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Today's Daf Yomi

October 30, 2021 | 讻状讚 讘诪专讞砖讜讜谉 转砖驻状讘

Masechet Rosh Hashanah is dedicated anonymously in honor of Rabbanit Michelle Farber whose dedication to learning and teaching the daf continues to inspire so many people around the world.

This month's shiurim are dedicated by Tamara Katz in memory of her maternal grandparents, Sarah bat Chaya v'Tzvi Hirsh and Meir Leib ben Esther v'Harav Yehoshua Zelig whose yahrzeits are both this month.

This month's shiurim are also dedicated in memory of Dr. Chaya R. Gorsetman, Chaya bat Esriel V鈥橬aomi z鈥檒 during the period of shloshim by her husband, children, and grandchildren.

  • This month's learning is sponsored by Terri Krivosha for the Refuah Shlemah of her husband Harav Hayim Yehuda Ben Faiga Rivah.聽

  • This month's learning is dedicated by Debbie and Yossi Gevir to Rabbanit Michelle and the Hadran Zoom group for their kindness, support, and care during a medically challenging year.

Rosh Hashanah 21 – Shabbat October 30

This is the daf for Shabbat. For Friday’s daf, click here.

Whether or not one needs to keep two days of chag depends on whether or not messengers could reach there both in Nissan and in Tishrei. If in Tishrei there was not enough time to come, but in Nissan there was (due to many days in Tishrei where one cannot travel), even in Nissan one needs to keep two days of Pesach. Several stories/practices are told regarding Yom Kippur – what happens if they find out after Yom Kippur that they fasted on the wrong day? Rava would hold two days of fasting just to make sure, however, this was not the prevalent custom. On a year when the winter season will end by (or on) the 16th of Nissan, a leap year must be declared. How do those living on the sea determine when the holidays will be? Witnesses can desecrate Shabbat to testify about the new moon only on Nissan and Tishrei because of the holidays, so as not to delay the messengers. Messengers, however, cannot desecrate the Shabbat. From where is all this derived? In the time of the Temple, they could desecrate Shabbat every month because of the sacrifices for Rosh Chodesh. This was changed by Rabban Yochanan ben Zakai after the destruction. Witnesses can come on Shabbat even if the new moon was seen clearly. although some disagree and only permit them to come if it was not so clear.

 

转专讬 讬专讞讬 讞住讬专讬 拽诇讗 讗讬转 诇讛讜

The Gemara answers: It is a rare occurrence that two consecutive months are made short, and this would generate publicity, so that everyone would know about it.

诇讜讬 讗拽诇注 诇讘讘诇 讘讞讚住专 讘转砖专讬 讗诪专 讘住讬诐 转讘砖讬诇讗 讚讘讘诇讗讬 讘讬讜诪讗 专讘讛 讚诪注专讘讗 讗诪专讬 诇讬讛 讗住讛讬讚 讗诪专 诇讛讜 诇讗 砖诪注转讬 诪驻讬 讘讬转 讚讬谉 诪拽讜讚砖

搂 It was related that Levi once arrived in Babylonia on what was observed there as the eleventh of Tishrei. He said: How tasty is the dish of the Babylonians on the great day of Yom Kippur, as they are observing Yom Kippur in the West, Eretz Yisrael. The month of Elul had been declared full in Eretz Yisrael, and according to the calendar there, it was only the tenth of Tishrei. They said to him: Testify that today is Yom Kippur and we shall observe it. He said to them: I myself did not hear the court proclaim: It is sanctified. Although I know that the month had been declared full, since I did not personally hear the proclamation, I cannot offer direct testimony such that you should change your calculations.

诪讻专讬讝 专讘讬 讬讜讞谞谉 讻诇 讛讬讻讗 讚诪讟讜 砖诇讜讞讬 谞讬住谉 讜诇讗 诪讟讜 砖诇讜讞讬 转砖专讬 诇讬注讘讚讜 转专讬 讬讜诪讬 讙讝讬专讛 谞讬住谉 讗讟讜 转砖专讬

It was further related that Rabbi Yo岣nan used to proclaim: Anywhere that can be reached by the messengers who go out in Nisan in time to inform the people when to observe Passover, but cannot be reached by the messengers sent out in Tishrei, let them also observe the festival of Passover for two days. The messengers did not travel on Rosh HaShana or Yom Kippur, and therefore they could travel three days further in Nisan than in Tishrei. The Sages instituted that two days must be observed in Nisan as a rabbinic decree due to Tishrei, for if they observe Passover for only one day, they will come to observe Sukkot for one day as well, and this they are not permitted to do.

专讘讬 讗讬讬讘讜 讘专 谞讙专讬 讜专讘讬 讞讬讬讗 讘专 讗讘讗 讗讬拽诇注讜 诇讛讛讜讗 讗转专讗 讚讛讜讛 诪讟讜 砖诇讜讞讬 谞讬住谉 讜诇讗 诪讟讜 砖诇讜讞讬 转砖专讬 讜注讘讚讬 讞讚 讬讜诪讗 讜诇讗 讗诪专讜 诇讛讜 讜诇讗 诪讬讚讬 砖诪注 专讘讬 讬讜讞谞谉 讜讗讬拽驻讚 讗诪专 诇讛讜 诇讗讜 讗诪专讬 诇讻讜 讛讬讻讗 讚诪讟讜 砖诇讜讞讬 谞讬住谉 讜诇讗 诪讟讜 砖诇讜讞讬 转砖专讬 诇讬注讘讚讜 转专讬 讬讜诪讬 讙讝讬专讛 谞讬住谉 讗讟讜 转砖专讬

It was reported that Rabbi Aivu bar Naggarei and Rabbi 岣yya bar Abba, two disciples of Rabbi Yo岣nan, once arrived in a certain place that could be reached by the messengers who go out in Nisan, but could not be reached by the messengers who go out in Tishrei. And they saw that the locals observed only one day of Passover. They said nothing to them to correct their practice. Rabbi Yo岣nan heard this and he became angry with Rabbi Aivu and Rabbi 岣yya, for they had failed to rebuke the people who were acting contrary to Rabbi Yo岣nan鈥檚 explicit ruling. He said to them: Did I not say to you that anywhere that can be reached by the messengers sent out in Nisan but not by those sent out in Tishrei must observe two days of Passover, for the Sages instituted a rabbinic decree in Nisan due to Tishrei?

