诇讜诐 讟讜讘

Rav Yehuda said that Rav said: And, so too, one should be joyful before stating a matter of halakha. Rav Na岣an said: And, so too, one should be joyful before going to sleep, to ensure he will have a good dream.

讗讬谞讬 讜讛讗诪专 专讘 讙讬讚诇 讗诪专 专讘 讻诇 转诇诪讬讚 讞讻诐 讛讬讜砖讘 诇驻谞讬 专讘讜 讜讗讬谉 砖驻转讜转讬讜 谞讜讟驻讜转 诪专 转讻讜讬谞讛 砖谞讗诪专 砖驻转讜转讬讜 砖讜砖谞讬诐 谞讜讟驻讜转 诪讜专 注讜讘专 讗诇 转拽专讬 砖讜砖谞讬诐 讗诇讗 砖砖讜谞讬诐 讗诇 转拽专讬 诪讜专 注讜讘专 讗诇讗 诪专 注讘专

The Gemara asks: Is that so, that one should introduce matters of halakha joyfully? Didn鈥檛 Rav Giddel say that Rav said: Any Torah scholar who sits before his teacher and his lips are not dripping with bitterness due to fear of his teacher, those lips shall be burned, as it is stated: 鈥淗is lips are as lilies [shoshanim] dripping with flowing myrrh [notefot mor over]鈥 (Song of Songs 5:13). He interpreted homiletically: Do not read it as shoshanim, lilies; rather, read it as sheshonim, who are studying. Likewise, do not read it as mor over, flowing myrrh; rather, read it as mar over, flowing bitterness. In other words, lips that are studying Torah must be full of bitterness.

诇讗 拽砖讬讗 讛讗 讘专讘讛 讛讗 讘转诇诪讬讚讗

The Gemara explains: This is not difficult; there is no contradiction here, as this statement, which teaches that one should introduce matters of halakha joyfully, is referring to a rabbi, and that statement, which teaches that one must be filled with bitterness, is referring to a student, who must listen to his teacher with trepidation.

讜讗讬 讘注讬转 讗讬诪讗 讛讗 讜讛讗 讘专讘讛 讜诇讗 拽砖讬讗 讛讗 诪拽诪讬 讚驻转讞 讜讛讗 诇讘转专 讚驻转讞 讻讬 讛讗 讚专讘讛 诪拽诪讬 讚驻转讞 诇讛讜 诇专讘谞谉 讗诪专 诪讬诇转讗 讚讘讚讬讞讜转讗 讜讘讚讞讜 专讘谞谉 讜诇讘住讜祝 讬转讬讘 讘讗讬诪转讗 讜驻转讞 讘砖诪注转讗

And if you wish, say instead that this and that are referring to a rabbi, and it is not difficult. This statement, where it is taught that one must be joyful, is before one begins teaching; that statement, where it is taught that he must be filled with bitterness and trepidation, is after he already began teaching halakha. The Gemara adds: That explanation is like that practice of Rabba鈥檚. Before he began teaching halakha to the Sages, he would say some humorous comment, and the Sages would be cheered. Ultimately, he sat in trepidation and began teaching the halakha.

转谞讜 专讘谞谉 讛诇诇 讝讛 诪讬 讗诪专讜 专讘讬 讗诇讬注讝专 讗讜诪专 诪砖讛 讜讬砖专讗诇 讗诪专讜讛讜 讘砖注讛 砖注诪讚讜 注诇 讛讬诐 讛诐 讗诪专讜 诇讗 诇谞讜 讛壮 诇讗 诇谞讜 诪砖讬讘讛 专讜讞 讛拽讜讚砖 讜讗诪专讛 诇讛谉 诇诪注谞讬 诇诪注谞讬 讗注砖讛 专讘讬 讬讛讜讚讛 讗讜诪专 讬讛讜砖注 讜讬砖专讗诇 讗诪专讜讛讜 讘砖注讛 砖注诪讚讜 注诇讬讛谉 诪诇讻讬 讻谞注谉 讛诐 讗诪专讜 诇讗 诇谞讜 讜诪砖讬讘讛 讜讻讜壮

The Sages taught: This hallel, who initially recited it? Rabbi Eliezer says: Moses and the Jewish people recited it when they stood by the sea. They said: 鈥淣ot to us, God, not to us, but to Your name give glory鈥 (Psalms 115:1). The Divine Spirit responded and said to them: 鈥淔or My own sake, for My own sake, will I do it鈥 (Isaiah 48:11). Rabbi Yehuda says: Joshua and the Jewish people recited it when they defeated the kings of Canaan who stood against them (see Joshua 12:7鈥24). They said: Not to us, and the Divine Spirit responded: For My own sake.

专讘讬 讗诇注讝专 讛诪讜讚注讬 讗讜诪专 讚讘讜专讛 讜讘专拽 讗诪专讜讛讜 讘砖注讛 砖注诪讚 注诇讬讛诐 住讬住专讗 讛诐 讗诪专讜 诇讗 诇谞讜 讜专讜讞 讛拽讜讚砖 诪砖讬讘讛 讜讗讜诪专转 诇讛诐 诇诪注谞讬 诇诪注谞讬 讗注砖讛 专讘讬 讗诇注讝专 讘谉 注讝专讬讛 讗讜诪专 讞讝拽讬讛 讜住讬讬注转讜 讗诪专讜讛讜 讘砖注讛 砖注诪讚 注诇讬讛诐 住谞讞专讬讘 讛诐 讗诪专讜 诇讗 诇谞讜 讜诪砖讬讘讛 讜讻讜壮 专讘讬 注拽讬讘讗 讗讜诪专 讞谞谞讬讛 诪讬砖讗诇 讜注讝专讬讛 讗诪专讜讛讜 讘砖注讛 砖注诪讚 注诇讬讛诐 谞讘讜讻讚谞爪专 讛专砖注 讛诐 讗诪专讜 诇讗 诇谞讜 讜诪砖讬讘讛 讜讻讜壮 专讘讬 讬讜住讬 讛讙诇讬诇讬 讗讜诪专 诪专讚讻讬 讜讗住转专 讗诪专讜讛讜 讘砖注讛 砖注诪讚 注诇讬讛诐 讛诪谉 讛专砖注 讛诐 讗诪专讜 诇讗 诇谞讜 讜诪砖讬讘讛 讜讻讜壮

Rabbi Elazar HaModa鈥檌 says: Deborah and Barak recited it when Sisera stood against them (see Judges 4鈥5). They said: Not to us, and the Divine Spirit responded and said to them: For My own sake, for My own sake, will I do it. Rabbi Elazar ben Azarya says: Hezekiah and his company recited it when Sennacherib stood against them (see II Kings 18鈥19). They said: Not to us and the Divine Spirit responded: For My own sake. Rabbi Akiva says: Hananiah, Mishael, and Azariah recited it when the wicked Nebuchadnezzar stood against them (see Daniel 3). They said: Not to us, and the Divine Spirit responded: For My own sake. Rabbi Yosei HaGelili says: Mordecai and Esther recited it when the wicked Haman stood against them. They said: Not to us, and the Divine Spirit responded: For My own sake (see the book of Esther).

讜讞讻诪讬诐 讗讜诪专讬诐 谞讘讬讗讬诐 砖讘讬谞讬讛谉 转讬拽谞讜 诇讛诐 诇讬砖专讗诇 砖讬讛讜 讗讜诪专讬诐 讗讜转讜 注诇 讻诇 驻专拽 讜驻专拽 讜注诇 讻诇 爪专讛 讜爪专讛 砖诇讗 转讘讗 注诇讬讛诐 诇讬砖专讗诇 讜诇讻砖谞讙讗诇讬谉 讗讜诪专讬诐 讗讜转讜 注诇 讙讗讜诇转谉:

And the Rabbis say that hallel was not established for any specific event, but the Prophets among them instituted that the Jewish people should recite it on every appropriate occasion, and for every trouble, may it not come upon the Jewish people. When they are redeemed, they recite it over their redemption.

讗诪专 专讘 讞住讚讗 讛诇诇讜讬讛 住讜祝 驻讬专拽讗 专讘讛 讘专 专讘 讛讜谞讗 讗诪专 讛诇诇讜讬讛 专讬砖 驻讬专拽讗 讗诪专 专讘 讞住讚讗 讞讝讬谞讗 诇讛讜 诇转讬诇讬 讚讘讬 专讘 讞谞讬谉 讘专 专讘 讚讻转讬讘 讘讛讜 讛诇诇讜讬讛 讘讗诪爪注 驻讬专拽讗 讗诇诪讗 诪住驻拽讗 诇讬讛

The Gemara continues to discuss the term halleluya. Rav 岣sda said: The halleluya stated in the final verse in several Psalms signifies the end of a chapter. Rabba bar Rav Huna said: Halleluya marks the start of a new chapter, the beginning of the next psalm. Rav 岣sda said: I saw a book of Psalms in the study hall of Rav 岣nin bar Rav, in which it is written halleluya in the middle of the chapter, i.e., between the chapters, neither at the start of one psalm nor at the end of the next. Apparently, Rav 岣nin bar Rav was uncertain where the word belonged.

