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Today's Daf Yomi

January 2, 2021 | 讬状讞 讘讟讘转 转砖驻状讗

Masechet Pesachim is sponsored by Sivya Twersky in honor of her daughter, Shoshana Baker, her grandson's upcoming Bar Mitzvah ,and in memory of her father, Harav Pesach Zachariah Halevi ben Reuven and Leah Z'late Z'L. He lived Torah and emunah by example to congregational and biological families. His yahrzeit falls within this masechet.

The Daf Yomi women of Neve Daniel are proud to dedicate a month of learning in honor of all the women learning Torah in the world and in honor of completing our first year of learning together. Thank you to Hadran and to the Rabbaniot Michelle, Chamotal, Tanya, Sally, Michal, Chayuta and Meirav that lead us in our in depth learning. Yishar Cochachen!

  • This month鈥檚 learning is sponsored by Jon and Yael Cohen in memory of Dr. Robert Van Amerongen.聽May his memory be blessed.

Pesachim 42

This is Shabbat鈥檚 Daf. For Friday鈥檚 Daf please click here.

Is one punished by lashes for transgressing a negative commandment that is derived from a positive one? What should one do with water used by a baker that has flour mixed in? One must knead flour for the matza with mayim she’lanu – water that was drawn and then left overnight. Why? One should not use water that had been heated to knead the dough. What if one did and the dough didn’t leaven – is one penalized for this or not? The third chapter begins with a list of items that are mixtures that include chametz. There are several interpretations of how to understand what the mishna is saying about their status of Pesach. The gemara explains what each of these items are, as well as offering some nutritional information about some of the items mentioned.

专讘讬 讬讛讜讚讛 讛讬讗 讚转谞讬讗 砖讜专 讜砖讛 砖专讜注 讜拽诇讜讟 谞讚讘讛 转注砖讛 讗转讜 讗讜转讜 讗转讛 诪转驻讬住 诇讘讚拽 讛讘讬转 讜讗讬 讗转讛 诪转驻讬住 转诪讬诪讬诐 诇讘讚拽 讛讘讬转 诪讻讗谉 讗诪专讜 讻诇 讛诪转驻讬住 转诪讬诪讬诐 诇讘讚拽 讛讘讬转 注讜讘专 讘注砖讛

It is in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Yehuda, as it was taught in a baraita: 鈥淓ither a bull or a lamb that has anything too long or too short, you may offer it as a free-will offering [to the Temple treasury]; but for a vow [as a sacrifice] it shall not be accepted鈥 (Leviticus 22:23). From here we learn that it, i.e., a blemished animal, you may consecrate for maintaining the Temple, but you may not consecrate unblemished animals for maintaining the Temple. In other words, any animal fit to be sacrificed as an offering may not be consecrated for maintaining the Temple but only as an offering. From here the Sages stated: Whoever consecrates unblemished animals for maintaining the Temple transgresses a positive mitzva.

讗讬谉 诇讬 讗诇讗 讘注砖讛 讘诇讗 转注砖讛 诪谞讬谉 转诇诪讜讚 诇讜诪专 讜讬讚讘专 讛壮 讗诇 诪砖讛 诇讗诪专 诇讬诪讚 注诇 讻诇 讛驻专砖讛 讻讜诇讛 砖讬讛讗 讘诇讗 转注砖讛 讚讘专讬 专讘讬 讬讛讜讚讛

From here I have only derived that he violates a positive mitzva; from where do I derive that he also transgresses a prohibition? The verse states at the beginning of that passage: 鈥淎nd the Lord spoke to Moses saying鈥 (Leviticus 22:17). This introductory statement teaches with regard to the entire portion that a prohibition applies to it. This is the statement of Rabbi Yehuda.

讗诪专 诇讜 专讘讬 诇讘专 拽驻专讗 诪讗讬 诪砖诪注

The baraita adds that Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi said to Bar Kappara: From where may it be inferred that this is the case? How does Rabbi Yehuda derive his statement that a prohibition applies to the entire portion from the phrase 鈥淎nd the Lord spoke to Moses saying鈥?

讗诪专 诇讜 讚讻转讬讘 诇讗诪专 诇讗 谞讗诪专 讘讚讘专讬诐

He said to him: As it is written: 鈥淪aying [leimor].鈥 Rabbi Yehuda expounds this term as though it read: Say no [lo emor]. In other words, the word no, an expression of prohibition, is stated with regard to the subsequent matters, which means that these mitzvot are categorized as prohibitions.

讘讬 专讘 讗诪专讬 诇讗诪专 诇讗讜 讗诪讜专:

In the school of Rav they say a slightly different explanation: The term: Saying, can be expounded as if it were written lav emor, meaning: Say a prohibition. In other words, the verse indicates that Moses was instructed to inform the Jewish people of a prohibition. This teaches that any mitzva introduced by the word leimor should be treated as a prohibition. Since the halakhot of the Paschal lamb are preceded by the phrase: 鈥淎nd the Lord spoke to Moses and to Aaron in the Land of Egypt saying鈥 (Exodus 12:1), it can be inferred that the subsequent mitzvot are also prohibitions.

诪讬 转砖诪讬砖讜 砖诇 谞讞转讜诐 讜讻讜壮: 转谞讬 讞讚讗 砖讜驻讻讬谉 讘诪拽讜诐 诪讚专讜谉 讜讗讬谉 砖讜驻讻讬谉 讘诪拽讜诐 讛讗讬砖讘讜专谉 讜转谞讬讗 讗讬讚讱 砖讜驻讻讬谉 讘诪拽讜诐 讛讗讬砖讘讜专谉

We learned in the mishna: Water that has been used by a baker for cooling his hands or washing dishes must be poured out, as it contains a small, undefined quantity of leavened dough. It was taught in one baraita: One may pour out this water in a place with an incline, and he may not pour it out in a level place where the water collects. And it was taught in another baraita: One may even pour out this water in a level place where the water collects.

诇讗 拽砖讬讗 讛讗 讚谞驻讬砖讬 讚拽讜讜 讛讗 讚诇讗 谞驻讬砖讬 讚诇讗 拽讜讜

The Gemara resolves this contradiction: This is not difficult. This baraita, which states that it is prohibited to pour out this water in a level place, is referring to a large amount of water that will collect in one place. Since there is a large amount of water, the flour in the water will not be absorbed into the ground but will leaven. Conversely, that baraita, which states that it is permitted to pour out the water in a level place, is referring to a situation where there was not a large amount of water, so that it will not collect. Instead, this water will be absorbed into the ground before the dough leavens.

讗诪专 专讘 讬讛讜讚讛 讗砖讛 诇讗 转诇讜砖 讗诇讗 讘诪讬诐 砖诇谞讜

Rav Yehuda said: A woman may knead matza dough only with water that rested, i.e., water that was left indoors overnight to cool. If water is added to dough immediately after it was drawn, when it is still lukewarm, the dough will leaven at a faster rate.

讚专砖讛 专讘 诪转谞讛 讘驻驻讜谞讬讗 诇诪讞专 讗讬讬转讜 讻讜诇讬 注诇诪讗 讞爪讘讬讬讛讜 讜讗转讜 诇讙讘讬讛 讜讗诪专讜 诇讬讛 讛讘 诇谉 诪讬讗 讗诪专 诇讛讜 讗谞讗 讘诪讬讗 讚讘讬转讜 讗诪专讬

The Gemara relates: Rav Mattana taught this halakha in Paphunya. On the next day, the eve of Passover, everyone brought their jugs to him and said to him: Give us water. They misunderstood his expression mayim shelanu, water that rested, as the near homonym mayim shelanu, our water, i.e., water that belongs to the Sage, and they therefore came to take water from his house. He said to them: I say and meant: Water that rested [devitu] in the house overnight.