专讘讗 讛讜讛 专讙讬诇 讚讛讜讛 讬转讬讘 讘转注谞讬转讗 转专讬 讬讜诪讬 讝讬诪谞讗 讞讚讗 讗砖转讻讞 讻讜讜转讬讛

搂 The Gemara relates that Rava would regularly sit in observance of the fast of Yom Kippur for two days, in case Elul had been declared a thirty-day month and Yom Kippur should be observed on what was observed in Babylonia as the eleventh of Tishrei. It once happened in accordance with his opinion. Elul had been declared a thirty-day month, and he was the only one who observed Yom Kippur on the correct day.

专讘 谞讞诪谉 讬转讬讘 讘转注谞讬转讗 讻讜诇讬讛 讬讜诪讬 讚讻讬驻讜专讬 诇讗讜专转讗 讗转讗 讛讛讜讗 讙讘专讗 讗诪专 诇讬讛 诇诪讞专 讬讜诪讗 专讘讛 讘诪注专讘讗

It was related that Rav Na岣an had once fasted the entire day of Yom Kippur as usual. In the evening, toward the end of his fast, a certain man came and said to him: Tomorrow is the great day, Yom Kippur, in the West, Eretz Yisrael, and it is therefore necessary to fast tomorrow.

讗诪专 诇讬讛 诪讛讬讻讗 讗转 讗诪专 诇讬讛 诪讚诪讛专讬讗 讗诪专 诇讬讛 讚诐 转讛讗 讗讞专讬转讜 拽专讬 注诇讬讛 拽诇讬诐 讛讬讜 专讜讚驻讬谞讜

Rav Na岣an said to him: From where do you come? He said to him: From a place called Damihareya. He said to him, playing on the name of his place: Blood will be his end, meaning Rav Na岣an鈥檚 own end. Due to this information, Rav Na岣an would have to fast two successive days, and thereby suffer greatly, as if his blood were being shed. He read the verse about him: 鈥淥ur pursuers were swifter than vultures in the sky鈥 (Lamentations 4:19), for had this messenger arrived just a little bit later, they would have eaten and drunk in the meantime.

砖诇讞 诇讬讛 专讘 讛讜谞讗 讘专 讗讘讬谉 诇专讘讗 讻讚 讞讝讬转 讚诪砖讻讛 转拽讜驻转 讟讘转 注讚 砖讬转住专 讘谞讬住谉 注讘专讛 诇讛讛讬讗 砖转讗 讜诇讗 转讞讜砖 诇讛 讚讻转讬讘 砖诪讜专 讗转 讞讚砖 讛讗讘讬讘 砖诪讜专 讗讘讬讘 砖诇 转拽讜驻讛 砖讬讛讗 讘讞讚砖 谞讬住谉

Rav Huna bar Avin sent this instruction to Rava: When you see that, according to your calculations, the season of Tevet, i.e., winter, will extend to the sixteenth of Nisan, and the spring equinox will occur after the sixteenth of Nisan, add an extra month to that year, making it a leap year. And do not worry about finding an additional reason to justify making it a leap year, as it is written: 鈥淥bserve the month of spring鈥 (Deuteronomy 16:1). That is to say, see to it that the spring of the season, i.e., the spring equinox, is in the new part of Nisan, i.e., the first half, before Passover.

讗诪专 诇讛讜 专讘 谞讞诪谉 诇讛谞讛讜 谞讞讜转讬 讬诪讗 讗转讜谉 讚诇讗 讬讚注讬转讜 讘拽讘讬注讗 讚讬专讞讗 讻讬 讞讝讬转讜 住讬讛专讗 讚诪砖诇讬诐 诇讬讜诪讗 讘注讬专讜 讞诪讬专讗

It was related that Rav Na岣an said to those setting out to sea before Nisan: Since you will not know the determination of the first day of the new month, this is what you should do: When you see that the moon sets at daybreak, i.e., that it is visible all night from sundown to sunrise, know that it is the middle of the month of Nisan and burn your leaven.

讗讬诪转 诪砖诇讬诐 讘讞诪讬住专 讜讛讗 讗谞谉 诪讗专讘讬住专 诪讘注专讬谞谉 诇讚讬讚讛讜 讚诪讙诇讜 诇讛讜 注诇诪讗 诪讗专讘讬住专 诪砖诇讬诐

The Gemara asks: When does the moon set at daybreak? On the fifteenth of the month. But on the fourteenth of Nisan we burn leaven. The Gemara answers: For those out at sea, to whom the world is revealed, to whom the horizon is wide open and clearly visible, the moon completes its course at sunrise already on the fourteenth of the month. They can therefore rely on this sign to establish the date of Passover and the time for burning leaven.

