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Today's Daf Yomi

November 10, 2021 | ו׳ בכסלו תשפ״ב

Masechet Rosh Hashanah is dedicated anonymously in honor of Rabbanit Michelle Farber whose dedication to learning and teaching the daf continues to inspire so many people around the world.

This month's shiurim are dedicated by the Hadran Women of Minneapolis in memory of Monica Howell z"l.

This month's shiurim are also dedicated in memory of Dr. Chaya R. Gorsetman, Chaya bat Esriel V’Naomi z’l during the period of shloshim by her husband, children, and grandchildren.

  • This month's learning is dedicated by Debbie and Yossi Gevir to Rabbanit Michelle and the Hadran Zoom group for their kindness, support, and care during a medically challenging year.

Rosh Hashanah 32

Today’s daf is sponsored by Barbara Goldschlag for a refuah shleima for Jeremy, Yirmiyahu ben Baila Frumit.

Today’s daf is also sponsored by Rochie Sommer In loving memory of her Zayde, Aryeh Leib Ben Tzadok whose yahrzeit was on 30 Cheshvan. “I was not zoche to meet him. In his small neighborhood in Brooklyn, he was a role model for his community in his shul and through the standards he kept and his generosity to those in need amongst those who shopped at his butcher store. My mother, aunt and uncle have raised my Zayde’s next generations with a love of Judaism and Eretz Yisrael.”

In the Mussaf prayer of Rosh Hashanah, there are 9 blessings. The three middle blessings include one for kedushat hayom, the sanctity of the day, one for zichronot, remembrance and one for shofarot. There is a debate between Rabbi Akiva and Rabbi Yochanan ben Nuri regarding the blessing of malchuyot, kingship of God, whether it is combined with the third blessing, kedushat HaShem, sanctity of God or with the fourth blessing, sanctity of the day. They also debate whether or not the shofar is blown with malchuyot. What is the source in the Torah for the first three blessings and for malchuyot, zichronot and shofarot? Rabbi Akiva says one needs ten verses for each of the middle blessings while Rabbi Yochanan ben Nuri says only three. Only verses that are positive can be used and not ones speaking of bad times for the Jews. Remembrance of individuals is not used, only of the community. The ten verses are made up of 3 each from Torah, Prophets and Writings, and the final one from the Torah – or is it from the Prophets? The Gemara continues to analyze which verses can be used and which cannot. Shofar is blown in Mussaf while Hallel is recited by the chazan of Shacharit. Why? One is not allowed to do something that is forbidden on Yom Tov in order to blow the shofar, such as bring it from outside techum or climb up a tree to get it. Children are allowed to blow the shofar on Rosh Hashanah to practice.

וקבעיה רביה בשמיה

and his teacher established it in his name. Consequently, it is counted as one of Rabban Yoḥanan ben Zakkai’s ordinances.

מתני׳ סדר ברכות אומר אבות וגבורות וקדושת השם וכולל מלכיות עמהן ואינו תוקע

MISHNA: The order of the blessings of the additional prayer on Rosh HaShana is as follows: One recites the blessing of the Patriarchs, the blessing of God’s Mighty Deeds, and the blessing of the Sanctification of God’s Name, all of which are recited all year long. And one includes the blessing of Kingship, containing many biblical verses on that theme, with them, i.e., in the blessing of the Sanctification of God’s Name, and he does not sound the shofar after it.

קדושת היום ותוקע זכרונות ותוקע שופרות ותוקע ואומר עבודה והודאה וברכת כהנים דברי רבי יוחנן בן נורי

Next, one adds a special blessing for the Sanctification of the Day, and sounds the shofar after it; followed by the blessing of Remembrances, which contains many biblical verses addressing that theme, and sounds the shofar after it; and recites the blessing of Shofarot, which includes verses that mention the shofar, and sounds the shofar after it. And he then returns to the regular Amida prayer and recites the blessing of God’s Service and the blessing of Thanksgiving and the Priestly Blessing. This is the statement of Rabbi Yoḥanan ben Nuri.

אמר לו רבי עקיבא אם אינו תוקע למלכיות למה הוא מזכיר אלא אומר אבות וגבורות וקדושת השם וכולל מלכיות עם קדושת היום ותוקע זכרונות ותוקע שופרות ותוקע ואומר עבודה והודאה וברכת כהנים

Rabbi Akiva said to him: If one does not sound the shofar for the blessing of Kingship, why does he mention it? Rather, the order of the blessings is as follows: One recites the blessing of the Patriarchs and that of God’s Mighty Deeds and that of the Sanctification of God’s Name. He subsequently includes the blessing of Kingship in the blessing of the Sanctification of the Day, and sounds the shofar. Next he recites the blessing of Remembrances, and sounds the shofar after it, and the blessing of Shofarot and sounds the shofar after it. He then recites the blessing of God’s Service and the blessing of Thanksgiving and the Priestly Blessing.