讗诪专 专讘 讞谞讬谉 讘专 专讘讗 讛讻诇 诪讜讚讬诐 讘转讛诇转 讛壮 讬讚讘专 驻讬 讜讬讘专讱 讻诇 讘砖专 砖诐 拽讚砖讜 诇注讜诇诐 讜注讚 (讛诇诇讜讬讛) 讛诇诇讜讬讛 讚讘转专讬讛 专讬砖 驻讬专拽讗 专砖注 讬专讗讛 讜讻注住 砖谞讬讜 讬讞专拽 讜谞诪住 转讗讜转 专砖注讬诐 转讗讘讚 讛诇诇讜讬讛 讚讘转专讬讛 专讬砖 驻讬专拽讗 讜砖注讜诪讚讬诐 讘讘讬转 讛壮 讛诇诇讜讬讛 讚讘转专讬讛 专讬砖 驻讬专拽讗

Rav 岣nin bar Rava said: Everyone concedes with regard to the verse: 鈥淢y mouth shall speak the praise of the Lord; and let all flesh bless His holy name forever and ever鈥 (Psalms 145:21), that the halleluya that follows, the opening word of the subsequent psalm, marks the start of the next chapter, not the conclusion of the previous one. Likewise, with regard to the verse: 鈥淭he wicked shall see and be vexed; he shall gnash with his teeth, and melt away; the desire of the wicked shall perish鈥 (Psalms 112:10), the halleluya that follows it, is the start of the next chapter. And similarly, with regard to: 鈥淵ou who stand in the house of the Lord鈥 (Psalms 135:2) the halleluya that follows it, in verse 3, signifies the start of the next chapter.

拽专讗讬 诪讜住讬驻讬谉 讗祝 讗转 讗诇讜 诪谞讞诇 讘讚专讱 讬砖转讛 注诇 讻谉 讬专讬诐 专讗砖 讛诇诇讜讬讛 讚讘转专讬讛 专讬砖 驻讬专拽讗 专讗砖讬转 讞讻诪讛 讬专讗转 讛壮 砖讻诇 讟讜讘 诇讻诇 注讜砖讬讛诐 讛诇诇讜讬讛 讚讘转专讬讛 专讬砖 驻讬专拽讗

Those Sages who were expert in the verses of the Bible add these too: 鈥淗e will drink of the brook in the way; therefore will he lift up the head鈥 (Psalms 110:7); the halleluya that follows it, the first word of the subsequent psalm, is the start of the next chapter. With regard to the verse: 鈥淭he fear of God is the beginning of wisdom; a good understanding have all they who practice them; His praise endures forever鈥 (Psalms 111:10), the halleluya that follows it, marks the start of the next chapter.

谞讬诪讗 讻转谞讗讬 注讚 讛讬讻谉 讛讜讗 讗讜诪专 讘讬转 砖诪讗讬 讗讜诪专讬诐 注讚 讗诐 讛讘谞讬诐 砖诪讞讛 讜讘讬转 讛诇诇 讗讜诪专讬诐 注讚 讞诇诪讬砖 诇诪注讬谞讜 诪讬诐 讜转谞讬讗 讗讬讚讱 注讚 讛讬讻谉 讛讜讗 讗讜诪专 讘讬转 砖诪讗讬 讗讜诪专讬诐 注讚 讘爪讗转 讬砖专讗诇 诪诪爪专讬诐 讜讘讬转 讛诇诇 讗讜诪专讬诐 注讚 诇讗 诇谞讜 讛壮 诇讗 诇谞讜

The Gemara suggests: Let us say it is parallel to a dispute between the tanna鈥檌m, as we learned in the mishna: Until where does one recite hallel? Beit Shammai say: Until 鈥淎 joyful mother of children, halleluya鈥 (Psalms 113:9). And Beit Hillel say: Until 鈥淭he flint into a fountain of waters鈥 (Psalms 114:8). And it was taught in another source, a baraita: Until where does one recite hallel? Beit Shammai say: Until 鈥淲hen Israel came forth out of Egypt鈥 (Psalms 114:1), the beginning of the first passage after 鈥淎 joyful mother of children, halleluya.鈥 And Beit Hillel say: Until 鈥淣ot to us, God, not to us鈥 (Psalms 115:1), which follows 鈥渢he flint into a fountain of waters.鈥

诪讗讬 诇讗讜 讘讛讗 拽诪讬驻诇讙讬 诇诪讗谉 讚讗诪专 注讚 讗诐 讛讘谞讬诐 砖诪讞讛 住讘专 讛诇诇讜讬讛 专讬砖 驻讬专拽讗 讜诪讗谉 讚讗诪专 注讚 讘爪讗转 讬砖专讗诇 住讘专 讛诇诇讜讬讛 住讜祝 驻讬专拽讗

What, is it not the case that the mishna and the baraita disagree concerning the following matter: According to the one who says that one must recite until 鈥淎 joyful mother of children,鈥 he maintains that the subsequent halleluya is the start of a chapter. And the one who said that one must recite until 鈥淲hen Israel came forth鈥 maintains that halleluya is the end of the previous chapter. The mishna and the baraita disagree only with regard to when the word halleluya should be recited, at this point in the seder or when hallel is resumed after the meal.

专讘 讞住讚讗 诪转专抓 诇讟注诪讬讛 讚讻讜诇讬 注诇诪讗 住讘专讬 讛诇诇讜讬讛 住讜祝 驻讬专拽讗 诪讗谉 讚讗诪专 注讚 讘爪讗转 讬砖专讗诇 砖驻讬专 讜诪讗谉 讚讗诪专 注讚 讗诐 讛讘谞讬诐 砖诪讞讛 注讚 讜注讚 讘讻诇诇

The Gemara rejects this contention: This is no proof, as Rav 岣sda explains the difference between the mishna and the baraita in accordance with his reasoning, that everyone maintains that halleluya marks the end of a chapter. However, the one who said that one must recite until 鈥淲hen Israel came forth鈥 spoke well, as he cites the beginning of the next verse. And the one who said that one must recite until 鈥淎 joyful mother of children鈥 means until and including, i.e., one finishes the entire verse including the word halleluya.

讜谞讬诪讗 注讚 讛诇诇讜讬讛 讜讻讬 转讬诪讗 讚诇讗 讬讚注讬谞谉 讛讬 讛诇诇讜讬讛 讜谞讬诪讗 讛诇诇讜讬讛 砖诇 讗诐 讛讘谞讬诐 砖诪讞讛 拽砖讬讗

The Gemara asks: If so, let the tanna say: Until halleluya. And if you say that we would not know which halleluya he meant, let the tanna say: The halleluya of 鈥淎 joyful mother of children.鈥 The Gemara comments: This is indeed difficult for the opinion of Rav 岣sda.

专讘讛 讘专 专讘 讛讜谞讗 诪转专抓 诇讟注诪讬讛 讚讻讜诇讬 注诇诪讗 讛诇诇讜讬讛 专讬砖 驻讬专拽讗 诪讗谉 讚讗诪专 注讚 讗诐 讛讘谞讬诐 砖诪讞讛 砖驻讬专 讜诪讗谉 讚讗诪专 注讚 讘爪讗转 讬砖专讗诇 住讘专 注讚 讜诇讗 注讚 讘讻诇诇

Likewise, Rabba bar Rav Huna explains the difference between the mishna and the baraita in accordance with his reasoning, that everyone agrees that halleluya signifies the start of a chapter. The one who said that one must recite until 鈥淎 joyful mother of children鈥 spoke well, and the one who said that one must recite until 鈥淲hen Israel came forth鈥 maintains that the term means until and not including, as one does not conclude with the word halleluya after 鈥淎 joyful mother of children.鈥

讜谞讬诪讗 注讚 讛诇诇讜讬讛 讜讻讬 转讬诪讗 讚诇讗 讬讚注讬谞谉 讛讬 讛诇诇讜讬讛 讜谞讬诪讗 注讚 讛诇诇讜讬讛 砖讘爪讗转 讬砖专讗诇 拽砖讬讗:

The Gemara asks a similar question with regard to the opinion of Rabba bar Rav Huna: If so, let the tanna say: Until halleluya. And if you say that we would not know which halleluya he meant, let the tanna say: The halleluya of 鈥淲hen Israel came forth.鈥 The Gemara comments: This is indeed difficult for Rabba bar Rav Huna鈥檚 opinion.

讜讞讜转诐 讘讙讗讜诇讛: 讗诪专 专讘讗 拽专讬讗转 砖诪注 讜讛诇诇 讙讗诇 讬砖专讗诇 讚爪诇讜转讗 讙讜讗诇 讬砖专讗诇 诪讗讬 讟注诪讗 讚专讞诪讬 谞讬谞讛讜

And the mishna stated that one concludes this section of hallel with a blessing that refers to redemption. With regard to the dispute over how to conclude the blessing, Rava said: For the recitation of Shema and hallel on Passover, the wording of the final blessing is: Who redeemed Israel, in the past tense, whereas the seventh blessing of the weekday Amida prayer concludes with: Who redeems Israel, in the present tense. What is the reason for this difference? Prayer is a supplication for mercy and therefore one mentions and requests the anticipated redemption in his prayers.

讗诪专 专讘讬 讝讬专讗 讚拽讬讚讜砖讗 讗砖专 拽讚砖谞讜 讘诪爪讜转讬讜 讜爪讜谞讜 讚爪诇讜转讗 拽讚砖谞讜 讘诪爪讜转讬讱 诪讗讬 讟注诪讗 讚专讞诪讬 谞讬谞讛讜

Likewise, Rabbi Zeira said: The formula of kiddush is: Who sanctified us with His mitzvot and commanded us, in the past tense. In contrast, the formula in the Amida prayer is: Sanctify us with Your mitzvot, in the future tense. What is the reason for this difference? Prayer is a supplication for mercy, and one submits a request for the future.

讗诪专 专讘 讗讞讗 讘专 讬注拽讘 讜爪专讬讱 砖讬讝讻讬专 讬爪讬讗转 诪爪专讬诐 讘拽讬讚讜砖 讛讬讜诐 讻转讬讘 讛讻讗 诇诪注谉 转讝讻讜专 讗转 讬讜诐 讜讻转讬讘 讛转诐 讝讻讜专 讗转 讬讜诐 讛砖讘转 诇拽讚砖讜

Rav A岣 bar Ya鈥檃kov said: And one must mention the exodus from Egypt in the daytime kiddush of Shabbat, despite the fact that Shabbat is not directly connected to the Exodus. The proof is that here, with regard to Passover, it is written: 鈥淭hat you may remember the day when you came out of the land of Egypt all the days of your life鈥 (Deuteronomy 16:3); and it is written there, with regard to Shabbat: 鈥淩emember the Shabbat day to sanctify it鈥 (Exodus 20:8). By means of a verbal analogy of the word 鈥渄ay,鈥 these verses teach that one must also recall the Exodus on Shabbat.

