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Today's Daf Yomi

November 1, 2021 | 讻状讜 讘诪专讞砖讜讜谉 转砖驻状讘

Masechet Rosh Hashanah is dedicated anonymously in honor of Rabbanit Michelle Farber whose dedication to learning and teaching the daf continues to inspire so many people around the world.

This month's shiurim are dedicated by Tamara Katz in memory of her maternal grandparents, Sarah bat Chaya v'Tzvi Hirsh and Meir Leib ben Esther v'Harav Yehoshua Zelig whose yahrzeits are both this month.

This month's shiurim are also dedicated in memory of Dr. Chaya R. Gorsetman, Chaya bat Esriel V鈥橬aomi z鈥檒 during the period of shloshim by her husband, children, and grandchildren.

  • This month's learning is dedicated by Debbie and Yossi Gevir to Rabbanit Michelle and the Hadran Zoom group for their kindness, support, and care during a medically challenging year.

Rosh Hashanah 23

Why were beacons only lit on 29 days months and not 30 day months? Why not the reverse? How many times of cedar trees are there? Some say four and some say ten. One of them is coral wood and a statement of Rav is brought to explain the complicated manner in which they would be able to get it out of the water. It was considered very valuable. All the trees the gentiles uprooted in Jerusalem will be returned by God – this is derived from the verse mentioned in which the different types of cedar were listed. Rabbi Yochanan makes a number of statements about the importance of Torah scholars teaching and not only learning. And another statement about the gentiles being punished for killing Torah scholars such as Rabbi Akiva. The places mentioned in the Mishna where they lit the beacons are identified. An alternative list is brought – how does that connect with the one in the Mishna? Two possibilities are brought to explain. The distance between the mountains is explained to be shorter than it was in the time of the Amoraim. How can that be? In order to incentivize people to come to testify about the new moon, a festive meal was made in the courtyard in Beit Yazek, which is where the Beit Din would question the witnesses. If they came on Shabbat, they would not be allowed to go home, and not even leave the courtyard. as they had left their techum. However, since this deterred witnesses from coming, Rabban Gamliel permitted them to walk 2,000 cubits in each direction. This was instituted as well for other groups of people who need to be incentivized, such as, a midwife, firefighter, and others. What was the etymology of the name Beit Yazek – did it have a positive connotation or a negative one? What questions were asked of the witnesses to ensure they were telling the truth? Once they had good witnesses, they would still somewhat question the others so as to make them feel that they didn’t waste their time coming to testify.

诇诪讬讟注讬 讗诪专讬 讛讗讬 讞住专 讛讜讗 讜讛讗讬 讚诇讗 注讘讬讚 诪讗转诪讜诇 诪砖讜诐 讚诇讗 讗驻砖专 讗讜 讚诇诪讗 诪诇讗 讛讜讗 讜讘讝诪谞讜 注讘讚讜

to err. They will be unsure how to interpret the lighting of the torches, as they will say: Perhaps this month is deficient, i.e., of twenty-nine days, and the reason that the torch sequence was not performed yesterday, on Shabbat eve, is due to the fact that it was impossible to do so on Shabbat. Or perhaps it is a full, thirty-day month, and they are performing the sequence at its proper time. Therefore, the Sages instituted that the torches should be lit only after deficient months, and the absence of this signal means that the month was a full one.

讜诇讬注讘讬讚 讘讬谉 讗诪诇讗 讘讬谉 讗讞住专 讜讻讬 诪拽诇注 专讗砖 讞讚砖 讘注专讘 砖讘转 诇讗 诇讬注讘讬讚 讻诇诇 讜讻讬讜谉 讚诇讗 注讘讚讬谞谉 诪讜爪讗讬 砖讘转 讜注讘讚讬谞谉 讗诪诇讗 诪讬讚注 讬讚注讬 讚讞住专 讛讜讗

The Gemara suggests: And let them perform the ceremony both for a full, thirty-day month and for a deficient one, and when the New Moon occurs on Shabbat eve, in which case they would have to light the torches after Shabbat, let them not perform it at all. And since the torches are not lit this month at the conclusion of Shabbat, and one normally performs the sequence for a full month, people will know that the month is deficient. In this manner, it should be possible to light the torches for all the months, with this one exception.

讗驻讬诇讜 讛讻讬 讗转讜 诇诪讬讟注讬 讗诪专讬 讛讗讬 诪诇讗 讛讜讗 讜讛讗讬 讚诇讗 注讘讚讬 讗讬转谞讜住讬 讛讜讗 讚讗讬转谞讜住讬

The Gemara answers: Even so, people might come to err, as they will say: This month is indeed full, and the reason that they are not performing the ceremony is that they were subject to circumstances beyond their control. Therefore, there might still be confusion as to the date of the New Moon that month.

讜诇讬注讘讬讚 讗诪诇讗 讜诇讗 诇讬注讘讬讚 讗讞住专 讻诇诇 讗诪专 讗讘讬讬 诪砖讜诐 讘讬讟讜诇 诪诇讗讻讛 诇注诐 砖谞讬 讬诪讬诐

The Gemara asks: And let them perform the ceremony of torches only for a full, thirty-day month, and not perform it for a deficient month at all, in which case there will never be room for error. Abaye said: This cannot be done, because this would lead to a two-day suspension of work for the people, as it was customary to refrain from certain types of work on the New Moon. After a full month there will always be a suspension of work for two days, as the people must abstain from work on the thirtieth of the month in case it is declared the New Moon. However, if the torches are lit for a deficient month, then at least in that case people could return to work the following day. Therefore, the Sages instituted that the torches are lit only for a deficient month.

讻讬爪讚 讛讬讜 诪砖讬讗讬谉 诪砖讜讗讜转 诪讘讬讗讬谉 讻诇讜谞住讜转 讻讜壮 讗诪专 专讘 讬讛讜讚讛 讗专讘注讛 诪讬谞讬 讗专讝讬诐 讛谉 讗专讝 拽转专讜诐 注抓 砖诪谉 讜讘专讜砖 拽转专讜诐 讗诪专 专讘 讗讚专讗 讚讘讬 专讘讬 砖讬诇讗 讗诪专讬 诪讘诇讬讙讗 讜讗诪专讬 诇讛 讝讜 讙讜诇诪讬砖

搂 The mishna taught: How would they light the torches? They would bring long poles [kelonsot] of cedar and other materials that burn well, tie them all together, and set them on fire. Rav Yehuda said that there are four types of cedar: Cedar, katrom, pinewood, and cypress. With regard to the identification of the tree called katrom, Rav said: This is the addera tree. In the school of Rabbi Sheila, they say: This is the mavliga tree. And some say it is the gulmish tree.

