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Today's Daf Yomi

January 14, 2021 | 讗壮 讘砖讘讟 转砖驻状讗

Masechet Pesachim is sponsored by Sivya Twersky in honor of her daughter, Shoshana Baker, her grandson's upcoming Bar Mitzvah ,and in memory of her father, Harav Pesach Zachariah Halevi ben Reuven and Leah Z'late Z'L. He lived Torah and emunah by example to congregational and biological families. His yahrzeit falls within this masechet.

Pesachim 54

Today鈥檚 Daf is sponsored by Nancy Kolodny to Lisa Tawil Kolodny, “our wonderful daughter-in-law, on the 25th anniversary of her becoming a member of our family. Lisa introduced me to Hadran and is my inspiration to start each day with Daf Yomi and the outstanding teaching of Rabbanit Michelle Farber.” And by Debbie Ziering and Rebecca Levy in honor of dear friend Dodi Tobin, Miriam Dodi bat Chana Yocheved. Rosh Chodesh, is recognized as a special womens鈥 holiday. Dodi, your faith in Hashem inspires us all, and B鈥檈zrat Hashem, the merit of this Rosh Chodesh, together with the prayers of your many friends and family, should bring you a refuah shleima. Also a refuah shleima to Hadar bat Sharon Sheli.

Do you make havdala with a fire after Yom Kippur? Or only on Shabbat? Why do we make a blessing on the fire? Why on Yom Kippur do we use a candle that was lit from before Yom Kippur? Was fire created on Saturday night? Or Friday evening? What items did God create at twilight on Friday? What was created on Saturday night? There are differences of opinions. Other sources are brought that relate to creation of various items or concepts. There was a custom not to work on Tisha B’av in certain places. Also Torah scholars dfid not work. Shmuel says that in Bavel there are no strict fasts only Tisha B’av. To what was he referring – as Shmuel says that twilight of Tisha B’av is not forbidden? Rava and Rabbi Yochanan disagree and hold that Tisha B’av is forbidden during twilight. Could one possibly have to fast two days in a row on for Yom Kippur?

讜讗讬砖 转讘讜谞讛 讬讚诇谞讛 诪讬诐 注诪讜拽讬诐 注爪讛 讘诇讘 讗讬砖 讝讛 注讜诇讗 讜讗讬砖 转讘讜谞讛 讬讚诇谞讛 讝讛 专讘讛 讘专 讘专 讞谞讛 讜讗讬谞讛讜 讻诪讗谉 住讘专讜讛 讻讬 讛讗 讚讗诪专 专讘讬 讘谞讬诪讬谉 讘专 讬驻转 讗诪专 专讘讬 讬讜讞谞谉 诪讘专讻讬谉 注诇 讛讗讜专 讘讬谉 讘诪讜爪讗讬 砖讘转 讘讬谉 讘诪讜爪讗讬 讬讜诐 讛讻驻讜专讬诐 讜讻谉 注诪讗 讚讘专


but a man of understanding will draw it out鈥 (Proverbs 20:5). Counsel in the heart of man is like deep water; that is a reference to Ulla, who had a thought but did not articulate it. But a man of understanding will draw it out; that is a reference to Rabba bar bar 岣na, who understood the allusion even though it was not articulated. The Gemara asks: And in accordance with whose opinion do Ulla and Rabba bar bar 岣na hold, leading them to reject Rabbi Abba鈥檚 statement of Rabbi Yo岣nan鈥檚 opinion? The Gemara answers: They hold in accordance with that which Rabbi Binyamin bar Yefet said that Rabbi Yo岣nan said: One recites the blessing over fire both at the conclusion of Shabbat and at the conclusion of Yom Kippur. And that is how the people act.


诪讬转讬讘讬 讗讬谉 诪讘专讻讬谉 注诇 讛讗讜专 讗诇讗 讘诪讜爪讗讬 砖讘转 讛讜讗讬诇 讜转讞讬诇转 讘专讬讬转讜 讛讜讗 讜讻讬讜谉 砖专讜讗讛 诪讘专讱 诪讬讚 专讘讬 讬讛讜讚讛 讗讜诪专 住讜讚专谉 注诇 讛讻讜住 讜讗诪专 专讘讬 讬讜讞谞谉 讛诇讻讛 讻专讘讬 讬讛讜讚讛


The Gemara raises an objection from that which was previously taught: One recites a blessing over fire only at the conclusion of Shabbat and not at the conclusion of Festivals or Yom Kippur, since the conclusion of Shabbat is the time of its original creation. And once he sees it, he recites the blessing immediately. Rabbi Yehuda says: One does not recite the blessing immediately; rather, he waits and arranges and recites the blessings over fire and spices over the cup of wine that accompanies the recitation of havdala. And Rabbi Yo岣nan said: The halakha is in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Yehuda. How does Rabbi Yo岣nan explain the baraita?


诇讗 拽砖讬讗 讻讗谉 讘讗讜专 砖砖讘转 讻讗谉 讘讗讜专 讛讬讜爪讗 诪谉 讛注爪讬诐 讜诪谉 讛讗讘谞讬诐


The Gemara answers: This is not difficult. Here, where Rabbi Yo岣nan said that one recites the blessing at the conclusion of Yom Kippur, it is referring to fire that rested on Yom Kippur, i.e., fire for which no prohibition was involved in its kindling, either because it was kindled before Yom Kippur or because it was kindled in a permitted manner, e.g., for a dangerously ill person. There, where Rabbi Yo岣nan said that the blessing is recited only at the conclusion of Shabbat, it is referring to fire generated from wood and from stones after Shabbat, similar to the primordial fire, which was created at the conclusion of Shabbat.


转谞讬 讞讚讗 讗讜专 讛讬讜爪讗 诪谉 讛注爪讬诐 讜诪谉 讛讗讘谞讬诐 诪讘专讻讬谉 注诇讬讜 讜转谞讬 讞讚讗 讗讬谉 诪讘专讻讬谉 注诇讬讜 诇讗 拽砖讬讗 讻讗谉 讘诪讜爪讗讬 砖讘转 讻讗谉 讘诪讜爪讗讬 讬讜诐 讛讻驻讜专讬诐


It was taught in one baraita: With regard to fire generated from wood and stones, one recites a blessing over it; and it was taught in one other baraita: One does not recite a blessing over it. This apparent contradiction is not difficult. Here, where the baraita states that one recites a blessing, it is referring to the conclusion of Shabbat. There, where the baraita states that one does not recite a blessing, it is referring to the conclusion of Yom Kippur.


专讘讬 诪驻讝专谉 专讘讬 讞讬讬讗 诪讻谞住谉 讗诪专 专讘讬 讬爪讞拽 讘专 讗讘讚讬诪讬 讗祝 注诇 驻讬 砖专讘讬 诪驻讝专谉 讞讜讝专 讜住讜讚专谉 注诇 讛讻讜住 讻讚讬 诇讛讜爪讬讗 讘谞讬讜 讜讘谞讬 讘讬转讜


Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi would distribute the blessings over the fire and the spices, reciting each when the opportunity arose. Rabbi 岣yya would collect them, reciting all the blessings at the same time in the framework of havdala. Rabbi Yitz岣k bar Avdimi said: Even though Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi distributes them and recites each blessing at his first opportunity, he repeats the blessings and arranges and recites them over the cup of wine in order to discharge the obligation of his children and the members of his household.


讜讗讜专 讘诪讜爪讗讬 砖讘转 讗讬讘专讬 讜讛讗 转谞讬讗 注砖专讛 讚讘专讬诐 谞讘专讗讜 讘注专讘 砖讘转 讘讬谉 讛砖诪砖讜转 讗诇讜 讛谉 讘讗专 讜讛诪谉 讜拽砖转 讻转讘 讜诪讻转讘 讜讛诇讜讞讜转 讜拽讘专讜 砖诇 诪砖讛 讜诪注专讛 砖注诪讚 讘讜 诪砖讛 讜讗诇讬讛讜 驻转讬讞转 驻讬 讛讗转讜谉 讜驻转讬讞转 驻讬 讛讗专抓 诇讘诇讜注 讗转 讛专砖注讬诐


The Gemara stated that fire was originally created at the conclusion of Shabbat. The Gemara asks: Was fire created at the conclusion of Shabbat? Wasn鈥檛 it taught in a baraita: Ten miraculous phenomena were created in heaven on Shabbat eve during twilight, and were revealed in the world only later? They were: Miriam鈥檚 well, and the manna that fell in the desert, and the rainbow, writing [ketav], and the writing instrument [mikhtav], and the tablets of the Ten Commandments, and the grave of Moses, and the cave in which Moses and Elijah stood, the opening of the mouth of Balaam鈥檚 donkey, and the opening of the earth鈥檚 mouth to swallow the wicked in the incident involving Korah.


专讘讬 谞讞诪讬讛 讗讜诪专 诪砖讜诐 讗讘讬讜 讗祝 讛讗讜专 讜讛驻专讚 专讘讬 讬讗砖讬讛 讗讜诪专 诪砖讜诐 讗讘讬讜 讗祝 讛讗讬诇 讜讛砖诪讬专 专讘讬 讬讛讜讚讛 讗讜诪专 讗祝 讛爪讘转 讛讜讗 讛讬讛 讗讜诪专 爪讘转讗 讘爪讘转讗 诪转注讘讚讗 讜爪讘转讗 拽诪讬讬转讗 诪讗谉 注讘讚 讛讗 诇讗讬 讘专讬讛 讘讬讚讬 砖诪讬诐 讛讬讗 讗诪专 诇讬讛 讗驻砖专 讬注砖谞讛 讘讚驻讜住 讜讬拽讘注谞讛 讻讬讜谉 讛讗 诇讗讬 讘专讬讛 讘讬讚讬 讗讚诐 讛讬讗


Rabbi Ne岣mya said in the name of his father: Even the fire and the mule, which is a product of crossbreeding, were created at that time. Rabbi Yoshiya said in the name of his father: Even the ram slaughtered by Abraham in place of Isaac, and the shamir worm used to shape the stones for the altar, were created at that time. Rabbi Yehuda says: Even the tongs were created at this time. He would say: Tongs can be fashioned only with other tongs, but who fashioned the first tongs? Indeed, the first pair of tongs was fashioned at the hand of Heaven. An anonymous questioner said to him: It is possible to fashion tongs with a mold and align it without the need for other tongs. Indeed, the first tongs were a creation of man. In any event, fire was originally created before Shabbat, not at the conclusion of Shabbat.