讚专砖 专讘讗 讗砖讛 诇讗 转诇讜砖 讘讞诪讛 讜诇讗 讘讞诪讬 讞诪讛 讜诇讗 讘诪讬诐 讛讙专讜驻讬谉 诪谉 讛诪讜诇讬讬专 讜诇讗 转讙讘讬讛 讬讚讛 诪谉 讛转谞讜专 注讚 砖转讙诪讜专 讗转 讻诇 讛驻转 (讜爪专讬讱) 砖谞讬 讻诇讬诐 讗讞讚 砖诪拽讟驻转 讘讜 讜讗讞讚 砖诪爪谞谞转 讘讜 讗转 讬讚讬讛

Rava taught: A woman may not knead dough for matza in the sun, nor with water that has been heated by the sun, nor with water collected [hagerufin] in an urn heated by coals [mulyar] And in addition, she may not remove her hand from the oven, i.e., interrupt her baking, until she finishes forming all the loaves from the dough, so that it should not become leavened in the interim. And she requires two vessels, one in which she mixes the water into the dough and one in which she cools her hands so that the heat from her hands does not cause the dough to leaven.

讗讬讘注讬讗 诇讛讜 注讘专讛 讜诇砖讛 诪讛讜 诪专 讝讜讟专讗 讗诪专 诪讜转专 专讘 讗砖讬 讗诪专 讗住讜专

A dilemma was raised before the Sages: If she transgressed and kneaded the dough with warm water, what is the halakha? Mar Zutra said: It is permitted after the fact. Rav Ashi said: It is forbidden.

讗诪专 诪专 讝讜讟专讗 诪谞讗 讗诪讬谞讗 诇讛 讚转谞讬讗 讗讬谉 诇讜转转讬谉 讛砖注讜专讬谉 讘驻住讞 讜讗诐 诇转转 谞转讘拽注讜 讗住讜专讬诐 诇讗 谞转讘拽注讜 诪讜转专讬谉

Mar Zutra said: From where do I say my opinion on this issue? As it was taught in a baraita: One may not soak barley on Passover, and if one soaked barley and it split, the barley is forbidden. If it did not split, the barley is permitted. This case indicates that even if one violates the principles established by the Sages with regard to adding water to flour on Passover, the product is forbidden only after the fact if it actually leavened.

讜专讘 讗砖讬 讗诪专 讗讟讜 讻讜诇讛讜 讞讚讗 诪讞讬转讗 诪讞讬转讬谞讛讜 讛讬讻讗 讚讗讬转诪专 讗讬转诪专 讜讛讬讻讗 讚诇讗 讗讬转诪专 诇讗 讗讬转诪专:

And Rav Ashi said in response: Is that to say that all of them are woven in the same act of weaving? In other words, is the halakha identical in all cases? Where it was stated that the Sages did not punish the violator by rendering his food prohibited, it was stated; and where it was not stated that they refrained from punishing the violator, it was not stated. It is therefore possible that the Sages rendered dough kneaded with warm water forbidden, to punish the woman who prepared it in this manner.

讛讚专谉 注诇讱 讻诇 砖注讛

 

诪转谞讬壮 讜讗诇讜 注讜讘专讬谉 讘驻住讞 讻讜转讞 讛讘讘诇讬 讜砖讻专 讛诪讚讬 讜讞讜诪抓 讛讗讚讜诪讬 讜讝讬转讜诐 讛诪爪专讬 讜讝讜诪谉 砖诇 爪讘注讬诐 讜注诪讬诇谉 砖诇 讟讘讞讬诐 讜拽讜诇谉 砖诇 住讜驻专讬诐

MISHNA: And for possessing these one transgresses [overin] the prohibitions of: It shall not be seen, and: It shall not be found, on Passover, although not all of them are considered food: Babylonian kuta岣, a dip with a sharp flavor that contains flour; Median beer; Edomite vinegar; Egyptian zitom, a type of beer; dyers鈥 broth [zoman]; bakers鈥 well-worked dough; and kolan of soferim.

专讘讬 讗诇讬注讝专 讗讜诪专 讗祝 转讻砖讬讟讬 谞砖讬诐

Rabbi Eliezer says: The same prohibition also applies to women鈥檚 adornments, i.e., cosmetics, that contain leaven.

讝讛 讛讻诇诇 讻诇 砖讛讜讗 诪诪讬谉 讚讙谉 讛专讬 讝讛 注讜讘专 讘驻住讞 讛专讬 讗诇讜 讘讗讝讛专讛 讜讗讬谉 讘讛谉 诪砖讜诐 讻专转:

This is the principle: If one possesses any substance that is derived from a type of grain that became leavened, although it is not actually bread, one transgresses the prohibitions of: It shall not be seen, and: It shall not be found, on Passover. These substances are included in the warning, i.e., the biblical prohibition of possessing leaven, but there is no element of karet if one eats them.

讙诪壮 转谞讜 专讘谞谉 砖诇砖讛 讚讘专讬诐 谞讗诪专讬诐 讘讻讜转讞 讛讘讘诇讬 诪讟诪讟诐 讗转 讛诇讘 讜诪住诪讗 讗转 讛注讬谞讬诐 讜诪讻讞讬砖 讗转 讛讙讜祝

GEMARA: Since the mishna mentions kuta岣, the Gemara cites a baraita where kuta岣 is discussed. The Sages taught that three things were said with regard to kuta岣: It blocks the heart, it blinds the eyes, and it weakens the body.

诪讟诪讟诐 讗转 讛诇讘 诪砖讜诐 谞住讬讜讘讬 讚讞诇讘讗 讜诪住诪讗 讗转 讛注讬谞讬诐 诪砖讜诐 诪讬诇讞讗 讜诪讻讞讬砖 讗转 讛讙讜祝 诪砖讜诐 拽讜诪谞讬转讗 讚讗讜诪讗

The Gemara explains each statement: It blocks the heart due to the whey. Whey was added to kuta岣 and was considered to be an inferior type of food. It blinds the eyes due to the salt in it, which can be dangerous if it enters the eyes. And it weakens the body due to the mold in the bread, as one of the ingredients of kuta岣 was crumbs from dough that had become leavened to the point that they were nearly spoiled.

转谞讜 专讘谞谉 砖诇砖讛 讚讘专讬诐 诪专讘讬谉 讛讝讘诇 讜讻讜驻驻讬谉 讗转 讛拽讜诪讛 讜谞讜讟诇讬谉 讗讞讚 诪讞诪砖 诪讗讜转 诪诪讗讜专 注讬谞讬讜 砖诇 讗讚诐 讗诇讜 讛谉 驻转 拽讬讘专 讜砖讻专 讞讚砖 讜讬专拽 讞讬

After mentioning this baraita, the Gemara continues to discuss the nutritional effects of other foods. The Sages taught: Three things increase one鈥檚 waste, lower one鈥檚 stature, and take one five-hundredth of a person鈥檚 vision if he eats them regularly. And they are: Bread from coarse flour, new beer, and raw vegetables.