讗诪专 专讘讛 讘专 砖讬诇讗 讚爪诇讜转讗 诪爪诪讬讞 拽专谉 讬砖讜注讛 讚讗驻讟专转讗 诪讙谉 讚讜讚

The Gemara discusses the formulas of other prayers. Rabba bar Sheila said: The prayer that describes the future restoration of the kingship of Israel concludes with: He Who causes the horn of salvation to flourish, while the blessing recited after the haftara, the portion read from the Prophets, concludes with: Shield of David.

讜注砖讬转讬 诇讱 砖诐 讙讚讜诇 讻砖诐 讛讙讚讜诇讬诐 转谞讬 专讘 讬讜住祝 讝讛讜 砖讗讜诪专讬诐 诪讙谉 讚讜讚

Incidentally, the Gemara cites the promise God issued to David through Nathan the Prophet: 鈥淎nd I will make you a great name, like the names of the great ones in the earth鈥 (II Samuel 7:9). Rav Yosef teaches: This is the meaning of the phrase 鈥渓ike the names of the great ones,鈥 that Jews will say: Shield of David, just as they say: Shield of Avraham.

讗诪专 专讘讬 砖诪注讜谉 讘谉 诇拽讬砖 讜讗注砖讱 诇讙讜讬 讙讚讜诇 讝讛讜 砖讗讜诪专讬诐 讗诇讛讬 讗讘专讛诐 讜讗讘专讻讱 讝讛讜 砖讗讜诪专讬诐 讗诇讛讬 讬爪讞拽 讜讗讙讚诇讛 砖诪讱 讝讛讜 砖讗讜诪专讬诐 讗诇讛讬 讬注拽讘

Rabbi Shimon ben Lakish said with regard to God鈥檚 blessing of Avraham: 鈥淎nd I will make of you a great nation, and I will bless you, and I will make your name great, and you will be a blessing,鈥 (Genesis 12:2). 鈥淎nd I will make of you a great nation鈥; this is fulfilled in the opening of the first blessing of the Amida, as Jews say: God of Abraham. 鈥淎nd I will bless you鈥; this is fulfilled when they say: God of Isaac, as it is a blessing for a father when the name of his son is eternalized. 鈥淎nd I will make your name great鈥; this is fulfilled when they say: God of Jacob.

讬讻讜诇 讬讛讜 讞讜转诪讬谉 讘讻讜诇谉 转诇诪讜讚 诇讜诪专 讜讛讬讛 讘专讻讛 讘讱 讞讜转诪讬谉 讜讗讬谉 讞讜转诪讬谉 讘讻讜诇谉

One might have thought that Jews should conclude the first blessing of the Amida prayer with the names of all the forefathers; therefore the verse states: 鈥淎nd you will be a blessing,鈥 i.e., with you, Avraham, they will conclude the blessing, and they will not conclude with a mention of all of the forefathers. This is why the first blessing of the Amida prayer ends: Shield of Avraham.

讗诪专 专讘讗 讗砖讻讞转讬谞讗 诇住讘讬 讚驻讜诪讘讚讬转讗 讚讬转讘讬 讜拽讗诪专讬 讘砖讘转讗 讘讬谉 讘爪诇讜转讗 讘讬谉 讘拽讬讚讜砖讗 诪拽讚砖 讛砖讘转 讘讬讜诪讗 讟讘讗 讘讬谉 讘爪诇讜转讗 讜讘讬谉 讘拽讬讚讜砖讗 诪拽讚砖 讬砖专讗诇 讜讛讝诪谞讬诐 讜讗诪讬谞讗 诇讛讜 讗谞讗 讗讚专讘讛 讚爪诇讜转讗 讘讬谉 讘砖讘转讗 讘讬谉 讘讬讜诪讗 讟讘讗 诪拽讚砖 讬砖专讗诇 讘拽讬讚讜砖讗 讚砖讘转讗 诪拽讚砖 讛砖讘转 讘讬讜诪讗 讟讘讗 诪拽讚砖 讬砖专讗诇 讜讛讝诪谞讬诐

Rava said: I found the Elders of Pumbedita sitting and saying: On Shabbat, both in prayer and in kiddush, one recites: Who sanctifies Shabbat. On a Festival, both in prayer and in kiddush one recites: Who sanctifies Israel and the seasons. And I said to them: On the contrary, in prayer, both on Shabbat and on a Festival, one should recite: Who sanctifies Israel. However, in the kiddush of Shabbat one should recite: Who sanctifies Shabbat, whereas in the kiddush of a Festival one should recite: Who sanctifies Israel and the seasons.

讜讗谞讗 讗诪讬谞讗 讟注诪讗 讚讬讚讬 讜讟注诪讗 讚讬讚讻讜 讟注诪讗 讚讬讚讻讜 砖讘转 讚拽讘讬注讗 讜拽讬讬诪讗 讘讬谉 讘爪诇讜转讗 讜讘讬谉 讘拽讬讚讜砖讗 诪拽讚砖 讛砖讘转 讬讜诪讗 讟讘讗 讚讬砖专讗诇 讛讜讗 讚拽讘注讬 诇讬讛 讚拽诪注讘专讬 讬专讞讬 讜拽讘注讬 诇砖谞讬 诪拽讚砖 讬砖专讗诇 讜讛讝诪谞讬诐

Rava further said to the Elders of Pumbedita: And I can say my reason and your reason. Your reason is that since Shabbat is established and permanent, i.e., it always occurs on the seventh day of the week, both in prayers and in kiddush one should recite: Who sanctifies Shabbat. It is not necessary for Israel to sanctify Shabbat, as it is permanently sanctified by God. Conversely, with regard to a Festival, as it is Israel who establishes it, as the Sages add extra days to certain months and establish years by intercalating them, one recites: Who sanctifies Israel and the seasons. This is Rava鈥檚 explanation of the reason for the ruling of the Elders of Pumbedita.

讟注诪讗 讚讬讚讬 爪诇讜转讗 讚讘专讘讬诐 讗讬转讗 诪拽讚砖 讬砖专讗诇 拽讬讚讜砖 讚讘讬讞讬讚 讗讬转讗 讘砖讘转 诪拽讚砖 讛砖讘转 讘讬讜诐 讟讜讘 诪拽讚砖 讬砖专讗诇 讜讛讝诪谞讬诐

Rava continues: My reason is that in the case of prayer, which is in public, one recites: Who sanctifies Israel, in honor of the community. Conversely, for kiddush, which is recited by an individual alone on Shabbat, one says: Who sanctifies Shabbat, as Israel does not sanctify Shabbat. On a Festival one recites: Who sanctifies Israel and the seasons. In this case, Israel is mentioned, as its Sages sanctify the Festivals.

讜诇讗 讛讬讗 爪诇讜转讗 讘讬讞讬讚 诪讬 诇讬转讬讛 讜拽讬讚讜砖讗 讘专讘讬诐 诪讬 诇讬转讬讛 讜专讘讗 住讘专 讝讬诇 讘转专 注讬拽专

The Gemara rejects Rava鈥檚 reason: And that is not so. Is there not also the prayer recited by a person who is alone; and is there not also kiddush in public? The above distinction is rendered meaningless in practice. But Rava maintains: Follow the main practice of each mitzva. Prayer is primarily a communal activity, whereas kiddush is fundamentally the obligation of each individual.

注讜诇讗 讘专 专讘 谞讞讬转 拽诪讬讛 讚专讘讗 讗诪专 讻住讘讬 讚驻讜诪讘讚讬转讗 讜诇讗 讗诪专 诇讬讛 讜诇讗 诪讬讚讬 讗诇诪讗 讛讚专 讘讬讛 专讘讗 专讘 谞转谉 讗讘讜讛 讚专讘 讛讜谞讗 讘专讬讛 讚专讘 谞转谉 谞讞讬转 拽诪讬讛 讚专讘 驻驻讗 讗诪专 讻住讘讬 讚驻讜诪讘讚讬转讗 讜砖讘讞讬讛 专讘 驻驻讗

The Gemara reports: Ulla bar Rav descended to lead the prayer service before Rava. He said the formula in accordance with the opinion of the Elders of Pumbedita, and Rava did not say anything to him. Apparently, Rava retracted his opinion and accepted the formula of the Elders of Pumbedita. Likewise, the Gemara relates: Rav Natan, father of Rav Huna, son of Rav Natan, descended to lead the prayer service before Rav Pappa and recited the liturgy in accordance with the opinion of the Elders of Pumbedita, and Rav Pappa praised him for his correct recitation.

讗诪专 专讘讬谞讗 讗谞讗 讗讬拽诇注 诇住讜专讗 拽诪讬讛 讚诪专讬诪专 讜谞讞讬转 拽诪讬讛 砖诇讜讞讗 讚爪讬讘讜专讗 讜讗诪专 讻住讘讬 讚驻讜诪讘讚讬转讗 讜讛讜讜 诪砖转拽讬 诇讬讛 讻讜诇讬 注诇诪讗 讗诪专 诇讛讜 砖讘拽讜讛讜 讛讬诇讻转讗 讻住讘讬 讚驻讜诪讘讚讬转讗 讜诇讗 讛讜讜 诪砖转拽讜 诇讬讛:

Ravina said: I happened to come to Sura before Mareimar, and the prayer leader descended before him and recited the liturgy in accordance with the opinion of the Elders of Pumbedita, and everyone tried to silence him, as they had never heard that version of the prayer before. Mareimar said to them: Leave him, as the halakha is in accordance with the opinion of the Elders of Pumbedita. And the people in attendance listened to him and no longer tried to silence the prayer leader, but allowed him to complete the prayer.