诇讗 拽砖讬讗 讛讗 讘讗讜专 讚讬讚谉 讛讗 讘讗讜专 讚讙讬讛谞诐 讗讜专 讚讬讚谉 讘诪讜爪讗讬 砖讘转 讗讜专 讚讙讬讛谞诐 讘注专讘 砖讘转 讜讗讜专 讚讙讬讛谞诐 讘注专讘 砖讘转 讗讬讘专讬 讜讛讗 转谞讬讗 砖讘注讛 讚讘专讬诐 谞讘专讗讜 拽讜讚诐 砖谞讘专讗 讛注讜诇诐 讜讗诇讜 讛谉 转讜专讛 讜转砖讜讘讛 讜讙谉 注讚谉 讜讙讬讛谞诐 讜讻住讗 讛讻讘讜讚 讜讘讬转 讛诪拽讚砖 讜砖诪讜 砖诇 诪砖讬讞


The Gemara answers: This is not difficult. This baraita is referring to our fire, and that baraita is referring to the fire of Gehenna. The Gemara explains: Our fire was created at the conclusion of Shabbat, but the fire of Gehenna was created on Shabbat eve. The Gemara proceeds to ask: Was the fire of Gehenna created on Shabbat eve? Wasn鈥檛 it taught in a baraita: Seven phenomena were created before the world was created, and they are: Torah, and repentance, and the Garden of Eden, and Gehenna, and the Throne of Glory, and the Temple, and the name of Messiah.


转讜专讛 讚讻转讬讘 讛壮 拽谞谞讬 专讗砖讬转 讚专讻讜 转砖讜讘讛 讚讻转讬讘 讘讟专诐 讛专讬诐 讬诇讚讜 讜讻转讬讘 转砖讘 讗谞讜砖 注讚 讚讻讗 讜转讗诪专 砖讜讘讜 讘谞讬 讗讚诐


The Gemara provides sources for the notion that each of these phenomena was created before the world was. Torah was created before the world was created, as it is written: 鈥淭he Lord made me as the beginning of His way, the first of His works of old鈥 (Proverbs 8:22), which, based on the subsequent verses, is referring to the Torah. Repentance was created before the world was created, as it is written: 鈥淏efore the mountains were brought forth, or ever You had formed the earth and the world, even from everlasting to everlasting, You are God,鈥 and it is written immediately afterward: 鈥淵ou return man to contrition; and You say: Repent, children of man鈥 (Psalms 90:2鈥3).


讙谉 注讚谉 讚讻转讬讘 讜讬讟注 讛壮 讗诇讛讬诐 讙谉 讘注讚谉 诪拽讚诐 讙讬讛谞诐 讚讻转讬讘 讻讬 注专讜讱 诪讗转诪讜诇 转驻转讛


The Garden of Eden was created before the world was created, as it is written: 鈥淎nd God planted the Garden of Eden in the east [mikedem]鈥 (Genesis 2:8). The term: In the east [mikedem] is interpreted in the sense of: Before [mikodem], i.e., before the world was created. Gehenna was created before the world was created, as it is written: 鈥淔or its hearth is ordained of old鈥 (Isaiah 30:33). The hearth, i.e., Gehenna, was created before the world was created.


讻住讗 讛讻讘讜讚 讜讘讬转 讛诪拽讚砖 讚讻转讬讘 讻住讗 讻讘讜讚 诪专讜诐 诪专讗砖讜谉 诪拽讜诐 诪拽讚砖谞讜 砖诪讜 砖诇 诪砖讬讞 讚讻转讬讘 讬讛讬 砖诪讜 诇注讜诇诐 诇驻谞讬 砖诪砖 讬谞讜谉 砖诪讜


The Throne of Glory and the Temple were created before the world was created, as it is written: 鈥淵our Throne of Glory on high from the beginning, in the place of our Sanctuary鈥 (Jeremiah 17:12). The name of Messiah was created before the world was created, as it is written in the chapter discussing the Messiah: 鈥淢ay his name endure forever; his name existed before the sun鈥 (Psalms 72:17). The name of Messiah already existed before the creation of the sun and the rest of the world. This baraita states that Gehenna was created before the world was created and not during twilight before the first Shabbat.


讗诪专讬 讞诇诇讛 讛讜讗 讚谞讘专讗 拽讜讚诐 砖谞讘专讗 讛注讜诇诐 讜讗讜专 讚讬讚讬讛 讘注专讘 砖讘转


They say in answer: The void of Gehenna was created before the world, but its fire was created on Shabbat eve.


讜讗讜专 讚讬讚讬讛 讘注专讘 砖讘转 讗讬讘专讬 讜讛转谞讬讗 专讘讬 讬讜住讬 讗讜诪专 讗讜专 砖讘专讗 讛拽讚讜砖 讘专讜讱 讛讜讗 讘砖谞讬 讘砖讘转 讗讬谉 诇讜 讻讘讬讬讛 诇注讜诇诐 砖谞讗诪专 讜讬爪讗讜 讜专讗讜 讘驻讙专讬 讛讗谞砖讬诐 讛驻讜砖注讬诐 讘讬 讻讬 转讜诇注转诐 诇讗 转诪讜转 讜讗砖诐 诇讗 转讻讘讛 讜讗诪专 专讘讬 讘谞讗讛 讘专讬讛 讚专讘讬 注讜诇讗 诪驻谞讬 诪讛 诇讗 谞讗诪专 讻讬 讟讜讘 讘砖谞讬 讘砖讘转 诪驻谞讬 砖谞讘专讗 讘讜 讗讜专 砖诇 讙讬讛谞诐 讜讗诪专 专讘讬 讗诇注讝专 讗祝 注诇 驻讬 砖诇讗 谞讗诪专 讘讜 讻讬 讟讜讘 讞讝专 讜讻诇诇讜 讘砖砖讬 砖谞讗诪专 讜讬专讗 讗诇讛讬诐 讗转 讻诇 讗砖专 注砖讛 讜讛谞讛 讟讜讘 诪讗讚


The Gemara asks: And was its fire created on Shabbat eve? Wasn鈥檛 it taught in a baraita that Rabbi Yosei says: The fire that the Holy One, Blessed be He, created on the second day of the week will never be extinguished, as it is stated: 鈥淎nd they shall go forth, and look upon the carcasses of the men who have rebelled against Me; for their worm shall not die, nor will their fire be extinguished; and they shall be an abhorrence to all flesh鈥 (Isaiah 66:24)? And Rabbi Bana鈥檃, son of Rabbi Ulla, said: Why doesn鈥檛 the verse state: That it was good, at the end of the second day of the week of Creation, as it does on the other days? It is because on that day the fire of Gehenna was created. And Rabbi Elazar said that even though: That it was good, was not stated with regard to the creations of the second day, He later included it on the sixth day, as it is stated: 鈥淎nd God saw all that He had done and behold, it was very good鈥 (Genesis 1:31).


讗诇讗 讞诇诇讛 拽讜讚诐 砖谞讘专讗 讛注讜诇诐 讜讗讜专 讚讬讚讬讛 讘砖谞讬 讘砖讘转 讜讗讜专 讚讬讚谉 讘诪讞砖讘讛 注诇讛 诇讬讘专讗讜转 讘注专讘 砖讘转 讜诇讗 谞讘专讗 注讚 诪讜爪讗讬 砖讘转 讚转谞讬讗 专讘讬 讬讜住讬 讗讜诪专 砖谞讬 讚讘专讬诐 注诇讜 讘诪讞砖讘讛 诇讬讘专讗讜转 讘注专讘 砖讘转 讜诇讗 谞讘专讗讜 注讚 诪讜爪讗讬 砖讘转 讜讘诪讜爪讗讬 砖讘转 谞转谉 讛拽讚讜砖 讘专讜讱 讛讜讗 讚讬注讛 讘讗讚诐 讛专讗砖讜谉 诪注讬谉 讚讜讙诪讗 砖诇 诪注诇讛 讜讛讘讬讗 砖谞讬 讗讘谞讬诐 讜讟讞谞谉 讝讜 讘讝讜 讜讬爪讗 诪讛谉 讗讜专 讜讛讘讬讗 砖转讬 讘讛诪讜转 讜讛专讻讬讘 讝讜 讘讝讜 讜讬爪讗 诪讛谉 驻专讚 专讘谉 砖诪注讜谉 讘谉 讙诪诇讬讗诇 讗讜诪专 驻专讚 讘讬诪讬 注谞讛 讛讬讛 砖谞讗诪专 讛讜讗 注谞讛 讗砖专 诪爪讗 讗转 讛讬诪诐 讘诪讚讘专


Rather, the void of Gehenna was created before the world was created, and its fire was created only on the second day of the week. And the thought arose in God鈥檚 mind to create our fire on Shabbat eve; however, it was not actually created until the conclusion of Shabbat, as it was taught in a baraita that Rabbi Yosei says: The thoughts of two phenomena arose in God鈥檚 mind on Shabbat eve, but were not actually created until the conclusion of Shabbat. At the conclusion of Shabbat, the Holy One, Blessed be He, granted Adam, the first man, creative knowledge similar to divine knowledge, and he brought two rocks and rubbed them against each other, and the first fire emerged from them. Adam also brought two animals, a female horse and a male donkey, and mated them with each other, and the resultant offspring that emerged from them was a mule. Rabban Shimon ben Gamliel disagrees and says that the first mule was in the days of Anah, as it is stated: 鈥淎nd these are the children of Zibeon: Aiah and Anah; this is Anah who found the mules in the wilderness, as he fed the donkeys of Zibeon his father鈥 (Genesis 36:24).