诪转谞讬壮 注诇 砖谞讬 讞讚砖讬诐 诪讞诇诇讬谉 讗转 讛砖讘转 注诇 谞讬住谉 讜注诇 转砖专讬 砖讘讛谉 砖诇讜讞讬谉 讬讜爪讗讬谉 诇住讜专讬讗 讜讘讛谉 诪转拽谞讬谉 讗转 讛诪讜注讚讜转 讜讻砖讛讬讛 讘讬转 讛诪拽讚砖 拽讬讬诐 诪讞诇诇讬谉 讗祝 注诇 讻讜诇谉 诪驻谞讬 转拽谞转 讛拽专讘谉

MISHNA: Only for the sake of two months may witnesses who saw the new moon desecrate Shabbat, should that be necessary in order for them to offer testimony before the court: For the month of Nisan and for the month of Tishrei, for in these months messengers are sent out to Syria, and by them, i.e., these months, the dates of the major Festivals are set: Yom Kippur, Sukkot, Passover, and Shavuot. And when the Temple was standing, the witnesses desecrated Shabbat for the fixing of the New Moon of all the months, due to the imperative of fixing the proper offering of the New Moon at the correct time.

讙诪壮 注诇 砖谞讬 讞讚砖讬诐 讜转讜 诇讗 讜专诪讬谞讛讜 注诇 砖砖讛 讞讚砖讬诐 讛砖诇讜讞讬谉 讬讜爪讗讬谉

GEMARA: The mishna taught that messengers were sent out for two months. The Gemara asks: For only two months and no more? And the Gemara raises a contradiction from the previous mishna, which teaches: For six months of the year messengers go out, not only for two months.

讗诪专 讗讘讬讬 讛讻讬 拽讗诪专 注诇 讻讜诇谉 砖诇讜讞讬谉 讬讜爪讗讬谉 诪讘注专讘 注诇 谞讬住谉 讜注诇 转砖专讬 注讚 砖讬砖诪注讜 诪驻讬 讘讬转 讚讬谉 诪拽讜讚砖

Abaye said: This is what the mishna is saying: For all the other months the messengers go out already in the evening, if the new moon was clearly seen and if it is certain that the court will proclaim the day as the New Moon. But for Nisan and for Tishrei the messengers do not go out until they hear from the court that the day is declared as the New Moon, by saying: It is sanctified, so that they can offer proper testimony. The court convenes only during the daytime.

转谞讬讗 谞诪讬 讛讻讬 注诇 讻讜诇谉 讬讜爪讗讬谉 诪讘注专讘 注诇 谞讬住谉 讜注诇 转砖专讬 注讚 砖讬砖诪注讜 诪驻讬 讘讬转 讚讬谉 诪拽讜讚砖

This is also taught in a baraita: For all the other months the messengers go out already in the evening, but for the month of Nisan and for the month of Tishrei they do not go out until they have heard the court formally proclaim the day as the New Moon, by saying: It is sanctified.

转谞讜 专讘谞谉 诪谞讬谉 砖诪讞诇诇讬谉 注诇讬讛谉 讗转 讛砖讘转 转诇诪讜讚 诇讜诪专 讗诇讛 诪讜注讚讬 讛壮 讗砖专 转拽专讗讜 讗讜转诐 讘诪讜注讚诐

The Sages taught in a baraita: From where is it derived that the witnesses who saw the new moon may desecrate Shabbat in order to testify before the court? The verse states: 鈥淭hese are the Festivals of the Lord, sacred gatherings, which you shall declare in their seasons鈥 (Leviticus 23:4), thereby emphasizing that the Festivals must be set at their proper times. To ensure that they occur at the proper times, it is even permitted to desecrate Shabbat.

讬讻讜诇 讻砖诐 砖诪讞诇诇讬谉 注讚 砖讬转拽讚砖讜 讻讱 诪讞诇诇讬谉 注讚 砖讬转拽讬讬诪讜 转诇诪讜讚 诇讜诪专 讗砖专 转拽专讗讜 讗讜转诐 注诇 拽专讬讗转诐 讗转讛 诪讞诇诇 讜讗讬 讗转讛 诪讞诇诇 注诇 拽讬讜诪谉

One might have thought that just as Shabbat may be desecrated by the witnesses so that the months may be sanctified at the proper time, so too, Shabbat may be desecrated by the messengers who go to inform the people in Eretz Yisrael and the Diaspora which day was sanctified as the New Moon, so that the Festivals may be observed at the proper time. Therefore, the verse states: 鈥淲hich you shall declare,鈥 from which is derived that for the declaration of the New Moon you may desecrate Shabbat, but you may not desecrate Shabbat for the observance of the Festivals in their proper time.

讜讻砖讛讬讛 讘讬转 讛诪拽讚砖 拽讬讬诐 诪讞诇诇讬谉 讗祝 注诇 讻讜诇谉 诪驻谞讬 转拽谞转 讛拽专讘谉 转谞讜 专讘谞谉 讘专讗砖讜谞讛 讛讬讜 诪讞诇诇讬谉 讗祝 注诇 讻讜诇谉 诪砖讞专讘 讘讬转 讛诪拽讚砖 讗诪专 诇讛谉 专讘谉 讬讜讞谞谉 讘谉 讝讻讗讬 讜讻讬 讬砖 拽专讘谉 讛转拽讬谞讜 砖诇讗 讬讛讜 诪讞诇诇讬谉 讗诇讗 注诇 谞讬住谉 讜注诇 转砖专讬 讘诇讘讚

搂 It was taught in the mishna: And when the Temple was standing, the witnesses desecrated Shabbat for the fixing of the New Moon of all the months, due to the imperative of fixing the proper offering of the New Moon at the correct time. The Sages taught in a baraita: At first, they would desecrate Shabbat for all of the months. When the Temple was destroyed, Rabban Yo岣nan ben Zakkai said to the Sages: Is there now some offering due, for which it is necessary to desecrate Shabbat? Consequently, they instituted that the witnesses may desecrate Shabbat only for the months of Nisan and Tishrei.