诪转谞讬壮 诪讝讙讜 诇讜 讻讜住 砖诇讬砖讬 诪讘专讱 注诇 诪讝讜谞讜 专讘讬注讬 讙讜诪专 注诇讬讜 讗转 讛诇诇 讜讗讜诪专 注诇讬讜 讘专讻转 讛砖讬专 讘讬谉 讛讻讜住讜转 讛诇诇讜 讗诐 专讜爪讛 诇砖转讜转 讬砖转讛 讘讬谉 砖诇讬砖讬 诇专讘讬注讬 诇讗 讬砖转讛:

MISHNA: They poured for the leader of the seder the third cup of wine, and he recites the blessing over his food, Grace After Meals. Next, they pour him the fourth cup. He completes hallel over it, as he already recited the first part of hallel before the meal. And he also recites the blessing of the song at the end of hallel over the fourth cup. During the period between these cups, i.e., the first three cups established by the Sages, if one wishes to drink more he may drink; however, between the third cup and the fourth cup one should not drink.

讙诪壮 讗诪专 诇讬讛 专讘 讞谞谉 诇专讘讗 砖诪注 诪讬谞讛 讘专讻转 讛诪讝讜谉 讟注讜谞讛 讻讜住 讗诪专 诇讬讛 讗专讘注 讻住讬 转讬拽谞讜 专讘谞谉 讚专讱 讞讬专讜转 讻诇 讞讚 讜讞讚 谞注讘讬讚 讘讬讛 诪爪讜讛:

GEMARA: Ran 岣nan said to Rava: Since the mishna states that Grace After Meals must be recited over the third cup, learn from it that Grace After Meals requires a cup of wine. Rava said to him: This is no proof, for although the Sages instituted the drinking of four cups in the manner of freedom, once the four cups are in place, with each and every one of them we will perform a mitzva, despite the fact that they were not originally instituted for this purpose. After the Sages instituted these four cups, they attached a special mitzva to each one. However, this does not prove that there is an obligation to recite Grace After Meals over a cup of wine during the rest of the year.

专讘讬注讬 讙讜诪专 注诇讬讜 讗转 讛讛诇诇 讜讗讜诪专 注诇讬讜 讘专讻转 讛砖讬专:

We learned in the mishna that they pour the leader of the seder the fourth cup and he completes hallel over it, and he recites the blessing of the song at the end of hallel over that cup.

Masechet Pesachim is sponsored by Sivya Twersky in honor of her daughter, Shoshana Baker, her grandson's upcoming Bar Mitzvah ,and in memory of her father, Harav Pesach Zachariah Halevi ben Reuven and Leah Z'late Z'L. He lived Torah and emunah by example to congregational and biological families. His yahrzeit falls within this masechet.

This month's shiurim are sponsored by Terri Krivosha in memory of her father Nahum Mayar ben Dovid Baer. Judge Norman Krivosha was a remarkable individual who, in the words of Mary Oliver, did far more than "simply visit this world". Yehi Zichro Baruch.

This month's shiurim are sponsored by Bill Futornick in memory of Rabbi David Teitelbaum Z"L, who led Congregation Beth Jacob in Redwood City, CA for 38 years. He was an extraordinary leader, teacher, moral exemplar聽and family man聽who truly fought for equality and deeply embraced ahavat tzion.

  • This month鈥檚 learning is sponsored by Jon and Yael Cohen in memory of Dr. Robert Van Amerongen.聽May his memory be blessed.

  • This month's learning is sponsored by Amy Cohn in memory of her father, Professor Dov Zlotnick who taught his five girls the love of learning.

Want to explore more about the Daf?

See insights from our partners, contributors and community of women learners

Shira HK pesachim

Cultivating Creativity at the Seder with Shira Hecht-Koller

https://youtu.be/x5CRJnPWDMk Shira Hecht-Koller is the Director of Education of 929 English. For Shira's presentation, click here.  
learn daf yomi one week at a time with tamara spitz

Pesachim 116-121 -(Siyum Masechet Pesachim) Daf Yomi: One Week at a Time

This week we will learn about the rest of the Seder night, including cups 2-4, the importance of asking questions,...
templee

What Have We Lost?

The date is Nisan 71 CE. You are one of the lucky survivors of the Great Revolt and the horrific...

Pesachim 117

The William Davidson Talmud | Powered by Sefaria

Pesachim 117

讗诪专 专讘 讞住讚讗 讗诪专 专讘讬 讬讜讞谞谉 讛诇诇讜讬讛 讜讻住讬讛 讜讬讚讬讚讬讛 讗讞转 讛谉 专讘 讗诪专 讻住讬讛 讜诪专讞讘讬讛 讗讞转 讛谉 专讘讛 讗诪专 诪专讞讘讬讛 讘诇讘讚

The mishna states that we will say before Him: Halleluya. The Gemara discusses the meaning of this term. Rav 岣sda said that Rabbi Yo岣nan said: The word halleluya and the word kesya (Exodus 17:16) and the name Yedidya (II Samuel 12:25) are each regarded as a single word, not an amalgamation of two smaller words, i.e., Halleluya. Rav said that kesya and mer岣vya (Psalms 118:5) are single words. Rabba said: Only mer岣vya is a single word; the others are two words.

讗讬讘注讬讗 诇讛讜 诪专讞讘 讬讛 诇专讘 讞住讚讗 诪讗讬 转讬拽讜

A dilemma was raised before the Sages: According to the opinion of Rav 岣sda, what is the status of mer岣vya? Is it counted as two words or one? This dilemma was raised because Rav 岣sda himself did not mention this term. No answer was found for this dilemma, and therefore the Gemara states: Let it stand unresolved.

讗讬讘注讬讗 诇讛讜 讬讚讬讚讬讛 诇专讘 诪讗讬 转讗 砖诪注 讚讗诪专 专讘 讬讚讬讚讬讛 谞讞诇拽 诇砖谞讬诐 诇驻讬讻讱 讬讚讬讚 讞讜诇 讬讛 拽讜讚砖

Another dilemma was raised before the Sages: According to the opinion of Rav, what is the status of the name Yedidya? The Gemara answers: Come and hear, as Rav said explicitly: Yedidya is divided into two separate names. Therefore, yedid is a mundane word, whereas ya is a sacred name, which must be treated respectfully like the other sacred names of God.

讗讬讘注讬讗 诇讛讜 讛诇诇讜讬讛 诇专讘 诪讗讬 转讗 砖诪注 讚讗诪专 专讘 讞讝讬谞讗 转讬诇讬 讚讘讬 讞讘讬讘讗 讚讻转讬讘 讘讛讜 讛诇诇讜 讘讞讚 讙讬住讗 讜讬讛 讘讞讚 讙讬住讗

A dilemma was raised before the Sages: According to the opinion of Rav, what is the status of halleluya? Is it one word or two? The Gemara answers: Come and hear, as Rav said: I saw a book of Psalms in the study hall of my uncle, Rabbi 岣yya, in which the word hallelu is written on one side, at the end of a line, and ya was written on one side, at the beginning of the next line. This shows that the word halleluya can indeed be split in two.

讜驻诇讬讙讗 讚专讘讬 讬讛讜砖注 讘谉 诇讜讬 讚讗诪专 专讘讬 讬讛讜砖注 讘谉 诇讜讬 诪讗讬 讛诇诇讜讬讛 讛诇诇讜讛讜 讘讛诇讜诇讬诐 讛专讘讛

The Gemara comments: This opinion disputes that of Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi, as Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi said: What is the meaning of the word halleluya? It means praise Him [halleluhu] with many praises [hillulim]. According to this opinion, the ya at the end of the word is a superlative, not a divine name.

讜驻诇讬讙讗 讚讬讚讬讛 讗讚讬讚讬讛 讚讗诪专 专讘讬 讬讛讜砖注 讘谉 诇讜讬 讘注砖专讛 诪讗诪专讜转 砖诇 砖讘讞 谞讗诪专 住驻专 转讛诇讬诐 讘谞讬爪讜讞 讘谞讙讜谉 讘诪砖讻讬诇 讘诪讝诪讜专 讘砖讬专 讘讗砖专讬 讘转讛诇讛 讘转驻诇讛 讘讛讜讚讗讛 讘讛诇诇讜讬讛 讙讚讜诇 诪讻讜诇谉 讛诇诇讜讬讛 砖讻讜诇诇 砖诐 讜砖讘讞 讘讘转 讗讞转

The Gemara adds: This statement of Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi disagrees with another ruling that he himself issued, as Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi said: The book of Psalms is said by means of ten expressions of praise: By nitzua岣, niggun, maskil, mizmor, shir, ashrei, tehilla, tefilla, hoda鈥檃, and halleluya. He continues: The greatest of them all is halleluya, as it includes God鈥檚 name and praise at one time. This statement indicates that Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi considers halleluya to be a combination of two words, one of which is the name of God.

讗诪专 专讘 讬讛讜讚讛 讗诪专 砖诪讜讗诇 砖讬专 砖讘转讜专讛 诪砖讛 讜讬砖专讗诇 讗诪专讜讛讜 讘砖注讛 砖注诇讜 诪谉 讛讬诐 讜讛诇诇 讝讛 诪讬 讗诪专讜 谞讘讬讗讬诐 砖讘讬谞讬讛谉 转拽谞讜 诇讛谉 诇讬砖专讗诇 砖讬讛讜 讗讜诪专讬谉 讗讜转讜 注诇 讻诇 驻专拽 讜驻专拽 讜注诇 讻诇 爪专讛 讜爪专讛 砖诇讗 转讘讗 注诇讬讛谉 讜诇讻砖谞讙讗诇讬谉 讗讜诪专讬诐 讗讜转讜 注诇 讙讗讜诇转谉

Rav Yehuda said that Shmuel said: The song in the Torah, i.e., the Song at the Sea (Exodus 15:1鈥19), Moses and the Jewish people recited it when they ascended from the sea. The Gemara asks: And who said this hallel mentioned in the mishna, Psalms 113鈥118? The Gemara answers: The Prophets among them established this hallel for the Jewish people, that they should recite it on every appropriate occasion; and for every trouble, may it not come upon them, they recite the supplications included in hallel. When they are redeemed, they recite it over their redemption, as hallel includes expressions of gratitude for the redemption.