讚讜专砖讬 讞诪讜专讜转 讛讬讜 讗讜诪专讬诐 注谞讛 驻住讜诇 讛讬讛 诇驻讬讻讱 讛讘讬讗 驻住讜诇 诇注讜诇诐 砖谞讗诪专 讗诇讛 讘谞讬 砖注讬专 讛讞专讬 讜讻转讬讘 讗诇讛 讘谞讬 爪讘注讜谉 讜讗讬讛 讜注谞讛 讗诇讗 诪诇诪讚 砖讘讗 爪讘注讜谉 注诇 讗诪讜 讜讛讜诇讬讚 诪诪谞讛 注谞讛


The interpreters of Torah symbolism [岣murot] would say: Anah was the product of an incestuous relationship, and as a result he was spiritually unfit to produce offspring. Therefore, he brought an example of unfitness, i.e., an animal physically unfit to produce offspring, into the world, as it is stated: 鈥淭hese are the sons of Seir the Horite, the inhabitants of the land: Lotan, and Shoval, and Zibeon, and Anah鈥 (Genesis 36:20). And it is also stated: 鈥淎nd these are the sons of Zibeon: Aiah and Anah鈥 (Genesis 36:24). One verse describes both Anah and Zibeon as sons of Seir, meaning that they are brothers, while the other verse describes Anah as Zibeon鈥檚 son. Rather, this teaches that Zibeon cohabited with his mother, the wife of Seir, and fathered Anah from her. He is called Seir鈥檚 son although in fact he was the offspring of Seir鈥檚 son and Seir鈥檚 wife.


讜讚讬诇诪讗 转专讬 注谞讛 讛讜讜 讗诪专 专讘讗 讗诪讬谞讗 诪讬诇转讗 讚砖讘讜专 诪诇讻讗 诇讗 讗诪专讛 讜诪谞讜 砖诪讜讗诇 讗讬讻讗 讚讗诪专讬 讗诪专 专讘 驻驻讗 讗诪讬谞讗 诪讬诇转讗 讚砖讘讜专 诪诇讻讗 诇讗 讗诪专讛 讜诪谞讜 专讘讗 讗诪专 拽专讗 讛讜讗 注谞讛 讛讜讗 注谞讛 讚诪注讬拽专讗


The Gemara asks: And perhaps there were two people named Anah, one the son of Zibeon and the other the son of Seir? Rava said: I will state a matter that even King Shapur did not state. And who is this King Shapur? This cannot be a reference to Shapur, king of Persia; rather, it must be an epithet for someone else. He is Shmuel, whose legal rulings were accepted by the public like the edicts of a king by his subjects. Some say a different version, that it was Rav Pappa who said: I will state a matter that even King Shapur did not state. And who is he that Rav Pappa is referring to by the epithet King Shapur? He is Rava. The verse said: 鈥淭his is Anah who found the mules,鈥 indicating that he is the same Anah mentioned initially in the earlier verse.


转谞讜 专讘谞谉 注砖专讛 讚讘专讬诐 谞讘专讗讜 讘注专讘 砖讘转 讘讬谉 讛砖诪砖讜转 讜讗诇讜 讛谉 讘讗专 讜诪谉 讜拽砖转 讛讻转讘 讜讛诪讻转讘 讜讛诇讜讞讜转 拽讘专讜 砖诇 诪砖讛 讜诪注专讛 砖注诪讚 讘讛 诪砖讛 讜讗诇讬讛讜 驻转讬讞转 驻讬 讛讗转讜谉 讜驻转讬讞转 驻讬 讛讗专抓 诇讘诇讜注 讗转 讛专砖注讬诐 讜讬砖 讗讜诪专讬诐 讗祝 诪拽诇讜 砖诇 讗讛专谉 砖拽讚讬讛 讜驻专讞讬讛 讜讬砖 讗讜诪专讬诐 讗祝 讛诪讝讬拽讬谉 讜讬砖 讗讜诪专讬诐 讗祝


The Sages taught: Ten phenomena were created on Shabbat eve during twilight, and they were: Miriam鈥檚 well, and manna, and the rainbow, writing, and the writing instrument, and the tablets, the grave of Moses, and the cave in which Moses and Elijah stood, the opening of the mouth of Balaam鈥檚 donkey, and the opening of the mouth of the earth to swallow the wicked in the time of Korah. And some say that even Aaron鈥檚 staff was created then with its almonds and its blossoms. Some say that even the demons were created at this time. And some say that even


讘讙讚讜 砖诇 讗讚诐 讛专讗砖讜谉


the garment of Adam, the first man, was created at this time, as it is stated: 鈥淎nd God made for Adam and his wife garments of skins and clothed them鈥 (Genesis 3:21).


转谞讜 专讘谞谉 砖讘注讛 讚讘专讬诐 诪讻讜住讬诐 诪讘谞讬 讗讚诐 讗诇讜 讛谉 讬讜诐 讛诪讬转讛 讜讬讜诐 讛谞讞诪讛 讜注讜诪拽 讛讚讬谉 讜讗讬谉 讗讚诐 讬讜讚注 诪讛 讘诇讘讜 砖诇 讞讘讬专讜 讜讗讬谉 讗讚诐 讬讜讚注 讘诪讛 诪砖转讻专 讜诪诇讻讜转 讘讬转 讚讜讚 诪转讬 转讞讝讜专 讜诪诇讻讜转 讞讬讬讘转 诪转讬 转讻诇讛


Apropos the list of items created during twilight, the Gemara cites that the Sages taught: Seven matters are concealed from people, and they are: The day of death; and the day of consolation from one鈥檚 concerns; the profundity of justice, ascertaining the truth in certain disputes; and a person also does not know what is in the heart of another; and a person does not know in what way he will earn a profit; and one does not know when the monarchy of the house of David will be restored to Israel; and when the wicked Roman monarchy will cease to exist.


转谞讜 专讘谞谉 砖诇砖讛 讚讘专讬诐 注诇讜 讘诪讞砖讘讛 诇讬讘专讗讜转 讜讗诐 诇讗 注诇讜 讚讬谉 讛讜讗 砖讬注诇讜 注诇 讛诪转 砖讬住专讬讞 讜注诇 讛诪转 砖讬砖转讻讞 诪谉 讛诇讘 讜注诇 讛转讘讜讗讛 砖转专拽讘 讜讬砖 讗讜诪专讬诐 注诇 讛诪讟讘注 砖讬爪讗:


The Sages taught on a similar note: The thoughts of three matters arose in God鈥檚 mind to be created, and if they did not arise in His thoughts, by right they should have arisen in His thoughts, as they are fundamental to the existence of the world. God created a world in which a corpse rots, so that it requires burial and the family does not continually suffer by seeing the corpse; that the deceased are forgotten from the heart, and the sense of pain and loss diminishes with time; and that grain will rot so that it cannot be hoarded forever, and therefore one must sell his produce. And some say: He instituted that currency will circulate so that people will accept money as a method of payment.


诪转谞讬壮 诪拽讜诐 砖谞讛讙讜 诇注砖讜转 诪诇讗讻讛 讘转砖注讛 讘讗讘 注讜砖讬谉 诪拽讜诐 砖谞讛讙讜 砖诇讗 诇注砖讜转 诪诇讗讻讛 讗讬谉 注讜砖讬谉 讜讘讻诇 诪拽讜诐 转诇诪讬讚讬 讞讻诪讬诐 讘讟诇讬诐 专讘谉 砖诪注讜谉 讘谉 讙诪诇讬讗诇 讗讜诪专 诇注讜诇诐 讬注砖讛 讗讚诐 注爪诪讜 转诇诪讬讚 讞讻诐:


MISHNA: This mishna continues the previous discussion of customs. In a place where people were accustomed to perform labor on the Ninth of Av, one performs labor. In a place where people were accustomed not to perform labor, one does not perform labor. And in all places Torah scholars are idle and do not perform labor on the Ninth of Av, due to the mourning over the Temple鈥檚 destruction. Rabban Shimon ben Gamliel says: With regard to the Ninth of Av, a person should always conduct himself as a Torah scholar and refrain from performing labor.


讙诪壮 讗诪专 砖诪讜讗诇 讗讬谉 转注谞讬转 爪讬讘讜专 讘讘讘诇 讗诇讗 转砖注讛 讘讗讘 讘诇讘讚 诇诪讬诪专讗 讚住讘专 砖诪讜讗诇 转砖注讛 讘讗讘 讘讬谉 讛砖诪砖讜转 砖诇讜 讗住讜专 讜讛讗诪专 砖诪讜讗诇 转砖注讛 讘讗讘 讘讬谉 讛砖诪砖讜转 砖诇讜 诪讜转专 讜讻讬 转讬诪讗 拽住讘专 砖诪讜讗诇 讻诇 转注谞讬转 爪讬讘讜专 讘讬谉 讛砖诪砖讜转 砖诇讜 诪讜转专 讜讛讗谞谉 转谞谉 讗讜讻诇讬谉 讜砖讜转讬谉 诪讘注讜讚 讬讜诐 诇诪注讜讟讬 诪讗讬 诇讗讜 诇诪注讜讟讬 讘讬谉 讛砖诪砖讜转 诇讗 诇诪注讜讟讬 诪砖讞砖讬讻讛


GEMARA: Shmuel said: The only communal fast in Babylonia during which all the stringencies of a communal fast are observed is the Ninth of Av. The Gemara asks: Is that to say, based on the parallel he drew between them, that Shmuel holds that the Ninth of Av is as stringent as communal fast days, in that during twilight on the Ninth of Av all activities prohibited on the Ninth of Av are prohibited? But didn鈥檛 Shmuel say: During twilight of the Ninth of Av all activities prohibited on the Ninth of Av are permitted, and the Sages did not decree any prohibitions during this time? And if you say that Shmuel holds: With regard to every communal fast, during twilight those activities considered to be afflictions are permitted, didn鈥檛 we learn in a mishna with regard to a public fast day: One may eat and drink while it is still day? The Gemara analyzes this statement: What does the expression: While it is still day, come to exclude? What, isn鈥檛 it to exclude twilight of a communal fast day, when these activities are prohibited? The Gemara rejects this: No, it is to exclude the time after dark, when these afflictions are certainly in effect.


