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Today's Daf Yomi

October 22, 2021 | 讟状讝 讘诪专讞砖讜讜谉 转砖驻状讘

Masechet Rosh Hashanah is dedicated anonymously in honor of Rabbanit Michelle Farber whose dedication to learning and teaching the daf continues to inspire so many people around the world.

This month's shiurim are dedicated by Tamara Katz in memory of her maternal grandparents, Sarah bat Chaya v'Tzvi Hirsh and Meir Leib ben Esther v'Harav Yehoshua Zelig whose yahrzeits are both this month.

This month's shiurim are also dedicated in memory of Dr. Chaya R. Gorsetman, Chaya bat Esriel V鈥橬aomi z鈥檒 during the period of shloshim by her husband, children, and grandchildren.

  • This month's learning is sponsored by Terri Krivosha for the Refuah Shlemah of her husband Harav Hayim Yehuda Ben Faiga Rivah.聽

  • This month's learning is dedicated by Debbie and Yossi Gevir to Rabbanit Michelle and the Hadran Zoom group for their kindness, support, and care during a medically challenging year.

Rosh Hashanah 13

Today’s daf is sponsored by Debbie Gevir to commemorate the 3rd聽Yarzheit of her dear father, Joseph Gindsberg on the 17th of Cheshvan.聽 “Amongst his many unique qualities, my father had a love for language and a particular expertise in using it to enhance Torah reading and liturgical practice. I am sure he would be proud to know that my Aramaic is improving daily by learning daf yomi with Rabbanit Michelle Farber, and my wonderful hevrutot!聽 Yehi zichro Baruch.” Any by Sylvia Simmons in memory of her grandmother Rachel Wohl (Rachel Leah bat Avraham Mordechai) on her yahrzeit today. And anonymously in memory of the Rav Shach, Elazar Menachem Man ben Ezriel.

From where do we know that the year for taking tithes of grains, grapes and olives is determined based on when they have reached a third of their growth? Rabbi Yirmiya questions how can the rabbis know exactly when a fruit has reached a third. Rabbi Zeira gets upset with him and insists that the rabbis can be precise in their measurements. Rabbi Yirmiya is convinced by Rabbi Zeira’s answer and brings an example from the Omer sacrifice the first year the Jews were in the land of Israel and proves from there that they must have been precise about determining that the food had not reached a third of its growth the previous year when it was owned by gentiles. However, his proof is rejected as it is possible that food had not even reached a quarter of its growth before the new year had started. The proof brought earlier regarding the grains, grapes, and olives that the determining date is when they have reached a third of their growth, is rejected and a different proof text is brought. A Mishna from Shviit 2:7 establishes that rice, millet and other items are considered shmita produce if they took root during the shmita year. However, this doesn’t seem to match what we have learned that trees go by when they budded, grains, grapes and olives when they reach a third. and vegetables by when they are cut. The time of taking root is a rabbinic law to prevent issues like one taking truma and maaser from produce that took root the previous year on produce that too root this year. Why can’t they use a different solution – mix it all together and take tithes from the mixture and likely there will be some percentage of this year’s produce and some from last and that should cover what is needed to be taken for both years (this process is called bila), as Rabbi Shimon Shezuri had suggested. Shmuel is quoted as saying that we rule like Rabbi Shimon Shezura. However, he is also quoted as saying we do not allow bila, other than for liquids.聽 brings three different statements of Shmuel regarding this issue and they seem to contradict each other. A third statement of Shmuel is brought to resolve the contradiction, however, it is not yet clear how it resolves it.

讜讚诇诪讗 诇讗 注讬讬诇 讻诇诇 讜拽讗诪专 专讞诪谞讗 转砖诪讟 讜转讬讝讬诇 注讚 讞讙 讛住讜讻讜转

But perhaps the verse is referring to produce that did not grow at all during the seventh year, and nevertheless, the Merciful One states in the Torah that all the halakhot of the Sabbatical Year continue to apply until the festival of Sukkot of the eighth year.

诇讗 住诇拽讗 讚注转讱 讚讻转讬讘 讜讞讙 讛讗住讬祝 讘爪讗转 讛砖谞讛 诪讗讬 讗住讬祝 讗讬诇讬诪讗 讞讙 讛讘讗 讘讝诪谉 讗住讬驻讛 讛讻转讬讘 讘讗住驻讱

The Gemara answers: It should not enter your mind to say this, as it is written: 鈥淎nd the festival of gathering, which is at the end of the year, when you have gathered in your labors out of the field鈥 (Exodus 23:16). What is the meaning of 鈥済athering鈥? If we say that it means: A Festival that comes at the time of gathering the crops, isn鈥檛 it already written: 鈥淲hen you have gathered in your labors鈥? There is no need to repeat this a second time.

讗诇讗 诪讗讬 讗住讬祝 拽爪讬专 讜拽讬诐 诇讛讜 诇专讘谞谉 讚讻诇 转讘讜讗讛 砖谞拽爪专讛 讘讞讙 讘讬讚讜注 砖讛讘讬讗讛 砖诇讬砖 诇驻谞讬 专讗砖 讛砖谞讛 讜拽讗 拽专讬 诇讛 讘爪讗转 讛砖谞讛

Rather, what is meant here by 鈥済athering鈥? It means harvesting. And the Sages have an accepted tradition that any grain that reaches full growth so that it is harvested on the festival of Sukkot is known to have reached one-third of its growth before Rosh HaShana, and the Torah calls that period of the year until Sukkot 鈥渁t the end of the year,鈥 thereby indicating that it is still subject to the halakhot governing the previous year.