转谞讬讗 讛讬讛 专讘讬 诪讗讬专 讗讜诪专 讻诇 转讜砖讘讞讜转 讛讗诪讜专讜转 讘住驻专 转讛诇讬诐 讻诇谉 讚讜讚 讗诪专谉 砖谞讗诪专 讻诇讜 转驻诇讜转 讚讜讚 讘谉 讬砖讬 讗诇 转讬拽专讬 讻诇讜 讗诇讗 讻诇 讗诇讜

It was taught in a baraita that Rabbi Meir would say: All the praises stated in the book of Psalms were recited by David, as it is stated: 鈥淭he prayers of David, son of Yishai, are ended [kalu]鈥 (Psalms 72:20). Do not read kalu; rather, read kol elu, all of these, which indicates that the entire book of Psalms consists of the prayers of King David.

讛诇诇 讝讛 诪讬 讗诪专讜 专讘讬 讬讜住讬 讗讜诪专 讗诇注讝专 讘谞讬 讗讜诪专 诪砖讛 讜讬砖专讗诇 讗诪专讜讛讜 讘砖注讛 砖注诇讜 诪谉 讛讬诐 讜讞诇讜拽讬谉 注诇讬讜 讞讘讬专讬讜 诇讜诪专 砖讚讜讚 讗诪专讜 讜谞专讗讬谉 讚讘专讬讜 诪讚讘专讬讛谉 讗驻砖专 讬砖专讗诇 砖讞讟讜 讗转 驻住讞讬讛谉 讜谞讟诇讜 诇讜诇讘讬讛谉 讜诇讗 讗诪专讜 砖讬专讛

The Gemara clarifies: According to those who dispute Rabbi Meir鈥檚 claim that the entire book of Psalms was composed by King David, who recited this hallel? Rabbi Yosei says: My son Elazar says that Moses and the Jewish people recited it when they ascended from the sea. And his colleagues dispute him, saying that it was recited by King David. And the statement of my son, Elazar, appears more accurate than their statement. The reason is as follows: Is it possible that the Jewish people slaughtered their Paschal lambs and took and waved their lulavim all those generations without reciting a song? Rather, the Jews must have recited a song each year. Since it is the custom to sing hallel nowadays, it is evidently an ancient institution.

讚讘专 讗讞专 驻住诇讜 砖诇 诪讬讻讛 注讜诪讚 讘讘讻讬 讜讬砖专讗诇 讗讜诪专讬诐 讗转 讛讛诇诇:

Alternatively, is it possible that Micah鈥檚 idol stood in tears, and the Jewish people were reciting hallel before it? The reference is to the idol of Micah, which was still standing in the days of David (see Judges 17). The Gemara states that the idol was crying, as a euphemism for its laughter, to avoid shaming the Jewish people (ge鈥檕nim). The point is that the Jews would not have chanted: 鈥淭hey who make them shall be like them鈥 (Psalms 115:8) at a time that they were worshipping idols. Rather, hallel must be older than that, and it dates back to the Song at the Sea.

转谞讜 专讘谞谉 讻诇 砖讬专讜转 讜转讜砖讘讞讜转 砖讗诪专 讚讜讚 讘住驻专 转讛诇讬诐 专讘讬 讗诇讬注讝专 讗讜诪专 讻谞讙讚 注爪诪讜 讗诪专谉 专讘讬 讬讛讜砖注 讗讜诪专 讻谞讙讚 爪讬讘讜专 讗诪专谉 讜讞讻诪讬诐 讗讜诪专讬诐 讬砖 诪讛谉 讻谞讙讚 爪讬讘讜专 讜讬砖 诪讛谉 讻谞讙讚 注爪诪讜 讛讗诪讜专讜转 讘诇砖讜谉 讬讞讬讚 讻谞讙讚 注爪诪讜 讛讗诪讜专讜转 讘诇砖讜谉 专讘讬诐 讻谞讙讚 爪讬讘讜专

The Sages taught in a baraita that with regard to all the songs and praise that David recited in the book of Psalms, Rabbi Eliezer says: David said them about himself. They were the praises of an individual that were later transmitted to the community. Rabbi Yehoshua says: He originally said them about the community. He composed all of the psalms for the people, including those he wrote about himself. And the Rabbis say: There are among these psalms some that are about the community, and there are among these psalms some that are about himself. The Rabbis clarify their opinion: The psalms that are stated in the singular form are about himself, and those stated in the plural form are about the community.

谞讬爪讜讞 讜谞讬讙讜谉 诇注转讬讚 诇讘讗 诪砖讻讬诇 注诇 讬讚讬 转讜专讙诪谉 诇讚讜讚 诪讝诪讜专 诪诇诪讚 砖砖专转讛 注诇讬讜 砖讻讬谞讛 讜讗讞专 讻讱 讗诪专 砖讬专讛 诪讝诪讜专 诇讚讜讚 诪诇诪讚 砖讗诪专 砖讬专讛 讜讗讞专 讻讱 砖专转讛 注诇讬讜 砖讻讬谞讛

The Gemara continues to discuss the book of Psalms. If a psalm begins with the terms nitzua岣 or niggun, this indicates that its praise will be fulfilled in the future. Psalms that begin with the word maskil were delivered by means of a disseminator, a spokesman in a public address. The lecturer would speak softly, followed by a repetition of his discourse in the disseminator鈥檚 louder voice, so that everyone could hear. If a psalm begins: Of David a psalm, this teaches that the Divine Presence rested upon him first and afterward he recited the song. However, if a psalm opens with: A psalm of David, this teaches that he first recited the song, and afterward the Divine Presence rested upon him.

诇诇诪讚讱 砖讗讬谉 讛砖讻讬谞讛 砖讜专讛 诇讗 诪转讜讱 注爪诇讜转 讜诇讗 诪转讜讱 注爪讘讜转 讜诇讗 诪转讜讱 砖讞讜拽 讜诇讗 诪转讜讱 拽诇讜转 专讗砖 讜诇讗 诪转讜讱 讚讘专讬诐 讘讟诇讬诐 讗诇讗 诪转讜讱 讚讘专 砖诪讞讛 砖诇 诪爪讜讛 砖谞讗诪专 讜注转讛 拽讞讜 诇讬 诪谞讙谉 讜讛讬讛 讻谞讙谉 讛诪谞讙谉 讜转讛讬 注诇讬讜 讬讚 讛壮

The Gemara adds: Incidentally, this serves to teach you that the Divine Presence rests upon an individual neither from an atmosphere of sadness, nor from an atmosphere of laziness, nor from an atmosphere of laughter, nor from an atmosphere of frivolity, nor from an atmosphere of idle conversation, nor from an atmosphere of idle chatter, but rather from an atmosphere imbued with the joy of a mitzva. As it is stated with regard to Elisha, after he became angry at the king of Israel, his prophetic spirit left him until he requested: 鈥淏ut now bring me a minstrel; and it came to pass when the minstrel played, that the hand of the Lord came upon him鈥 (II Kings 3:15).

讗诪专 专讘 讬讛讜讚讛 讗诪专 专讘 讜讻谉 诇讚讘专 讛诇讻讛 讗诪专 专讘 谞讞诪谉 讜讻谉 诇讞诇讜诐 讟讜讘

Rav Yehuda said that Rav said: And, so too, one should be joyful before stating a matter of halakha. Rav Na岣an said: And, so too, one should be joyful before going to sleep, to ensure he will have a good dream.

讗讬谞讬 讜讛讗诪专 专讘 讙讬讚诇 讗诪专 专讘 讻诇 转诇诪讬讚 讞讻诐 讛讬讜砖讘 诇驻谞讬 专讘讜 讜讗讬谉 砖驻转讜转讬讜 谞讜讟驻讜转 诪专 转讻讜讬谞讛 砖谞讗诪专 砖驻转讜转讬讜 砖讜砖谞讬诐 谞讜讟驻讜转 诪讜专 注讜讘专 讗诇 转拽专讬 砖讜砖谞讬诐 讗诇讗 砖砖讜谞讬诐 讗诇 转拽专讬 诪讜专 注讜讘专 讗诇讗 诪专 注讘专

The Gemara asks: Is that so, that one should introduce matters of halakha joyfully? Didn鈥檛 Rav Giddel say that Rav said: Any Torah scholar who sits before his teacher and his lips are not dripping with bitterness due to fear of his teacher, those lips shall be burned, as it is stated: 鈥淗is lips are as lilies [shoshanim] dripping with flowing myrrh [notefot mor over]鈥 (Song of Songs 5:13). He interpreted homiletically: Do not read it as shoshanim, lilies; rather, read it as sheshonim, who are studying. Likewise, do not read it as mor over, flowing myrrh; rather, read it as mar over, flowing bitterness. In other words, lips that are studying Torah must be full of bitterness.

诇讗 拽砖讬讗 讛讗 讘专讘讛 讛讗 讘转诇诪讬讚讗

The Gemara explains: This is not difficult; there is no contradiction here, as this statement, which teaches that one should introduce matters of halakha joyfully, is referring to a rabbi, and that statement, which teaches that one must be filled with bitterness, is referring to a student, who must listen to his teacher with trepidation.