谞讬诪讗 诪住讬讬注 诇讬讛 讗讬谉 讘讬谉 转砖注讛 讘讗讘 诇讬讜诐 讛讻讬驻讜专讬诐 讗诇讗 砖讝讛 住驻讬拽讜 讗住讜专 讜讝讛 住驻讬拽讜 诪讜转专


The Gemara suggests: Let us say that this baraita supports Shmuel鈥檚 opinion: The only difference between the Ninth of Av and Yom Kippur is that with regard to this, Yom Kippur, its uncertainty is prohibited, as eating and drinking on Yom Kippur is prohibited by Torah law, whereas with regard to that, the Ninth of Av, its uncertainty is permitted, as the afflictions of the Ninth of Av are rabbinic decrees.


诪讗讬 住驻讬拽讜 诪讜转专 诇讗讜 讘讬谉 讛砖诪砖讜转 诇讗 讻讚讗诪专 专讘 砖讬砖讗 讘专讬讛 讚专讘 讗讬讚讬 诇拽讘讬注讗 讚讬专讞讗 讛讻讗 谞诪讬 诇拽讘讬注讗 讚讬专讞讗


The Gemara explains the support for Shmuel鈥檚 opinion: What is the meaning of the expression: With regard to that, the Ninth of Av, its uncertainty is permitted? Is it not referring to twilight, with regard to which there is uncertainty whether it is day or night? Apparently, it is permitted to eat during twilight on the Ninth of Av. The Gemara rejects this: No, it is as Rav Sheisha, son of Rav Idi, said in a different context: It is referring to uncertainty with regard to the determination of the first day of the new month, which would require observance of the Festival for two days. Here, too, the baraita is referring to uncertainty with regard to determination of the first day of the new month. Since the Ninth of Av is a fast of rabbinic origin, there is no requirement to observe two days.


讚专砖 专讘讗 注讜讘专讜转 讜诪谞讬拽讜转 诪转注谞讜转 讜诪砖诇讬诪讜转 讘讜 讻讚专讱 砖诪转注谞讜转 讜诪砖诇讬诪讜转 讘讬讜诐 讛讻讬驻讜专讬诐 讜讘讬谉 讛砖诪砖讜转 砖诇讜 讗住讜专 讜讻谉 讗诪专讜 诪砖诪讬讛 讚专讘讬 讬讜讞谞谉 讜诪讬 讗诪专 专讘讬 讬讜讞谞谉 讛讻讬 讜讛讗诪专 专讘讬 讬讜讞谞谉 转砖注讛 讘讗讘 讗讬谞讜 讻转注谞讬转 爪讬讘讜专 诪讗讬 诇讗讜 诇讘讬谉 讛砖诪砖讜转 诇讗 诇诪诇讗讻讛


Rava taught: Pregnant women and nursing women fast and complete the fast on the Ninth of Av in the manner that they fast and complete the fast on Yom Kippur, and during twilight on the Ninth of Av it is prohibited to eat or drink. And they likewise said so in the name of Rabbi Yo岣nan. The Gemara asks: And did Rabbi Yo岣nan actually say that? Didn鈥檛 Rabbi Yo岣nan say: The Ninth of Av is not like a communal fast decreed to pray for rain? What, isn鈥檛 it referring to the matter of twilight? Apparently, Rabbi Yo岣nan holds that it is permitted to eat and drink during twilight on the Ninth of Av. The Gemara answers: No, it is referring to performing labor, which is prohibited on the Ninth of Av, in contrast to other fasts.


诪诇讗讻讛 转谞讬谞讗 诪拽讜诐 砖谞讛讙讜 诇注砖讜转 诪诇讗讻讛 讘转砖注讛 讘讗讘 注讜砖讬谉 讜讘诪拽讜诐 砖谞讛讙讜 砖诇讗 诇注砖讜转 讗讬谉 注讜砖讬谉 讜讗驻讬诇讜 专讘谉 砖诪注讜谉 讘谉 讙诪诇讬讗诇 诇讗 讗诪专 讗诇讗 讚讻讬 讬转讬讘 讜诇讗 注讘讬讚 诇讗 诪讬讞讝讬 讻讬讜讛专讗 讗讘诇 诪讬住专 诇讗 讗住专


The Gemara expresses surprise: It is referring to performing labor? We already learned explicitly in the mishna: In a place where people were accustomed to perform labor on the Ninth of Av, one performs labor; in a place where people were accustomed not to perform labor, one does not perform labor. Apparently, the prohibition against performing labor on the Ninth of Av depends on local custom and is not an outright prohibition. And even Rabban Shimon ben Gamliel only said that one may conduct himself as a Torah scholar and refrain from performing labor because when one sits and does not perform labor, it does not appear as presumptuousness on his part. It does not create the impression that he actually considers himself a Torah scholar because others may simply think that he has no work to do. However, in terms of prohibiting the performance of labor, he does not prohibit performing labor on the Ninth of Av.


讗诇讗 诪讗讬 讗讬谞讜 讻转注谞讬转 爪讬讘讜专 诇转驻讬诇转 谞注讬诇讛 讜讛讗诪专 专讘讬 讬讜讞谞谉 讜诇讜讗讬 砖讬转驻诇诇 讗讚诐 讜讛讜诇讱 讻诇 讛讬讜诐 讻讜诇讜


Rather, what is the meaning of the expression: The Ninth of Av is not like a communal fast? It was stated with regard to the closing prayer. On a communal fast day there are four prayers, and on Yom Kippur there are five prayers, but on the Ninth of Av there are only three prayers, like an ordinary weekday. But didn鈥檛 Rabbi Yo岣nan say: If only a person would continue to pray throughout the entire day? This indicates that according to Rabbi Yo岣nan, a person may recite additional prayers if he so chooses.


讛转诐 讞讜讘讛 讛讻讗 专砖讜转 讜讗讬讘注讬转 讗讬诪讗 诪讗讬 讗讬谞讜 讻转注谞讬转 爪讬讘讜专 诇注砖专讬诐 讜讗专讘注讛


The Gemara answers: There, on a communal fast day, it is a requirement to recite four prayers; here, on the Ninth of Av, reciting additional prayers is optional according to Rabbi Yo岣nan. And if you wish, say instead: What is the meaning of the expression: The Ninth of Av is not like a communal fast? It is with regard to the twenty-four blessings that are recited on a communal fast, as six blessings were added to the eighteen blessings of the daily Amida prayer. On the Ninth of Av one recites only the standard eighteen blessings.


专讘 驻驻讗 讗诪专 诪讗讬 讗讬谞讜 讻转注谞讬转 爪讬讘讜专 讗讬谞讜 讻专讗砖讜谞讜转 讗诇讗 讻讗讞专讜谞讜转 讜讗住讜专讛


Rav Pappa said: What is the meaning of the phrase: The Ninth of Av is not like a communal fast? It comes to teach a stringency. There are different types of communal fasts for rain. The first three fasts are the least stringent; the next three are more stringent; and the final seven fasts are the most stringent of all. The statement teaches that the Ninth of Av is not like the first fast days, which are more lenient in several respects; for example, they do not begin during twilight. Rather, it is like the final fast days, when eating and performing labor are prohibited during twilight.


诪讬转讬讘讬 讗讬谉 讘讬谉 转砖注讛 讘讗讘 诇讬讜诐 讛讻讬驻讜专讬诐 讗诇讗 砖讝讛 住驻讬拽讜 讗住讜专 讜讝讛 住驻讬拽讜 诪讜转专 诪讗讬 住驻讬拽讜 诪讜转专 诇讗讜 讘讬谉 讛砖诪砖讜转 砖诇讜 讗诪专 专讘 砖讬砖讗 讘专讬讛 讚专讘 讗讬讚讬 诇讗 诇拽讘讬注讗 讚讬专讞讗 讛讗 诇讻诇 讚讘专讬诐 讝讛 讜讝讛 砖讜讬谉


The Gemara raises an objection: Didn鈥檛 we already learn that the only difference between the Ninth of Av and Yom Kippur is that with regard to this, Yom Kippur, its uncertainty is prohibited, because eating and drinking on Yom Kippur are prohibited by Torah law, whereas with regard to that, the Ninth of Av, its uncertainty is permitted? What is the meaning of the expression referring to the Ninth of Av: Its uncertainty is permitted? Is it not referring to its twilight, contrary to the statement of Rav Pappa? The Gemara rejects this. Rav Sheisha, son of Rav Idi, said in a different context: No. It is uncertainty with regard to the determination of the first day of the new month. There is no requirement to observe a second day of the Ninth of Av. By inference, with regard to all other matters this and that are equal.


诪住讬讬注 诇专讘讬 讗诇注讝专 讚讗诪专 专讘讬 讗诇注讝专 讗住讜专 诇讜 诇讗讚诐 砖讬讜砖讬讟 讗爪讘注讜 讘诪讬诐 讘转砖注讛 讘讗讘 讻讚专讱 砖讗住讜专 诇讛讜砖讬讟 讗爪讘注讜 讘讬讜诐 讛讻讬驻讜专讬诐


The Gemara comments: This statement supports the opinion of Rabbi Elazar, as Rabbi Elazar said: It is prohibited for a person to extend his finger into water on the Ninth of Av, just as it is prohibited for him to extend his finger into water on Yom Kippur.


诪讬转讬讘讬 讗讬谉 讘讬谉 转砖注讛 讘讗讘 诇转注谞讬转 爪讬讘讜专 讗诇讗 砖讝讛 讗住讜专 讘注砖讬讬转 诪诇讗讻讛 讜讝讛 诪讜转专 讘注砖讬讬转 诪诇讗讻讛 讘诪拽讜诐 砖谞讛讙讜 讛讗 诇讻诇 讚讘专讬讛诐 讝讛 讜讝讛 砖讜讬谉 讜讗讬诇讜 讙讘讬 转注谞讬转 爪讬讘讜专 转谞讬讗 讻砖讗诪专讜 讗住讜专 讘专讞讬爪讛 诇讗 讗诪专讜 讗诇讗 讻诇 讙讜驻讜 讗讘诇 驻谞讬讜 讬讚讬讜 讜专讙诇讬讜 诇讗


The Gemara raises an objection: The only difference between the Ninth of Av and a communal fast is that on this day, a communal fast, performance of labor is prohibited, and on that day, the Ninth of Av, performance of labor is permitted in a place where people are accustomed to perform labor. By inference, with regard to all other matters this and that are equal. However, with regard to a communal fast, it was taught in a baraita: When the Sages said that bathing is prohibited, they said it only with regard to washing one鈥檚 entire body, but with regard to washing one鈥檚 face, one鈥檚 hands, and one鈥檚 feet in increments, the Sages did not say that it was prohibited. Apparently, with respect to washing, the Rabbis were stricter with regard to the Ninth of Av than they were with regard to a communal fast.