转谞讜 专讘谞谉 砖诇砖讛 讚讘专讬诐 诪诪注讟讬谉 讗转 讛讝讘诇 讜讝讜拽驻讬谉 讗转 讛拽讜诪讛 讜诪讗讬专讬谉 讗转 讛注讬谞讬诐 讗诇讜 讛谉 驻转 谞拽讬讬讛 讘砖专 砖诪谉 讜讬讬谉 讬砖谉 驻转 谞拽讬讬讛

Similarly, the Sages taught in another baraita: Three things decrease one鈥檚 waste, straighten one鈥檚 stature, and improve one鈥檚 vision, and they are: Bread from fine flour, fatty meat, and aged wine. The Gemara explains: Fine bread

讚住诪讬讚讗 讘砖专 砖诪谉 讚爪驻讬专转讗 讚诇讗 讗驻转讞 讬讬谉 讬砖谉 注转讬拽 注转讬拽讬

is made from refined flour; fatty meat refers to meat from a goat that has not yet given birth; and aged wine refers to wine that has been aged significantly, for at least three years.

讻诇 诪讬诇讬 讚诪注诇讬 诇讛讗讬 拽砖讛 诇讛讗讬 讜讚拽砖讛 诇讛讗讬 诪注诇讬 诇讛讗讬 讘专 诪讝谞讙讘讬诇讗 专讟讬讘讗 讜驻讬诇驻诇讬 讗专讬讻转讗 讜驻转 谞拽讬讬讛 讜讘砖专 砖诪谉 讜讬讬谉 讬砖谉 讚诪注诇讬 诇讻讜诇讬 讙讜驻讬讛:

The Gemara states a general principle: Any food or medical treatment that is effective in healing this sickness or this limb is deleterious for that one. And any food or treatment that is deleterious for this one is effective in healing that one, except for moist ginger, long peppers, and bread made of refined flour, and fatty meat, and aged wine, which are effective to heal all limbs of the body.

砖讻专 讛诪讚讬: 讚专诪讜 讘讬讛 诪讬 砖注专讬:

The Gemara returns to its discussion of the details mentioned in the mishna. Why is Median beer prohibited during Passover? It is because the Medians place barley water into it.

讜讞讜诪抓 讛讗讚讜诪讬: 讚砖讚讜 讘讬讛 砖注专讬

And Edomite vinegar is prohibited because the Edomites place barley into it.

讗诪专 专讘 谞讞诪谉 (讘专 讬爪讞拽) 讘转讞诇讛 讻砖讛讬讜 诪讘讬讗讬谉 谞住讻讬诐 诪讬讛讜讚讛 诇讗 讛讬讛 讬讬谞诐 砖诇 讬讛讜讚讛 诪讞诪讬抓 注讚 砖谞讜转谞讬谉 诇转讜讻谉 砖注讜专讬谉 讜讛讬讜 拽讜专讬谉 讗讜转讜 讞讜诪抓 住转诐

Rav Na岣an bar Yitz岣k said: Initially, when the Temple stood and they would bring wine libations from Judea, the wine would be blessed and would be preserved without any additives. The wine of Judea would not turn to vinegar unless they placed barley into it to achieve this effect. And they would call this vinegar to which barley had been added ordinary vinegar, since wine would not become vinegar without this additive.

讜注讻砖讬讜 讗讬谉 讬讬谞诐 砖诇 讗讚讜诪讬讬诐 诪讞诪讬抓 注讚 砖谞讜转谞讬谉 诇转讜讻谉 砖注讜专讬谉 讜拽讜专讬谉 讗讜转讜 讞讜诪抓 讛讗讚讜诪讬 诇拽讬讬诐 诪讛 砖谞讗诪专 讗诪诇讗讛 讛讞专讘讛 讗诐 诪诇讗讛 讝讜 讞专讘讛 讝讜 讜讗诐 诪诇讗讛 讝讜 讞专讘讛 讝讜 专讘 谞讞诪谉 讘专 讬爪讞拽 讗诪专 诪讛讻讗 讜诇讗诐 诪诇讗诐 讬讗诪抓

And now, after the destruction of the Temple, Edomite wine does not turn to vinegar unless one places barley into it. This is called Edomite vinegar, to fulfill that which is stated with regard to Tyre, and the same applies to other enemies of the Jewish people: 鈥淏ecause Tyre has said against Jerusalem: Aha, she is broken that was the gate of the peoples; she is turned unto me; I shall be filled with her that is laid waste鈥 (Ezekiel 26:2). The Sages expound: If this one, Jerusalem, is full, then that one, her enemy, is laid waste; and if this enemy is full, then she, Jerusalem, is laid waste. Therefore, when the Jewish people fall, their enemies can achieve the success that was once attained by the Jews. Rav Na岣an bar Yitz岣k said: This notion can be derived from here, where the verse states regarding Esau and Jacob: 鈥淭he one people shall be stronger than the other people鈥 (Genesis 25:23), meaning that when one nation gains power, the other is weakened, because they cannot both be strong at the same time.

转谞讬讗 讗诪专 专讘讬 讬讛讜讚讛 讘讬讛讜讚讛 讘专讗砖讜谞讛 讛诇讜拽讞 讞讜诪抓 诪注诐 讛讗专抓 讗讬谞讜 爪专讬讱 诇注砖专 诪驻谞讬 砖讞讝拽讛 讗讬谞讜 讘讗 讗诇讗 诪谉 讛转诪讚 讜注讻砖讬讜 讛诇讜拽讞 讞讜诪抓 诪注诐 讛讗专抓 爪专讬讱 诇注砖专 砖讞讝拽转讜 讗讬谞讜 讘讗 讗诇讗 诪谉 讛讬讬谉

It was taught in a baraita that Rabbi Yehuda said: In Judea, initially, one who would purchase vinegar from an am ha鈥檃retz, i.e., one who is not scrupulous in matters of ritual purity and tithes and is therefore suspect of not having tithed his fruit properly, would not need to tithe it due to the fact that it can be assumed that ordinary vinegar was made only from temed, a liquid produced from grape remnants. After filtering the wine from the stems, seeds, and skins, water was poured over these remnants. The liquid was then drained off and allowed to ferment until it became vinegar. This liquid was called temed, and it is not necessary to tithe it. Vinegar was produced in this way because the wine of that time was so strong that it did not turn to vinegar on its own. But now, one who purchases vinegar from an am ha鈥檃retz must tithe it, as the wine nowadays turns to vinegar quickly, and the presumption is that vinegar comes only from wine.

讜住讘专 专讘讬 讬讛讜讚讛 转诪讚 诇讗讜 讘专 注砖讜专讬 讛讜讗 讜讛讗 (转谞谉) 讛诪转诪讚 讜谞转谉 诪讬诐 讘诪讚讛 讜诪爪讗 讻讚讬 诪讚转讜 驻讟讜专 讜专讘讬 讬讛讜讚讛 诪讞讬讬讘

The Gemara asks: But does Rabbi Yehuda hold that temed is not subject to tithing? Wasn鈥檛 it taught in a mishna: With regard to one who produces temed and adds a measured amount of water and afterward finds a corresponding amount of liquid to that which he measured, he is exempt from tithing this temed because it is clear that the grape produce added only flavor and did not add to the volume of the temed. And Rabbi Yehuda obligates one to tithe the temed even in that case. If this is so, how can Rabbi Yehuda permit a person to purchase temed from an am ha鈥檃retz? According to his opinion in this baraita, temed must be tithed.