讜驻诇讬讙讗 讚专讘讛 讘专 专讘 讛讜谞讗 讚讗诪专 专讘讛 讘专 专讘 讛讜谞讗 讗诪专讬 讘讬 专讘 注砖专讛 诪讬谞讬 讗专讝讬诐 讛诐 砖谞讗诪专 讗转谉 讘诪讚讘专 讗专讝 砖讟讛 讜讛讚住 讜注抓 砖诪谉 讗砖讬诐 讘注专讘讛 讘专讜砖 转讚讛专 讜转讗砖讜专 讬讞讚讜 讗专讝 讗专讝讗 砖讟讛 转讜专谞讬转讗 讛讚住 讗住讗 注抓 砖诪谉 讗驻专住诪讗 讘专讜砖 讘专转讗 转讚讛专 砖讗讙讗 转讗砖讜专 砖讜专讬讘谞讗

The Gemara comments: And this opinion of Rav Yehuda disagrees with that of Rabba bar Rav Huna. As Rabba bar Rav Huna said that they say in the school of Rav: There are ten species of cedar, as it is stated: 鈥淚 will plant in the wilderness the cedar, the acacia tree and myrtle and the pine tree; I will set in the desert cypress, the plane tree, and the larch together鈥 (Isaiah 41:19). The seven species mentioned in this verse are all types of cedars. The Gemara proceeds to identify these trees by their Aramaic names: Cedar is arza, acacia is tornita, myrtle is asa, pine tree is afarsema, cypress is berata, maple is shaga, and box tree is shorivna.

讛谞讬 砖讘注讛 讛讜讜 讻讬 讗转讗 专讘 讚讬诪讬 讗诪专 讛讜住讬驻讜 注诇讬讛诐 讗诇讜谞讬诐 讗诇诪讜谞讬诐 讗诇诪讜讙讬谉 讗诇讜谞讬诐 讘讜讟诪讬 讗诇诪讜谞讬诐 讘诇讜讟讬 讗诇诪讜讙讬谉 讻住讬转讗 讗讬讻讗 讚讗诪专讬 讗专讜谞讬诐 注专诪讜谞讬诐 讗诇诪讜讙讬谉 讗专讜谞讬诐 注专讬 注专诪讜谞讬诐 讚讜诇讘讬 讗诇诪讜讙讬谉 讻住讬转讗

The Gemara asks: Even if we count all the names in the verse, these are only seven, not ten. When Rav Dimi came from Eretz Israel to Babylonia, he said: They added to them three more types of cedar: Terebinth, oak, and coral wood. The Gemara identifies them: Terebinth is the tree called butmei, oak is balutei, and coral wood is kasita. There are those who say that the additional three types are: Bay tree, plane tree, and coral wood. And their Aramaic names are as follows: Bay tree is arei, plane is dulvei, and coral wood is kasita.

讜爪讬 讗讚讬专 诇讗 讬注讘专谞讜 讗诪专 专讘 讝讜 讘讜专谞讬 讙讚讜诇讛

搂 Apropos coral, the Gemara cites a relevant verse: 鈥淣either shall a tzi adir be able to cross it鈥 (Isaiah 33:21), i.e., it will not be able to traverse the river that will issue forth from the Temple in the future. What is this tzi adir? Rav said: This is a great ship [burnei] used to collect coral from the sea.

讛讬讻讬 注讘讚讜 诪讬讬转讜 砖讬转 讗诇驻讬 讙讘专讬 讘转专讬住专 讬专讞讬 砖转讗 讜讗诪专讬 诇讛 转专讬住专 讗诇驻讬 讙讘专讬 讘砖讬转讗 讬专讞讬 砖转讗 讜讟注谞讬 诇讛 讞诇讗 注讚 讚砖讻谞讗 讜谞讞讬转 讘专 讗诪讜专讗讬 讜拽讟专 讗讟讜谞讬 讚讻讬转谞讗 讘讻住讬转讗 讜拽讟专 诇讛讜 讘住驻讬谞转讗 讜谞讟诇讬 讞诇讗 讜砖讚讜 诇讘专讗讬 讜讻诪讛 讚诪讚诇讬讗 注拽专讗 讜诪转讬讗

The Gemara explains: How do they perform this collection of coral? They bring six thousand men to work for twelve months of the year, and some say they bring twelve thousand men for six months of the year. And they load the ship with sand until it sinks to the bottom of the sea. A diver descends and ties flax ropes around the coral and ties the other ends of the ropes to the boat. And then they take the sand and cast it overboard, and the boat rises once again to the surface. And as it rises, it uproots and brings the coral with it.

讜诪讞诇讬祝 注诇 讞讚 转专讬谉 讘讻住驻讗 转诇转 驻专讜讜转讗 讛讜讬讬谉 转专转讬 讘讬 讗专诪讗讬 讜讞讚讗 讚讘讬 驻专住讗讬 讚讘讬 讗专诪讗讬 诪住拽谉 讻住讬转讗 讚讘讬 驻专住讗讬 诪住拽谉 诪专讙谞讬讬转讗 讜诪拽专讬讬讗 驻专讜讜转讗 讚诪砖诪讛讬讙

The Gemara comments: And this coral is so precious that it is exchanged for twice its weight in silver. The Gemara further notes: There are three ports in those places. Two belong to the Romans [Armai], and one belongs to the Persians. In the one belonging to the Romans, they raise up coral, whereas in the one belonging to the Persians, they raise up pearls. And the Persian ports are called royal ports.

讗诪专 专讘讬 讬讜讞谞谉 讻诇 砖讬讟讛 讜砖讬讟讛 砖谞讟诇讜 讙讜讬诐 诪讬专讜砖诇讬诐 注转讬讚 讛拽讚讜砖 讘专讜讱 讛讜讗 诇讛讞讝讬专谉 诇讛 砖谞讗诪专 讗转谉 讘诪讚讘专 讗专讝 砖讟讛 讜讗讬谉 诪讚讘专 讗诇讗 讬专讜砖诇讬诐 砖谞讗诪专 爪讬讜谉 诪讚讘专 讛讬转讛 讜讙讜壮

With regard to the aforementioned verse, Rabbi Yo岣nan said: Each and every acacia tree that the gentiles took from Jerusalem will be returned to the city by the Holy One, Blessed be He, as it is stated: 鈥淚 will plant in the wilderness the cedar, the acacia tree and myrtle and the oil tree; I will set in the desert cypress, the plane tree and the larch together鈥 (Isaiah 41:19). And the term wilderness is referring to nothing other than Jerusalem, as it is stated: 鈥淶ion is become a wilderness, Jerusalem a desolation鈥 (Isaiah 64:9).

讜讗诪专 专讘讬 讬讜讞谞谉 讻诇 讛诇讜诪讚 转讜专讛 讜讗讬谞讜 诪诇诪讚讛 讚讜诪讛 诇讛讚住 讘诪讚讘专 讗讬讻讗 讚讗诪专讬 讻诇 讛诇讜诪讚 转讜专讛 讜诪诇诪讚讛 讘诪拽讜诐 砖讗讬谉 转诇诪讬讚讬 讞讻诪讬诐 讚讜诪讛 诇讛讚住 讘诪讚讘专 讚讞讘讬讘

And Rabbi Yo岣nan also said: Anyone who studies Torah but does not teach it to others is likened to a myrtle in the wilderness. The myrtle has a pleasant fragrance, but there is nobody to enjoy it in the wilderness. There are those who say a different version of this statement: Anyone who studies Torah and teaches it to others in a place where there are no other Torah scholars is likened to a myrtle in the wilderness, which is especially precious and thoroughly enjoyed by those who find it.