讗诪专 专讘 驻驻讗


Rav Pappa said:


Masechet Pesachim is sponsored by Sivya Twersky in honor of her daughter, Shoshana Baker, her grandson's upcoming Bar Mitzvah ,and in memory of her father, Harav Pesach Zachariah Halevi ben Reuven and Leah Z'late Z'L. He lived Torah and emunah by example to congregational and biological families. His yahrzeit falls within this masechet.

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Pesachim 54

讜讗讬砖 转讘讜谞讛 讬讚诇谞讛 诪讬诐 注诪讜拽讬诐 注爪讛 讘诇讘 讗讬砖 讝讛 注讜诇讗 讜讗讬砖 转讘讜谞讛 讬讚诇谞讛 讝讛 专讘讛 讘专 讘专 讞谞讛 讜讗讬谞讛讜 讻诪讗谉 住讘专讜讛 讻讬 讛讗 讚讗诪专 专讘讬 讘谞讬诪讬谉 讘专 讬驻转 讗诪专 专讘讬 讬讜讞谞谉 诪讘专讻讬谉 注诇 讛讗讜专 讘讬谉 讘诪讜爪讗讬 砖讘转 讘讬谉 讘诪讜爪讗讬 讬讜诐 讛讻驻讜专讬诐 讜讻谉 注诪讗 讚讘专


but a man of understanding will draw it out鈥 (Proverbs 20:5). Counsel in the heart of man is like deep water; that is a reference to Ulla, who had a thought but did not articulate it. But a man of understanding will draw it out; that is a reference to Rabba bar bar 岣na, who understood the allusion even though it was not articulated. The Gemara asks: And in accordance with whose opinion do Ulla and Rabba bar bar 岣na hold, leading them to reject Rabbi Abba鈥檚 statement of Rabbi Yo岣nan鈥檚 opinion? The Gemara answers: They hold in accordance with that which Rabbi Binyamin bar Yefet said that Rabbi Yo岣nan said: One recites the blessing over fire both at the conclusion of Shabbat and at the conclusion of Yom Kippur. And that is how the people act.


诪讬转讬讘讬 讗讬谉 诪讘专讻讬谉 注诇 讛讗讜专 讗诇讗 讘诪讜爪讗讬 砖讘转 讛讜讗讬诇 讜转讞讬诇转 讘专讬讬转讜 讛讜讗 讜讻讬讜谉 砖专讜讗讛 诪讘专讱 诪讬讚 专讘讬 讬讛讜讚讛 讗讜诪专 住讜讚专谉 注诇 讛讻讜住 讜讗诪专 专讘讬 讬讜讞谞谉 讛诇讻讛 讻专讘讬 讬讛讜讚讛


The Gemara raises an objection from that which was previously taught: One recites a blessing over fire only at the conclusion of Shabbat and not at the conclusion of Festivals or Yom Kippur, since the conclusion of Shabbat is the time of its original creation. And once he sees it, he recites the blessing immediately. Rabbi Yehuda says: One does not recite the blessing immediately; rather, he waits and arranges and recites the blessings over fire and spices over the cup of wine that accompanies the recitation of havdala. And Rabbi Yo岣nan said: The halakha is in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Yehuda. How does Rabbi Yo岣nan explain the baraita?


诇讗 拽砖讬讗 讻讗谉 讘讗讜专 砖砖讘转 讻讗谉 讘讗讜专 讛讬讜爪讗 诪谉 讛注爪讬诐 讜诪谉 讛讗讘谞讬诐


The Gemara answers: This is not difficult. Here, where Rabbi Yo岣nan said that one recites the blessing at the conclusion of Yom Kippur, it is referring to fire that rested on Yom Kippur, i.e., fire for which no prohibition was involved in its kindling, either because it was kindled before Yom Kippur or because it was kindled in a permitted manner, e.g., for a dangerously ill person. There, where Rabbi Yo岣nan said that the blessing is recited only at the conclusion of Shabbat, it is referring to fire generated from wood and from stones after Shabbat, similar to the primordial fire, which was created at the conclusion of Shabbat.


转谞讬 讞讚讗 讗讜专 讛讬讜爪讗 诪谉 讛注爪讬诐 讜诪谉 讛讗讘谞讬诐 诪讘专讻讬谉 注诇讬讜 讜转谞讬 讞讚讗 讗讬谉 诪讘专讻讬谉 注诇讬讜 诇讗 拽砖讬讗 讻讗谉 讘诪讜爪讗讬 砖讘转 讻讗谉 讘诪讜爪讗讬 讬讜诐 讛讻驻讜专讬诐


It was taught in one baraita: With regard to fire generated from wood and stones, one recites a blessing over it; and it was taught in one other baraita: One does not recite a blessing over it. This apparent contradiction is not difficult. Here, where the baraita states that one recites a blessing, it is referring to the conclusion of Shabbat. There, where the baraita states that one does not recite a blessing, it is referring to the conclusion of Yom Kippur.


专讘讬 诪驻讝专谉 专讘讬 讞讬讬讗 诪讻谞住谉 讗诪专 专讘讬 讬爪讞拽 讘专 讗讘讚讬诪讬 讗祝 注诇 驻讬 砖专讘讬 诪驻讝专谉 讞讜讝专 讜住讜讚专谉 注诇 讛讻讜住 讻讚讬 诇讛讜爪讬讗 讘谞讬讜 讜讘谞讬 讘讬转讜


Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi would distribute the blessings over the fire and the spices, reciting each when the opportunity arose. Rabbi 岣yya would collect them, reciting all the blessings at the same time in the framework of havdala. Rabbi Yitz岣k bar Avdimi said: Even though Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi distributes them and recites each blessing at his first opportunity, he repeats the blessings and arranges and recites them over the cup of wine in order to discharge the obligation of his children and the members of his household.


讜讗讜专 讘诪讜爪讗讬 砖讘转 讗讬讘专讬 讜讛讗 转谞讬讗 注砖专讛 讚讘专讬诐 谞讘专讗讜 讘注专讘 砖讘转 讘讬谉 讛砖诪砖讜转 讗诇讜 讛谉 讘讗专 讜讛诪谉 讜拽砖转 讻转讘 讜诪讻转讘 讜讛诇讜讞讜转 讜拽讘专讜 砖诇 诪砖讛 讜诪注专讛 砖注诪讚 讘讜 诪砖讛 讜讗诇讬讛讜 驻转讬讞转 驻讬 讛讗转讜谉 讜驻转讬讞转 驻讬 讛讗专抓 诇讘诇讜注 讗转 讛专砖注讬诐


The Gemara stated that fire was originally created at the conclusion of Shabbat. The Gemara asks: Was fire created at the conclusion of Shabbat? Wasn鈥檛 it taught in a baraita: Ten miraculous phenomena were created in heaven on Shabbat eve during twilight, and were revealed in the world only later? They were: Miriam鈥檚 well, and the manna that fell in the desert, and the rainbow, writing [ketav], and the writing instrument [mikhtav], and the tablets of the Ten Commandments, and the grave of Moses, and the cave in which Moses and Elijah stood, the opening of the mouth of Balaam鈥檚 donkey, and the opening of the earth鈥檚 mouth to swallow the wicked in the incident involving Korah.


专讘讬 谞讞诪讬讛 讗讜诪专 诪砖讜诐 讗讘讬讜 讗祝 讛讗讜专 讜讛驻专讚 专讘讬 讬讗砖讬讛 讗讜诪专 诪砖讜诐 讗讘讬讜 讗祝 讛讗讬诇 讜讛砖诪讬专 专讘讬 讬讛讜讚讛 讗讜诪专 讗祝 讛爪讘转 讛讜讗 讛讬讛 讗讜诪专 爪讘转讗 讘爪讘转讗 诪转注讘讚讗 讜爪讘转讗 拽诪讬讬转讗 诪讗谉 注讘讚 讛讗 诇讗讬 讘专讬讛 讘讬讚讬 砖诪讬诐 讛讬讗 讗诪专 诇讬讛 讗驻砖专 讬注砖谞讛 讘讚驻讜住 讜讬拽讘注谞讛 讻讬讜谉 讛讗 诇讗讬 讘专讬讛 讘讬讚讬 讗讚诐 讛讬讗


Rabbi Ne岣mya said in the name of his father: Even the fire and the mule, which is a product of crossbreeding, were created at that time. Rabbi Yoshiya said in the name of his father: Even the ram slaughtered by Abraham in place of Isaac, and the shamir worm used to shape the stones for the altar, were created at that time. Rabbi Yehuda says: Even the tongs were created at this time. He would say: Tongs can be fashioned only with other tongs, but who fashioned the first tongs? Indeed, the first pair of tongs was fashioned at the hand of Heaven. An anonymous questioner said to him: It is possible to fashion tongs with a mold and align it without the need for other tongs. Indeed, the first tongs were a creation of man. In any event, fire was originally created before Shabbat, not at the conclusion of Shabbat.