讛讻讬 拽讗诪专 诇讗 谞讞砖讚讜 注诪讬 讛讗专抓 注诇 讛转诪讚 讗讬 讘注讬转 讗讬诪讗 谞讞砖讚讜 讜诇讗 拽砖讬讗 讛讗 讘讚专讜讜拽讗 讛讗 讘讚驻讜专爪谞讬:

The Gemara answers: This is what Rabbi Yehuda is saying: One is required to tithe temed; however, amei ha鈥檃retz are not suspected of failing to tithe temed. Because temed is so inexpensive, the assumption is that amei ha鈥檃retz are not sparing with it and are willing to tithe it. If you wish, say instead that even if amei ha鈥檃retz are suspected of failing to tithe temed, and this is not difficult for the following reason: This mishna is referring to a case where the temed was produced with dregs that contain some amount of wine, and therefore Rabbi Yehuda says that a person is required to tithe it. That baraita is referring to a case where the temed was produced with grape pits; because it is assumed that no wine is mixed into the temed, Rabbi Yehuda states that one is exempt from tithing it.

讜讝讬转讜诐 讛诪爪专讬 讜讻讜壮: 诪讗讬 讝讬转讜诐 讛诪爪专讬

It is stated in the mishna that Egyptian zitom is considered leavened food. The Gemara asks: What is Egyptian zitom?

转谞讗 专讘 讬讜住祝 转诇转讗 砖注专讬 转诇转讗 拽讜专讟诪讬 讜转诇转讗 诪诇讞讗

Rav Yosef taught from a baraita: It is one-third barley, one-third safflower, and one-third salt.

专讘 驻驻讗 诪驻讬拽 砖注专讬 讜诪注讬讬诇 讞讬讟讬 讜住讬诪谞讬讱 住讬住谞讬

Rav Pappa removes barley from the list of ingredients and includes wheat; he maintains that Egyptian zitom was made with wheat rather than barley. The Gemara comments: Your mnemonic to remember which Sage expressed which version is the word sisanei, meaning a twig basket. Sisanei contains the letter samekh twice, which can help one remember that Rav Yosef, whose name contains a samekh, says that Egyptian zitom is made from se鈥檕rim, barley, a word that contains the letter sin, which makes the same sound as samekh.

转专讜 诇讛讜 讜拽诇讜 诇讛讜 讜讟讞谞讬 诇讛讜 讜砖转讜 诇讛讜 诪讚讬讘讞讗 讜注讚 注爪专转讗 讚拽诪讬讟 诪专驻讬 诇讬讛 讜讚专驻讬 诪拽诪讬讟 诇讬讛 诇讞讜诇讛 讜诇讗砖讛 注讜讘专讛 住讻谞转讗:

The Gemara describes how Egyptian zitom is prepared: Those who prepare it soak the ingredients together, and then they roast them and grind them together. They drink the mixture from Passover to Shavuot. This drink relaxes the bowels of one who is constipated, and it constipates one whose bowel movements are loose. However, it is dangerous for a sick person or a pregnant woman to drink this mixture.

讜讝讜诪谉 砖诇 爪讘注讬诐 讜讻讜壮: 讛讻讗 转专讙讬诪讜 诪讬讗 讚讞讬讜专讬 讚爪讘注讬 讘讛讜 诇讘讗:

It was taught in the mishna that dyers鈥 broth is considered leavened. The Gemara explains: Here, in Babylonia, they interpreted that this is bran water [maya de岣vri] that people use to dye leather.

讜注诪讬诇谉 砖诇 讟讘讞讬诐 讜讻讜壮: 驻转 转讘讜讗讛 砖诇讗 讛讘讬讗讛 砖诇讬砖 砖诪谞讬讞讛 注诇 驻讬 拽讚讬专讛 讜砖讜讗讘转 讛讝讜讛诪讗:

It was further stated in the mishna that bakers鈥 well-worked dough is also considered leavened. The Gemara explains the nature of this substance: It is bread made from grain that was harvested before it was one-third ripe and then made into a loaf. This loaf was placed on top of a pot to draw out the filth from the broth.

讜拽讜诇谉 砖诇 住讜驻专讬诐 讜讻讜壮: 讛讻讗 转专讙讜诪讗 驻专讜专讗 讚讗讜砖讻驻讬

It was further taught in the mishna that the kolan of soferim, kolan of soferim, is considered leavened. The Gemara explains: Here, in Babylonia, they interpreted that this expression is referring to shoemakers鈥 glue that is made from flour.

专讘 砖讬诪讬 诪讞讜讝谞讗讛 讗诪专 讝讛 讟讬驻讜诇谉 砖诇 讘谞讜转 注砖讬专讬诐 砖诪砖讬讬专讜转 讗讜转讜 诇讘谞讜转 注谞讬讬诐

Rav Shimi from 岣zna鈥檃 said: This is the depilatory paste of the daughters of the wealthy, of which they would leave a remnant for the daughters of the poor. It was the common practice for women to remove hair from different parts of their bodies by applying various pastes, some of which contained flour. The kolan of soferim mentioned in the mishna was such a substance. It was given this name because wealthy young women would give the paste [kolan] to poor young women whose fathers were schoolteachers [soferim], so that the poor women could utilize it as well.

讗讬谞讬 讜讛讗 转谞讗 专讘讬 讞讬讬讗 讗专讘注讛 诪讬谞讬 诪讚讬谞讛 讜砖诇砖讛 诪讬谞讬 讗讜诪谞讜转 讜讗讬 讗诪专转 讟讬驻讜诇谉 砖诇 讘谞讜转 注砖讬专讬诐 诪讗讬 诪讬谞讬 讗讜诪谞讜转 讗讬讻讗

The Gemara asks: Is that so? But didn鈥檛 Rabbi 岣yya teach a mnemonic by noting that the mishna lists four items that are used by the ordinary people of the state, i.e., kuta岣, beer, vinegar, and zitom, and three items of artisans, i.e., dyers鈥 broth, kolan of soferim, and bakers鈥 well-worked dough? And if you say that kolan of soferim is the depilatory paste of the daughters of the wealthy, then what artisanship is there in that? According to this interpretation, that substance does not belong on the list of artisans鈥 items.

讜讗诇讗 诪讗讬 驻专讜专讗 讚讗讜砖讻驻讬 讗诪讗讬 拽专讬 诇讬讛 讛讗讬 拽讜诇谉 砖诇 住讜驻专讬诐 拽讜诇谉 砖诇 专爪注谞讬谉 诪讬讘注讬讗 诇讬讛 讗诪专 专讘 讗讜砖注讬讗 诇注讜诇诐 驻专讜专讗 讚讗讜砖讻驻讬 讜诪讗讬 拽专讬 诇讬讛 拽讜诇谉 砖诇 住讜驻专讬诐 讚住讜驻专讬诐 谞诪讬 诪讚讘拽讬谉 讘讛讜 谞讬讬专讜转讬讛谉:

The Gemara answers with another question: Rather what, will you say that this is referring to shoemakers鈥 glue? If so, why did the authors of the mishna call it bookmakers鈥 glue [kolan shel soferim]? It should have been called shoemakers鈥 glue [kolan shel ratzanin]. Rav Oshaya said: Actually, one should explain that kolan is referring to shoemakers鈥 glue; and why is it called bookmakers鈥 glue? The reason is that bookmakers also use it to attach their pages. During the time of the mishna, this paste was referred to as bookmakers鈥 glue.

专讘讬 讗诇讬注讝专 讗讜诪专 讗祝 转讻砖讬讟讬 谞砖讬诐 讜讻讜壮: 转讻砖讬讟讬 谞砖讬诐 住诇拽讗 讚注转讱 讗诇讗 讗讬诪讗 讗祝 讟讬驻讜诇讬 谞砖讬诐 讚讗诪专 专讘 讬讛讜讚讛 讗诪专 专讘 讘谞讜转 讬砖专讗诇

It is stated in the mishna: Rabbi Eliezer says that women鈥檚 adornments are also prohibited as leavened food. The Gemara asks: Could it enter your mind to say that adornments made from silver, gold, or woven materials contain leaven? Rather, say instead that this means: Even women鈥檚 cosmetics or other items used by women to enhance their skin are prohibited if they contain leavened ingredients. As Rav Yehuda said that Rav said: With regard to the Jewish women

Masechet Pesachim is sponsored by Sivya Twersky in honor of her daughter, Shoshana Baker, her grandson's upcoming Bar Mitzvah ,and in memory of her father, Harav Pesach Zachariah Halevi ben Reuven and Leah Z'late Z'L. He lived Torah and emunah by example to congregational and biological families. His yahrzeit falls within this masechet.