诪转谞讬壮 讘讬谉 砖谞专讗讛 讘注诇讬诇 讘讬谉 砖诇讗 谞专讗讛 讘注诇讬诇 诪讞诇诇讬谉 注诇讬讜 讗转 讛砖讘转 专讘讬 讬讜住讬 讗讜诪专 讗诐 谞专讗讛 讘注诇讬诇 讗讬谉 诪讞诇诇讬谉 注诇讬讜 讗转 讛砖讘转

MISHNA: Whether the new moon was seen clearly [ba鈥檃lil] by everyone or whether it was not clearly seen, one may desecrate Shabbat in order to testify before the court. Rabbi Yosei says: If the moon was clearly seen, they may not desecrate Shabbat for it, since other witnesses, located nearer to the court, will certainly testify. If these distant witnesses go to court to testify, they will desecrate Shabbat unnecessarily.

诪注砖讛 砖注讘专讜 讬讜转专 诪讗专讘注讬诐 讝讜讙 讜注讬讻讘诐 专讘讬 注拽讘讗 讘诇讜讚 砖诇讞 诇讜 专讘谉 讙诪诇讬讗诇 讗诐 诪注讻讘 讗转讛 讗转 讛专讘讬诐 谞诪爪讗转 诪讻砖讬诇谉 诇注转讬讚 诇讘讗

There was once an incident where more than forty pairs of witnesses were passing through on their way to Jerusalem to testify about the new moon, and Rabbi Akiva detained them in Lod, telling them that there was no need for them to desecrate Shabbat for this purpose. Rabban Gamliel sent a message to him: If you detain the many people who wish to testify about the new moon, you will cause them to stumble in the future. They will say: Why should we go, seeing that our testimony is unnecessary? At some point they will be needed, and no witnesses will come to the court.

讙诪壮 诪讗讬 诪砖诪注 讚讛讗讬 注诇讬诇 诇讬砖谞讗 讚诪讬讙诇讬 讛讜讗 讗诪专 专讘讬 讗讘讛讜 讗诪专 拽专讗 讗诪专讜转 讛壮 讗诪专讜转 讟讛讜专讜转 讻住祝 爪专讜祝 讘注诇讬诇 诇讗专抓 诪讝讜拽拽 砖讘注转讬诐

GEMARA: From where may it be inferred that the term alil denotes that the new moon is clearly revealed? Rabbi Abbahu said: The verse states: 鈥淭he words of the Lord are pure words; silver refined in the clear sight [ba鈥檃lil] of the earth, purified seven times鈥 (Psalms 12:7).

专讘 讜砖诪讜讗诇 讞讚 讗诪专 讞诪砖讬诐 砖注专讬 讘讬谞讛 谞讘专讗讜 讘注讜诇诐 讜讻讜诇谉 谞讬转谞讜 诇诪砖讛 讞住专 讗讞讚 砖谞讗诪专 讜转讞住专讛讜 诪注讟 诪讗诇讛讬诐

The aforementioned verse states: 鈥淭he words of the Lord are pure words鈥urified seven times [shivatayim].鈥 Rav and Shmuel disagreed about a matter relating to this verse: One of them said: Fifty gates of understanding were created in the world, and all of them were given to Moses, except for one gate, for it is stated: 鈥淭he words of the Lord are purified shivatayim,鈥 which he understands to mean seven times seven, i.e., forty-nine, and it is stated: 鈥淎nd You have made him a little less than God鈥 (Psalms 8:6). God created fifty gates of understanding, but He made man a little lower than God, giving him only forty-nine of them.

讘拽砖 拽讛诇转 诇诪爪讜讗 讚讘专讬 讞驻抓 讘拽砖 拽讛诇转 诇讛讬讜转 讻诪砖讛 讬爪转讛 讘转 拽讜诇 讜讗诪专讛 诇讜 讜讻转讜讘 讬讜砖专 讚讘专讬 讗诪转 讜诇讗 拽诐 谞讘讬讗 注讜讚 讘讬砖专讗诇 讻诪砖讛

鈥淜ohelet sought to find out words of delight鈥 (Ecclesiastes 12:10), which indicates that he sought to find the fiftieth gate but failed to do so. Kohelet, King Solomon, sought to be like Moses, but a Divine Voice issued forth and said to him: 鈥淎nd that which was written uprightly, even words of truth鈥 (Ecclesiastes 12:10). This is referring to the words of the Torah; and what is written there? 鈥淎nd there has not arisen a prophet since in Israel like Moses, whom the Lord knew face-to-face鈥 (Deuteronomy 34:10).

讜讞讚 讗诪专 讘谞讘讬讗讬诐 诇讗 拽诐 讘诪诇讻讬诐 拽诐 讗诇讗 诪讛 讗谞讬 诪拽讬讬诐 讘拽砖 拽讛诇转 诇诪爪讜讗 讚讘专讬 讞驻抓 讘拽砖 拽讛诇转 诇讚讜谉 讚讬谞讬谉 砖讘诇讘 砖诇讗 讘注讚讬诐 讜砖诇讗 讘讛转专讗讛 讬爪转讛 讘转 拽讜诇 讜讗诪专讛 诇讜 讜讻转讜讘 讬讜砖专 讚讘专讬 讗诪转 注诇 驻讬 砖谞讬诐 注讚讬诐 讜讙讜壮

And the other one said: Among the prophets there has not arisen one like Moses, but among the kings, one did arise, Solomon, who was as wise as Moses. How do I uphold the words 鈥淜ohelet sought to find words of delight鈥? Kohelet, King Solomon, sought to issue judgments of the heart, based solely on his intuition, without witnesses and without warning. But a Divine Voice issued forth and said to him: 鈥淎nd that which was written uprightly, even words of truth.鈥 Which words is this referring to? 鈥淎t the mouth of two witnesses, or three witnesses, shall he that is worthy of death be put to death; but at the mouth of one witness he shall not be put to death鈥 (Deuteronomy 17:6). Punishment can be administered only based on the testimony of two witnesses.