讗诪专 诇讬讛 专讘讬 讬专诪讬讛 诇专讘讬 讝讬专讗 讜拽讬诐 诇讛讜 诇专讘谞谉 讘讬谉 砖诇讬砖 诇驻讞讜转 诪砖诇讬砖 讗诪专 诇讬讛 诇讗讜 讗诪讬谞讗 诇讱 诇讗 转驻讬拽 谞驻砖讱 诇讘专 诪讛诇讻转讗 讻诇 诪讚讜转 讞讻诪讬诐 讻谉 讛讜讗

Rabbi Yirmeya said to Rabbi Zeira: And are the Sages able to discern precisely between produce that reached one-third of its growth and produce that reached less than one-third of its growth? Rabbi Zeira said to him: Do I not always tell you that you must not take yourself out of the bounds of the halakha? All the measures of the Sages are like this; they are precise and exact.

讗专讘注讬诐 住讗讛 讛讜讗 讟讜讘诇 讘讗专讘注讬诐 住讗讛 讞住专 拽讜专讟讜讘 讗讬谞讜 讬讻讜诇 诇讟讘讜诇 讘讛谉 讻讘讬爪讛 诪讟诪讗 讟讜诪讗转 讗讜讻诇讬谉 讻讘讬爪讛 讞住专 砖讜诪砖讜诐 讗讬谞讜 诪讟诪讗 讟讜诪讗转 讗讜讻诇讬谉

For example, one who immerses himself in a ritual bath containing forty se鈥檃 of water is rendered pure, but in forty se鈥檃 less the tiny amount of a kortov, he cannot immerse and become pure in them. Similarly, an egg-bulk of impure food can render other food ritually impure, but an egg-bulk less even the tiny amount of a sesame seed does not render food ritually impure.

砖诇砖讛 注诇 砖诇砖讛 诪讟诪讗 诪讚专住 砖诇砖讛 注诇 砖诇砖讛 讞住专 谞讬诪讗 讗讞转 讗讬谞讜 诪讟诪讗 诪讚专住

So too, a piece of cloth three by three handbreadths in size is susceptible to ritual impurity imparted by treading, but a piece of cloth three by three handbreadths less one hair [nima] is not susceptible to ritual impurity imparted by treading.

讛讚专 讗诪专 专讘讬 讬专诪讬讛 诇讗讜 诪讬诇转讗 讛讬讗 讚讗诪专讬 讚讘注讜 诪讬谞讬讛 讞讘专讬讬讗 诪专讘 讻讛谞讗 注讜诪专 砖讛拽专讬讘讜 讬砖专讗诇 讘讻谞讬住转谉 诇讗专抓 诪讛讬讻谉 讛拽专讬讘讜讛讜 讗诐 转讗诪专 讚注讬讬诇 讘讬讚 讙讜讬 拽爪讬专讻诐 讗诪专 专讞诪谞讗 讜诇讗 拽爪讬专 讙讜讬

Rabbi Yirmeya then said: What I said is nothing, and my question had no basis, as it can be demonstrated that the Sages know how to determine that produce has reached one-third of its growth. As Rav Kahana was once asked by the other colleagues of the academy as follows: With regard to the omer offering that the Jewish people brought when they first entered Eretz Yisrael in the days of Joshua, from where did they bring it? If you say that this omer offering was brought from grain that grew in the possession of a gentile, there is a difficulty, as the Merciful One states in the Torah: 鈥淵ou shall bring an omer of the first fruits of your harvest to the priest鈥 (Leviticus 23:13), from which it can be derived that it must be your harvest, grown in the possession of a Jew, and not the harvest of a gentile.

诪诪讗讬 讚讗拽专讬讘讜 讚诇诪讗 诇讗 讗拽专讬讘讜 诇讗 住诇拽讗 讚注转讱 讚讻转讬讘 讜讬讗讻诇讜 诪注讘讜专 讛讗专抓 诪诪讞专转 讛驻住讞 诪诪讞专转 讛驻住讞 讗讻讜诇 诪注讬拽专讗 诇讗 讗讻讜诇 讚讗拽专讬讘讜 注讜诪专 讜讛讚专 讗讻诇讬 诪讛讬讻谉 讛拽专讬讘讜

The Gemara first questions the assumption of Rav Kahana鈥檚 colleagues: From where is it known that the Jewish people actually brought an omer offering that year? Perhaps they did not offer it at all. The Gemara rejects this argument: It should not enter your mind to say this, as it is written: 鈥淎nd they did eat of the produce of the land on the next day after Passover鈥 (Joshua 5:11), which teaches: Only on the next day after Passover did they eat from the new grain, but initially they did not eat from it. Why? It is because they first brought the omer offering on the sixteenth of Nisan as is required, and only afterward did they eat from the new grain. Therefore the question remains: From where did they bring the omer offering?

讗诪专 诇讛谉 讻诇 砖诇讗 讛讘讬讗 砖诇讬砖 讘讬讚 讙讜讬

Rav Kahana said to them: Anything that came into the possession of a Jew and did not reach one-third of its growth in the possession of a gentile is fit to be harvested for the sake of the omer offering.

讜讚诇诪讗 注讬讬诇 讜诇讗 拽讬诐 诇讛讜 讗诇讗 拽讬诐 诇讛讜 讛讻讗 谞诪讬 拽讬诐 诇讛讜

Rabbi Yirmeya concludes his proof: But there, too, one might ask: Perhaps the grain had in fact already reached one-third of its growth, but they could not discern with certainty between grain that had reached one-third of its growth and grain that had not. Rather, you must say that they were able to discern with certainty. Here, too, you can say that the Sages can discern with certainty between produce that has reached one-third of its growth before Rosh HaShana and produce that has not.

讜讚诇诪讗 诇讗 注讬讬诇 讻诇诇 讗讘诇 讛讬讻讗 讚注讬讬诇 专讬讘注讗 讘讬谉 砖诇讬砖 诇驻讞讜转 诪砖诇讬砖 诇讗 拽讬诐 诇讛讜

The Gemara asks: This is not absolute proof, as perhaps the Jewish people brought the omer offering from grain that did not grow at all before they conquered the land, and the distinction was evident to all. But where produce reached one quarter of its growth, the Sages cannot discern with certainty the difference between one-third and less than one-third.