The Daf Yomi women of Neve Daniel are proud to dedicate a month of learning in honor of all the women learning Torah in the world and in honor of completing our first year of learning together. Thank you to Hadran and to the Rabbaniot Michelle, Chamotal, Tanya, Sally, Michal, Chayuta and Meirav that lead us in our in depth learning. Yishar Cochachen!

  • This month鈥檚 learning is sponsored by Jon and Yael Cohen in memory of Dr. Robert Van Amerongen.聽May his memory be blessed.

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Dr. Tamara Spitz

Pesachim 39-45 – Daf Yomi: One Week at a Time

This week we will learn about different vegetables that can be used as Marror and if vinegar stops the leavening...

Pesachim 42

The William Davidson Talmud | Powered by Sefaria

Pesachim 42

专讘讬 讬讛讜讚讛 讛讬讗 讚转谞讬讗 砖讜专 讜砖讛 砖专讜注 讜拽诇讜讟 谞讚讘讛 转注砖讛 讗转讜 讗讜转讜 讗转讛 诪转驻讬住 诇讘讚拽 讛讘讬转 讜讗讬 讗转讛 诪转驻讬住 转诪讬诪讬诐 诇讘讚拽 讛讘讬转 诪讻讗谉 讗诪专讜 讻诇 讛诪转驻讬住 转诪讬诪讬诐 诇讘讚拽 讛讘讬转 注讜讘专 讘注砖讛

It is in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Yehuda, as it was taught in a baraita: 鈥淓ither a bull or a lamb that has anything too long or too short, you may offer it as a free-will offering [to the Temple treasury]; but for a vow [as a sacrifice] it shall not be accepted鈥 (Leviticus 22:23). From here we learn that it, i.e., a blemished animal, you may consecrate for maintaining the Temple, but you may not consecrate unblemished animals for maintaining the Temple. In other words, any animal fit to be sacrificed as an offering may not be consecrated for maintaining the Temple but only as an offering. From here the Sages stated: Whoever consecrates unblemished animals for maintaining the Temple transgresses a positive mitzva.

讗讬谉 诇讬 讗诇讗 讘注砖讛 讘诇讗 转注砖讛 诪谞讬谉 转诇诪讜讚 诇讜诪专 讜讬讚讘专 讛壮 讗诇 诪砖讛 诇讗诪专 诇讬诪讚 注诇 讻诇 讛驻专砖讛 讻讜诇讛 砖讬讛讗 讘诇讗 转注砖讛 讚讘专讬 专讘讬 讬讛讜讚讛

From here I have only derived that he violates a positive mitzva; from where do I derive that he also transgresses a prohibition? The verse states at the beginning of that passage: 鈥淎nd the Lord spoke to Moses saying鈥 (Leviticus 22:17). This introductory statement teaches with regard to the entire portion that a prohibition applies to it. This is the statement of Rabbi Yehuda.

讗诪专 诇讜 专讘讬 诇讘专 拽驻专讗 诪讗讬 诪砖诪注

The baraita adds that Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi said to Bar Kappara: From where may it be inferred that this is the case? How does Rabbi Yehuda derive his statement that a prohibition applies to the entire portion from the phrase 鈥淎nd the Lord spoke to Moses saying鈥?

讗诪专 诇讜 讚讻转讬讘 诇讗诪专 诇讗 谞讗诪专 讘讚讘专讬诐

He said to him: As it is written: 鈥淪aying [leimor].鈥 Rabbi Yehuda expounds this term as though it read: Say no [lo emor]. In other words, the word no, an expression of prohibition, is stated with regard to the subsequent matters, which means that these mitzvot are categorized as prohibitions.

讘讬 专讘 讗诪专讬 诇讗诪专 诇讗讜 讗诪讜专:

In the school of Rav they say a slightly different explanation: The term: Saying, can be expounded as if it were written lav emor, meaning: Say a prohibition. In other words, the verse indicates that Moses was instructed to inform the Jewish people of a prohibition. This teaches that any mitzva introduced by the word leimor should be treated as a prohibition. Since the halakhot of the Paschal lamb are preceded by the phrase: 鈥淎nd the Lord spoke to Moses and to Aaron in the Land of Egypt saying鈥 (Exodus 12:1), it can be inferred that the subsequent mitzvot are also prohibitions.

诪讬 转砖诪讬砖讜 砖诇 谞讞转讜诐 讜讻讜壮: 转谞讬 讞讚讗 砖讜驻讻讬谉 讘诪拽讜诐 诪讚专讜谉 讜讗讬谉 砖讜驻讻讬谉 讘诪拽讜诐 讛讗讬砖讘讜专谉 讜转谞讬讗 讗讬讚讱 砖讜驻讻讬谉 讘诪拽讜诐 讛讗讬砖讘讜专谉

We learned in the mishna: Water that has been used by a baker for cooling his hands or washing dishes must be poured out, as it contains a small, undefined quantity of leavened dough. It was taught in one baraita: One may pour out this water in a place with an incline, and he may not pour it out in a level place where the water collects. And it was taught in another baraita: One may even pour out this water in a level place where the water collects.

诇讗 拽砖讬讗 讛讗 讚谞驻讬砖讬 讚拽讜讜 讛讗 讚诇讗 谞驻讬砖讬 讚诇讗 拽讜讜

The Gemara resolves this contradiction: This is not difficult. This baraita, which states that it is prohibited to pour out this water in a level place, is referring to a large amount of water that will collect in one place. Since there is a large amount of water, the flour in the water will not be absorbed into the ground but will leaven. Conversely, that baraita, which states that it is permitted to pour out the water in a level place, is referring to a situation where there was not a large amount of water, so that it will not collect. Instead, this water will be absorbed into the ground before the dough leavens.

讗诪专 专讘 讬讛讜讚讛 讗砖讛 诇讗 转诇讜砖 讗诇讗 讘诪讬诐 砖诇谞讜

Rav Yehuda said: A woman may knead matza dough only with water that rested, i.e., water that was left indoors overnight to cool. If water is added to dough immediately after it was drawn, when it is still lukewarm, the dough will leaven at a faster rate.

讚专砖讛 专讘 诪转谞讛 讘驻驻讜谞讬讗 诇诪讞专 讗讬讬转讜 讻讜诇讬 注诇诪讗 讞爪讘讬讬讛讜 讜讗转讜 诇讙讘讬讛 讜讗诪专讜 诇讬讛 讛讘 诇谉 诪讬讗 讗诪专 诇讛讜 讗谞讗 讘诪讬讗 讚讘讬转讜 讗诪专讬

The Gemara relates: Rav Mattana taught this halakha in Paphunya. On the next day, the eve of Passover, everyone brought their jugs to him and said to him: Give us water. They misunderstood his expression mayim shelanu, water that rested, as the near homonym mayim shelanu, our water, i.e., water that belongs to the Sage, and they therefore came to take water from his house. He said to them: I say and meant: Water that rested [devitu] in the house overnight.