Masechet Rosh Hashana 聽is dedicated anonymously in honor of聽Rabbanit Michelle Farber whose dedication to learning and teaching the daf continues to inspire so many people around the world.

This month's shiurim are dedicated by Tamara Katz in memory of her maternal grandparents, Sarah bat Chaya v'Tzvi Hirsh and Meir Leib ben Esther v'Harav Yehoshua Zelig whose yahrzeits are both this month.

And in memory of Dr. Chaya R. Gorsetman, Chaya bat Esriel V鈥橬aomi z鈥檒 during the period of shloshim by her husband, children and grandchildren.

  • This month's learning is sponsored by Terri Krivosha for the Refuah Shlemah of her husband Harav Hayim Yehuda Ben Faiga Rivah.聽

  • This month's learning is dedicated by Debbie and Yossi Gevir to Rabbanit Michelle and the Hadran Zoom group for their kindness, support, and care during a medically challenging year.

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Rosh Hashanah: 18-24 – Daf Yomi One Week at a Time

This week we will learn how they sanctified each month during the Temple period. Witnesses came to testify in Jerusalem,...

Rosh Hashanah 21 – Shabbat October 30

The William Davidson Talmud | Powered by Sefaria

Rosh Hashanah 21 – Shabbat October 30

转专讬 讬专讞讬 讞住讬专讬 拽诇讗 讗讬转 诇讛讜

The Gemara answers: It is a rare occurrence that two consecutive months are made short, and this would generate publicity, so that everyone would know about it.

诇讜讬 讗拽诇注 诇讘讘诇 讘讞讚住专 讘转砖专讬 讗诪专 讘住讬诐 转讘砖讬诇讗 讚讘讘诇讗讬 讘讬讜诪讗 专讘讛 讚诪注专讘讗 讗诪专讬 诇讬讛 讗住讛讬讚 讗诪专 诇讛讜 诇讗 砖诪注转讬 诪驻讬 讘讬转 讚讬谉 诪拽讜讚砖

搂 It was related that Levi once arrived in Babylonia on what was observed there as the eleventh of Tishrei. He said: How tasty is the dish of the Babylonians on the great day of Yom Kippur, as they are observing Yom Kippur in the West, Eretz Yisrael. The month of Elul had been declared full in Eretz Yisrael, and according to the calendar there, it was only the tenth of Tishrei. They said to him: Testify that today is Yom Kippur and we shall observe it. He said to them: I myself did not hear the court proclaim: It is sanctified. Although I know that the month had been declared full, since I did not personally hear the proclamation, I cannot offer direct testimony such that you should change your calculations.

诪讻专讬讝 专讘讬 讬讜讞谞谉 讻诇 讛讬讻讗 讚诪讟讜 砖诇讜讞讬 谞讬住谉 讜诇讗 诪讟讜 砖诇讜讞讬 转砖专讬 诇讬注讘讚讜 转专讬 讬讜诪讬 讙讝讬专讛 谞讬住谉 讗讟讜 转砖专讬

It was further related that Rabbi Yo岣nan used to proclaim: Anywhere that can be reached by the messengers who go out in Nisan in time to inform the people when to observe Passover, but cannot be reached by the messengers sent out in Tishrei, let them also observe the festival of Passover for two days. The messengers did not travel on Rosh HaShana or Yom Kippur, and therefore they could travel three days further in Nisan than in Tishrei. The Sages instituted that two days must be observed in Nisan as a rabbinic decree due to Tishrei, for if they observe Passover for only one day, they will come to observe Sukkot for one day as well, and this they are not permitted to do.

专讘讬 讗讬讬讘讜 讘专 谞讙专讬 讜专讘讬 讞讬讬讗 讘专 讗讘讗 讗讬拽诇注讜 诇讛讛讜讗 讗转专讗 讚讛讜讛 诪讟讜 砖诇讜讞讬 谞讬住谉 讜诇讗 诪讟讜 砖诇讜讞讬 转砖专讬 讜注讘讚讬 讞讚 讬讜诪讗 讜诇讗 讗诪专讜 诇讛讜 讜诇讗 诪讬讚讬 砖诪注 专讘讬 讬讜讞谞谉 讜讗讬拽驻讚 讗诪专 诇讛讜 诇讗讜 讗诪专讬 诇讻讜 讛讬讻讗 讚诪讟讜 砖诇讜讞讬 谞讬住谉 讜诇讗 诪讟讜 砖诇讜讞讬 转砖专讬 诇讬注讘讚讜 转专讬 讬讜诪讬 讙讝讬专讛 谞讬住谉 讗讟讜 转砖专讬

It was reported that Rabbi Aivu bar Naggarei and Rabbi 岣yya bar Abba, two disciples of Rabbi Yo岣nan, once arrived in a certain place that could be reached by the messengers who go out in Nisan, but could not be reached by the messengers who go out in Tishrei. And they saw that the locals observed only one day of Passover. They said nothing to them to correct their practice. Rabbi Yo岣nan heard this and he became angry with Rabbi Aivu and Rabbi 岣yya, for they had failed to rebuke the people who were acting contrary to Rabbi Yo岣nan鈥檚 explicit ruling. He said to them: Did I not say to you that anywhere that can be reached by the messengers sent out in Nisan but not by those sent out in Tishrei must observe two days of Passover, for the Sages instituted a rabbinic decree in Nisan due to Tishrei?