גמ׳ אמר לו רבי עקיבא אם אינו תוקע למלכיות למה הוא מזכיר למה הוא מזכיר רחמנא אמר אידכר אלא למה עשר לימא תשע דהואיל ואשתני אשתני

GEMARA: The mishna taught that Rabbi Akiva said to him: If one does not sound the shofar for the blessing of Kingship, why does he mention it? The Gemara expresses surprise at this question: Why does he mention it? The Merciful One states that one should mention it. It is a mitzva to recite the blessing of Kingship, regardless of the sounding of the shofar. Rather, this is what Rabbi Akiva meant: Why does one mention ten verses of Kingship, as in the other blessings? Let him recite nine verses or fewer. Since the blessing is different in that it is not followed by shofar blasts, let it also be different with regard to the number of verses it includes.

תנו רבנן מנין שאומרים אבות שנאמר הבו לה׳ בני אלים ומנין שאומרים גבורות שנאמר הבו לה׳ כבוד ועוז ומנין שאומרים קדושות שנאמר הבו לה׳ כבוד שמו השתחוו לה׳ בהדרת קדש

§ The Sages taught in a baraita: From where is it derived that one recites the blessing of the Patriarchs? As it is stated: “Ascribe to the Lord, O you sons of the mighty” (Psalms 29:1), which is interpreted to mean that one should mention before God the greatness of the mighty, i.e., the righteous Patriarchs. And from where is it derived that one recites the blessing of God’s Mighty Deeds? As it is stated: “Ascribe to the Lord glory and strength” (Psalms 29:1). And from where is it derived that one recites the blessing of the Sanctification of God’s Name? As it is stated: “Ascribe to the Lord the glory due to His name; worship the Lord in the beauty of sanctity” (Psalms 29:2).

ומנין שאומרים מלכיות זכרונות ושופרות רבי אליעזר אומר דכתיב שבתון זכרון תרועה מקרא קדש שבתון זה קדושת היום זכרון אלו זכרונות תרועה אלו שופרות מקרא קדש קדשהו בעשיית מלאכה

And from where is it derived that on Rosh HaShana one recites the blessings of Kingship, Remembrances, and Shofarot? Rabbi Eliezer says: As it is written: “In the seventh month, on the first day of the month, you shall have a solemn rest, a memorial of blasts, a sacred convocation” (Leviticus 23:24). This verse is interpreted as follows: “A solemn rest,” this is referring to the blessing of the Sanctification of the Day; “a memorial,” this is Remembrances; “blasts,” this is Shofarot; “a sacred convocation” this means sanctify it by abstaining from performing prohibited labor.

אמר לו רבי עקיבא מפני מה לא נאמר שבתון שבות שבו פתח הכתוב תחילה אלא שבתון קדשהו בעשיית מלאכה זכרון אלו זכרונות תרועה אלו שופרות מקרא קדש זו קדושת היום

Rabbi Akiva said to Rabbi Eliezer: For what reason isn’t it stated instead that the phrase “solemn rest” teaches that one must rest by abstaining from prohibited labor, as this is the term with which the verse opened first. It stands to reason that the verse would begin with the main issue, i.e., that this day is a Festival on which performing labor is prohibited. Rather, the verse should be explained as follows: “A solemn rest,” sanctify it by abstaining from performing prohibited labor; “a memorial,” this is Remembrances; “blasts,” this is Shofarot; “a sacred convocation,” this is the Sanctification of the Day.

מנין שאומרים מלכיות תניא רבי אומר אני ה׳ אלהיכם ובחדש השביעי זו מלכות

From where is it derived that that one recites the blessing of Kingship? It is taught in a baraita that Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi says: One verse states: “I am the Lord your God” (Leviticus 23:22), which is referring to God’s Kingship over the world; and two verses later it states: “In the seventh month” (Leviticus 23:24). This teaches that God’s Kingship must be mentioned on Rosh HaShana.