讚专砖 专讘讗 讗砖讛 诇讗 转诇讜砖 讘讞诪讛 讜诇讗 讘讞诪讬 讞诪讛 讜诇讗 讘诪讬诐 讛讙专讜驻讬谉 诪谉 讛诪讜诇讬讬专 讜诇讗 转讙讘讬讛 讬讚讛 诪谉 讛转谞讜专 注讚 砖转讙诪讜专 讗转 讻诇 讛驻转 (讜爪专讬讱) 砖谞讬 讻诇讬诐 讗讞讚 砖诪拽讟驻转 讘讜 讜讗讞讚 砖诪爪谞谞转 讘讜 讗转 讬讚讬讛

Rava taught: A woman may not knead dough for matza in the sun, nor with water that has been heated by the sun, nor with water collected [hagerufin] in an urn heated by coals [mulyar] And in addition, she may not remove her hand from the oven, i.e., interrupt her baking, until she finishes forming all the loaves from the dough, so that it should not become leavened in the interim. And she requires two vessels, one in which she mixes the water into the dough and one in which she cools her hands so that the heat from her hands does not cause the dough to leaven.

讗讬讘注讬讗 诇讛讜 注讘专讛 讜诇砖讛 诪讛讜 诪专 讝讜讟专讗 讗诪专 诪讜转专 专讘 讗砖讬 讗诪专 讗住讜专

A dilemma was raised before the Sages: If she transgressed and kneaded the dough with warm water, what is the halakha? Mar Zutra said: It is permitted after the fact. Rav Ashi said: It is forbidden.

讗诪专 诪专 讝讜讟专讗 诪谞讗 讗诪讬谞讗 诇讛 讚转谞讬讗 讗讬谉 诇讜转转讬谉 讛砖注讜专讬谉 讘驻住讞 讜讗诐 诇转转 谞转讘拽注讜 讗住讜专讬诐 诇讗 谞转讘拽注讜 诪讜转专讬谉

Mar Zutra said: From where do I say my opinion on this issue? As it was taught in a baraita: One may not soak barley on Passover, and if one soaked barley and it split, the barley is forbidden. If it did not split, the barley is permitted. This case indicates that even if one violates the principles established by the Sages with regard to adding water to flour on Passover, the product is forbidden only after the fact if it actually leavened.

讜专讘 讗砖讬 讗诪专 讗讟讜 讻讜诇讛讜 讞讚讗 诪讞讬转讗 诪讞讬转讬谞讛讜 讛讬讻讗 讚讗讬转诪专 讗讬转诪专 讜讛讬讻讗 讚诇讗 讗讬转诪专 诇讗 讗讬转诪专:

And Rav Ashi said in response: Is that to say that all of them are woven in the same act of weaving? In other words, is the halakha identical in all cases? Where it was stated that the Sages did not punish the violator by rendering his food prohibited, it was stated; and where it was not stated that they refrained from punishing the violator, it was not stated. It is therefore possible that the Sages rendered dough kneaded with warm water forbidden, to punish the woman who prepared it in this manner.

讛讚专谉 注诇讱 讻诇 砖注讛

 

诪转谞讬壮 讜讗诇讜 注讜讘专讬谉 讘驻住讞 讻讜转讞 讛讘讘诇讬 讜砖讻专 讛诪讚讬 讜讞讜诪抓 讛讗讚讜诪讬 讜讝讬转讜诐 讛诪爪专讬 讜讝讜诪谉 砖诇 爪讘注讬诐 讜注诪讬诇谉 砖诇 讟讘讞讬诐 讜拽讜诇谉 砖诇 住讜驻专讬诐

MISHNA: And for possessing these one transgresses [overin] the prohibitions of: It shall not be seen, and: It shall not be found, on Passover, although not all of them are considered food: Babylonian kuta岣, a dip with a sharp flavor that contains flour; Median beer; Edomite vinegar; Egyptian zitom, a type of beer; dyers鈥 broth [zoman]; bakers鈥 well-worked dough; and kolan of soferim.

专讘讬 讗诇讬注讝专 讗讜诪专 讗祝 转讻砖讬讟讬 谞砖讬诐

Rabbi Eliezer says: The same prohibition also applies to women鈥檚 adornments, i.e., cosmetics, that contain leaven.

讝讛 讛讻诇诇 讻诇 砖讛讜讗 诪诪讬谉 讚讙谉 讛专讬 讝讛 注讜讘专 讘驻住讞 讛专讬 讗诇讜 讘讗讝讛专讛 讜讗讬谉 讘讛谉 诪砖讜诐 讻专转:

This is the principle: If one possesses any substance that is derived from a type of grain that became leavened, although it is not actually bread, one transgresses the prohibitions of: It shall not be seen, and: It shall not be found, on Passover. These substances are included in the warning, i.e., the biblical prohibition of possessing leaven, but there is no element of karet if one eats them.

讙诪壮 转谞讜 专讘谞谉 砖诇砖讛 讚讘专讬诐 谞讗诪专讬诐 讘讻讜转讞 讛讘讘诇讬 诪讟诪讟诐 讗转 讛诇讘 讜诪住诪讗 讗转 讛注讬谞讬诐 讜诪讻讞讬砖 讗转 讛讙讜祝

GEMARA: Since the mishna mentions kuta岣, the Gemara cites a baraita where kuta岣 is discussed. The Sages taught that three things were said with regard to kuta岣: It blocks the heart, it blinds the eyes, and it weakens the body.

诪讟诪讟诐 讗转 讛诇讘 诪砖讜诐 谞住讬讜讘讬 讚讞诇讘讗 讜诪住诪讗 讗转 讛注讬谞讬诐 诪砖讜诐 诪讬诇讞讗 讜诪讻讞讬砖 讗转 讛讙讜祝 诪砖讜诐 拽讜诪谞讬转讗 讚讗讜诪讗

The Gemara explains each statement: It blocks the heart due to the whey. Whey was added to kuta岣 and was considered to be an inferior type of food. It blinds the eyes due to the salt in it, which can be dangerous if it enters the eyes. And it weakens the body due to the mold in the bread, as one of the ingredients of kuta岣 was crumbs from dough that had become leavened to the point that they were nearly spoiled.

转谞讜 专讘谞谉 砖诇砖讛 讚讘专讬诐 诪专讘讬谉 讛讝讘诇 讜讻讜驻驻讬谉 讗转 讛拽讜诪讛 讜谞讜讟诇讬谉 讗讞讚 诪讞诪砖 诪讗讜转 诪诪讗讜专 注讬谞讬讜 砖诇 讗讚诐 讗诇讜 讛谉 驻转 拽讬讘专 讜砖讻专 讞讚砖 讜讬专拽 讞讬

After mentioning this baraita, the Gemara continues to discuss the nutritional effects of other foods. The Sages taught: Three things increase one鈥檚 waste, lower one鈥檚 stature, and take one five-hundredth of a person鈥檚 vision if he eats them regularly. And they are: Bread from coarse flour, new beer, and raw vegetables.

转谞讜 专讘谞谉 砖诇砖讛 讚讘专讬诐 诪诪注讟讬谉 讗转 讛讝讘诇 讜讝讜拽驻讬谉 讗转 讛拽讜诪讛 讜诪讗讬专讬谉 讗转 讛注讬谞讬诐 讗诇讜 讛谉 驻转 谞拽讬讬讛 讘砖专 砖诪谉 讜讬讬谉 讬砖谉 驻转 谞拽讬讬讛

Similarly, the Sages taught in another baraita: Three things decrease one鈥檚 waste, straighten one鈥檚 stature, and improve one鈥檚 vision, and they are: Bread from fine flour, fatty meat, and aged wine. The Gemara explains: Fine bread

讚住诪讬讚讗 讘砖专 砖诪谉 讚爪驻讬专转讗 讚诇讗 讗驻转讞 讬讬谉 讬砖谉 注转讬拽 注转讬拽讬

is made from refined flour; fatty meat refers to meat from a goat that has not yet given birth; and aged wine refers to wine that has been aged significantly, for at least three years.