专讘讗 讛讜讛 专讙讬诇 讚讛讜讛 讬转讬讘 讘转注谞讬转讗 转专讬 讬讜诪讬 讝讬诪谞讗 讞讚讗 讗砖转讻讞 讻讜讜转讬讛

搂 The Gemara relates that Rava would regularly sit in observance of the fast of Yom Kippur for two days, in case Elul had been declared a thirty-day month and Yom Kippur should be observed on what was observed in Babylonia as the eleventh of Tishrei. It once happened in accordance with his opinion. Elul had been declared a thirty-day month, and he was the only one who observed Yom Kippur on the correct day.

专讘 谞讞诪谉 讬转讬讘 讘转注谞讬转讗 讻讜诇讬讛 讬讜诪讬 讚讻讬驻讜专讬 诇讗讜专转讗 讗转讗 讛讛讜讗 讙讘专讗 讗诪专 诇讬讛 诇诪讞专 讬讜诪讗 专讘讛 讘诪注专讘讗

It was related that Rav Na岣an had once fasted the entire day of Yom Kippur as usual. In the evening, toward the end of his fast, a certain man came and said to him: Tomorrow is the great day, Yom Kippur, in the West, Eretz Yisrael, and it is therefore necessary to fast tomorrow.

讗诪专 诇讬讛 诪讛讬讻讗 讗转 讗诪专 诇讬讛 诪讚诪讛专讬讗 讗诪专 诇讬讛 讚诐 转讛讗 讗讞专讬转讜 拽专讬 注诇讬讛 拽诇讬诐 讛讬讜 专讜讚驻讬谞讜

Rav Na岣an said to him: From where do you come? He said to him: From a place called Damihareya. He said to him, playing on the name of his place: Blood will be his end, meaning Rav Na岣an鈥檚 own end. Due to this information, Rav Na岣an would have to fast two successive days, and thereby suffer greatly, as if his blood were being shed. He read the verse about him: 鈥淥ur pursuers were swifter than vultures in the sky鈥 (Lamentations 4:19), for had this messenger arrived just a little bit later, they would have eaten and drunk in the meantime.

砖诇讞 诇讬讛 专讘 讛讜谞讗 讘专 讗讘讬谉 诇专讘讗 讻讚 讞讝讬转 讚诪砖讻讛 转拽讜驻转 讟讘转 注讚 砖讬转住专 讘谞讬住谉 注讘专讛 诇讛讛讬讗 砖转讗 讜诇讗 转讞讜砖 诇讛 讚讻转讬讘 砖诪讜专 讗转 讞讚砖 讛讗讘讬讘 砖诪讜专 讗讘讬讘 砖诇 转拽讜驻讛 砖讬讛讗 讘讞讚砖 谞讬住谉

Rav Huna bar Avin sent this instruction to Rava: When you see that, according to your calculations, the season of Tevet, i.e., winter, will extend to the sixteenth of Nisan, and the spring equinox will occur after the sixteenth of Nisan, add an extra month to that year, making it a leap year. And do not worry about finding an additional reason to justify making it a leap year, as it is written: 鈥淥bserve the month of spring鈥 (Deuteronomy 16:1). That is to say, see to it that the spring of the season, i.e., the spring equinox, is in the new part of Nisan, i.e., the first half, before Passover.

讗诪专 诇讛讜 专讘 谞讞诪谉 诇讛谞讛讜 谞讞讜转讬 讬诪讗 讗转讜谉 讚诇讗 讬讚注讬转讜 讘拽讘讬注讗 讚讬专讞讗 讻讬 讞讝讬转讜 住讬讛专讗 讚诪砖诇讬诐 诇讬讜诪讗 讘注讬专讜 讞诪讬专讗

It was related that Rav Na岣an said to those setting out to sea before Nisan: Since you will not know the determination of the first day of the new month, this is what you should do: When you see that the moon sets at daybreak, i.e., that it is visible all night from sundown to sunrise, know that it is the middle of the month of Nisan and burn your leaven.

讗讬诪转 诪砖诇讬诐 讘讞诪讬住专 讜讛讗 讗谞谉 诪讗专讘讬住专 诪讘注专讬谞谉 诇讚讬讚讛讜 讚诪讙诇讜 诇讛讜 注诇诪讗 诪讗专讘讬住专 诪砖诇讬诐

The Gemara asks: When does the moon set at daybreak? On the fifteenth of the month. But on the fourteenth of Nisan we burn leaven. The Gemara answers: For those out at sea, to whom the world is revealed, to whom the horizon is wide open and clearly visible, the moon completes its course at sunrise already on the fourteenth of the month. They can therefore rely on this sign to establish the date of Passover and the time for burning leaven.

诪转谞讬壮 注诇 砖谞讬 讞讚砖讬诐 诪讞诇诇讬谉 讗转 讛砖讘转 注诇 谞讬住谉 讜注诇 转砖专讬 砖讘讛谉 砖诇讜讞讬谉 讬讜爪讗讬谉 诇住讜专讬讗 讜讘讛谉 诪转拽谞讬谉 讗转 讛诪讜注讚讜转 讜讻砖讛讬讛 讘讬转 讛诪拽讚砖 拽讬讬诐 诪讞诇诇讬谉 讗祝 注诇 讻讜诇谉 诪驻谞讬 转拽谞转 讛拽专讘谉

MISHNA: Only for the sake of two months may witnesses who saw the new moon desecrate Shabbat, should that be necessary in order for them to offer testimony before the court: For the month of Nisan and for the month of Tishrei, for in these months messengers are sent out to Syria, and by them, i.e., these months, the dates of the major Festivals are set: Yom Kippur, Sukkot, Passover, and Shavuot. And when the Temple was standing, the witnesses desecrated Shabbat for the fixing of the New Moon of all the months, due to the imperative of fixing the proper offering of the New Moon at the correct time.