רבי יוסי בר יהודה אומר אינו צריך הרי הוא אומר והיו לכם לזכרון לפני אלהיכם שאין תלמוד לומר אני ה׳ אלהיכם ומה תלמוד לומר אני ה׳ אלהיכם זה בנה אב לכל מקום שנאמר בו זכרונות יהיו מלכיות עמהן

Rabbi Yosei bar Yehuda says: This is not necessary, as the verse states: “Also in the day of your gladness, and in your appointed seasons, and in your New Moons, you shall blow with the trumpets over your burnt-offerings, and over the sacrifices of your peace-offerings; that they may be to you for a remembrance before your God: I am the Lord your God” (Numbers 10:10). As there is no need for the verse to state: “I am the Lord your God,” and therefore what is the meaning when the verse states: “I am the Lord your God”? This is a paradigm that in all places where verses of Remembrances are stated, verses of Kingship should be recited with them.

והיכן אומרה לקדושת היום תניא רבי אומר עם המלכיות אומרה מה מצינו בכל מקום ברביעית אף כאן ברביעית

§ The Gemara returns to the issue discussed in the mishna: And where does one recite the Sanctification of the Day? It is taught in a baraita that Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi says: One recites it with the blessing of Kingship, in the fourth blessing. He explains: Just as we find in all other places that the Sanctification of the Day is mentioned in the fourth blessing of the Amida prayer, so too here, it is recited in the fourth blessing.

רבן שמעון בן גמליאל אומר עם הזכרונות אומרה מה מצינו בכל מקום באמצע אף כאן באמצע

Rabban Shimon ben Gamliel says: One recites it together with the blessing of Remembrances, in the fifth blessing. He explains: Just as we find in all other places that the Sanctification of the Day is mentioned in the middle blessing of the Amida prayer, e.g., on Shabbat, when it is the fourth of seven blessings, so too here, it is recited in the middle blessing, which in the case of Rosh HaShana is the fifth blessing, as the Rosh HaShana Amida prayer is comprised of nine blessings.

וכשקידשו בית דין את השנה באושא ירד רבי יוחנן בן ברוקא לפני רבן שמעון בן גמליאל ועשה כרבי יוחנן בן נורי אמר לו רבן שמעון לא היו נוהגין כן ביבנה ליום השני ירד רבי חנינא בנו של רבי יוסי הגלילי ועשה כרבי עקיבא אמר רבן שמעון בן גמליאל כך היו נוהגין ביבנה

§ And the baraita relates that when the court sanctified the year in Usha, Rabbi Yoḥanan ben Beroka descended as the prayer leader in the presence of Rabban Shimon ben Gamliel, and he acted in accordance with the opinion of Rabban Yoḥanan ben Nuri by including the blessing of Kingship in the blessing of the Sanctification of God’s Name. Rabban Shimon said to him: They were not accustomed to act in this manner in Yavne. On the second day, Rabbi Ḥanina, son of Rabbi Yosei HaGelili, descended as the prayer leader, and he acted in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Akiva by including the blessing of Kingship in the blessing of the Sanctification of the Day. Rabban Shimon ben Gamliel said: This is how they were accustomed to act in Yavne.

למימרא דרבן שמעון בן גמליאל כרבי עקיבא סבירא ליה והא אמר רבי עקיבא מלכיות עם קדושת היום אמר להו ורבן שמעון בן גמליאל אומר קדושת היום עם הזכרונות אמר להו אמר רבי זירא לומר שתוקעין למלכיות

The Gemara asks a question concerning this baraita: Is that to say that Rabban Shimon ben Gamliel holds in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Akiva? But didn’t Rabbi Akiva say that one recites the blessing of Kingship with the blessing of the Sanctification of the Day, and Rabban Shimon ben Gamliel says that one recites the blessing of the Sanctification of the Day with the blessing of Remembrances? Why then did Rabban Shimon ben Gamliel indicate his agreement with Rabbi Akiva’s practice? Rabbi Zeira said: Rabban Shimon ben Gamliel merely meant to say that he agrees that one sounds the shofar together with the blessing of Kingship, and that this was how they were accustomed to act in Yavne.

ליום השני ירד רבי חנינא מאי שני אילימא יום טוב שני למימרא דעברוה לאלול והאמר רבי חנינא בר כהנא מימות עזרא ואילך לא מצינו אלול מעובר אמר רב חסדא מאי שני ליום שני לשנה הבאה

The baraita taught that on the second day Rabbi Ḥanina descended as the prayer leader. The Gemara asks: What is the meaning of: The second day? If we say that this is referring to the second day of the Festival day of Rosh HaShana, is that to say that they rendered Elul a full month, so that the thirtieth day of Elul was the first day of Rosh HaShana and the first day of Tishrei was the second day? But didn’t Rabbi Ḥanina bar Kahana say: From the days of Ezra onward we have not found that the month of Elul was ever rendered full. If so, it is difficult to believe that a case of this kind occurred in the time of the tanna’im. Rav Ḥisda said: What is the meaning of: The second day? It means on the second day, the next time it was Rosh HaShana, i.e., on Rosh HaShana of the following year.