讻诇 诪讬诇讬 讚诪注诇讬 诇讛讗讬 拽砖讛 诇讛讗讬 讜讚拽砖讛 诇讛讗讬 诪注诇讬 诇讛讗讬 讘专 诪讝谞讙讘讬诇讗 专讟讬讘讗 讜驻讬诇驻诇讬 讗专讬讻转讗 讜驻转 谞拽讬讬讛 讜讘砖专 砖诪谉 讜讬讬谉 讬砖谉 讚诪注诇讬 诇讻讜诇讬 讙讜驻讬讛:

The Gemara states a general principle: Any food or medical treatment that is effective in healing this sickness or this limb is deleterious for that one. And any food or treatment that is deleterious for this one is effective in healing that one, except for moist ginger, long peppers, and bread made of refined flour, and fatty meat, and aged wine, which are effective to heal all limbs of the body.

砖讻专 讛诪讚讬: 讚专诪讜 讘讬讛 诪讬 砖注专讬:

The Gemara returns to its discussion of the details mentioned in the mishna. Why is Median beer prohibited during Passover? It is because the Medians place barley water into it.

讜讞讜诪抓 讛讗讚讜诪讬: 讚砖讚讜 讘讬讛 砖注专讬

And Edomite vinegar is prohibited because the Edomites place barley into it.

讗诪专 专讘 谞讞诪谉 (讘专 讬爪讞拽) 讘转讞诇讛 讻砖讛讬讜 诪讘讬讗讬谉 谞住讻讬诐 诪讬讛讜讚讛 诇讗 讛讬讛 讬讬谞诐 砖诇 讬讛讜讚讛 诪讞诪讬抓 注讚 砖谞讜转谞讬谉 诇转讜讻谉 砖注讜专讬谉 讜讛讬讜 拽讜专讬谉 讗讜转讜 讞讜诪抓 住转诐

Rav Na岣an bar Yitz岣k said: Initially, when the Temple stood and they would bring wine libations from Judea, the wine would be blessed and would be preserved without any additives. The wine of Judea would not turn to vinegar unless they placed barley into it to achieve this effect. And they would call this vinegar to which barley had been added ordinary vinegar, since wine would not become vinegar without this additive.

讜注讻砖讬讜 讗讬谉 讬讬谞诐 砖诇 讗讚讜诪讬讬诐 诪讞诪讬抓 注讚 砖谞讜转谞讬谉 诇转讜讻谉 砖注讜专讬谉 讜拽讜专讬谉 讗讜转讜 讞讜诪抓 讛讗讚讜诪讬 诇拽讬讬诐 诪讛 砖谞讗诪专 讗诪诇讗讛 讛讞专讘讛 讗诐 诪诇讗讛 讝讜 讞专讘讛 讝讜 讜讗诐 诪诇讗讛 讝讜 讞专讘讛 讝讜 专讘 谞讞诪谉 讘专 讬爪讞拽 讗诪专 诪讛讻讗 讜诇讗诐 诪诇讗诐 讬讗诪抓

And now, after the destruction of the Temple, Edomite wine does not turn to vinegar unless one places barley into it. This is called Edomite vinegar, to fulfill that which is stated with regard to Tyre, and the same applies to other enemies of the Jewish people: 鈥淏ecause Tyre has said against Jerusalem: Aha, she is broken that was the gate of the peoples; she is turned unto me; I shall be filled with her that is laid waste鈥 (Ezekiel 26:2). The Sages expound: If this one, Jerusalem, is full, then that one, her enemy, is laid waste; and if this enemy is full, then she, Jerusalem, is laid waste. Therefore, when the Jewish people fall, their enemies can achieve the success that was once attained by the Jews. Rav Na岣an bar Yitz岣k said: This notion can be derived from here, where the verse states regarding Esau and Jacob: 鈥淭he one people shall be stronger than the other people鈥 (Genesis 25:23), meaning that when one nation gains power, the other is weakened, because they cannot both be strong at the same time.

转谞讬讗 讗诪专 专讘讬 讬讛讜讚讛 讘讬讛讜讚讛 讘专讗砖讜谞讛 讛诇讜拽讞 讞讜诪抓 诪注诐 讛讗专抓 讗讬谞讜 爪专讬讱 诇注砖专 诪驻谞讬 砖讞讝拽讛 讗讬谞讜 讘讗 讗诇讗 诪谉 讛转诪讚 讜注讻砖讬讜 讛诇讜拽讞 讞讜诪抓 诪注诐 讛讗专抓 爪专讬讱 诇注砖专 砖讞讝拽转讜 讗讬谞讜 讘讗 讗诇讗 诪谉 讛讬讬谉

It was taught in a baraita that Rabbi Yehuda said: In Judea, initially, one who would purchase vinegar from an am ha鈥檃retz, i.e., one who is not scrupulous in matters of ritual purity and tithes and is therefore suspect of not having tithed his fruit properly, would not need to tithe it due to the fact that it can be assumed that ordinary vinegar was made only from temed, a liquid produced from grape remnants. After filtering the wine from the stems, seeds, and skins, water was poured over these remnants. The liquid was then drained off and allowed to ferment until it became vinegar. This liquid was called temed, and it is not necessary to tithe it. Vinegar was produced in this way because the wine of that time was so strong that it did not turn to vinegar on its own. But now, one who purchases vinegar from an am ha鈥檃retz must tithe it, as the wine nowadays turns to vinegar quickly, and the presumption is that vinegar comes only from wine.

讜住讘专 专讘讬 讬讛讜讚讛 转诪讚 诇讗讜 讘专 注砖讜专讬 讛讜讗 讜讛讗 (转谞谉) 讛诪转诪讚 讜谞转谉 诪讬诐 讘诪讚讛 讜诪爪讗 讻讚讬 诪讚转讜 驻讟讜专 讜专讘讬 讬讛讜讚讛 诪讞讬讬讘

The Gemara asks: But does Rabbi Yehuda hold that temed is not subject to tithing? Wasn鈥檛 it taught in a mishna: With regard to one who produces temed and adds a measured amount of water and afterward finds a corresponding amount of liquid to that which he measured, he is exempt from tithing this temed because it is clear that the grape produce added only flavor and did not add to the volume of the temed. And Rabbi Yehuda obligates one to tithe the temed even in that case. If this is so, how can Rabbi Yehuda permit a person to purchase temed from an am ha鈥檃retz? According to his opinion in this baraita, temed must be tithed.

讛讻讬 拽讗诪专 诇讗 谞讞砖讚讜 注诪讬 讛讗专抓 注诇 讛转诪讚 讗讬 讘注讬转 讗讬诪讗 谞讞砖讚讜 讜诇讗 拽砖讬讗 讛讗 讘讚专讜讜拽讗 讛讗 讘讚驻讜专爪谞讬:

The Gemara answers: This is what Rabbi Yehuda is saying: One is required to tithe temed; however, amei ha鈥檃retz are not suspected of failing to tithe temed. Because temed is so inexpensive, the assumption is that amei ha鈥檃retz are not sparing with it and are willing to tithe it. If you wish, say instead that even if amei ha鈥檃retz are suspected of failing to tithe temed, and this is not difficult for the following reason: This mishna is referring to a case where the temed was produced with dregs that contain some amount of wine, and therefore Rabbi Yehuda says that a person is required to tithe it. That baraita is referring to a case where the temed was produced with grape pits; because it is assumed that no wine is mixed into the temed, Rabbi Yehuda states that one is exempt from tithing it.