诇讗 拽砖讬讗 讛讗 讘讗讜专 讚讬讚谉 讛讗 讘讗讜专 讚讙讬讛谞诐 讗讜专 讚讬讚谉 讘诪讜爪讗讬 砖讘转 讗讜专 讚讙讬讛谞诐 讘注专讘 砖讘转 讜讗讜专 讚讙讬讛谞诐 讘注专讘 砖讘转 讗讬讘专讬 讜讛讗 转谞讬讗 砖讘注讛 讚讘专讬诐 谞讘专讗讜 拽讜讚诐 砖谞讘专讗 讛注讜诇诐 讜讗诇讜 讛谉 转讜专讛 讜转砖讜讘讛 讜讙谉 注讚谉 讜讙讬讛谞诐 讜讻住讗 讛讻讘讜讚 讜讘讬转 讛诪拽讚砖 讜砖诪讜 砖诇 诪砖讬讞


The Gemara answers: This is not difficult. This baraita is referring to our fire, and that baraita is referring to the fire of Gehenna. The Gemara explains: Our fire was created at the conclusion of Shabbat, but the fire of Gehenna was created on Shabbat eve. The Gemara proceeds to ask: Was the fire of Gehenna created on Shabbat eve? Wasn鈥檛 it taught in a baraita: Seven phenomena were created before the world was created, and they are: Torah, and repentance, and the Garden of Eden, and Gehenna, and the Throne of Glory, and the Temple, and the name of Messiah.


转讜专讛 讚讻转讬讘 讛壮 拽谞谞讬 专讗砖讬转 讚专讻讜 转砖讜讘讛 讚讻转讬讘 讘讟专诐 讛专讬诐 讬诇讚讜 讜讻转讬讘 转砖讘 讗谞讜砖 注讚 讚讻讗 讜转讗诪专 砖讜讘讜 讘谞讬 讗讚诐


The Gemara provides sources for the notion that each of these phenomena was created before the world was. Torah was created before the world was created, as it is written: 鈥淭he Lord made me as the beginning of His way, the first of His works of old鈥 (Proverbs 8:22), which, based on the subsequent verses, is referring to the Torah. Repentance was created before the world was created, as it is written: 鈥淏efore the mountains were brought forth, or ever You had formed the earth and the world, even from everlasting to everlasting, You are God,鈥 and it is written immediately afterward: 鈥淵ou return man to contrition; and You say: Repent, children of man鈥 (Psalms 90:2鈥3).


讙谉 注讚谉 讚讻转讬讘 讜讬讟注 讛壮 讗诇讛讬诐 讙谉 讘注讚谉 诪拽讚诐 讙讬讛谞诐 讚讻转讬讘 讻讬 注专讜讱 诪讗转诪讜诇 转驻转讛


The Garden of Eden was created before the world was created, as it is written: 鈥淎nd God planted the Garden of Eden in the east [mikedem]鈥 (Genesis 2:8). The term: In the east [mikedem] is interpreted in the sense of: Before [mikodem], i.e., before the world was created. Gehenna was created before the world was created, as it is written: 鈥淔or its hearth is ordained of old鈥 (Isaiah 30:33). The hearth, i.e., Gehenna, was created before the world was created.


讻住讗 讛讻讘讜讚 讜讘讬转 讛诪拽讚砖 讚讻转讬讘 讻住讗 讻讘讜讚 诪专讜诐 诪专讗砖讜谉 诪拽讜诐 诪拽讚砖谞讜 砖诪讜 砖诇 诪砖讬讞 讚讻转讬讘 讬讛讬 砖诪讜 诇注讜诇诐 诇驻谞讬 砖诪砖 讬谞讜谉 砖诪讜


The Throne of Glory and the Temple were created before the world was created, as it is written: 鈥淵our Throne of Glory on high from the beginning, in the place of our Sanctuary鈥 (Jeremiah 17:12). The name of Messiah was created before the world was created, as it is written in the chapter discussing the Messiah: 鈥淢ay his name endure forever; his name existed before the sun鈥 (Psalms 72:17). The name of Messiah already existed before the creation of the sun and the rest of the world. This baraita states that Gehenna was created before the world was created and not during twilight before the first Shabbat.


讗诪专讬 讞诇诇讛 讛讜讗 讚谞讘专讗 拽讜讚诐 砖谞讘专讗 讛注讜诇诐 讜讗讜专 讚讬讚讬讛 讘注专讘 砖讘转


They say in answer: The void of Gehenna was created before the world, but its fire was created on Shabbat eve.


讜讗讜专 讚讬讚讬讛 讘注专讘 砖讘转 讗讬讘专讬 讜讛转谞讬讗 专讘讬 讬讜住讬 讗讜诪专 讗讜专 砖讘专讗 讛拽讚讜砖 讘专讜讱 讛讜讗 讘砖谞讬 讘砖讘转 讗讬谉 诇讜 讻讘讬讬讛 诇注讜诇诐 砖谞讗诪专 讜讬爪讗讜 讜专讗讜 讘驻讙专讬 讛讗谞砖讬诐 讛驻讜砖注讬诐 讘讬 讻讬 转讜诇注转诐 诇讗 转诪讜转 讜讗砖诐 诇讗 转讻讘讛 讜讗诪专 专讘讬 讘谞讗讛 讘专讬讛 讚专讘讬 注讜诇讗 诪驻谞讬 诪讛 诇讗 谞讗诪专 讻讬 讟讜讘 讘砖谞讬 讘砖讘转 诪驻谞讬 砖谞讘专讗 讘讜 讗讜专 砖诇 讙讬讛谞诐 讜讗诪专 专讘讬 讗诇注讝专 讗祝 注诇 驻讬 砖诇讗 谞讗诪专 讘讜 讻讬 讟讜讘 讞讝专 讜讻诇诇讜 讘砖砖讬 砖谞讗诪专 讜讬专讗 讗诇讛讬诐 讗转 讻诇 讗砖专 注砖讛 讜讛谞讛 讟讜讘 诪讗讚


The Gemara asks: And was its fire created on Shabbat eve? Wasn鈥檛 it taught in a baraita that Rabbi Yosei says: The fire that the Holy One, Blessed be He, created on the second day of the week will never be extinguished, as it is stated: 鈥淎nd they shall go forth, and look upon the carcasses of the men who have rebelled against Me; for their worm shall not die, nor will their fire be extinguished; and they shall be an abhorrence to all flesh鈥 (Isaiah 66:24)? And Rabbi Bana鈥檃, son of Rabbi Ulla, said: Why doesn鈥檛 the verse state: That it was good, at the end of the second day of the week of Creation, as it does on the other days? It is because on that day the fire of Gehenna was created. And Rabbi Elazar said that even though: That it was good, was not stated with regard to the creations of the second day, He later included it on the sixth day, as it is stated: 鈥淎nd God saw all that He had done and behold, it was very good鈥 (Genesis 1:31).


讗诇讗 讞诇诇讛 拽讜讚诐 砖谞讘专讗 讛注讜诇诐 讜讗讜专 讚讬讚讬讛 讘砖谞讬 讘砖讘转 讜讗讜专 讚讬讚谉 讘诪讞砖讘讛 注诇讛 诇讬讘专讗讜转 讘注专讘 砖讘转 讜诇讗 谞讘专讗 注讚 诪讜爪讗讬 砖讘转 讚转谞讬讗 专讘讬 讬讜住讬 讗讜诪专 砖谞讬 讚讘专讬诐 注诇讜 讘诪讞砖讘讛 诇讬讘专讗讜转 讘注专讘 砖讘转 讜诇讗 谞讘专讗讜 注讚 诪讜爪讗讬 砖讘转 讜讘诪讜爪讗讬 砖讘转 谞转谉 讛拽讚讜砖 讘专讜讱 讛讜讗 讚讬注讛 讘讗讚诐 讛专讗砖讜谉 诪注讬谉 讚讜讙诪讗 砖诇 诪注诇讛 讜讛讘讬讗 砖谞讬 讗讘谞讬诐 讜讟讞谞谉 讝讜 讘讝讜 讜讬爪讗 诪讛谉 讗讜专 讜讛讘讬讗 砖转讬 讘讛诪讜转 讜讛专讻讬讘 讝讜 讘讝讜 讜讬爪讗 诪讛谉 驻专讚 专讘谉 砖诪注讜谉 讘谉 讙诪诇讬讗诇 讗讜诪专 驻专讚 讘讬诪讬 注谞讛 讛讬讛 砖谞讗诪专 讛讜讗 注谞讛 讗砖专 诪爪讗 讗转 讛讬诪诐 讘诪讚讘专


Rather, the void of Gehenna was created before the world was created, and its fire was created only on the second day of the week. And the thought arose in God鈥檚 mind to create our fire on Shabbat eve; however, it was not actually created until the conclusion of Shabbat, as it was taught in a baraita that Rabbi Yosei says: The thoughts of two phenomena arose in God鈥檚 mind on Shabbat eve, but were not actually created until the conclusion of Shabbat. At the conclusion of Shabbat, the Holy One, Blessed be He, granted Adam, the first man, creative knowledge similar to divine knowledge, and he brought two rocks and rubbed them against each other, and the first fire emerged from them. Adam also brought two animals, a female horse and a male donkey, and mated them with each other, and the resultant offspring that emerged from them was a mule. Rabban Shimon ben Gamliel disagrees and says that the first mule was in the days of Anah, as it is stated: 鈥淎nd these are the children of Zibeon: Aiah and Anah; this is Anah who found the mules in the wilderness, as he fed the donkeys of Zibeon his father鈥 (Genesis 36:24).


讚讜专砖讬 讞诪讜专讜转 讛讬讜 讗讜诪专讬诐 注谞讛 驻住讜诇 讛讬讛 诇驻讬讻讱 讛讘讬讗 驻住讜诇 诇注讜诇诐 砖谞讗诪专 讗诇讛 讘谞讬 砖注讬专 讛讞专讬 讜讻转讬讘 讗诇讛 讘谞讬 爪讘注讜谉 讜讗讬讛 讜注谞讛 讗诇讗 诪诇诪讚 砖讘讗 爪讘注讜谉 注诇 讗诪讜 讜讛讜诇讬讚 诪诪谞讛 注谞讛


The interpreters of Torah symbolism [岣murot] would say: Anah was the product of an incestuous relationship, and as a result he was spiritually unfit to produce offspring. Therefore, he brought an example of unfitness, i.e., an animal physically unfit to produce offspring, into the world, as it is stated: 鈥淭hese are the sons of Seir the Horite, the inhabitants of the land: Lotan, and Shoval, and Zibeon, and Anah鈥 (Genesis 36:20). And it is also stated: 鈥淎nd these are the sons of Zibeon: Aiah and Anah鈥 (Genesis 36:24). One verse describes both Anah and Zibeon as sons of Seir, meaning that they are brothers, while the other verse describes Anah as Zibeon鈥檚 son. Rather, this teaches that Zibeon cohabited with his mother, the wife of Seir, and fathered Anah from her. He is called Seir鈥檚 son although in fact he was the offspring of Seir鈥檚 son and Seir鈥檚 wife.