讙诪壮 注诇 砖谞讬 讞讚砖讬诐 讜转讜 诇讗 讜专诪讬谞讛讜 注诇 砖砖讛 讞讚砖讬诐 讛砖诇讜讞讬谉 讬讜爪讗讬谉

GEMARA: The mishna taught that messengers were sent out for two months. The Gemara asks: For only two months and no more? And the Gemara raises a contradiction from the previous mishna, which teaches: For six months of the year messengers go out, not only for two months.

讗诪专 讗讘讬讬 讛讻讬 拽讗诪专 注诇 讻讜诇谉 砖诇讜讞讬谉 讬讜爪讗讬谉 诪讘注专讘 注诇 谞讬住谉 讜注诇 转砖专讬 注讚 砖讬砖诪注讜 诪驻讬 讘讬转 讚讬谉 诪拽讜讚砖

Abaye said: This is what the mishna is saying: For all the other months the messengers go out already in the evening, if the new moon was clearly seen and if it is certain that the court will proclaim the day as the New Moon. But for Nisan and for Tishrei the messengers do not go out until they hear from the court that the day is declared as the New Moon, by saying: It is sanctified, so that they can offer proper testimony. The court convenes only during the daytime.

转谞讬讗 谞诪讬 讛讻讬 注诇 讻讜诇谉 讬讜爪讗讬谉 诪讘注专讘 注诇 谞讬住谉 讜注诇 转砖专讬 注讚 砖讬砖诪注讜 诪驻讬 讘讬转 讚讬谉 诪拽讜讚砖

This is also taught in a baraita: For all the other months the messengers go out already in the evening, but for the month of Nisan and for the month of Tishrei they do not go out until they have heard the court formally proclaim the day as the New Moon, by saying: It is sanctified.

转谞讜 专讘谞谉 诪谞讬谉 砖诪讞诇诇讬谉 注诇讬讛谉 讗转 讛砖讘转 转诇诪讜讚 诇讜诪专 讗诇讛 诪讜注讚讬 讛壮 讗砖专 转拽专讗讜 讗讜转诐 讘诪讜注讚诐

The Sages taught in a baraita: From where is it derived that the witnesses who saw the new moon may desecrate Shabbat in order to testify before the court? The verse states: 鈥淭hese are the Festivals of the Lord, sacred gatherings, which you shall declare in their seasons鈥 (Leviticus 23:4), thereby emphasizing that the Festivals must be set at their proper times. To ensure that they occur at the proper times, it is even permitted to desecrate Shabbat.

讬讻讜诇 讻砖诐 砖诪讞诇诇讬谉 注讚 砖讬转拽讚砖讜 讻讱 诪讞诇诇讬谉 注讚 砖讬转拽讬讬诪讜 转诇诪讜讚 诇讜诪专 讗砖专 转拽专讗讜 讗讜转诐 注诇 拽专讬讗转诐 讗转讛 诪讞诇诇 讜讗讬 讗转讛 诪讞诇诇 注诇 拽讬讜诪谉

One might have thought that just as Shabbat may be desecrated by the witnesses so that the months may be sanctified at the proper time, so too, Shabbat may be desecrated by the messengers who go to inform the people in Eretz Yisrael and the Diaspora which day was sanctified as the New Moon, so that the Festivals may be observed at the proper time. Therefore, the verse states: 鈥淲hich you shall declare,鈥 from which is derived that for the declaration of the New Moon you may desecrate Shabbat, but you may not desecrate Shabbat for the observance of the Festivals in their proper time.

讜讻砖讛讬讛 讘讬转 讛诪拽讚砖 拽讬讬诐 诪讞诇诇讬谉 讗祝 注诇 讻讜诇谉 诪驻谞讬 转拽谞转 讛拽专讘谉 转谞讜 专讘谞谉 讘专讗砖讜谞讛 讛讬讜 诪讞诇诇讬谉 讗祝 注诇 讻讜诇谉 诪砖讞专讘 讘讬转 讛诪拽讚砖 讗诪专 诇讛谉 专讘谉 讬讜讞谞谉 讘谉 讝讻讗讬 讜讻讬 讬砖 拽专讘谉 讛转拽讬谞讜 砖诇讗 讬讛讜 诪讞诇诇讬谉 讗诇讗 注诇 谞讬住谉 讜注诇 转砖专讬 讘诇讘讚

搂 It was taught in the mishna: And when the Temple was standing, the witnesses desecrated Shabbat for the fixing of the New Moon of all the months, due to the imperative of fixing the proper offering of the New Moon at the correct time. The Sages taught in a baraita: At first, they would desecrate Shabbat for all of the months. When the Temple was destroyed, Rabban Yo岣nan ben Zakkai said to the Sages: Is there now some offering due, for which it is necessary to desecrate Shabbat? Consequently, they instituted that the witnesses may desecrate Shabbat only for the months of Nisan and Tishrei.