诇讗 住诇拽讗 讚注转讱 讚讻转讬讘 讜讛注诐 注诇讜 诪谉 讛讬专讚谉 讘注砖讜专 诇讞讚砖 讜讗讬 住诇拽讗 讚注转讱 讚诇讗 注讬讬诇 讻诇诇 讘讞诪砖讛 讬讜诪讬 诪讬 拽讗 诪诇讬讗

The Gemara answers: It should not enter your mind to say this, as it is written: 鈥淎nd the people came up from the Jordan on the tenth day of the first month鈥 (Joshua 4:19). And if it enters your mind to say that the grain had not grown at all before the Jewish people entered the land, could it have reached full growth in just five days?

讗诇讗 诪讗讬 讚注讬讬诇 专讘注讗 讗讜 讚谞拽讗 讗讻转讬 讘讞诪砖讛 讬讜诪讬 诪讬 拽讗 诪诇讬讗 讗诇讗 诪讗讬 讗讬转 诇讱 诇诪讬诪专 讗专抓 爪讘讬 讻转讬讘 讘讛 讛讻讗 谞诪讬 讗专抓 爪讘讬 讻转讬讘 讘讛

The Gemara rejects this argument: Rather, what can one say? That the grain had reached one quarter or one-sixth [danka] of its growth before the Jewish people conquered the land? This too is difficult, as one can still ask: Could the grain have reached full growth in just five days? Rather, what have you to say? One could say that with regard to Eretz Yisrael it is written: 鈥淭he land of the deer鈥 (Daniel 11:41), implying that the grain of Eretz Yisrael ripens with the swiftness of a deer. Here, too, one can say that 鈥渢he land of the deer鈥 is written with regard to Eretz Yisrael and applies to the ripening of the grain, so that it can ripen in just a few days.

诪转拽讬祝 诇讛 专讘讬 讞谞讬谞讗 讜诪讬 诪爪讬转 讗诪专转 讚讛讗讬 讗住讬祝 拽爪讬专 讛讜讗 讜讛讻转讬讘 讘讗住驻讱 诪讙专谞讱 讜诪讬拽讘讱 讜讗诪专 诪专 讘驻住讜诇转 讙讜专谉 讜讬拽讘 讛讻转讜讘 诪讚讘专

Rabbi 岣nina strongly objects to the proof brought from the verse in Exodus cited above, which refers to Sukkot as the festival of gathering: How can you say that this 鈥済athering鈥 means harvesting? But isn鈥檛 it written: 鈥淵ou shall observe the festival of Sukkot seven days, after you have gathered in from your threshing floor and from your winepress鈥 (Deuteronomy 16:13), and the Master said about this: The verse speaks here of the waste of the threshing floor and the winepress, which is used to make the roof of the sukka. If so, the gathering mentioned with regard to the festival of Sukkot is referring not to harvesting but to gathering straw from the threshing floor.

讗诪专 专讘讬 讝讬专讗 讛讗 诪讬诇转讗 讛讜讗讬 讘讬讚谉 讜讗转讗 专讘讬 讞谞讬谞讗 砖讚讗 讘讬讛 谞专讙讗

Rabbi Zeira said about this: This matter was in our hands, i.e., I thought that we had solid proof that the years for produce follow the first third of its growth, but Rabbi 岣nina came and cast an axe upon it, cutting it down, as Rabbi 岣nina鈥檚 objection has totally nullified the proof.

讗诇讗 诪谞诇谉 讻讚转谞讬讗 专讘讬 讬讜谞转谉 讘谉 讬讜住祝 讗讜诪专 讜注砖转 讗转 讛转讘讜讗讛 诇砖诇砖 讛砖谞讬诐

The Gemara asks: Rather, from where do we derive that the years for produce follow the first third of its growth? The Gemara answers: As it is taught in a baraita that Rabbi Yonatan ben Yosef says: The verse states: 鈥淎nd it shall bring forth fruit for the three years鈥 (Leviticus 25:21);

讗诇 转拽专讬 诇砖诇砖 讗诇讗 诇砖诇讬砖

do not read it as 鈥渇or three [lishelosh]鈥 but as: For one-third [lishelish]. And learn from here that the year for tithes is determined by the date on which the produce reaches one-third of its growth.

讜讛讗 诪讬讘注讬 诇讬讛 诇讙讜驻讬讛 讻转讬讘 拽专讗 讗讞专讬谞讗 讜讝专注转诐 讗转 讛砖谞讛 讛砖诪讬谞讬转 讜讗讻诇转诐 诪谉 讛转讘讜讗讛 讬砖谉 注讚 讛砖谞讛 讛转砖讬注讬转

The Gemara raises a difficulty: But the phrase is necessary for the meaning of the verse itself, to teach that the sixth year will be blessed so that it yields three years鈥 worth of produce. The Gemara answers: It is written in another verse: 鈥淎nd you shall sow the eighth year, and eat yet of old produce until the ninth year鈥 (Leviticus 25:22), so that the latter verse teaches about the three years鈥 worth of produce, and the first verse is available to derive the halakha with regard to one-third growth.

转谞谉 讛转诐 讛讗讜专讝 讜讛讚讜讞谉 讜讛驻专讙讬谉 讜讛砖讜诪砖诪讬谉 砖讛砖专讬砖讜 诇驻谞讬 专讗砖 讛砖谞讛 诪转注砖专讬谉 诇砖注讘专 讜诪讜转专讬谉 讘砖讘讬注讬转 讜讗诐 诇讗讜 讗住讜专讬谉 讘砖讘讬注讬转 讜诪转注砖专讬谉 诇砖谞讛 讛讘讗讛

We learned in a mishna there: Rice, millet, poppy, and sesame that took root before Rosh HaShana are tithed in accordance with the outgoing year, meaning that second tithe is set aside in the first, second, fourth, and fifth years of the Sabbatical cycle, and poor man鈥檚 tithe is set aside in the third and sixth years, and they are permitted even if the following year is a Sabbatical Year. If they did not take root before Rosh HaShana, they are prohibited if it is the Sabbatical Year, and in ordinary years they are tithed in accordance with the incoming year.