讜讝讬转讜诐 讛诪爪专讬 讜讻讜壮: 诪讗讬 讝讬转讜诐 讛诪爪专讬

It is stated in the mishna that Egyptian zitom is considered leavened food. The Gemara asks: What is Egyptian zitom?

转谞讗 专讘 讬讜住祝 转诇转讗 砖注专讬 转诇转讗 拽讜专讟诪讬 讜转诇转讗 诪诇讞讗

Rav Yosef taught from a baraita: It is one-third barley, one-third safflower, and one-third salt.

专讘 驻驻讗 诪驻讬拽 砖注专讬 讜诪注讬讬诇 讞讬讟讬 讜住讬诪谞讬讱 住讬住谞讬

Rav Pappa removes barley from the list of ingredients and includes wheat; he maintains that Egyptian zitom was made with wheat rather than barley. The Gemara comments: Your mnemonic to remember which Sage expressed which version is the word sisanei, meaning a twig basket. Sisanei contains the letter samekh twice, which can help one remember that Rav Yosef, whose name contains a samekh, says that Egyptian zitom is made from se鈥檕rim, barley, a word that contains the letter sin, which makes the same sound as samekh.

转专讜 诇讛讜 讜拽诇讜 诇讛讜 讜讟讞谞讬 诇讛讜 讜砖转讜 诇讛讜 诪讚讬讘讞讗 讜注讚 注爪专转讗 讚拽诪讬讟 诪专驻讬 诇讬讛 讜讚专驻讬 诪拽诪讬讟 诇讬讛 诇讞讜诇讛 讜诇讗砖讛 注讜讘专讛 住讻谞转讗:

The Gemara describes how Egyptian zitom is prepared: Those who prepare it soak the ingredients together, and then they roast them and grind them together. They drink the mixture from Passover to Shavuot. This drink relaxes the bowels of one who is constipated, and it constipates one whose bowel movements are loose. However, it is dangerous for a sick person or a pregnant woman to drink this mixture.

讜讝讜诪谉 砖诇 爪讘注讬诐 讜讻讜壮: 讛讻讗 转专讙讬诪讜 诪讬讗 讚讞讬讜专讬 讚爪讘注讬 讘讛讜 诇讘讗:

It was taught in the mishna that dyers鈥 broth is considered leavened. The Gemara explains: Here, in Babylonia, they interpreted that this is bran water [maya de岣vri] that people use to dye leather.

讜注诪讬诇谉 砖诇 讟讘讞讬诐 讜讻讜壮: 驻转 转讘讜讗讛 砖诇讗 讛讘讬讗讛 砖诇讬砖 砖诪谞讬讞讛 注诇 驻讬 拽讚讬专讛 讜砖讜讗讘转 讛讝讜讛诪讗:

It was further stated in the mishna that bakers鈥 well-worked dough is also considered leavened. The Gemara explains the nature of this substance: It is bread made from grain that was harvested before it was one-third ripe and then made into a loaf. This loaf was placed on top of a pot to draw out the filth from the broth.

讜拽讜诇谉 砖诇 住讜驻专讬诐 讜讻讜壮: 讛讻讗 转专讙讜诪讗 驻专讜专讗 讚讗讜砖讻驻讬

It was further taught in the mishna that the kolan of soferim, kolan of soferim, is considered leavened. The Gemara explains: Here, in Babylonia, they interpreted that this expression is referring to shoemakers鈥 glue that is made from flour.

专讘 砖讬诪讬 诪讞讜讝谞讗讛 讗诪专 讝讛 讟讬驻讜诇谉 砖诇 讘谞讜转 注砖讬专讬诐 砖诪砖讬讬专讜转 讗讜转讜 诇讘谞讜转 注谞讬讬诐

Rav Shimi from 岣zna鈥檃 said: This is the depilatory paste of the daughters of the wealthy, of which they would leave a remnant for the daughters of the poor. It was the common practice for women to remove hair from different parts of their bodies by applying various pastes, some of which contained flour. The kolan of soferim mentioned in the mishna was such a substance. It was given this name because wealthy young women would give the paste [kolan] to poor young women whose fathers were schoolteachers [soferim], so that the poor women could utilize it as well.

讗讬谞讬 讜讛讗 转谞讗 专讘讬 讞讬讬讗 讗专讘注讛 诪讬谞讬 诪讚讬谞讛 讜砖诇砖讛 诪讬谞讬 讗讜诪谞讜转 讜讗讬 讗诪专转 讟讬驻讜诇谉 砖诇 讘谞讜转 注砖讬专讬诐 诪讗讬 诪讬谞讬 讗讜诪谞讜转 讗讬讻讗

The Gemara asks: Is that so? But didn鈥檛 Rabbi 岣yya teach a mnemonic by noting that the mishna lists four items that are used by the ordinary people of the state, i.e., kuta岣, beer, vinegar, and zitom, and three items of artisans, i.e., dyers鈥 broth, kolan of soferim, and bakers鈥 well-worked dough? And if you say that kolan of soferim is the depilatory paste of the daughters of the wealthy, then what artisanship is there in that? According to this interpretation, that substance does not belong on the list of artisans鈥 items.

讜讗诇讗 诪讗讬 驻专讜专讗 讚讗讜砖讻驻讬 讗诪讗讬 拽专讬 诇讬讛 讛讗讬 拽讜诇谉 砖诇 住讜驻专讬诐 拽讜诇谉 砖诇 专爪注谞讬谉 诪讬讘注讬讗 诇讬讛 讗诪专 专讘 讗讜砖注讬讗 诇注讜诇诐 驻专讜专讗 讚讗讜砖讻驻讬 讜诪讗讬 拽专讬 诇讬讛 拽讜诇谉 砖诇 住讜驻专讬诐 讚住讜驻专讬诐 谞诪讬 诪讚讘拽讬谉 讘讛讜 谞讬讬专讜转讬讛谉:

The Gemara answers with another question: Rather what, will you say that this is referring to shoemakers鈥 glue? If so, why did the authors of the mishna call it bookmakers鈥 glue [kolan shel soferim]? It should have been called shoemakers鈥 glue [kolan shel ratzanin]. Rav Oshaya said: Actually, one should explain that kolan is referring to shoemakers鈥 glue; and why is it called bookmakers鈥 glue? The reason is that bookmakers also use it to attach their pages. During the time of the mishna, this paste was referred to as bookmakers鈥 glue.

专讘讬 讗诇讬注讝专 讗讜诪专 讗祝 转讻砖讬讟讬 谞砖讬诐 讜讻讜壮: 转讻砖讬讟讬 谞砖讬诐 住诇拽讗 讚注转讱 讗诇讗 讗讬诪讗 讗祝 讟讬驻讜诇讬 谞砖讬诐 讚讗诪专 专讘 讬讛讜讚讛 讗诪专 专讘 讘谞讜转 讬砖专讗诇

It is stated in the mishna: Rabbi Eliezer says that women鈥檚 adornments are also prohibited as leavened food. The Gemara asks: Could it enter your mind to say that adornments made from silver, gold, or woven materials contain leaven? Rather, say instead that this means: Even women鈥檚 cosmetics or other items used by women to enhance their skin are prohibited if they contain leavened ingredients. As Rav Yehuda said that Rav said: With regard to the Jewish women

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