讜讗讬 讘注讬转 讗讬诪讗 讛讗 讜讛讗 讘专讘讛 讜诇讗 拽砖讬讗 讛讗 诪拽诪讬 讚驻转讞 讜讛讗 诇讘转专 讚驻转讞 讻讬 讛讗 讚专讘讛 诪拽诪讬 讚驻转讞 诇讛讜 诇专讘谞谉 讗诪专 诪讬诇转讗 讚讘讚讬讞讜转讗 讜讘讚讞讜 专讘谞谉 讜诇讘住讜祝 讬转讬讘 讘讗讬诪转讗 讜驻转讞 讘砖诪注转讗

And if you wish, say instead that this and that are referring to a rabbi, and it is not difficult. This statement, where it is taught that one must be joyful, is before one begins teaching; that statement, where it is taught that he must be filled with bitterness and trepidation, is after he already began teaching halakha. The Gemara adds: That explanation is like that practice of Rabba鈥檚. Before he began teaching halakha to the Sages, he would say some humorous comment, and the Sages would be cheered. Ultimately, he sat in trepidation and began teaching the halakha.

转谞讜 专讘谞谉 讛诇诇 讝讛 诪讬 讗诪专讜 专讘讬 讗诇讬注讝专 讗讜诪专 诪砖讛 讜讬砖专讗诇 讗诪专讜讛讜 讘砖注讛 砖注诪讚讜 注诇 讛讬诐 讛诐 讗诪专讜 诇讗 诇谞讜 讛壮 诇讗 诇谞讜 诪砖讬讘讛 专讜讞 讛拽讜讚砖 讜讗诪专讛 诇讛谉 诇诪注谞讬 诇诪注谞讬 讗注砖讛 专讘讬 讬讛讜讚讛 讗讜诪专 讬讛讜砖注 讜讬砖专讗诇 讗诪专讜讛讜 讘砖注讛 砖注诪讚讜 注诇讬讛谉 诪诇讻讬 讻谞注谉 讛诐 讗诪专讜 诇讗 诇谞讜 讜诪砖讬讘讛 讜讻讜壮

The Sages taught: This hallel, who initially recited it? Rabbi Eliezer says: Moses and the Jewish people recited it when they stood by the sea. They said: 鈥淣ot to us, God, not to us, but to Your name give glory鈥 (Psalms 115:1). The Divine Spirit responded and said to them: 鈥淔or My own sake, for My own sake, will I do it鈥 (Isaiah 48:11). Rabbi Yehuda says: Joshua and the Jewish people recited it when they defeated the kings of Canaan who stood against them (see Joshua 12:7鈥24). They said: Not to us, and the Divine Spirit responded: For My own sake.

专讘讬 讗诇注讝专 讛诪讜讚注讬 讗讜诪专 讚讘讜专讛 讜讘专拽 讗诪专讜讛讜 讘砖注讛 砖注诪讚 注诇讬讛诐 住讬住专讗 讛诐 讗诪专讜 诇讗 诇谞讜 讜专讜讞 讛拽讜讚砖 诪砖讬讘讛 讜讗讜诪专转 诇讛诐 诇诪注谞讬 诇诪注谞讬 讗注砖讛 专讘讬 讗诇注讝专 讘谉 注讝专讬讛 讗讜诪专 讞讝拽讬讛 讜住讬讬注转讜 讗诪专讜讛讜 讘砖注讛 砖注诪讚 注诇讬讛诐 住谞讞专讬讘 讛诐 讗诪专讜 诇讗 诇谞讜 讜诪砖讬讘讛 讜讻讜壮 专讘讬 注拽讬讘讗 讗讜诪专 讞谞谞讬讛 诪讬砖讗诇 讜注讝专讬讛 讗诪专讜讛讜 讘砖注讛 砖注诪讚 注诇讬讛诐 谞讘讜讻讚谞爪专 讛专砖注 讛诐 讗诪专讜 诇讗 诇谞讜 讜诪砖讬讘讛 讜讻讜壮 专讘讬 讬讜住讬 讛讙诇讬诇讬 讗讜诪专 诪专讚讻讬 讜讗住转专 讗诪专讜讛讜 讘砖注讛 砖注诪讚 注诇讬讛诐 讛诪谉 讛专砖注 讛诐 讗诪专讜 诇讗 诇谞讜 讜诪砖讬讘讛 讜讻讜壮

Rabbi Elazar HaModa鈥檌 says: Deborah and Barak recited it when Sisera stood against them (see Judges 4鈥5). They said: Not to us, and the Divine Spirit responded and said to them: For My own sake, for My own sake, will I do it. Rabbi Elazar ben Azarya says: Hezekiah and his company recited it when Sennacherib stood against them (see II Kings 18鈥19). They said: Not to us and the Divine Spirit responded: For My own sake. Rabbi Akiva says: Hananiah, Mishael, and Azariah recited it when the wicked Nebuchadnezzar stood against them (see Daniel 3). They said: Not to us, and the Divine Spirit responded: For My own sake. Rabbi Yosei HaGelili says: Mordecai and Esther recited it when the wicked Haman stood against them. They said: Not to us, and the Divine Spirit responded: For My own sake (see the book of Esther).

讜讞讻诪讬诐 讗讜诪专讬诐 谞讘讬讗讬诐 砖讘讬谞讬讛谉 转讬拽谞讜 诇讛诐 诇讬砖专讗诇 砖讬讛讜 讗讜诪专讬诐 讗讜转讜 注诇 讻诇 驻专拽 讜驻专拽 讜注诇 讻诇 爪专讛 讜爪专讛 砖诇讗 转讘讗 注诇讬讛诐 诇讬砖专讗诇 讜诇讻砖谞讙讗诇讬谉 讗讜诪专讬诐 讗讜转讜 注诇 讙讗讜诇转谉:

And the Rabbis say that hallel was not established for any specific event, but the Prophets among them instituted that the Jewish people should recite it on every appropriate occasion, and for every trouble, may it not come upon the Jewish people. When they are redeemed, they recite it over their redemption.

讗诪专 专讘 讞住讚讗 讛诇诇讜讬讛 住讜祝 驻讬专拽讗 专讘讛 讘专 专讘 讛讜谞讗 讗诪专 讛诇诇讜讬讛 专讬砖 驻讬专拽讗 讗诪专 专讘 讞住讚讗 讞讝讬谞讗 诇讛讜 诇转讬诇讬 讚讘讬 专讘 讞谞讬谉 讘专 专讘 讚讻转讬讘 讘讛讜 讛诇诇讜讬讛 讘讗诪爪注 驻讬专拽讗 讗诇诪讗 诪住驻拽讗 诇讬讛

The Gemara continues to discuss the term halleluya. Rav 岣sda said: The halleluya stated in the final verse in several Psalms signifies the end of a chapter. Rabba bar Rav Huna said: Halleluya marks the start of a new chapter, the beginning of the next psalm. Rav 岣sda said: I saw a book of Psalms in the study hall of Rav 岣nin bar Rav, in which it is written halleluya in the middle of the chapter, i.e., between the chapters, neither at the start of one psalm nor at the end of the next. Apparently, Rav 岣nin bar Rav was uncertain where the word belonged.

讗诪专 专讘 讞谞讬谉 讘专 专讘讗 讛讻诇 诪讜讚讬诐 讘转讛诇转 讛壮 讬讚讘专 驻讬 讜讬讘专讱 讻诇 讘砖专 砖诐 拽讚砖讜 诇注讜诇诐 讜注讚 (讛诇诇讜讬讛) 讛诇诇讜讬讛 讚讘转专讬讛 专讬砖 驻讬专拽讗 专砖注 讬专讗讛 讜讻注住 砖谞讬讜 讬讞专拽 讜谞诪住 转讗讜转 专砖注讬诐 转讗讘讚 讛诇诇讜讬讛 讚讘转专讬讛 专讬砖 驻讬专拽讗 讜砖注讜诪讚讬诐 讘讘讬转 讛壮 讛诇诇讜讬讛 讚讘转专讬讛 专讬砖 驻讬专拽讗

Rav 岣nin bar Rava said: Everyone concedes with regard to the verse: 鈥淢y mouth shall speak the praise of the Lord; and let all flesh bless His holy name forever and ever鈥 (Psalms 145:21), that the halleluya that follows, the opening word of the subsequent psalm, marks the start of the next chapter, not the conclusion of the previous one. Likewise, with regard to the verse: 鈥淭he wicked shall see and be vexed; he shall gnash with his teeth, and melt away; the desire of the wicked shall perish鈥 (Psalms 112:10), the halleluya that follows it, is the start of the next chapter. And similarly, with regard to: 鈥淵ou who stand in the house of the Lord鈥 (Psalms 135:2) the halleluya that follows it, in verse 3, signifies the start of the next chapter.

拽专讗讬 诪讜住讬驻讬谉 讗祝 讗转 讗诇讜 诪谞讞诇 讘讚专讱 讬砖转讛 注诇 讻谉 讬专讬诐 专讗砖 讛诇诇讜讬讛 讚讘转专讬讛 专讬砖 驻讬专拽讗 专讗砖讬转 讞讻诪讛 讬专讗转 讛壮 砖讻诇 讟讜讘 诇讻诇 注讜砖讬讛诐 讛诇诇讜讬讛 讚讘转专讬讛 专讬砖 驻讬专拽讗

Those Sages who were expert in the verses of the Bible add these too: 鈥淗e will drink of the brook in the way; therefore will he lift up the head鈥 (Psalms 110:7); the halleluya that follows it, the first word of the subsequent psalm, is the start of the next chapter. With regard to the verse: 鈥淭he fear of God is the beginning of wisdom; a good understanding have all they who practice them; His praise endures forever鈥 (Psalms 111:10), the halleluya that follows it, marks the start of the next chapter.