讗诪专 专讘讛 讗诪讜专 专讘谞谉 讗讬诇谉 讘转专 讞谞讟讛 转讘讜讗讛 讜讝讬转讬诐 讘转专 砖诇讬砖 讬专拽 讘转专 诇拽讬讟讛 讛谞讬 讻诪讗谉 砖讜讬谞讛讜 专讘谞谉

Rabba said: Say that the Sages said that the tithe year of a tree follows the time of the formation of its fruit, that of grain and olives follows the time that they reach one-third of their growth, and that of vegetables follows the time of their picking. The question may therefore be raised: With regard to these crops, i.e., rice, millet, poppy, and sesame, to what did the Sages equate them? Their tithe year is determined neither by their formation, nor by the time when they reach one-third of their growth, nor by their picking.

讛讚专 讗诪专 专讘讛 诪转讜讱 砖注砖讜讬讬谉 驻专讻讬谉 驻专讻讬谉 讗讝诇讬 专讘谞谉 讘转专 讛砖专砖讛

Rabba then said: The reason for their uniqueness with regard to tithing is that since these crops do not ripen all at once, but rather, they ripen and are gathered little by little over an extended period of time, if their year were to follow the time of their picking, people might set aside tithes from that which was picked before Rosh HaShana for that which was picked after Rosh HaShana. Therefore, the Sages decreed that their tithe year follows the time of their taking root, which is the same for the entire field.

讗诪专 诇讬讛 讗讘讬讬 讜讬爪讘讜专 讙讜专谞讜 诇转讜讻讜 讜谞诪爪讗 转讜专诐 诪谉 讛讞讚砖 砖讘讜 注诇 讛讞讚砖 砖讘讜 诪谉 讛讬砖谉 砖讘讜 注诇 讛讬砖谉 砖讘讜

Abaye said to him: Why should they have made such a decree? There is a better alternative: Let one pile the entire stock onto his threshing floor, into the middle of it, mix the stock together well, and then set aside teruma and tithes, and consequently it will turn out that he has set aside teruma and tithes from the new crop in the mixture for the new crop in it, and from the old crop in the mixture for the old crop in it.

诪讬 诇讗 转谞讬讗 专讘讬 讬讜住讬 讘谉 讻讬驻专 讗诪专 诪砖讜诐 专讘讬 砖诪注讜谉 砖讝讜专讬 驻讜诇 讛诪爪专讬 砖讝专注讜 诇讝专注 诪拽爪转讜 讛砖专讬砖 诇驻谞讬 专讗砖 讛砖谞讛 讜诪拽爪转讜 讛砖专讬砖 诇讗讞专 专讗砖 讛砖谞讛 讗讬谉 转讜专诪讬谉 讜诪注砖专讬谉 诪讝讛 注诇 讝讛 诇驻讬 砖讗讬谉 转讜专诪讬谉 讜诪注砖专讬谉 诇讗 诪谉 讛讞讚砖 注诇 讛讬砖谉 讜诇讗 诪谉 讛讬砖谉 注诇 讛讞讚砖

Abaye continued: Isn鈥檛 it taught in a baraita: Rabbi Yosei ben Keifar said in the name of Rabbi Shimon Shezuri: If the cowpea plant was planted for seed, not to be eaten as a vegetable but for the seeds, the beans themselves, either for eating or planting, and some took root already before Rosh HaShana, while some took root only after Rosh HaShana, one may not set aside teruma or tithes from this for that, as one may not set aside teruma or tithes from the new crop for the old or from the old crop for the new.

讻讬爪讚 讛讜讗 注讜砖讛 爪讜讘专 讙讜专谞讜 诇转讜讻讜 讜谞诪爪讗 转讜专诐 讜诪注砖专 诪谉 讛讞讚砖 砖讘讜 注诇 讛讞讚砖 砖讘讜 讜诪谉 讛讬砖谉 砖讘讜 注诇 讛讬砖谉 砖讘讜

How, then, should one act so that he not err and set aside teruma and tithes incorrectly? He should pile the entire stock onto his threshing floor, into the middle of it, mix the stock together well, and then set aside teruma and tithes, and consequently it will turn out that he has set aside teruma and tithes from the new crop in the mixture for the new crop in it, and from the old crop in the mixture for the old crop in it. Why not do the same for rice, millet, poppy, and sesame?

讗诪专 诇讬讛 专讘讬 砖诪注讜谉 砖讝讜专讬 拽讗诪专转 专讘讬 砖诪注讜谉 砖讝讜专讬 住讘专 讬砖 讘讬诇讛

Rabba said to Abaye: You are speaking of the opinion of Rabbi Shimon Shezuri? You cannot raise an objection from what he says, as Rabbi Shimon Shezuri holds that there is mixing. He assumes that the old and new were thoroughly mixed, so that the teruma and tithes set aside from the mixture have the same proportions of old and new crops as did the original crops.

讜专讘谞谉 住讘专讬 讗讬谉 讘讬诇讛

But the Sages hold that there is no mixing; they do not assume that the old and new became thoroughly and evenly mixed. Therefore, piling the entire stock, mixing it together, and then setting aside teruma and tithes will not ensure that they are set aside correctly.