讜讗诪专 专讘讬 讬讜讞谞谉 讗讜讬 诇讛诐 诇讙讜讬诐 砖讗讬谉 诇讛诐 转拽谞讛 砖谞讗诪专 转讞转 讛谞讞砖转 讗讘讬讗 讝讛讘 讜转讞转 讛讘专讝诇 讗讘讬讗 讻住祝 讜转讞转 讛注爪讬诐 谞讞砖转 讜转讞转 讛讗讘谞讬诐 讘专讝诇 转讞转 专讘讬 注拽讬讘讗 讜讞讘讬专讬讜 诪讗讬 诪讘讬讗讬谉 讜注诇讬讛诐 讛讜讗 讗讜诪专 讜谞拽讬转讬 讚诪诐 诇讗 谞拽讬转讬

And Rabbi Yo岣nan further said: Woe to the nations of the world, as they have no remedy for the sins they committed against the Jewish people, as it is stated: 鈥淔or brass I will bring gold, and for iron I will bring silver, and for wood brass, and for stones iron鈥 (Isaiah 60:17). For all things there is a remedy, as one can always exchange them for an item of equivalent or greater value. However, for Rabbi Akiva and his colleagues, whom the nations put to death, what can one bring to atone for their sin? And with regard to them it is stated: And I will hold them as innocent, but for their blood I will not hold them innocent (see Joel 4:21).

讜诪讗讬谉 讛讬讜 诪砖讬讗讬谉 诪砖讜讗讜转 讻讜壮 讜诪讘讬转 讘诇转讬谉 诪讗讬 讘讬转 讘诇转讬谉 讗诪专 专讘

搂 The mishna states: And from which mountains would they light the torches? From the Mount of Olives to Sartava, and from Sartava to Gerofina, and from Gerofina to 岣vran, and from 岣vran to Beit Baltin. And from Beit Baltin they would not light torches in any other pre-established places. The Gemara asks: What is this place called Beit Baltin? Rav said:

讝讜 讘讬专诐

This is the town called Biram.

诪讗讬 讙讜诇讛 讗诪专 专讘 讬讜住祝 讝讜 驻讜诪讘讚讬转讗 诪讗讬 讻诪讚讜专转 讛讗砖 转谞讗 讻诇 讗讞讚 讜讗讞讚 谞讜讟诇 讗讘讜拽讛 讘讬讚讜 讜注讜诇讛 诇专讗砖 讙讙讜

搂 The mishna taught: He would wave the torch back and forth and up and down, until he would see the entire Diaspora before him alight like one large bonfire. The Gemara asks: What is the meaning in this context of the term Diaspora, which certainly cannot be referring to the entire Diaspora across the world? Rav Yosef said: This is referring to the city of Pumbedita in Babylonia. The Gemara further asks. What is the meaning of the phrase: Like one large bonfire? It is taught in a baraita: Each and every individual would take a torch in his hand and ascend to the top of his roof and light it. In this manner, the entire city would present the appearance of a large bonfire.

转谞讬讗 专讘讬 砖诪注讜谉 讘谉 讗诇注讝专 讗讜诪专 讗祝 讞专讬诐 讜讻讬讬专 讜讙讚专 讜讞讘专讜转讬讛 讗讬讻讗 讚讗诪专讬 讘讬谞讬 讜讘讬谞讬 讛讜讜 拽讬讬诪讬 讗讬讻讗 讚讗诪专讬 诇讛讱 讙讬住讗 讚讗专抓 讬砖专讗诇 讛讜讜 拽讬讬诪讬 诪专 讞砖讬讘 讚讛讗讬 讙讬住讗 讜诪专 讞砖讬讘 讚讛讗讬 讙讬住讗

It is taught in a baraita that Rabbi Shimon ben Elazar says: Torches were also lit at 岣rim, and Kayar and Geder, and its neighboring places. There are those who say that the places added by Rabbi Shimon ben Elazar are located between the places mentioned in the mishna, whereas there are those who say that they are located on the other side of Eretz Yisrael, on the side nearer Babylonia. The Sage in the mishna enumerates the places found on one side of Eretz Yisrael, whereas the Sage in the baraita enumerates the places found on the other side.

讗诪专 专讘讬 讬讜讞谞谉 讘讬谉 讻诇 讗讞转 讜讗讞转 砖诪讜谞讛 驻专住讗讜转 讻诪讛 讛讜讜 诇讛讜 转诇转讬谉 讜转专转讬谉 讜讛讗 讛讗讬讚谞讗 讟讜讘讗 讛讜讜 讗诪专 讗讘讬讬 讗住转转讜诪讬 讗住转转讜诐 诇讛讜 讚专讻讬

Rabbi Yo岣nan said: Between each and every one of the stations there was a distance of eight parasangs. The Gemara asks: How many parasangs are these in total? Thirty-two parasangs. The Gemara further asks: Isn鈥檛 the distance from the Mount of Olives to Beit Baltin now much greater than thirty-two parasangs? Abaye said: The direct routes have become blocked, and therefore people nowadays must use indirect routes, making the journey much longer.

讚讻转讬讘 诇讻谉 讛谞谞讬 砖讱 讗转 讚专讻讱 讘住讬专讬诐 专讘 谞讞诪谉 讘专 讬爪讞拽 讗诪专 诪讛讻讗 讚讻转讬讘 谞转讬讘讜转讬 注讜讛

The Gemara provides a source for this claim. As it is written: 鈥淭herefore, behold, I will hedge up your way with thorns, and make a wall against her, that she shall not find her paths鈥 (Hosea 2:8). Rav Na岣an bar Yitz岣k said: It is derived from here, as it is written: 鈥淗e has made my paths crooked鈥 (Lamentations 3:9), which indicates that over the course of the exile the routes have become longer.

诪转谞讬壮 讞爪专 讙讚讜诇讛 讛讬转讛 讘讬专讜砖诇讬诐 讜讘讬转 讬注讝拽 讛讬转讛 谞拽专讗转 讜诇砖诐 讻诇 讛注讚讬诐 诪转讻谞住讬谉 讜讘讬转 讚讬谉 讘讜讚拽讬谉 讗讜转诐 砖诐 讜住注讜讚讜转 讙讚讜诇讜转 注讜砖讬谉 诇讛诐 讘砖讘讬诇 砖讬讛讜 专讙讬诇讬谉 诇讘讗

MISHNA: There was a large courtyard in Jerusalem, which was called Beit Ya鈥檢ek. And there all the witnesses coming to testify about the new moon would gather, and the court of seventy-one judges would examine them there. And they would prepare great feasts for them, so that they would be willing and accustomed to coming and submitting their testimony.

讘专讗砖讜谞讛 诇讗 讛讬讜 讝讝讬谉 诪砖诐 讻诇 讛讬讜诐 讛转拽讬谉 专讘谉 讙诪诇讬讗诇 讛讝拽谉 砖讬讛讜 诪讛诇讻讬谉 讗诇驻讬诐 讗诪讛 诇讻诇 专讜讞

Initially, when witnesses would arrive on Shabbat from a distant place, they would not move from there all day, as they had left their Shabbat limit, and it was consequently prohibited for them to walk more than four cubits in any direction once they had completed their mission. Concerned that this limitation would discourage witnesses from coming, Rabban Gamliel the Elder instituted that the witnesses be permitted to walk two thousand cubits in each direction.