诪转谞讬壮 讘讬谉 砖谞专讗讛 讘注诇讬诇 讘讬谉 砖诇讗 谞专讗讛 讘注诇讬诇 诪讞诇诇讬谉 注诇讬讜 讗转 讛砖讘转 专讘讬 讬讜住讬 讗讜诪专 讗诐 谞专讗讛 讘注诇讬诇 讗讬谉 诪讞诇诇讬谉 注诇讬讜 讗转 讛砖讘转

MISHNA: Whether the new moon was seen clearly [ba鈥檃lil] by everyone or whether it was not clearly seen, one may desecrate Shabbat in order to testify before the court. Rabbi Yosei says: If the moon was clearly seen, they may not desecrate Shabbat for it, since other witnesses, located nearer to the court, will certainly testify. If these distant witnesses go to court to testify, they will desecrate Shabbat unnecessarily.

诪注砖讛 砖注讘专讜 讬讜转专 诪讗专讘注讬诐 讝讜讙 讜注讬讻讘诐 专讘讬 注拽讘讗 讘诇讜讚 砖诇讞 诇讜 专讘谉 讙诪诇讬讗诇 讗诐 诪注讻讘 讗转讛 讗转 讛专讘讬诐 谞诪爪讗转 诪讻砖讬诇谉 诇注转讬讚 诇讘讗

There was once an incident where more than forty pairs of witnesses were passing through on their way to Jerusalem to testify about the new moon, and Rabbi Akiva detained them in Lod, telling them that there was no need for them to desecrate Shabbat for this purpose. Rabban Gamliel sent a message to him: If you detain the many people who wish to testify about the new moon, you will cause them to stumble in the future. They will say: Why should we go, seeing that our testimony is unnecessary? At some point they will be needed, and no witnesses will come to the court.

讙诪壮 诪讗讬 诪砖诪注 讚讛讗讬 注诇讬诇 诇讬砖谞讗 讚诪讬讙诇讬 讛讜讗 讗诪专 专讘讬 讗讘讛讜 讗诪专 拽专讗 讗诪专讜转 讛壮 讗诪专讜转 讟讛讜专讜转 讻住祝 爪专讜祝 讘注诇讬诇 诇讗专抓 诪讝讜拽拽 砖讘注转讬诐

GEMARA: From where may it be inferred that the term alil denotes that the new moon is clearly revealed? Rabbi Abbahu said: The verse states: 鈥淭he words of the Lord are pure words; silver refined in the clear sight [ba鈥檃lil] of the earth, purified seven times鈥 (Psalms 12:7).

专讘 讜砖诪讜讗诇 讞讚 讗诪专 讞诪砖讬诐 砖注专讬 讘讬谞讛 谞讘专讗讜 讘注讜诇诐 讜讻讜诇谉 谞讬转谞讜 诇诪砖讛 讞住专 讗讞讚 砖谞讗诪专 讜转讞住专讛讜 诪注讟 诪讗诇讛讬诐

The aforementioned verse states: 鈥淭he words of the Lord are pure words鈥urified seven times [shivatayim].鈥 Rav and Shmuel disagreed about a matter relating to this verse: One of them said: Fifty gates of understanding were created in the world, and all of them were given to Moses, except for one gate, for it is stated: 鈥淭he words of the Lord are purified shivatayim,鈥 which he understands to mean seven times seven, i.e., forty-nine, and it is stated: 鈥淎nd You have made him a little less than God鈥 (Psalms 8:6). God created fifty gates of understanding, but He made man a little lower than God, giving him only forty-nine of them.

讘拽砖 拽讛诇转 诇诪爪讜讗 讚讘专讬 讞驻抓 讘拽砖 拽讛诇转 诇讛讬讜转 讻诪砖讛 讬爪转讛 讘转 拽讜诇 讜讗诪专讛 诇讜 讜讻转讜讘 讬讜砖专 讚讘专讬 讗诪转 讜诇讗 拽诐 谞讘讬讗 注讜讚 讘讬砖专讗诇 讻诪砖讛

鈥淜ohelet sought to find out words of delight鈥 (Ecclesiastes 12:10), which indicates that he sought to find the fiftieth gate but failed to do so. Kohelet, King Solomon, sought to be like Moses, but a Divine Voice issued forth and said to him: 鈥淎nd that which was written uprightly, even words of truth鈥 (Ecclesiastes 12:10). This is referring to the words of the Torah; and what is written there? 鈥淎nd there has not arisen a prophet since in Israel like Moses, whom the Lord knew face-to-face鈥 (Deuteronomy 34:10).

讜讞讚 讗诪专 讘谞讘讬讗讬诐 诇讗 拽诐 讘诪诇讻讬诐 拽诐 讗诇讗 诪讛 讗谞讬 诪拽讬讬诐 讘拽砖 拽讛诇转 诇诪爪讜讗 讚讘专讬 讞驻抓 讘拽砖 拽讛诇转 诇讚讜谉 讚讬谞讬谉 砖讘诇讘 砖诇讗 讘注讚讬诐 讜砖诇讗 讘讛转专讗讛 讬爪转讛 讘转 拽讜诇 讜讗诪专讛 诇讜 讜讻转讜讘 讬讜砖专 讚讘专讬 讗诪转 注诇 驻讬 砖谞讬诐 注讚讬诐 讜讙讜壮

And the other one said: Among the prophets there has not arisen one like Moses, but among the kings, one did arise, Solomon, who was as wise as Moses. How do I uphold the words 鈥淜ohelet sought to find words of delight鈥? Kohelet, King Solomon, sought to issue judgments of the heart, based solely on his intuition, without witnesses and without warning. But a Divine Voice issued forth and said to him: 鈥淎nd that which was written uprightly, even words of truth.鈥 Which words is this referring to? 鈥淎t the mouth of two witnesses, or three witnesses, shall he that is worthy of death be put to death; but at the mouth of one witness he shall not be put to death鈥 (Deuteronomy 17:6). Punishment can be administered only based on the testimony of two witnesses.

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