讜讚讬诇诪讗 转专讬 注谞讛 讛讜讜 讗诪专 专讘讗 讗诪讬谞讗 诪讬诇转讗 讚砖讘讜专 诪诇讻讗 诇讗 讗诪专讛 讜诪谞讜 砖诪讜讗诇 讗讬讻讗 讚讗诪专讬 讗诪专 专讘 驻驻讗 讗诪讬谞讗 诪讬诇转讗 讚砖讘讜专 诪诇讻讗 诇讗 讗诪专讛 讜诪谞讜 专讘讗 讗诪专 拽专讗 讛讜讗 注谞讛 讛讜讗 注谞讛 讚诪注讬拽专讗


The Gemara asks: And perhaps there were two people named Anah, one the son of Zibeon and the other the son of Seir? Rava said: I will state a matter that even King Shapur did not state. And who is this King Shapur? This cannot be a reference to Shapur, king of Persia; rather, it must be an epithet for someone else. He is Shmuel, whose legal rulings were accepted by the public like the edicts of a king by his subjects. Some say a different version, that it was Rav Pappa who said: I will state a matter that even King Shapur did not state. And who is he that Rav Pappa is referring to by the epithet King Shapur? He is Rava. The verse said: 鈥淭his is Anah who found the mules,鈥 indicating that he is the same Anah mentioned initially in the earlier verse.


转谞讜 专讘谞谉 注砖专讛 讚讘专讬诐 谞讘专讗讜 讘注专讘 砖讘转 讘讬谉 讛砖诪砖讜转 讜讗诇讜 讛谉 讘讗专 讜诪谉 讜拽砖转 讛讻转讘 讜讛诪讻转讘 讜讛诇讜讞讜转 拽讘专讜 砖诇 诪砖讛 讜诪注专讛 砖注诪讚 讘讛 诪砖讛 讜讗诇讬讛讜 驻转讬讞转 驻讬 讛讗转讜谉 讜驻转讬讞转 驻讬 讛讗专抓 诇讘诇讜注 讗转 讛专砖注讬诐 讜讬砖 讗讜诪专讬诐 讗祝 诪拽诇讜 砖诇 讗讛专谉 砖拽讚讬讛 讜驻专讞讬讛 讜讬砖 讗讜诪专讬诐 讗祝 讛诪讝讬拽讬谉 讜讬砖 讗讜诪专讬诐 讗祝


The Sages taught: Ten phenomena were created on Shabbat eve during twilight, and they were: Miriam鈥檚 well, and manna, and the rainbow, writing, and the writing instrument, and the tablets, the grave of Moses, and the cave in which Moses and Elijah stood, the opening of the mouth of Balaam鈥檚 donkey, and the opening of the mouth of the earth to swallow the wicked in the time of Korah. And some say that even Aaron鈥檚 staff was created then with its almonds and its blossoms. Some say that even the demons were created at this time. And some say that even


讘讙讚讜 砖诇 讗讚诐 讛专讗砖讜谉


the garment of Adam, the first man, was created at this time, as it is stated: 鈥淎nd God made for Adam and his wife garments of skins and clothed them鈥 (Genesis 3:21).


转谞讜 专讘谞谉 砖讘注讛 讚讘专讬诐 诪讻讜住讬诐 诪讘谞讬 讗讚诐 讗诇讜 讛谉 讬讜诐 讛诪讬转讛 讜讬讜诐 讛谞讞诪讛 讜注讜诪拽 讛讚讬谉 讜讗讬谉 讗讚诐 讬讜讚注 诪讛 讘诇讘讜 砖诇 讞讘讬专讜 讜讗讬谉 讗讚诐 讬讜讚注 讘诪讛 诪砖转讻专 讜诪诇讻讜转 讘讬转 讚讜讚 诪转讬 转讞讝讜专 讜诪诇讻讜转 讞讬讬讘转 诪转讬 转讻诇讛


Apropos the list of items created during twilight, the Gemara cites that the Sages taught: Seven matters are concealed from people, and they are: The day of death; and the day of consolation from one鈥檚 concerns; the profundity of justice, ascertaining the truth in certain disputes; and a person also does not know what is in the heart of another; and a person does not know in what way he will earn a profit; and one does not know when the monarchy of the house of David will be restored to Israel; and when the wicked Roman monarchy will cease to exist.


转谞讜 专讘谞谉 砖诇砖讛 讚讘专讬诐 注诇讜 讘诪讞砖讘讛 诇讬讘专讗讜转 讜讗诐 诇讗 注诇讜 讚讬谉 讛讜讗 砖讬注诇讜 注诇 讛诪转 砖讬住专讬讞 讜注诇 讛诪转 砖讬砖转讻讞 诪谉 讛诇讘 讜注诇 讛转讘讜讗讛 砖转专拽讘 讜讬砖 讗讜诪专讬诐 注诇 讛诪讟讘注 砖讬爪讗:


The Sages taught on a similar note: The thoughts of three matters arose in God鈥檚 mind to be created, and if they did not arise in His thoughts, by right they should have arisen in His thoughts, as they are fundamental to the existence of the world. God created a world in which a corpse rots, so that it requires burial and the family does not continually suffer by seeing the corpse; that the deceased are forgotten from the heart, and the sense of pain and loss diminishes with time; and that grain will rot so that it cannot be hoarded forever, and therefore one must sell his produce. And some say: He instituted that currency will circulate so that people will accept money as a method of payment.


诪转谞讬壮 诪拽讜诐 砖谞讛讙讜 诇注砖讜转 诪诇讗讻讛 讘转砖注讛 讘讗讘 注讜砖讬谉 诪拽讜诐 砖谞讛讙讜 砖诇讗 诇注砖讜转 诪诇讗讻讛 讗讬谉 注讜砖讬谉 讜讘讻诇 诪拽讜诐 转诇诪讬讚讬 讞讻诪讬诐 讘讟诇讬诐 专讘谉 砖诪注讜谉 讘谉 讙诪诇讬讗诇 讗讜诪专 诇注讜诇诐 讬注砖讛 讗讚诐 注爪诪讜 转诇诪讬讚 讞讻诐:


MISHNA: This mishna continues the previous discussion of customs. In a place where people were accustomed to perform labor on the Ninth of Av, one performs labor. In a place where people were accustomed not to perform labor, one does not perform labor. And in all places Torah scholars are idle and do not perform labor on the Ninth of Av, due to the mourning over the Temple鈥檚 destruction. Rabban Shimon ben Gamliel says: With regard to the Ninth of Av, a person should always conduct himself as a Torah scholar and refrain from performing labor.


讙诪壮 讗诪专 砖诪讜讗诇 讗讬谉 转注谞讬转 爪讬讘讜专 讘讘讘诇 讗诇讗 转砖注讛 讘讗讘 讘诇讘讚 诇诪讬诪专讗 讚住讘专 砖诪讜讗诇 转砖注讛 讘讗讘 讘讬谉 讛砖诪砖讜转 砖诇讜 讗住讜专 讜讛讗诪专 砖诪讜讗诇 转砖注讛 讘讗讘 讘讬谉 讛砖诪砖讜转 砖诇讜 诪讜转专 讜讻讬 转讬诪讗 拽住讘专 砖诪讜讗诇 讻诇 转注谞讬转 爪讬讘讜专 讘讬谉 讛砖诪砖讜转 砖诇讜 诪讜转专 讜讛讗谞谉 转谞谉 讗讜讻诇讬谉 讜砖讜转讬谉 诪讘注讜讚 讬讜诐 诇诪注讜讟讬 诪讗讬 诇讗讜 诇诪注讜讟讬 讘讬谉 讛砖诪砖讜转 诇讗 诇诪注讜讟讬 诪砖讞砖讬讻讛


GEMARA: Shmuel said: The only communal fast in Babylonia during which all the stringencies of a communal fast are observed is the Ninth of Av. The Gemara asks: Is that to say, based on the parallel he drew between them, that Shmuel holds that the Ninth of Av is as stringent as communal fast days, in that during twilight on the Ninth of Av all activities prohibited on the Ninth of Av are prohibited? But didn鈥檛 Shmuel say: During twilight of the Ninth of Av all activities prohibited on the Ninth of Av are permitted, and the Sages did not decree any prohibitions during this time? And if you say that Shmuel holds: With regard to every communal fast, during twilight those activities considered to be afflictions are permitted, didn鈥檛 we learn in a mishna with regard to a public fast day: One may eat and drink while it is still day? The Gemara analyzes this statement: What does the expression: While it is still day, come to exclude? What, isn鈥檛 it to exclude twilight of a communal fast day, when these activities are prohibited? The Gemara rejects this: No, it is to exclude the time after dark, when these afflictions are certainly in effect.


谞讬诪讗 诪住讬讬注 诇讬讛 讗讬谉 讘讬谉 转砖注讛 讘讗讘 诇讬讜诐 讛讻讬驻讜专讬诐 讗诇讗 砖讝讛 住驻讬拽讜 讗住讜专 讜讝讛 住驻讬拽讜 诪讜转专


The Gemara suggests: Let us say that this baraita supports Shmuel鈥檚 opinion: The only difference between the Ninth of Av and Yom Kippur is that with regard to this, Yom Kippur, its uncertainty is prohibited, as eating and drinking on Yom Kippur is prohibited by Torah law, whereas with regard to that, the Ninth of Av, its uncertainty is permitted, as the afflictions of the Ninth of Av are rabbinic decrees.