讜诇讗 讗诇讜 讘诇讘讚 讗诇讗 讗祝 讞讻诪讛 讛讘讗讛 诇讬讬诇讚 讜讛讘讗 诇讛爪讬诇 诪谉 讛讚诇讬拽讛 讜诪谉 讛讙讬讬住 讜诪谉 讛谞讛专 讜诪谉 讛诪驻讜诇转 讛专讬 讗诇讜 讻讗谞砖讬 讛注讬专 讜讬砖 诇讛诐 讗诇驻讬诐 诇讻诇 专讜讞

The mishna continues: And not only these witnesses are granted two thousand cubits from their new place, but this applies also to a midwife who comes to deliver a child, and one who comes to rescue Jews from a fire, from an invasion of gentile troops, from a flooding river, or from the collapse of a building. All these are considered like the inhabitants of the city where they arrive, and therefore they have two thousand cubits in each direction.

讙诪壮 讗讬讘注讬讗 诇讛讜 讘讬转 讬注讝拽 转谞谉 讗讜 讘讬转 讬讝拽 转谞谉 讘讬转 讬注讝拽 转谞谉 诇讬砖谞讗 诪注诇讬讗 讛讜讗 讚讻转讬讘 讜讬注讝拽讛讜 讜讬住拽诇讛讜 讗讜 讚诇诪讗 讘讬转 讬讝拽 转谞谉 诇讬砖谞讗 讚爪注专讗 讛讜讗 讻讚讻转讬讘 讜讛讜讗 讗住讜专 讘讗讝讬拽讬诐

GEMARA: A dilemma was raised before the Sages: What is the correct reading of the mishna? Did we learn: Beit Ya鈥檢ek, or did we learn: Beit Yazek? The Gemara explains the difference between these two versions. Did we learn: Beit Ya鈥檢ek, which is an lofty term, indicating that it was a fine place where the witnesses had a pleasant experience, as it is written: 鈥淎nd he dug it [vaye鈥檃zzekehu] and cleared it of stones鈥 (Isaiah 5:2), which shows that the root a-z-k denotes improvement? Or perhaps we learned: Beit Yazek, which is a term of distress, reflecting the fact that the witnesses who arrived there on Shabbat were not permitted to move from there all day, as it is written: 鈥淎nd he was bound with chains [bazikim]鈥 (Jeremiah 40:1).

讗诪专 讗讘讬讬 转讗 砖诪注 住注讜讚讜转 讙讚讜诇讜转 讛讬讜 注讜砖讬谉 诇讛诐 砖诐 讻讚讬 砖讬讛讜 专讙讬诇讬诐 诇讘讜讗 讚诇诪讗 转专转讬 讛讜讜 注讘讚讬 讘讛讜

Abaye said: Come and hear the mishna: They would prepare great feasts for them there, so that they would be accustomed to come and submit their testimony. This indicates that the witnesses were made welcome, in accordance with the name Beit Ya鈥檢ek. The Gemara rejects this argument: Perhaps they performed two practices for them, i.e., they provided feasts but they also restricted their movement. Therefore, there is no proof from the mishna for this version of the name.

诪转谞讬壮 讻讬爪讚 讘讜讚拽讬谉 讗转 讛注讚讬诐 讝讜讙 砖讘讗 专讗砖讜谉 讘讜讚拽讬谉 讗讜转讜 专讗砖讜谉 讜诪讻谞讬住讬谉 讗转 讛讙讚讜诇 砖讘讛谉 讜讗讜诪专讬谉 诇讜 讗诪讜专 讻讬爪讚 专讗讬转 讗转 讛诇讘谞讛 诇驻谞讬 讛讞诪讛 讗讜 诇讗讞专 讛讞诪讛 诇爪驻讜谞讛 讗讜 诇讚专讜诪讛 讻诪讛 讛讬讛 讙讘讜讛 讜诇讗讬谉 讛讬讛 谞讜讟讛 讜讻诪讛 讛讬讛 专讞讘 讗诐 讗诪专 诇驻谞讬 讛讞诪讛 诇讗 讗诪专 讻诇讜诐

MISHNA: How do they examine the witnesses who come to testify about the new moon? They deal with them in order, as the pair of witnesses that arrives first they examine first. They bring in the greater of the two witnesses, and they say to him: Say how you saw the moon. Was it in front of the sun or behind the sun? To its north or to its south? How high was the moon over the horizon, and in which direction did it tilt? And how wide was it? If, for example, he said that he saw the moon in front of the sun, he has not said anything of substance, as this is impossible and therefore he is either mistaken or lying.

讜讗讞专 讻讱 讛讬讜 诪讻谞讬住讬谉 讗转 讛砖谞讬 讜讘讜讚拽讬谉 讗讜转讜 讗诐 谞诪爪讗讜 讚讘专讬讛诐 诪讻讜讜谞讬诐 注讚讜转谉 拽讬讬诪转 讜砖讗专 讻诇 讛讝讜讙讜转 砖讜讗诇讬谉 讗讜转谉 专讗砖讬 讚讘专讬诐 诇讗 砖讛讬讜 爪专讬讻讬诐 诇讛诐 讗诇讗 讻讚讬 砖诇讗 讬爪讗讜 讘驻讞讬 谞驻砖 讘砖讘讬诇 砖讬讛讜 专讙讬诇讬诐 诇讘讜讗

And after they finish hearing the first witness鈥檚 testimony, they would bring in the second witness and examine him in a similar manner. If their statements match, their testimony is accepted and the court sanctifies the New Moon. And the court then asks all the other pairs of witnesses certain general matters, without probing into all the details. They do this not because they require the additional testimony, but so that the witnesses should not leave disappointed, and so that the witnesses should be accustomed to coming to testify, and will not hesitate to come the next time, when they might be needed.

讙诪壮 讛讬讬谞讜 诇驻谞讬 讛讞诪讛 讛讬讬谞讜 诇爪驻讜谞讛 讛讬讬谞讜 诇讗讞专 讛讞诪讛 讛讬讬谞讜 诇讚专讜诪讛 讗诪专 讗讘讬讬 驻讙讬诪转讛 诇驻谞讬 讛讞诪讛 讗讜 诇讗讞专 讛讞诪讛 讗诐 讗诪专 诇驻谞讬 讛讞诪讛 诇讗 讗诪专 讻诇讜诐

GEMARA: The Gemara asks: In front of the sun is the same as to its north, and behind the sun is the same as to its south. Why would the court ask the witnesses both sets of questions? Abaye said: The first question does not refer to the moon鈥檚 position relative to the sun, but to the concave side of the moon, whether it was before the sun, pointing toward it, or behind the sun, pointing away from it. If he said that it was before the sun, he has said nothing.