谞讬诪讗 讻转谞讗讬 注讚 讛讬讻谉 讛讜讗 讗讜诪专 讘讬转 砖诪讗讬 讗讜诪专讬诐 注讚 讗诐 讛讘谞讬诐 砖诪讞讛 讜讘讬转 讛诇诇 讗讜诪专讬诐 注讚 讞诇诪讬砖 诇诪注讬谞讜 诪讬诐 讜转谞讬讗 讗讬讚讱 注讚 讛讬讻谉 讛讜讗 讗讜诪专 讘讬转 砖诪讗讬 讗讜诪专讬诐 注讚 讘爪讗转 讬砖专讗诇 诪诪爪专讬诐 讜讘讬转 讛诇诇 讗讜诪专讬诐 注讚 诇讗 诇谞讜 讛壮 诇讗 诇谞讜

The Gemara suggests: Let us say it is parallel to a dispute between the tanna鈥檌m, as we learned in the mishna: Until where does one recite hallel? Beit Shammai say: Until 鈥淎 joyful mother of children, halleluya鈥 (Psalms 113:9). And Beit Hillel say: Until 鈥淭he flint into a fountain of waters鈥 (Psalms 114:8). And it was taught in another source, a baraita: Until where does one recite hallel? Beit Shammai say: Until 鈥淲hen Israel came forth out of Egypt鈥 (Psalms 114:1), the beginning of the first passage after 鈥淎 joyful mother of children, halleluya.鈥 And Beit Hillel say: Until 鈥淣ot to us, God, not to us鈥 (Psalms 115:1), which follows 鈥渢he flint into a fountain of waters.鈥

诪讗讬 诇讗讜 讘讛讗 拽诪讬驻诇讙讬 诇诪讗谉 讚讗诪专 注讚 讗诐 讛讘谞讬诐 砖诪讞讛 住讘专 讛诇诇讜讬讛 专讬砖 驻讬专拽讗 讜诪讗谉 讚讗诪专 注讚 讘爪讗转 讬砖专讗诇 住讘专 讛诇诇讜讬讛 住讜祝 驻讬专拽讗

What, is it not the case that the mishna and the baraita disagree concerning the following matter: According to the one who says that one must recite until 鈥淎 joyful mother of children,鈥 he maintains that the subsequent halleluya is the start of a chapter. And the one who said that one must recite until 鈥淲hen Israel came forth鈥 maintains that halleluya is the end of the previous chapter. The mishna and the baraita disagree only with regard to when the word halleluya should be recited, at this point in the seder or when hallel is resumed after the meal.

专讘 讞住讚讗 诪转专抓 诇讟注诪讬讛 讚讻讜诇讬 注诇诪讗 住讘专讬 讛诇诇讜讬讛 住讜祝 驻讬专拽讗 诪讗谉 讚讗诪专 注讚 讘爪讗转 讬砖专讗诇 砖驻讬专 讜诪讗谉 讚讗诪专 注讚 讗诐 讛讘谞讬诐 砖诪讞讛 注讚 讜注讚 讘讻诇诇

The Gemara rejects this contention: This is no proof, as Rav 岣sda explains the difference between the mishna and the baraita in accordance with his reasoning, that everyone maintains that halleluya marks the end of a chapter. However, the one who said that one must recite until 鈥淲hen Israel came forth鈥 spoke well, as he cites the beginning of the next verse. And the one who said that one must recite until 鈥淎 joyful mother of children鈥 means until and including, i.e., one finishes the entire verse including the word halleluya.

讜谞讬诪讗 注讚 讛诇诇讜讬讛 讜讻讬 转讬诪讗 讚诇讗 讬讚注讬谞谉 讛讬 讛诇诇讜讬讛 讜谞讬诪讗 讛诇诇讜讬讛 砖诇 讗诐 讛讘谞讬诐 砖诪讞讛 拽砖讬讗

The Gemara asks: If so, let the tanna say: Until halleluya. And if you say that we would not know which halleluya he meant, let the tanna say: The halleluya of 鈥淎 joyful mother of children.鈥 The Gemara comments: This is indeed difficult for the opinion of Rav 岣sda.

专讘讛 讘专 专讘 讛讜谞讗 诪转专抓 诇讟注诪讬讛 讚讻讜诇讬 注诇诪讗 讛诇诇讜讬讛 专讬砖 驻讬专拽讗 诪讗谉 讚讗诪专 注讚 讗诐 讛讘谞讬诐 砖诪讞讛 砖驻讬专 讜诪讗谉 讚讗诪专 注讚 讘爪讗转 讬砖专讗诇 住讘专 注讚 讜诇讗 注讚 讘讻诇诇

Likewise, Rabba bar Rav Huna explains the difference between the mishna and the baraita in accordance with his reasoning, that everyone agrees that halleluya signifies the start of a chapter. The one who said that one must recite until 鈥淎 joyful mother of children鈥 spoke well, and the one who said that one must recite until 鈥淲hen Israel came forth鈥 maintains that the term means until and not including, as one does not conclude with the word halleluya after 鈥淎 joyful mother of children.鈥

讜谞讬诪讗 注讚 讛诇诇讜讬讛 讜讻讬 转讬诪讗 讚诇讗 讬讚注讬谞谉 讛讬 讛诇诇讜讬讛 讜谞讬诪讗 注讚 讛诇诇讜讬讛 砖讘爪讗转 讬砖专讗诇 拽砖讬讗:

The Gemara asks a similar question with regard to the opinion of Rabba bar Rav Huna: If so, let the tanna say: Until halleluya. And if you say that we would not know which halleluya he meant, let the tanna say: The halleluya of 鈥淲hen Israel came forth.鈥 The Gemara comments: This is indeed difficult for Rabba bar Rav Huna鈥檚 opinion.

讜讞讜转诐 讘讙讗讜诇讛: 讗诪专 专讘讗 拽专讬讗转 砖诪注 讜讛诇诇 讙讗诇 讬砖专讗诇 讚爪诇讜转讗 讙讜讗诇 讬砖专讗诇 诪讗讬 讟注诪讗 讚专讞诪讬 谞讬谞讛讜

And the mishna stated that one concludes this section of hallel with a blessing that refers to redemption. With regard to the dispute over how to conclude the blessing, Rava said: For the recitation of Shema and hallel on Passover, the wording of the final blessing is: Who redeemed Israel, in the past tense, whereas the seventh blessing of the weekday Amida prayer concludes with: Who redeems Israel, in the present tense. What is the reason for this difference? Prayer is a supplication for mercy and therefore one mentions and requests the anticipated redemption in his prayers.

讗诪专 专讘讬 讝讬专讗 讚拽讬讚讜砖讗 讗砖专 拽讚砖谞讜 讘诪爪讜转讬讜 讜爪讜谞讜 讚爪诇讜转讗 拽讚砖谞讜 讘诪爪讜转讬讱 诪讗讬 讟注诪讗 讚专讞诪讬 谞讬谞讛讜

Likewise, Rabbi Zeira said: The formula of kiddush is: Who sanctified us with His mitzvot and commanded us, in the past tense. In contrast, the formula in the Amida prayer is: Sanctify us with Your mitzvot, in the future tense. What is the reason for this difference? Prayer is a supplication for mercy, and one submits a request for the future.

讗诪专 专讘 讗讞讗 讘专 讬注拽讘 讜爪专讬讱 砖讬讝讻讬专 讬爪讬讗转 诪爪专讬诐 讘拽讬讚讜砖 讛讬讜诐 讻转讬讘 讛讻讗 诇诪注谉 转讝讻讜专 讗转 讬讜诐 讜讻转讬讘 讛转诐 讝讻讜专 讗转 讬讜诐 讛砖讘转 诇拽讚砖讜

Rav A岣 bar Ya鈥檃kov said: And one must mention the exodus from Egypt in the daytime kiddush of Shabbat, despite the fact that Shabbat is not directly connected to the Exodus. The proof is that here, with regard to Passover, it is written: 鈥淭hat you may remember the day when you came out of the land of Egypt all the days of your life鈥 (Deuteronomy 16:3); and it is written there, with regard to Shabbat: 鈥淩emember the Shabbat day to sanctify it鈥 (Exodus 20:8). By means of a verbal analogy of the word 鈥渄ay,鈥 these verses teach that one must also recall the Exodus on Shabbat.

讗诪专 专讘讛 讘专 砖讬诇讗 讚爪诇讜转讗 诪爪诪讬讞 拽专谉 讬砖讜注讛 讚讗驻讟专转讗 诪讙谉 讚讜讚

The Gemara discusses the formulas of other prayers. Rabba bar Sheila said: The prayer that describes the future restoration of the kingship of Israel concludes with: He Who causes the horn of salvation to flourish, while the blessing recited after the haftara, the portion read from the Prophets, concludes with: Shield of David.

讜注砖讬转讬 诇讱 砖诐 讙讚讜诇 讻砖诐 讛讙讚讜诇讬诐 转谞讬 专讘 讬讜住祝 讝讛讜 砖讗讜诪专讬诐 诪讙谉 讚讜讚

Incidentally, the Gemara cites the promise God issued to David through Nathan the Prophet: 鈥淎nd I will make you a great name, like the names of the great ones in the earth鈥 (II Samuel 7:9). Rav Yosef teaches: This is the meaning of the phrase 鈥渓ike the names of the great ones,鈥 that Jews will say: Shield of David, just as they say: Shield of Avraham.

讗诪专 专讘讬 砖诪注讜谉 讘谉 诇拽讬砖 讜讗注砖讱 诇讙讜讬 讙讚讜诇 讝讛讜 砖讗讜诪专讬诐 讗诇讛讬 讗讘专讛诐 讜讗讘专讻讱 讝讛讜 砖讗讜诪专讬诐 讗诇讛讬 讬爪讞拽 讜讗讙讚诇讛 砖诪讱 讝讛讜 砖讗讜诪专讬诐 讗诇讛讬 讬注拽讘

Rabbi Shimon ben Lakish said with regard to God鈥檚 blessing of Avraham: 鈥淎nd I will make of you a great nation, and I will bless you, and I will make your name great, and you will be a blessing,鈥 (Genesis 12:2). 鈥淎nd I will make of you a great nation鈥; this is fulfilled in the opening of the first blessing of the Amida, as Jews say: God of Abraham. 鈥淎nd I will bless you鈥; this is fulfilled when they say: God of Isaac, as it is a blessing for a father when the name of his son is eternalized. 鈥淎nd I will make your name great鈥; this is fulfilled when they say: God of Jacob.