讗诪专 专讘讬 讬爪讞拽 讘专 谞讞诪谞讬 讗诪专 砖诪讜讗诇 讛诇讻讛 讻专讘讬 讬讜住讬 讘谉 讻讬驻专 砖讗诪专 诪砖讜诐 专讘讬 砖诪注讜谉 砖讝讜专讬 诪转拽讬祝 诇讛 专讘讬 讝讬专讗 讜诪讬 讗诪专 砖诪讜讗诇 讛讻讬 讜讛讗诪专 砖诪讜讗诇 诇讻诇 讗讬谉 讘讬诇讛 讞讜抓 诪讬讬谉 讜砖诪谉

Rabbi Yitz岣k bar Na岣ani said that Shmuel said: The halakha is in accordance with the statement of Rabbi Yosei ben Keifar that he said in the name of Rabbi Shimon Shezuri. Rabbi Zeira strongly objects to this: And did Shmuel actually say this? But didn鈥檛 Shmuel say: There is no mixing for anything except for wine, oil, and other liquids? In the case of liquids he holds that everything is entirely mixed together, but not in the case of solids. How, then, could he have ruled in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Shimon Shezuri?

讗砖转诪讬讟转讬讛 讛讗 讚讗诪专 砖诪讜讗诇 讛讻诇 讛讜诇讱 讗讞专 讙诪专 驻专讬

The Gemara answers: Rabbi Zeira forgot that which Shmuel said: In all cases, the tithe year follows the time of the full ripening of the produce. Therefore, all of the cowpea seeds may be tithed together, whether the plants from which they grew took root before or after Rosh HaShana. This is not due to Rabbi Shimon Shezuri鈥檚 rationale that there is mixing, but because all of the beans reach full ripening at the same time, and consequently, they are all considered produce of the incoming year.

Masechet Rosh Hashana 聽is dedicated anonymously in honor of聽Rabbanit Michelle Farber whose dedication to learning and teaching the daf continues to inspire so many people around the world.

This month's shiurim are dedicated by Tamara Katz in memory of her maternal grandparents, Sarah bat Chaya v'Tzvi Hirsh and Meir Leib ben Esther v'Harav Yehoshua Zelig whose yahrzeits are both this month.

And in memory of Dr. Chaya R. Gorsetman, Chaya bat Esriel V鈥橬aomi z鈥檒 during the period of shloshim by her husband, children and grandchildren.

  • This month's learning is sponsored by Terri Krivosha for the Refuah Shlemah of her husband Harav Hayim Yehuda Ben Faiga Rivah.聽

  • This month's learning is dedicated by Debbie and Yossi Gevir to Rabbanit Michelle and the Hadran Zoom group for their kindness, support, and care during a medically challenging year.

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Rosh Hashanah 13

The William Davidson Talmud | Powered by Sefaria

Rosh Hashanah 13

讜讚诇诪讗 诇讗 注讬讬诇 讻诇诇 讜拽讗诪专 专讞诪谞讗 转砖诪讟 讜转讬讝讬诇 注讚 讞讙 讛住讜讻讜转

But perhaps the verse is referring to produce that did not grow at all during the seventh year, and nevertheless, the Merciful One states in the Torah that all the halakhot of the Sabbatical Year continue to apply until the festival of Sukkot of the eighth year.

诇讗 住诇拽讗 讚注转讱 讚讻转讬讘 讜讞讙 讛讗住讬祝 讘爪讗转 讛砖谞讛 诪讗讬 讗住讬祝 讗讬诇讬诪讗 讞讙 讛讘讗 讘讝诪谉 讗住讬驻讛 讛讻转讬讘 讘讗住驻讱

The Gemara answers: It should not enter your mind to say this, as it is written: 鈥淎nd the festival of gathering, which is at the end of the year, when you have gathered in your labors out of the field鈥 (Exodus 23:16). What is the meaning of 鈥済athering鈥? If we say that it means: A Festival that comes at the time of gathering the crops, isn鈥檛 it already written: 鈥淲hen you have gathered in your labors鈥? There is no need to repeat this a second time.

讗诇讗 诪讗讬 讗住讬祝 拽爪讬专 讜拽讬诐 诇讛讜 诇专讘谞谉 讚讻诇 转讘讜讗讛 砖谞拽爪专讛 讘讞讙 讘讬讚讜注 砖讛讘讬讗讛 砖诇讬砖 诇驻谞讬 专讗砖 讛砖谞讛 讜拽讗 拽专讬 诇讛 讘爪讗转 讛砖谞讛

Rather, what is meant here by 鈥済athering鈥? It means harvesting. And the Sages have an accepted tradition that any grain that reaches full growth so that it is harvested on the festival of Sukkot is known to have reached one-third of its growth before Rosh HaShana, and the Torah calls that period of the year until Sukkot 鈥渁t the end of the year,鈥 thereby indicating that it is still subject to the halakhot governing the previous year.

讗诪专 诇讬讛 专讘讬 讬专诪讬讛 诇专讘讬 讝讬专讗 讜拽讬诐 诇讛讜 诇专讘谞谉 讘讬谉 砖诇讬砖 诇驻讞讜转 诪砖诇讬砖 讗诪专 诇讬讛 诇讗讜 讗诪讬谞讗 诇讱 诇讗 转驻讬拽 谞驻砖讱 诇讘专 诪讛诇讻转讗 讻诇 诪讚讜转 讞讻诪讬诐 讻谉 讛讜讗

Rabbi Yirmeya said to Rabbi Zeira: And are the Sages able to discern precisely between produce that reached one-third of its growth and produce that reached less than one-third of its growth? Rabbi Zeira said to him: Do I not always tell you that you must not take yourself out of the bounds of the halakha? All the measures of the Sages are like this; they are precise and exact.

讗专讘注讬诐 住讗讛 讛讜讗 讟讜讘诇 讘讗专讘注讬诐 住讗讛 讞住专 拽讜专讟讜讘 讗讬谞讜 讬讻讜诇 诇讟讘讜诇 讘讛谉 讻讘讬爪讛 诪讟诪讗 讟讜诪讗转 讗讜讻诇讬谉 讻讘讬爪讛 讞住专 砖讜诪砖讜诐 讗讬谞讜 诪讟诪讗 讟讜诪讗转 讗讜讻诇讬谉

For example, one who immerses himself in a ritual bath containing forty se鈥檃 of water is rendered pure, but in forty se鈥檃 less the tiny amount of a kortov, he cannot immerse and become pure in them. Similarly, an egg-bulk of impure food can render other food ritually impure, but an egg-bulk less even the tiny amount of a sesame seed does not render food ritually impure.