讚讗诪专 专讘讬 讬讜讞谞谉 诪讗讬 讚讻转讬讘 讛诪砖诇 讜驻讞讚 注诪讜 注讜砖讛 砖诇讜诐 讘诪专讜诪讬讜 诪注讜诇诐 诇讗 专讗转讛 讞诪讛 驻讙讬诪转讛 砖诇 诇讘谞讛 讜诇讗 驻讙讬诪转讛 砖诇 拽砖转 驻讙讬诪转讛 砖诇 诇讘谞讛 讚讞诇砖讛 讚注转讛 驻讙讬诪转讛 砖诇 拽砖转 讚诇讗 诇讬诪专讜 注讜讘讚讬 讛讞诪讛

As Rabbi Yo岣nan said: What is the meaning of that which is written: 鈥淒ominion and fear are with Him, He makes peace in His high places鈥 (Job 25:2)? It means that the sun has never seen the concave side of the new moon, nor has it ever seen the concave side of a rainbow, both of which always face away from the sun. It has never seen the concave side of the moon, as the moon would be distressed by a sense of inadequacy if its concave side faced the sun. Therefore the sun sees only the full roundness of its convex side. In this way He makes peace in His high places between the sun and the moon. Furthermore, the sun has never seen the concave side of a rainbow, so that the worshippers of the sun not say, as though the sun is a god,

Masechet Rosh Hashana 聽is dedicated anonymously in honor of聽Rabbanit Michelle Farber whose dedication to learning and teaching the daf continues to inspire so many people around the world.

This month's shiurim are dedicated by Tamara Katz in memory of her maternal grandparents, Sarah bat Chaya v'Tzvi Hirsh and Meir Leib ben Esther v'Harav Yehoshua Zelig whose yahrzeits are both this month.

And in memory of Dr. Chaya R. Gorsetman, Chaya bat Esriel V鈥橬aomi z鈥檒 during the period of shloshim by her husband, children and grandchildren.

  • This month's learning is dedicated by Debbie and Yossi Gevir to Rabbanit Michelle and the Hadran Zoom group for their kindness, support, and care during a medically challenging year.

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Rosh Hashanah 23

The William Davidson Talmud | Powered by Sefaria

Rosh Hashanah 23

诇诪讬讟注讬 讗诪专讬 讛讗讬 讞住专 讛讜讗 讜讛讗讬 讚诇讗 注讘讬讚 诪讗转诪讜诇 诪砖讜诐 讚诇讗 讗驻砖专 讗讜 讚诇诪讗 诪诇讗 讛讜讗 讜讘讝诪谞讜 注讘讚讜

to err. They will be unsure how to interpret the lighting of the torches, as they will say: Perhaps this month is deficient, i.e., of twenty-nine days, and the reason that the torch sequence was not performed yesterday, on Shabbat eve, is due to the fact that it was impossible to do so on Shabbat. Or perhaps it is a full, thirty-day month, and they are performing the sequence at its proper time. Therefore, the Sages instituted that the torches should be lit only after deficient months, and the absence of this signal means that the month was a full one.

讜诇讬注讘讬讚 讘讬谉 讗诪诇讗 讘讬谉 讗讞住专 讜讻讬 诪拽诇注 专讗砖 讞讚砖 讘注专讘 砖讘转 诇讗 诇讬注讘讬讚 讻诇诇 讜讻讬讜谉 讚诇讗 注讘讚讬谞谉 诪讜爪讗讬 砖讘转 讜注讘讚讬谞谉 讗诪诇讗 诪讬讚注 讬讚注讬 讚讞住专 讛讜讗

The Gemara suggests: And let them perform the ceremony both for a full, thirty-day month and for a deficient one, and when the New Moon occurs on Shabbat eve, in which case they would have to light the torches after Shabbat, let them not perform it at all. And since the torches are not lit this month at the conclusion of Shabbat, and one normally performs the sequence for a full month, people will know that the month is deficient. In this manner, it should be possible to light the torches for all the months, with this one exception.

讗驻讬诇讜 讛讻讬 讗转讜 诇诪讬讟注讬 讗诪专讬 讛讗讬 诪诇讗 讛讜讗 讜讛讗讬 讚诇讗 注讘讚讬 讗讬转谞讜住讬 讛讜讗 讚讗讬转谞讜住讬

The Gemara answers: Even so, people might come to err, as they will say: This month is indeed full, and the reason that they are not performing the ceremony is that they were subject to circumstances beyond their control. Therefore, there might still be confusion as to the date of the New Moon that month.

讜诇讬注讘讬讚 讗诪诇讗 讜诇讗 诇讬注讘讬讚 讗讞住专 讻诇诇 讗诪专 讗讘讬讬 诪砖讜诐 讘讬讟讜诇 诪诇讗讻讛 诇注诐 砖谞讬 讬诪讬诐

The Gemara asks: And let them perform the ceremony of torches only for a full, thirty-day month, and not perform it for a deficient month at all, in which case there will never be room for error. Abaye said: This cannot be done, because this would lead to a two-day suspension of work for the people, as it was customary to refrain from certain types of work on the New Moon. After a full month there will always be a suspension of work for two days, as the people must abstain from work on the thirtieth of the month in case it is declared the New Moon. However, if the torches are lit for a deficient month, then at least in that case people could return to work the following day. Therefore, the Sages instituted that the torches are lit only for a deficient month.

讻讬爪讚 讛讬讜 诪砖讬讗讬谉 诪砖讜讗讜转 诪讘讬讗讬谉 讻诇讜谞住讜转 讻讜壮 讗诪专 专讘 讬讛讜讚讛 讗专讘注讛 诪讬谞讬 讗专讝讬诐 讛谉 讗专讝 拽转专讜诐 注抓 砖诪谉 讜讘专讜砖 拽转专讜诐 讗诪专 专讘 讗讚专讗 讚讘讬 专讘讬 砖讬诇讗 讗诪专讬 诪讘诇讬讙讗 讜讗诪专讬 诇讛 讝讜 讙讜诇诪讬砖

搂 The mishna taught: How would they light the torches? They would bring long poles [kelonsot] of cedar and other materials that burn well, tie them all together, and set them on fire. Rav Yehuda said that there are four types of cedar: Cedar, katrom, pinewood, and cypress. With regard to the identification of the tree called katrom, Rav said: This is the addera tree. In the school of Rabbi Sheila, they say: This is the mavliga tree. And some say it is the gulmish tree.

讜驻诇讬讙讗 讚专讘讛 讘专 专讘 讛讜谞讗 讚讗诪专 专讘讛 讘专 专讘 讛讜谞讗 讗诪专讬 讘讬 专讘 注砖专讛 诪讬谞讬 讗专讝讬诐 讛诐 砖谞讗诪专 讗转谉 讘诪讚讘专 讗专讝 砖讟讛 讜讛讚住 讜注抓 砖诪谉 讗砖讬诐 讘注专讘讛 讘专讜砖 转讚讛专 讜转讗砖讜专 讬讞讚讜 讗专讝 讗专讝讗 砖讟讛 转讜专谞讬转讗 讛讚住 讗住讗 注抓 砖诪谉 讗驻专住诪讗 讘专讜砖 讘专转讗 转讚讛专 砖讗讙讗 转讗砖讜专 砖讜专讬讘谞讗

The Gemara comments: And this opinion of Rav Yehuda disagrees with that of Rabba bar Rav Huna. As Rabba bar Rav Huna said that they say in the school of Rav: There are ten species of cedar, as it is stated: 鈥淚 will plant in the wilderness the cedar, the acacia tree and myrtle and the pine tree; I will set in the desert cypress, the plane tree, and the larch together鈥 (Isaiah 41:19). The seven species mentioned in this verse are all types of cedars. The Gemara proceeds to identify these trees by their Aramaic names: Cedar is arza, acacia is tornita, myrtle is asa, pine tree is afarsema, cypress is berata, maple is shaga, and box tree is shorivna.