诪讗讬 住驻讬拽讜 诪讜转专 诇讗讜 讘讬谉 讛砖诪砖讜转 诇讗 讻讚讗诪专 专讘 砖讬砖讗 讘专讬讛 讚专讘 讗讬讚讬 诇拽讘讬注讗 讚讬专讞讗 讛讻讗 谞诪讬 诇拽讘讬注讗 讚讬专讞讗


The Gemara explains the support for Shmuel鈥檚 opinion: What is the meaning of the expression: With regard to that, the Ninth of Av, its uncertainty is permitted? Is it not referring to twilight, with regard to which there is uncertainty whether it is day or night? Apparently, it is permitted to eat during twilight on the Ninth of Av. The Gemara rejects this: No, it is as Rav Sheisha, son of Rav Idi, said in a different context: It is referring to uncertainty with regard to the determination of the first day of the new month, which would require observance of the Festival for two days. Here, too, the baraita is referring to uncertainty with regard to determination of the first day of the new month. Since the Ninth of Av is a fast of rabbinic origin, there is no requirement to observe two days.


讚专砖 专讘讗 注讜讘专讜转 讜诪谞讬拽讜转 诪转注谞讜转 讜诪砖诇讬诪讜转 讘讜 讻讚专讱 砖诪转注谞讜转 讜诪砖诇讬诪讜转 讘讬讜诐 讛讻讬驻讜专讬诐 讜讘讬谉 讛砖诪砖讜转 砖诇讜 讗住讜专 讜讻谉 讗诪专讜 诪砖诪讬讛 讚专讘讬 讬讜讞谞谉 讜诪讬 讗诪专 专讘讬 讬讜讞谞谉 讛讻讬 讜讛讗诪专 专讘讬 讬讜讞谞谉 转砖注讛 讘讗讘 讗讬谞讜 讻转注谞讬转 爪讬讘讜专 诪讗讬 诇讗讜 诇讘讬谉 讛砖诪砖讜转 诇讗 诇诪诇讗讻讛


Rava taught: Pregnant women and nursing women fast and complete the fast on the Ninth of Av in the manner that they fast and complete the fast on Yom Kippur, and during twilight on the Ninth of Av it is prohibited to eat or drink. And they likewise said so in the name of Rabbi Yo岣nan. The Gemara asks: And did Rabbi Yo岣nan actually say that? Didn鈥檛 Rabbi Yo岣nan say: The Ninth of Av is not like a communal fast decreed to pray for rain? What, isn鈥檛 it referring to the matter of twilight? Apparently, Rabbi Yo岣nan holds that it is permitted to eat and drink during twilight on the Ninth of Av. The Gemara answers: No, it is referring to performing labor, which is prohibited on the Ninth of Av, in contrast to other fasts.


诪诇讗讻讛 转谞讬谞讗 诪拽讜诐 砖谞讛讙讜 诇注砖讜转 诪诇讗讻讛 讘转砖注讛 讘讗讘 注讜砖讬谉 讜讘诪拽讜诐 砖谞讛讙讜 砖诇讗 诇注砖讜转 讗讬谉 注讜砖讬谉 讜讗驻讬诇讜 专讘谉 砖诪注讜谉 讘谉 讙诪诇讬讗诇 诇讗 讗诪专 讗诇讗 讚讻讬 讬转讬讘 讜诇讗 注讘讬讚 诇讗 诪讬讞讝讬 讻讬讜讛专讗 讗讘诇 诪讬住专 诇讗 讗住专


The Gemara expresses surprise: It is referring to performing labor? We already learned explicitly in the mishna: In a place where people were accustomed to perform labor on the Ninth of Av, one performs labor; in a place where people were accustomed not to perform labor, one does not perform labor. Apparently, the prohibition against performing labor on the Ninth of Av depends on local custom and is not an outright prohibition. And even Rabban Shimon ben Gamliel only said that one may conduct himself as a Torah scholar and refrain from performing labor because when one sits and does not perform labor, it does not appear as presumptuousness on his part. It does not create the impression that he actually considers himself a Torah scholar because others may simply think that he has no work to do. However, in terms of prohibiting the performance of labor, he does not prohibit performing labor on the Ninth of Av.


讗诇讗 诪讗讬 讗讬谞讜 讻转注谞讬转 爪讬讘讜专 诇转驻讬诇转 谞注讬诇讛 讜讛讗诪专 专讘讬 讬讜讞谞谉 讜诇讜讗讬 砖讬转驻诇诇 讗讚诐 讜讛讜诇讱 讻诇 讛讬讜诐 讻讜诇讜


Rather, what is the meaning of the expression: The Ninth of Av is not like a communal fast? It was stated with regard to the closing prayer. On a communal fast day there are four prayers, and on Yom Kippur there are five prayers, but on the Ninth of Av there are only three prayers, like an ordinary weekday. But didn鈥檛 Rabbi Yo岣nan say: If only a person would continue to pray throughout the entire day? This indicates that according to Rabbi Yo岣nan, a person may recite additional prayers if he so chooses.


讛转诐 讞讜讘讛 讛讻讗 专砖讜转 讜讗讬讘注讬转 讗讬诪讗 诪讗讬 讗讬谞讜 讻转注谞讬转 爪讬讘讜专 诇注砖专讬诐 讜讗专讘注讛


The Gemara answers: There, on a communal fast day, it is a requirement to recite four prayers; here, on the Ninth of Av, reciting additional prayers is optional according to Rabbi Yo岣nan. And if you wish, say instead: What is the meaning of the expression: The Ninth of Av is not like a communal fast? It is with regard to the twenty-four blessings that are recited on a communal fast, as six blessings were added to the eighteen blessings of the daily Amida prayer. On the Ninth of Av one recites only the standard eighteen blessings.


专讘 驻驻讗 讗诪专 诪讗讬 讗讬谞讜 讻转注谞讬转 爪讬讘讜专 讗讬谞讜 讻专讗砖讜谞讜转 讗诇讗 讻讗讞专讜谞讜转 讜讗住讜专讛


Rav Pappa said: What is the meaning of the phrase: The Ninth of Av is not like a communal fast? It comes to teach a stringency. There are different types of communal fasts for rain. The first three fasts are the least stringent; the next three are more stringent; and the final seven fasts are the most stringent of all. The statement teaches that the Ninth of Av is not like the first fast days, which are more lenient in several respects; for example, they do not begin during twilight. Rather, it is like the final fast days, when eating and performing labor are prohibited during twilight.


诪讬转讬讘讬 讗讬谉 讘讬谉 转砖注讛 讘讗讘 诇讬讜诐 讛讻讬驻讜专讬诐 讗诇讗 砖讝讛 住驻讬拽讜 讗住讜专 讜讝讛 住驻讬拽讜 诪讜转专 诪讗讬 住驻讬拽讜 诪讜转专 诇讗讜 讘讬谉 讛砖诪砖讜转 砖诇讜 讗诪专 专讘 砖讬砖讗 讘专讬讛 讚专讘 讗讬讚讬 诇讗 诇拽讘讬注讗 讚讬专讞讗 讛讗 诇讻诇 讚讘专讬诐 讝讛 讜讝讛 砖讜讬谉


The Gemara raises an objection: Didn鈥檛 we already learn that the only difference between the Ninth of Av and Yom Kippur is that with regard to this, Yom Kippur, its uncertainty is prohibited, because eating and drinking on Yom Kippur are prohibited by Torah law, whereas with regard to that, the Ninth of Av, its uncertainty is permitted? What is the meaning of the expression referring to the Ninth of Av: Its uncertainty is permitted? Is it not referring to its twilight, contrary to the statement of Rav Pappa? The Gemara rejects this. Rav Sheisha, son of Rav Idi, said in a different context: No. It is uncertainty with regard to the determination of the first day of the new month. There is no requirement to observe a second day of the Ninth of Av. By inference, with regard to all other matters this and that are equal.


诪住讬讬注 诇专讘讬 讗诇注讝专 讚讗诪专 专讘讬 讗诇注讝专 讗住讜专 诇讜 诇讗讚诐 砖讬讜砖讬讟 讗爪讘注讜 讘诪讬诐 讘转砖注讛 讘讗讘 讻讚专讱 砖讗住讜专 诇讛讜砖讬讟 讗爪讘注讜 讘讬讜诐 讛讻讬驻讜专讬诐


The Gemara comments: This statement supports the opinion of Rabbi Elazar, as Rabbi Elazar said: It is prohibited for a person to extend his finger into water on the Ninth of Av, just as it is prohibited for him to extend his finger into water on Yom Kippur.


诪讬转讬讘讬 讗讬谉 讘讬谉 转砖注讛 讘讗讘 诇转注谞讬转 爪讬讘讜专 讗诇讗 砖讝讛 讗住讜专 讘注砖讬讬转 诪诇讗讻讛 讜讝讛 诪讜转专 讘注砖讬讬转 诪诇讗讻讛 讘诪拽讜诐 砖谞讛讙讜 讛讗 诇讻诇 讚讘专讬讛诐 讝讛 讜讝讛 砖讜讬谉 讜讗讬诇讜 讙讘讬 转注谞讬转 爪讬讘讜专 转谞讬讗 讻砖讗诪专讜 讗住讜专 讘专讞讬爪讛 诇讗 讗诪专讜 讗诇讗 讻诇 讙讜驻讜 讗讘诇 驻谞讬讜 讬讚讬讜 讜专讙诇讬讜 诇讗


The Gemara raises an objection: The only difference between the Ninth of Av and a communal fast is that on this day, a communal fast, performance of labor is prohibited, and on that day, the Ninth of Av, performance of labor is permitted in a place where people are accustomed to perform labor. By inference, with regard to all other matters this and that are equal. However, with regard to a communal fast, it was taught in a baraita: When the Sages said that bathing is prohibited, they said it only with regard to washing one鈥檚 entire body, but with regard to washing one鈥檚 face, one鈥檚 hands, and one鈥檚 feet in increments, the Sages did not say that it was prohibited. Apparently, with respect to washing, the Rabbis were stricter with regard to the Ninth of Av than they were with regard to a communal fast.


讗诪专 专讘 驻驻讗


Rav Pappa said:


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