砖诇砖讛 注诇 砖诇砖讛 诪讟诪讗 诪讚专住 砖诇砖讛 注诇 砖诇砖讛 讞住专 谞讬诪讗 讗讞转 讗讬谞讜 诪讟诪讗 诪讚专住

So too, a piece of cloth three by three handbreadths in size is susceptible to ritual impurity imparted by treading, but a piece of cloth three by three handbreadths less one hair [nima] is not susceptible to ritual impurity imparted by treading.

讛讚专 讗诪专 专讘讬 讬专诪讬讛 诇讗讜 诪讬诇转讗 讛讬讗 讚讗诪专讬 讚讘注讜 诪讬谞讬讛 讞讘专讬讬讗 诪专讘 讻讛谞讗 注讜诪专 砖讛拽专讬讘讜 讬砖专讗诇 讘讻谞讬住转谉 诇讗专抓 诪讛讬讻谉 讛拽专讬讘讜讛讜 讗诐 转讗诪专 讚注讬讬诇 讘讬讚 讙讜讬 拽爪讬专讻诐 讗诪专 专讞诪谞讗 讜诇讗 拽爪讬专 讙讜讬

Rabbi Yirmeya then said: What I said is nothing, and my question had no basis, as it can be demonstrated that the Sages know how to determine that produce has reached one-third of its growth. As Rav Kahana was once asked by the other colleagues of the academy as follows: With regard to the omer offering that the Jewish people brought when they first entered Eretz Yisrael in the days of Joshua, from where did they bring it? If you say that this omer offering was brought from grain that grew in the possession of a gentile, there is a difficulty, as the Merciful One states in the Torah: 鈥淵ou shall bring an omer of the first fruits of your harvest to the priest鈥 (Leviticus 23:13), from which it can be derived that it must be your harvest, grown in the possession of a Jew, and not the harvest of a gentile.

诪诪讗讬 讚讗拽专讬讘讜 讚诇诪讗 诇讗 讗拽专讬讘讜 诇讗 住诇拽讗 讚注转讱 讚讻转讬讘 讜讬讗讻诇讜 诪注讘讜专 讛讗专抓 诪诪讞专转 讛驻住讞 诪诪讞专转 讛驻住讞 讗讻讜诇 诪注讬拽专讗 诇讗 讗讻讜诇 讚讗拽专讬讘讜 注讜诪专 讜讛讚专 讗讻诇讬 诪讛讬讻谉 讛拽专讬讘讜

The Gemara first questions the assumption of Rav Kahana鈥檚 colleagues: From where is it known that the Jewish people actually brought an omer offering that year? Perhaps they did not offer it at all. The Gemara rejects this argument: It should not enter your mind to say this, as it is written: 鈥淎nd they did eat of the produce of the land on the next day after Passover鈥 (Joshua 5:11), which teaches: Only on the next day after Passover did they eat from the new grain, but initially they did not eat from it. Why? It is because they first brought the omer offering on the sixteenth of Nisan as is required, and only afterward did they eat from the new grain. Therefore the question remains: From where did they bring the omer offering?

讗诪专 诇讛谉 讻诇 砖诇讗 讛讘讬讗 砖诇讬砖 讘讬讚 讙讜讬

Rav Kahana said to them: Anything that came into the possession of a Jew and did not reach one-third of its growth in the possession of a gentile is fit to be harvested for the sake of the omer offering.

讜讚诇诪讗 注讬讬诇 讜诇讗 拽讬诐 诇讛讜 讗诇讗 拽讬诐 诇讛讜 讛讻讗 谞诪讬 拽讬诐 诇讛讜

Rabbi Yirmeya concludes his proof: But there, too, one might ask: Perhaps the grain had in fact already reached one-third of its growth, but they could not discern with certainty between grain that had reached one-third of its growth and grain that had not. Rather, you must say that they were able to discern with certainty. Here, too, you can say that the Sages can discern with certainty between produce that has reached one-third of its growth before Rosh HaShana and produce that has not.

讜讚诇诪讗 诇讗 注讬讬诇 讻诇诇 讗讘诇 讛讬讻讗 讚注讬讬诇 专讬讘注讗 讘讬谉 砖诇讬砖 诇驻讞讜转 诪砖诇讬砖 诇讗 拽讬诐 诇讛讜

The Gemara asks: This is not absolute proof, as perhaps the Jewish people brought the omer offering from grain that did not grow at all before they conquered the land, and the distinction was evident to all. But where produce reached one quarter of its growth, the Sages cannot discern with certainty the difference between one-third and less than one-third.

诇讗 住诇拽讗 讚注转讱 讚讻转讬讘 讜讛注诐 注诇讜 诪谉 讛讬专讚谉 讘注砖讜专 诇讞讚砖 讜讗讬 住诇拽讗 讚注转讱 讚诇讗 注讬讬诇 讻诇诇 讘讞诪砖讛 讬讜诪讬 诪讬 拽讗 诪诇讬讗

The Gemara answers: It should not enter your mind to say this, as it is written: 鈥淎nd the people came up from the Jordan on the tenth day of the first month鈥 (Joshua 4:19). And if it enters your mind to say that the grain had not grown at all before the Jewish people entered the land, could it have reached full growth in just five days?