讛谞讬 砖讘注讛 讛讜讜 讻讬 讗转讗 专讘 讚讬诪讬 讗诪专 讛讜住讬驻讜 注诇讬讛诐 讗诇讜谞讬诐 讗诇诪讜谞讬诐 讗诇诪讜讙讬谉 讗诇讜谞讬诐 讘讜讟诪讬 讗诇诪讜谞讬诐 讘诇讜讟讬 讗诇诪讜讙讬谉 讻住讬转讗 讗讬讻讗 讚讗诪专讬 讗专讜谞讬诐 注专诪讜谞讬诐 讗诇诪讜讙讬谉 讗专讜谞讬诐 注专讬 注专诪讜谞讬诐 讚讜诇讘讬 讗诇诪讜讙讬谉 讻住讬转讗

The Gemara asks: Even if we count all the names in the verse, these are only seven, not ten. When Rav Dimi came from Eretz Israel to Babylonia, he said: They added to them three more types of cedar: Terebinth, oak, and coral wood. The Gemara identifies them: Terebinth is the tree called butmei, oak is balutei, and coral wood is kasita. There are those who say that the additional three types are: Bay tree, plane tree, and coral wood. And their Aramaic names are as follows: Bay tree is arei, plane is dulvei, and coral wood is kasita.

讜爪讬 讗讚讬专 诇讗 讬注讘专谞讜 讗诪专 专讘 讝讜 讘讜专谞讬 讙讚讜诇讛

搂 Apropos coral, the Gemara cites a relevant verse: 鈥淣either shall a tzi adir be able to cross it鈥 (Isaiah 33:21), i.e., it will not be able to traverse the river that will issue forth from the Temple in the future. What is this tzi adir? Rav said: This is a great ship [burnei] used to collect coral from the sea.

讛讬讻讬 注讘讚讜 诪讬讬转讜 砖讬转 讗诇驻讬 讙讘专讬 讘转专讬住专 讬专讞讬 砖转讗 讜讗诪专讬 诇讛 转专讬住专 讗诇驻讬 讙讘专讬 讘砖讬转讗 讬专讞讬 砖转讗 讜讟注谞讬 诇讛 讞诇讗 注讚 讚砖讻谞讗 讜谞讞讬转 讘专 讗诪讜专讗讬 讜拽讟专 讗讟讜谞讬 讚讻讬转谞讗 讘讻住讬转讗 讜拽讟专 诇讛讜 讘住驻讬谞转讗 讜谞讟诇讬 讞诇讗 讜砖讚讜 诇讘专讗讬 讜讻诪讛 讚诪讚诇讬讗 注拽专讗 讜诪转讬讗

The Gemara explains: How do they perform this collection of coral? They bring six thousand men to work for twelve months of the year, and some say they bring twelve thousand men for six months of the year. And they load the ship with sand until it sinks to the bottom of the sea. A diver descends and ties flax ropes around the coral and ties the other ends of the ropes to the boat. And then they take the sand and cast it overboard, and the boat rises once again to the surface. And as it rises, it uproots and brings the coral with it.

讜诪讞诇讬祝 注诇 讞讚 转专讬谉 讘讻住驻讗 转诇转 驻专讜讜转讗 讛讜讬讬谉 转专转讬 讘讬 讗专诪讗讬 讜讞讚讗 讚讘讬 驻专住讗讬 讚讘讬 讗专诪讗讬 诪住拽谉 讻住讬转讗 讚讘讬 驻专住讗讬 诪住拽谉 诪专讙谞讬讬转讗 讜诪拽专讬讬讗 驻专讜讜转讗 讚诪砖诪讛讬讙

The Gemara comments: And this coral is so precious that it is exchanged for twice its weight in silver. The Gemara further notes: There are three ports in those places. Two belong to the Romans [Armai], and one belongs to the Persians. In the one belonging to the Romans, they raise up coral, whereas in the one belonging to the Persians, they raise up pearls. And the Persian ports are called royal ports.

讗诪专 专讘讬 讬讜讞谞谉 讻诇 砖讬讟讛 讜砖讬讟讛 砖谞讟诇讜 讙讜讬诐 诪讬专讜砖诇讬诐 注转讬讚 讛拽讚讜砖 讘专讜讱 讛讜讗 诇讛讞讝讬专谉 诇讛 砖谞讗诪专 讗转谉 讘诪讚讘专 讗专讝 砖讟讛 讜讗讬谉 诪讚讘专 讗诇讗 讬专讜砖诇讬诐 砖谞讗诪专 爪讬讜谉 诪讚讘专 讛讬转讛 讜讙讜壮

With regard to the aforementioned verse, Rabbi Yo岣nan said: Each and every acacia tree that the gentiles took from Jerusalem will be returned to the city by the Holy One, Blessed be He, as it is stated: 鈥淚 will plant in the wilderness the cedar, the acacia tree and myrtle and the oil tree; I will set in the desert cypress, the plane tree and the larch together鈥 (Isaiah 41:19). And the term wilderness is referring to nothing other than Jerusalem, as it is stated: 鈥淶ion is become a wilderness, Jerusalem a desolation鈥 (Isaiah 64:9).

讜讗诪专 专讘讬 讬讜讞谞谉 讻诇 讛诇讜诪讚 转讜专讛 讜讗讬谞讜 诪诇诪讚讛 讚讜诪讛 诇讛讚住 讘诪讚讘专 讗讬讻讗 讚讗诪专讬 讻诇 讛诇讜诪讚 转讜专讛 讜诪诇诪讚讛 讘诪拽讜诐 砖讗讬谉 转诇诪讬讚讬 讞讻诪讬诐 讚讜诪讛 诇讛讚住 讘诪讚讘专 讚讞讘讬讘

And Rabbi Yo岣nan also said: Anyone who studies Torah but does not teach it to others is likened to a myrtle in the wilderness. The myrtle has a pleasant fragrance, but there is nobody to enjoy it in the wilderness. There are those who say a different version of this statement: Anyone who studies Torah and teaches it to others in a place where there are no other Torah scholars is likened to a myrtle in the wilderness, which is especially precious and thoroughly enjoyed by those who find it.

讜讗诪专 专讘讬 讬讜讞谞谉 讗讜讬 诇讛诐 诇讙讜讬诐 砖讗讬谉 诇讛诐 转拽谞讛 砖谞讗诪专 转讞转 讛谞讞砖转 讗讘讬讗 讝讛讘 讜转讞转 讛讘专讝诇 讗讘讬讗 讻住祝 讜转讞转 讛注爪讬诐 谞讞砖转 讜转讞转 讛讗讘谞讬诐 讘专讝诇 转讞转 专讘讬 注拽讬讘讗 讜讞讘讬专讬讜 诪讗讬 诪讘讬讗讬谉 讜注诇讬讛诐 讛讜讗 讗讜诪专 讜谞拽讬转讬 讚诪诐 诇讗 谞拽讬转讬

And Rabbi Yo岣nan further said: Woe to the nations of the world, as they have no remedy for the sins they committed against the Jewish people, as it is stated: 鈥淔or brass I will bring gold, and for iron I will bring silver, and for wood brass, and for stones iron鈥 (Isaiah 60:17). For all things there is a remedy, as one can always exchange them for an item of equivalent or greater value. However, for Rabbi Akiva and his colleagues, whom the nations put to death, what can one bring to atone for their sin? And with regard to them it is stated: And I will hold them as innocent, but for their blood I will not hold them innocent (see Joel 4:21).