讬讻讜诇 讬讛讜 讞讜转诪讬谉 讘讻讜诇谉 转诇诪讜讚 诇讜诪专 讜讛讬讛 讘专讻讛 讘讱 讞讜转诪讬谉 讜讗讬谉 讞讜转诪讬谉 讘讻讜诇谉

One might have thought that Jews should conclude the first blessing of the Amida prayer with the names of all the forefathers; therefore the verse states: 鈥淎nd you will be a blessing,鈥 i.e., with you, Avraham, they will conclude the blessing, and they will not conclude with a mention of all of the forefathers. This is why the first blessing of the Amida prayer ends: Shield of Avraham.

讗诪专 专讘讗 讗砖讻讞转讬谞讗 诇住讘讬 讚驻讜诪讘讚讬转讗 讚讬转讘讬 讜拽讗诪专讬 讘砖讘转讗 讘讬谉 讘爪诇讜转讗 讘讬谉 讘拽讬讚讜砖讗 诪拽讚砖 讛砖讘转 讘讬讜诪讗 讟讘讗 讘讬谉 讘爪诇讜转讗 讜讘讬谉 讘拽讬讚讜砖讗 诪拽讚砖 讬砖专讗诇 讜讛讝诪谞讬诐 讜讗诪讬谞讗 诇讛讜 讗谞讗 讗讚专讘讛 讚爪诇讜转讗 讘讬谉 讘砖讘转讗 讘讬谉 讘讬讜诪讗 讟讘讗 诪拽讚砖 讬砖专讗诇 讘拽讬讚讜砖讗 讚砖讘转讗 诪拽讚砖 讛砖讘转 讘讬讜诪讗 讟讘讗 诪拽讚砖 讬砖专讗诇 讜讛讝诪谞讬诐

Rava said: I found the Elders of Pumbedita sitting and saying: On Shabbat, both in prayer and in kiddush, one recites: Who sanctifies Shabbat. On a Festival, both in prayer and in kiddush one recites: Who sanctifies Israel and the seasons. And I said to them: On the contrary, in prayer, both on Shabbat and on a Festival, one should recite: Who sanctifies Israel. However, in the kiddush of Shabbat one should recite: Who sanctifies Shabbat, whereas in the kiddush of a Festival one should recite: Who sanctifies Israel and the seasons.

讜讗谞讗 讗诪讬谞讗 讟注诪讗 讚讬讚讬 讜讟注诪讗 讚讬讚讻讜 讟注诪讗 讚讬讚讻讜 砖讘转 讚拽讘讬注讗 讜拽讬讬诪讗 讘讬谉 讘爪诇讜转讗 讜讘讬谉 讘拽讬讚讜砖讗 诪拽讚砖 讛砖讘转 讬讜诪讗 讟讘讗 讚讬砖专讗诇 讛讜讗 讚拽讘注讬 诇讬讛 讚拽诪注讘专讬 讬专讞讬 讜拽讘注讬 诇砖谞讬 诪拽讚砖 讬砖专讗诇 讜讛讝诪谞讬诐

Rava further said to the Elders of Pumbedita: And I can say my reason and your reason. Your reason is that since Shabbat is established and permanent, i.e., it always occurs on the seventh day of the week, both in prayers and in kiddush one should recite: Who sanctifies Shabbat. It is not necessary for Israel to sanctify Shabbat, as it is permanently sanctified by God. Conversely, with regard to a Festival, as it is Israel who establishes it, as the Sages add extra days to certain months and establish years by intercalating them, one recites: Who sanctifies Israel and the seasons. This is Rava鈥檚 explanation of the reason for the ruling of the Elders of Pumbedita.

讟注诪讗 讚讬讚讬 爪诇讜转讗 讚讘专讘讬诐 讗讬转讗 诪拽讚砖 讬砖专讗诇 拽讬讚讜砖 讚讘讬讞讬讚 讗讬转讗 讘砖讘转 诪拽讚砖 讛砖讘转 讘讬讜诐 讟讜讘 诪拽讚砖 讬砖专讗诇 讜讛讝诪谞讬诐

Rava continues: My reason is that in the case of prayer, which is in public, one recites: Who sanctifies Israel, in honor of the community. Conversely, for kiddush, which is recited by an individual alone on Shabbat, one says: Who sanctifies Shabbat, as Israel does not sanctify Shabbat. On a Festival one recites: Who sanctifies Israel and the seasons. In this case, Israel is mentioned, as its Sages sanctify the Festivals.

讜诇讗 讛讬讗 爪诇讜转讗 讘讬讞讬讚 诪讬 诇讬转讬讛 讜拽讬讚讜砖讗 讘专讘讬诐 诪讬 诇讬转讬讛 讜专讘讗 住讘专 讝讬诇 讘转专 注讬拽专

The Gemara rejects Rava鈥檚 reason: And that is not so. Is there not also the prayer recited by a person who is alone; and is there not also kiddush in public? The above distinction is rendered meaningless in practice. But Rava maintains: Follow the main practice of each mitzva. Prayer is primarily a communal activity, whereas kiddush is fundamentally the obligation of each individual.

注讜诇讗 讘专 专讘 谞讞讬转 拽诪讬讛 讚专讘讗 讗诪专 讻住讘讬 讚驻讜诪讘讚讬转讗 讜诇讗 讗诪专 诇讬讛 讜诇讗 诪讬讚讬 讗诇诪讗 讛讚专 讘讬讛 专讘讗 专讘 谞转谉 讗讘讜讛 讚专讘 讛讜谞讗 讘专讬讛 讚专讘 谞转谉 谞讞讬转 拽诪讬讛 讚专讘 驻驻讗 讗诪专 讻住讘讬 讚驻讜诪讘讚讬转讗 讜砖讘讞讬讛 专讘 驻驻讗

The Gemara reports: Ulla bar Rav descended to lead the prayer service before Rava. He said the formula in accordance with the opinion of the Elders of Pumbedita, and Rava did not say anything to him. Apparently, Rava retracted his opinion and accepted the formula of the Elders of Pumbedita. Likewise, the Gemara relates: Rav Natan, father of Rav Huna, son of Rav Natan, descended to lead the prayer service before Rav Pappa and recited the liturgy in accordance with the opinion of the Elders of Pumbedita, and Rav Pappa praised him for his correct recitation.

讗诪专 专讘讬谞讗 讗谞讗 讗讬拽诇注 诇住讜专讗 拽诪讬讛 讚诪专讬诪专 讜谞讞讬转 拽诪讬讛 砖诇讜讞讗 讚爪讬讘讜专讗 讜讗诪专 讻住讘讬 讚驻讜诪讘讚讬转讗 讜讛讜讜 诪砖转拽讬 诇讬讛 讻讜诇讬 注诇诪讗 讗诪专 诇讛讜 砖讘拽讜讛讜 讛讬诇讻转讗 讻住讘讬 讚驻讜诪讘讚讬转讗 讜诇讗 讛讜讜 诪砖转拽讜 诇讬讛:

Ravina said: I happened to come to Sura before Mareimar, and the prayer leader descended before him and recited the liturgy in accordance with the opinion of the Elders of Pumbedita, and everyone tried to silence him, as they had never heard that version of the prayer before. Mareimar said to them: Leave him, as the halakha is in accordance with the opinion of the Elders of Pumbedita. And the people in attendance listened to him and no longer tried to silence the prayer leader, but allowed him to complete the prayer.

诪转谞讬壮 诪讝讙讜 诇讜 讻讜住 砖诇讬砖讬 诪讘专讱 注诇 诪讝讜谞讜 专讘讬注讬 讙讜诪专 注诇讬讜 讗转 讛诇诇 讜讗讜诪专 注诇讬讜 讘专讻转 讛砖讬专 讘讬谉 讛讻讜住讜转 讛诇诇讜 讗诐 专讜爪讛 诇砖转讜转 讬砖转讛 讘讬谉 砖诇讬砖讬 诇专讘讬注讬 诇讗 讬砖转讛:

MISHNA: They poured for the leader of the seder the third cup of wine, and he recites the blessing over his food, Grace After Meals. Next, they pour him the fourth cup. He completes hallel over it, as he already recited the first part of hallel before the meal. And he also recites the blessing of the song at the end of hallel over the fourth cup. During the period between these cups, i.e., the first three cups established by the Sages, if one wishes to drink more he may drink; however, between the third cup and the fourth cup one should not drink.

讙诪壮 讗诪专 诇讬讛 专讘 讞谞谉 诇专讘讗 砖诪注 诪讬谞讛 讘专讻转 讛诪讝讜谉 讟注讜谞讛 讻讜住 讗诪专 诇讬讛 讗专讘注 讻住讬 转讬拽谞讜 专讘谞谉 讚专讱 讞讬专讜转 讻诇 讞讚 讜讞讚 谞注讘讬讚 讘讬讛 诪爪讜讛:

GEMARA: Ran 岣nan said to Rava: Since the mishna states that Grace After Meals must be recited over the third cup, learn from it that Grace After Meals requires a cup of wine. Rava said to him: This is no proof, for although the Sages instituted the drinking of four cups in the manner of freedom, once the four cups are in place, with each and every one of them we will perform a mitzva, despite the fact that they were not originally instituted for this purpose. After the Sages instituted these four cups, they attached a special mitzva to each one. However, this does not prove that there is an obligation to recite Grace After Meals over a cup of wine during the rest of the year.

专讘讬注讬 讙讜诪专 注诇讬讜 讗转 讛讛诇诇 讜讗讜诪专 注诇讬讜 讘专讻转 讛砖讬专:

We learned in the mishna that they pour the leader of the seder the fourth cup and he completes hallel over it, and he recites the blessing of the song at the end of hallel over that cup.

Scroll To Top