讗诇讗 诪讗讬 讚注讬讬诇 专讘注讗 讗讜 讚谞拽讗 讗讻转讬 讘讞诪砖讛 讬讜诪讬 诪讬 拽讗 诪诇讬讗 讗诇讗 诪讗讬 讗讬转 诇讱 诇诪讬诪专 讗专抓 爪讘讬 讻转讬讘 讘讛 讛讻讗 谞诪讬 讗专抓 爪讘讬 讻转讬讘 讘讛

The Gemara rejects this argument: Rather, what can one say? That the grain had reached one quarter or one-sixth [danka] of its growth before the Jewish people conquered the land? This too is difficult, as one can still ask: Could the grain have reached full growth in just five days? Rather, what have you to say? One could say that with regard to Eretz Yisrael it is written: 鈥淭he land of the deer鈥 (Daniel 11:41), implying that the grain of Eretz Yisrael ripens with the swiftness of a deer. Here, too, one can say that 鈥渢he land of the deer鈥 is written with regard to Eretz Yisrael and applies to the ripening of the grain, so that it can ripen in just a few days.

诪转拽讬祝 诇讛 专讘讬 讞谞讬谞讗 讜诪讬 诪爪讬转 讗诪专转 讚讛讗讬 讗住讬祝 拽爪讬专 讛讜讗 讜讛讻转讬讘 讘讗住驻讱 诪讙专谞讱 讜诪讬拽讘讱 讜讗诪专 诪专 讘驻住讜诇转 讙讜专谉 讜讬拽讘 讛讻转讜讘 诪讚讘专

Rabbi 岣nina strongly objects to the proof brought from the verse in Exodus cited above, which refers to Sukkot as the festival of gathering: How can you say that this 鈥済athering鈥 means harvesting? But isn鈥檛 it written: 鈥淵ou shall observe the festival of Sukkot seven days, after you have gathered in from your threshing floor and from your winepress鈥 (Deuteronomy 16:13), and the Master said about this: The verse speaks here of the waste of the threshing floor and the winepress, which is used to make the roof of the sukka. If so, the gathering mentioned with regard to the festival of Sukkot is referring not to harvesting but to gathering straw from the threshing floor.

讗诪专 专讘讬 讝讬专讗 讛讗 诪讬诇转讗 讛讜讗讬 讘讬讚谉 讜讗转讗 专讘讬 讞谞讬谞讗 砖讚讗 讘讬讛 谞专讙讗

Rabbi Zeira said about this: This matter was in our hands, i.e., I thought that we had solid proof that the years for produce follow the first third of its growth, but Rabbi 岣nina came and cast an axe upon it, cutting it down, as Rabbi 岣nina鈥檚 objection has totally nullified the proof.

讗诇讗 诪谞诇谉 讻讚转谞讬讗 专讘讬 讬讜谞转谉 讘谉 讬讜住祝 讗讜诪专 讜注砖转 讗转 讛转讘讜讗讛 诇砖诇砖 讛砖谞讬诐

The Gemara asks: Rather, from where do we derive that the years for produce follow the first third of its growth? The Gemara answers: As it is taught in a baraita that Rabbi Yonatan ben Yosef says: The verse states: 鈥淎nd it shall bring forth fruit for the three years鈥 (Leviticus 25:21);

讗诇 转拽专讬 诇砖诇砖 讗诇讗 诇砖诇讬砖

do not read it as 鈥渇or three [lishelosh]鈥 but as: For one-third [lishelish]. And learn from here that the year for tithes is determined by the date on which the produce reaches one-third of its growth.

讜讛讗 诪讬讘注讬 诇讬讛 诇讙讜驻讬讛 讻转讬讘 拽专讗 讗讞专讬谞讗 讜讝专注转诐 讗转 讛砖谞讛 讛砖诪讬谞讬转 讜讗讻诇转诐 诪谉 讛转讘讜讗讛 讬砖谉 注讚 讛砖谞讛 讛转砖讬注讬转

The Gemara raises a difficulty: But the phrase is necessary for the meaning of the verse itself, to teach that the sixth year will be blessed so that it yields three years鈥 worth of produce. The Gemara answers: It is written in another verse: 鈥淎nd you shall sow the eighth year, and eat yet of old produce until the ninth year鈥 (Leviticus 25:22), so that the latter verse teaches about the three years鈥 worth of produce, and the first verse is available to derive the halakha with regard to one-third growth.

转谞谉 讛转诐 讛讗讜专讝 讜讛讚讜讞谉 讜讛驻专讙讬谉 讜讛砖讜诪砖诪讬谉 砖讛砖专讬砖讜 诇驻谞讬 专讗砖 讛砖谞讛 诪转注砖专讬谉 诇砖注讘专 讜诪讜转专讬谉 讘砖讘讬注讬转 讜讗诐 诇讗讜 讗住讜专讬谉 讘砖讘讬注讬转 讜诪转注砖专讬谉 诇砖谞讛 讛讘讗讛

We learned in a mishna there: Rice, millet, poppy, and sesame that took root before Rosh HaShana are tithed in accordance with the outgoing year, meaning that second tithe is set aside in the first, second, fourth, and fifth years of the Sabbatical cycle, and poor man鈥檚 tithe is set aside in the third and sixth years, and they are permitted even if the following year is a Sabbatical Year. If they did not take root before Rosh HaShana, they are prohibited if it is the Sabbatical Year, and in ordinary years they are tithed in accordance with the incoming year.

讗诪专 专讘讛 讗诪讜专 专讘谞谉 讗讬诇谉 讘转专 讞谞讟讛 转讘讜讗讛 讜讝讬转讬诐 讘转专 砖诇讬砖 讬专拽 讘转专 诇拽讬讟讛 讛谞讬 讻诪讗谉 砖讜讬谞讛讜 专讘谞谉

Rabba said: Say that the Sages said that the tithe year of a tree follows the time of the formation of its fruit, that of grain and olives follows the time that they reach one-third of their growth, and that of vegetables follows the time of their picking. The question may therefore be raised: With regard to these crops, i.e., rice, millet, poppy, and sesame, to what did the Sages equate them? Their tithe year is determined neither by their formation, nor by the time when they reach one-third of their growth, nor by their picking.