讜诪讗讬谉 讛讬讜 诪砖讬讗讬谉 诪砖讜讗讜转 讻讜壮 讜诪讘讬转 讘诇转讬谉 诪讗讬 讘讬转 讘诇转讬谉 讗诪专 专讘

搂 The mishna states: And from which mountains would they light the torches? From the Mount of Olives to Sartava, and from Sartava to Gerofina, and from Gerofina to 岣vran, and from 岣vran to Beit Baltin. And from Beit Baltin they would not light torches in any other pre-established places. The Gemara asks: What is this place called Beit Baltin? Rav said:

讝讜 讘讬专诐

This is the town called Biram.

诪讗讬 讙讜诇讛 讗诪专 专讘 讬讜住祝 讝讜 驻讜诪讘讚讬转讗 诪讗讬 讻诪讚讜专转 讛讗砖 转谞讗 讻诇 讗讞讚 讜讗讞讚 谞讜讟诇 讗讘讜拽讛 讘讬讚讜 讜注讜诇讛 诇专讗砖 讙讙讜

搂 The mishna taught: He would wave the torch back and forth and up and down, until he would see the entire Diaspora before him alight like one large bonfire. The Gemara asks: What is the meaning in this context of the term Diaspora, which certainly cannot be referring to the entire Diaspora across the world? Rav Yosef said: This is referring to the city of Pumbedita in Babylonia. The Gemara further asks. What is the meaning of the phrase: Like one large bonfire? It is taught in a baraita: Each and every individual would take a torch in his hand and ascend to the top of his roof and light it. In this manner, the entire city would present the appearance of a large bonfire.

转谞讬讗 专讘讬 砖诪注讜谉 讘谉 讗诇注讝专 讗讜诪专 讗祝 讞专讬诐 讜讻讬讬专 讜讙讚专 讜讞讘专讜转讬讛 讗讬讻讗 讚讗诪专讬 讘讬谞讬 讜讘讬谞讬 讛讜讜 拽讬讬诪讬 讗讬讻讗 讚讗诪专讬 诇讛讱 讙讬住讗 讚讗专抓 讬砖专讗诇 讛讜讜 拽讬讬诪讬 诪专 讞砖讬讘 讚讛讗讬 讙讬住讗 讜诪专 讞砖讬讘 讚讛讗讬 讙讬住讗

It is taught in a baraita that Rabbi Shimon ben Elazar says: Torches were also lit at 岣rim, and Kayar and Geder, and its neighboring places. There are those who say that the places added by Rabbi Shimon ben Elazar are located between the places mentioned in the mishna, whereas there are those who say that they are located on the other side of Eretz Yisrael, on the side nearer Babylonia. The Sage in the mishna enumerates the places found on one side of Eretz Yisrael, whereas the Sage in the baraita enumerates the places found on the other side.

讗诪专 专讘讬 讬讜讞谞谉 讘讬谉 讻诇 讗讞转 讜讗讞转 砖诪讜谞讛 驻专住讗讜转 讻诪讛 讛讜讜 诇讛讜 转诇转讬谉 讜转专转讬谉 讜讛讗 讛讗讬讚谞讗 讟讜讘讗 讛讜讜 讗诪专 讗讘讬讬 讗住转转讜诪讬 讗住转转讜诐 诇讛讜 讚专讻讬

Rabbi Yo岣nan said: Between each and every one of the stations there was a distance of eight parasangs. The Gemara asks: How many parasangs are these in total? Thirty-two parasangs. The Gemara further asks: Isn鈥檛 the distance from the Mount of Olives to Beit Baltin now much greater than thirty-two parasangs? Abaye said: The direct routes have become blocked, and therefore people nowadays must use indirect routes, making the journey much longer.

讚讻转讬讘 诇讻谉 讛谞谞讬 砖讱 讗转 讚专讻讱 讘住讬专讬诐 专讘 谞讞诪谉 讘专 讬爪讞拽 讗诪专 诪讛讻讗 讚讻转讬讘 谞转讬讘讜转讬 注讜讛

The Gemara provides a source for this claim. As it is written: 鈥淭herefore, behold, I will hedge up your way with thorns, and make a wall against her, that she shall not find her paths鈥 (Hosea 2:8). Rav Na岣an bar Yitz岣k said: It is derived from here, as it is written: 鈥淗e has made my paths crooked鈥 (Lamentations 3:9), which indicates that over the course of the exile the routes have become longer.

诪转谞讬壮 讞爪专 讙讚讜诇讛 讛讬转讛 讘讬专讜砖诇讬诐 讜讘讬转 讬注讝拽 讛讬转讛 谞拽专讗转 讜诇砖诐 讻诇 讛注讚讬诐 诪转讻谞住讬谉 讜讘讬转 讚讬谉 讘讜讚拽讬谉 讗讜转诐 砖诐 讜住注讜讚讜转 讙讚讜诇讜转 注讜砖讬谉 诇讛诐 讘砖讘讬诇 砖讬讛讜 专讙讬诇讬谉 诇讘讗

MISHNA: There was a large courtyard in Jerusalem, which was called Beit Ya鈥檢ek. And there all the witnesses coming to testify about the new moon would gather, and the court of seventy-one judges would examine them there. And they would prepare great feasts for them, so that they would be willing and accustomed to coming and submitting their testimony.

讘专讗砖讜谞讛 诇讗 讛讬讜 讝讝讬谉 诪砖诐 讻诇 讛讬讜诐 讛转拽讬谉 专讘谉 讙诪诇讬讗诇 讛讝拽谉 砖讬讛讜 诪讛诇讻讬谉 讗诇驻讬诐 讗诪讛 诇讻诇 专讜讞

Initially, when witnesses would arrive on Shabbat from a distant place, they would not move from there all day, as they had left their Shabbat limit, and it was consequently prohibited for them to walk more than four cubits in any direction once they had completed their mission. Concerned that this limitation would discourage witnesses from coming, Rabban Gamliel the Elder instituted that the witnesses be permitted to walk two thousand cubits in each direction.

讜诇讗 讗诇讜 讘诇讘讚 讗诇讗 讗祝 讞讻诪讛 讛讘讗讛 诇讬讬诇讚 讜讛讘讗 诇讛爪讬诇 诪谉 讛讚诇讬拽讛 讜诪谉 讛讙讬讬住 讜诪谉 讛谞讛专 讜诪谉 讛诪驻讜诇转 讛专讬 讗诇讜 讻讗谞砖讬 讛注讬专 讜讬砖 诇讛诐 讗诇驻讬诐 诇讻诇 专讜讞

The mishna continues: And not only these witnesses are granted two thousand cubits from their new place, but this applies also to a midwife who comes to deliver a child, and one who comes to rescue Jews from a fire, from an invasion of gentile troops, from a flooding river, or from the collapse of a building. All these are considered like the inhabitants of the city where they arrive, and therefore they have two thousand cubits in each direction.

讙诪壮 讗讬讘注讬讗 诇讛讜 讘讬转 讬注讝拽 转谞谉 讗讜 讘讬转 讬讝拽 转谞谉 讘讬转 讬注讝拽 转谞谉 诇讬砖谞讗 诪注诇讬讗 讛讜讗 讚讻转讬讘 讜讬注讝拽讛讜 讜讬住拽诇讛讜 讗讜 讚诇诪讗 讘讬转 讬讝拽 转谞谉 诇讬砖谞讗 讚爪注专讗 讛讜讗 讻讚讻转讬讘 讜讛讜讗 讗住讜专 讘讗讝讬拽讬诐

GEMARA: A dilemma was raised before the Sages: What is the correct reading of the mishna? Did we learn: Beit Ya鈥檢ek, or did we learn: Beit Yazek? The Gemara explains the difference between these two versions. Did we learn: Beit Ya鈥檢ek, which is an lofty term, indicating that it was a fine place where the witnesses had a pleasant experience, as it is written: 鈥淎nd he dug it [vaye鈥檃zzekehu] and cleared it of stones鈥 (Isaiah 5:2), which shows that the root a-z-k denotes improvement? Or perhaps we learned: Beit Yazek, which is a term of distress, reflecting the fact that the witnesses who arrived there on Shabbat were not permitted to move from there all day, as it is written: 鈥淎nd he was bound with chains [bazikim]鈥 (Jeremiah 40:1).

讗诪专 讗讘讬讬 转讗 砖诪注 住注讜讚讜转 讙讚讜诇讜转 讛讬讜 注讜砖讬谉 诇讛诐 砖诐 讻讚讬 砖讬讛讜 专讙讬诇讬诐 诇讘讜讗 讚诇诪讗 转专转讬 讛讜讜 注讘讚讬 讘讛讜

Abaye said: Come and hear the mishna: They would prepare great feasts for them there, so that they would be accustomed to come and submit their testimony. This indicates that the witnesses were made welcome, in accordance with the name Beit Ya鈥檢ek. The Gemara rejects this argument: Perhaps they performed two practices for them, i.e., they provided feasts but they also restricted their movement. Therefore, there is no proof from the mishna for this version of the name.

诪转谞讬壮 讻讬爪讚 讘讜讚拽讬谉 讗转 讛注讚讬诐 讝讜讙 砖讘讗 专讗砖讜谉 讘讜讚拽讬谉 讗讜转讜 专讗砖讜谉 讜诪讻谞讬住讬谉 讗转 讛讙讚讜诇 砖讘讛谉 讜讗讜诪专讬谉 诇讜 讗诪讜专 讻讬爪讚 专讗讬转 讗转 讛诇讘谞讛 诇驻谞讬 讛讞诪讛 讗讜 诇讗讞专 讛讞诪讛 诇爪驻讜谞讛 讗讜 诇讚专讜诪讛 讻诪讛 讛讬讛 讙讘讜讛 讜诇讗讬谉 讛讬讛 谞讜讟讛 讜讻诪讛 讛讬讛 专讞讘 讗诐 讗诪专 诇驻谞讬 讛讞诪讛 诇讗 讗诪专 讻诇讜诐

MISHNA: How do they examine the witnesses who come to testify about the new moon? They deal with them in order, as the pair of witnesses that arrives first they examine first. They bring in the greater of the two witnesses, and they say to him: Say how you saw the moon. Was it in front of the sun or behind the sun? To its north or to its south? How high was the moon over the horizon, and in which direction did it tilt? And how wide was it? If, for example, he said that he saw the moon in front of the sun, he has not said anything of substance, as this is impossible and therefore he is either mistaken or lying.

讜讗讞专 讻讱 讛讬讜 诪讻谞讬住讬谉 讗转 讛砖谞讬 讜讘讜讚拽讬谉 讗讜转讜 讗诐 谞诪爪讗讜 讚讘专讬讛诐 诪讻讜讜谞讬诐 注讚讜转谉 拽讬讬诪转 讜砖讗专 讻诇 讛讝讜讙讜转 砖讜讗诇讬谉 讗讜转谉 专讗砖讬 讚讘专讬诐 诇讗 砖讛讬讜 爪专讬讻讬诐 诇讛诐 讗诇讗 讻讚讬 砖诇讗 讬爪讗讜 讘驻讞讬 谞驻砖 讘砖讘讬诇 砖讬讛讜 专讙讬诇讬诐 诇讘讜讗

And after they finish hearing the first witness鈥檚 testimony, they would bring in the second witness and examine him in a similar manner. If their statements match, their testimony is accepted and the court sanctifies the New Moon. And the court then asks all the other pairs of witnesses certain general matters, without probing into all the details. They do this not because they require the additional testimony, but so that the witnesses should not leave disappointed, and so that the witnesses should be accustomed to coming to testify, and will not hesitate to come the next time, when they might be needed.

讙诪壮 讛讬讬谞讜 诇驻谞讬 讛讞诪讛 讛讬讬谞讜 诇爪驻讜谞讛 讛讬讬谞讜 诇讗讞专 讛讞诪讛 讛讬讬谞讜 诇讚专讜诪讛 讗诪专 讗讘讬讬 驻讙讬诪转讛 诇驻谞讬 讛讞诪讛 讗讜 诇讗讞专 讛讞诪讛 讗诐 讗诪专 诇驻谞讬 讛讞诪讛 诇讗 讗诪专 讻诇讜诐

GEMARA: The Gemara asks: In front of the sun is the same as to its north, and behind the sun is the same as to its south. Why would the court ask the witnesses both sets of questions? Abaye said: The first question does not refer to the moon鈥檚 position relative to the sun, but to the concave side of the moon, whether it was before the sun, pointing toward it, or behind the sun, pointing away from it. If he said that it was before the sun, he has said nothing.

讚讗诪专 专讘讬 讬讜讞谞谉 诪讗讬 讚讻转讬讘 讛诪砖诇 讜驻讞讚 注诪讜 注讜砖讛 砖诇讜诐 讘诪专讜诪讬讜 诪注讜诇诐 诇讗 专讗转讛 讞诪讛 驻讙讬诪转讛 砖诇 诇讘谞讛 讜诇讗 驻讙讬诪转讛 砖诇 拽砖转 驻讙讬诪转讛 砖诇 诇讘谞讛 讚讞诇砖讛 讚注转讛 驻讙讬诪转讛 砖诇 拽砖转 讚诇讗 诇讬诪专讜 注讜讘讚讬 讛讞诪讛

As Rabbi Yo岣nan said: What is the meaning of that which is written: 鈥淒ominion and fear are with Him, He makes peace in His high places鈥 (Job 25:2)? It means that the sun has never seen the concave side of the new moon, nor has it ever seen the concave side of a rainbow, both of which always face away from the sun. It has never seen the concave side of the moon, as the moon would be distressed by a sense of inadequacy if its concave side faced the sun. Therefore the sun sees only the full roundness of its convex side. In this way He makes peace in His high places between the sun and the moon. Furthermore, the sun has never seen the concave side of a rainbow, so that the worshippers of the sun not say, as though the sun is a god,

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