讛讚专 讗诪专 专讘讛 诪转讜讱 砖注砖讜讬讬谉 驻专讻讬谉 驻专讻讬谉 讗讝诇讬 专讘谞谉 讘转专 讛砖专砖讛

Rabba then said: The reason for their uniqueness with regard to tithing is that since these crops do not ripen all at once, but rather, they ripen and are gathered little by little over an extended period of time, if their year were to follow the time of their picking, people might set aside tithes from that which was picked before Rosh HaShana for that which was picked after Rosh HaShana. Therefore, the Sages decreed that their tithe year follows the time of their taking root, which is the same for the entire field.

讗诪专 诇讬讛 讗讘讬讬 讜讬爪讘讜专 讙讜专谞讜 诇转讜讻讜 讜谞诪爪讗 转讜专诐 诪谉 讛讞讚砖 砖讘讜 注诇 讛讞讚砖 砖讘讜 诪谉 讛讬砖谉 砖讘讜 注诇 讛讬砖谉 砖讘讜

Abaye said to him: Why should they have made such a decree? There is a better alternative: Let one pile the entire stock onto his threshing floor, into the middle of it, mix the stock together well, and then set aside teruma and tithes, and consequently it will turn out that he has set aside teruma and tithes from the new crop in the mixture for the new crop in it, and from the old crop in the mixture for the old crop in it.

诪讬 诇讗 转谞讬讗 专讘讬 讬讜住讬 讘谉 讻讬驻专 讗诪专 诪砖讜诐 专讘讬 砖诪注讜谉 砖讝讜专讬 驻讜诇 讛诪爪专讬 砖讝专注讜 诇讝专注 诪拽爪转讜 讛砖专讬砖 诇驻谞讬 专讗砖 讛砖谞讛 讜诪拽爪转讜 讛砖专讬砖 诇讗讞专 专讗砖 讛砖谞讛 讗讬谉 转讜专诪讬谉 讜诪注砖专讬谉 诪讝讛 注诇 讝讛 诇驻讬 砖讗讬谉 转讜专诪讬谉 讜诪注砖专讬谉 诇讗 诪谉 讛讞讚砖 注诇 讛讬砖谉 讜诇讗 诪谉 讛讬砖谉 注诇 讛讞讚砖

Abaye continued: Isn鈥檛 it taught in a baraita: Rabbi Yosei ben Keifar said in the name of Rabbi Shimon Shezuri: If the cowpea plant was planted for seed, not to be eaten as a vegetable but for the seeds, the beans themselves, either for eating or planting, and some took root already before Rosh HaShana, while some took root only after Rosh HaShana, one may not set aside teruma or tithes from this for that, as one may not set aside teruma or tithes from the new crop for the old or from the old crop for the new.

讻讬爪讚 讛讜讗 注讜砖讛 爪讜讘专 讙讜专谞讜 诇转讜讻讜 讜谞诪爪讗 转讜专诐 讜诪注砖专 诪谉 讛讞讚砖 砖讘讜 注诇 讛讞讚砖 砖讘讜 讜诪谉 讛讬砖谉 砖讘讜 注诇 讛讬砖谉 砖讘讜

How, then, should one act so that he not err and set aside teruma and tithes incorrectly? He should pile the entire stock onto his threshing floor, into the middle of it, mix the stock together well, and then set aside teruma and tithes, and consequently it will turn out that he has set aside teruma and tithes from the new crop in the mixture for the new crop in it, and from the old crop in the mixture for the old crop in it. Why not do the same for rice, millet, poppy, and sesame?

讗诪专 诇讬讛 专讘讬 砖诪注讜谉 砖讝讜专讬 拽讗诪专转 专讘讬 砖诪注讜谉 砖讝讜专讬 住讘专 讬砖 讘讬诇讛

Rabba said to Abaye: You are speaking of the opinion of Rabbi Shimon Shezuri? You cannot raise an objection from what he says, as Rabbi Shimon Shezuri holds that there is mixing. He assumes that the old and new were thoroughly mixed, so that the teruma and tithes set aside from the mixture have the same proportions of old and new crops as did the original crops.

讜专讘谞谉 住讘专讬 讗讬谉 讘讬诇讛

But the Sages hold that there is no mixing; they do not assume that the old and new became thoroughly and evenly mixed. Therefore, piling the entire stock, mixing it together, and then setting aside teruma and tithes will not ensure that they are set aside correctly.

讗诪专 专讘讬 讬爪讞拽 讘专 谞讞诪谞讬 讗诪专 砖诪讜讗诇 讛诇讻讛 讻专讘讬 讬讜住讬 讘谉 讻讬驻专 砖讗诪专 诪砖讜诐 专讘讬 砖诪注讜谉 砖讝讜专讬 诪转拽讬祝 诇讛 专讘讬 讝讬专讗 讜诪讬 讗诪专 砖诪讜讗诇 讛讻讬 讜讛讗诪专 砖诪讜讗诇 诇讻诇 讗讬谉 讘讬诇讛 讞讜抓 诪讬讬谉 讜砖诪谉

Rabbi Yitz岣k bar Na岣ani said that Shmuel said: The halakha is in accordance with the statement of Rabbi Yosei ben Keifar that he said in the name of Rabbi Shimon Shezuri. Rabbi Zeira strongly objects to this: And did Shmuel actually say this? But didn鈥檛 Shmuel say: There is no mixing for anything except for wine, oil, and other liquids? In the case of liquids he holds that everything is entirely mixed together, but not in the case of solids. How, then, could he have ruled in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Shimon Shezuri?

讗砖转诪讬讟转讬讛 讛讗 讚讗诪专 砖诪讜讗诇 讛讻诇 讛讜诇讱 讗讞专 讙诪专 驻专讬

The Gemara answers: Rabbi Zeira forgot that which Shmuel said: In all cases, the tithe year follows the time of the full ripening of the produce. Therefore, all of the cowpea seeds may be tithed together, whether the plants from which they grew took root before or after Rosh HaShana. This is not due to Rabbi Shimon Shezuri鈥檚 rationale that there is mixing, but because all of the beans reach full ripening at the same time, and consequently, they are all considered produce of the incoming year.

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