מתני׳ אין פוחתין מעשרה מלכיות מעשרה זכרונות מעשרה שופרות רבי יוחנן בן נורי אומר אם אמר שלש שלש מכולן יצא

MISHNA: One does not recite fewer than ten verses in theblessing of Kingship, or fewer than ten verses in the blessing of Remembrances, or fewer than ten verses in the blessing of Shofarot. Rabbi Yoḥanan ben Nuri says: If one recited three from each of them, he has fulfilled his obligation.

גמ׳ הני עשרה מלכיות כנגד מי אמר רבי כנגד עשרה הלולים שאמר דוד בספר תהלים הלולים טובא הוו הנך דכתיב בהו הללוהו בתקע שופר

GEMARA: The Gemara asks: These ten verses of Kingship, to what do they correspond? Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi said: They correspond to the ten praises that David said in the book of Psalms. The Gemara asks: There are many more praises than that in the book of Psalms. The Gemara answers that he means those in which it is written by them: “Praise Him with the blast of the shofar” (Psalms 150:3). In that chapter the phrase “Praise Him” appears ten times.

רב יוסף אמר כנגד עשרת הדברות שנאמרו לו למשה בסיני רבי יוחנן אמר כנגד עשרה מאמרות שבהן נברא העולם הי נינהו ויאמר

Rav Yosef said: The ten verses correspond to the Ten Commandments, which were said to Moses at Sinai. Rabbi Yoḥanan said: They correspond to the ten utterances through which the world was created. The Gemara asks: Which are these ten utterances? The Gemara explains: This is referring to the ten times that the phrase “And He said” appears in the story of Creation in the first two chapters of Genesis.

ויאמר דבראשית תשעה הוו בראשית נמי מאמר הוא דכתיב בדבר ה׳ שמים נעשו

The Gemara asks: Does it refer to the repetition of the phrase: “And He said” in Genesis? There are only nine such phrases, not ten. The Gemara answers that the phrase “In the beginning” is also considered an utterance, as it is written: “By the word of the Lord were the heavens made” (Psalms 33:6), which indicates that all of creation came into existence through a single utterance, after which all matter was formed into separate and distinct entities by means of the other nine utterances.

רבי יוחנן בן נורי אומר אם אמר שלש שלש מכולן יצא איבעיא להו היכי קתני שלש מן התורה שלש מן הנביאים ושלש מן הכתובים דהוו תשע ואיכא בינייהו חדא או דלמא אחד מן התורה ואחד מן הנביאים ואחד מן הכתובים דהויין להו שלש ואיכא בינייהו טובא

§ The mishna taught that Rabbi Yoḥanan ben Nuri says: If one recited three from each of them, he has fulfilled his obligation. A dilemma was raised before the Sages: What is he teaching here? Does Rabbi Yoḥanan ben Nuri mean that one must recite three verses from the Torah, three from the Prophets, and three from the Writings, which are nine in total, and if so the practical difference between the opinions of Rabbi Yoḥanan ben Nuri and the first tanna is only one verse? Or perhaps he means that one must recite one verse from the Torah and one from the Prophets and one from the Writings, which are three altogether, and the practical difference between them is a large number of verses, i.e., seven.

תא שמע דתניא אין פוחתין מעשרה מלכיות מעשרה זכרונות מעשרה שופרות ואם אמר שבע מכולן יצא כנגד שבעה רקיעים

The Gemara clarifies this matter: Come and hear a proof, as it is taught in a baraita: One does not recite fewer than ten verses of Kingship, or fewer than ten verses of Remembrances, or fewer than ten verses of Shofarot. And if one recited seven from each of them, he has fulfilled his obligation, as they correspond to the seven firmaments in heaven.

רבי יוחנן בן נורי אמר הפוחת לא יפחות משבע ואם אמר שלש מכולן יצא כנגד תורה נביאים וכתובים ואמרי לה כנגד כהנים לוים וישראלים אמר רב הונא אמר שמואל הלכה כרבי יוחנן בן נורי

Rabbi Yoḥanan ben Nuri said: One who recites fewer than the requisite ten should not recite fewer than seven, but if he recited three from each of them he has fulfilled his obligation, as they correspond to the Torah, the Prophets, and the Writings. And some say: They correspond to the priests, the Levites, and the Israelites. This indicates that Rabbi Yoḥanan ben Nuri means a total of three verses for each blessing. Rav Huna said that Shmuel said: The halakha is in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Yoḥanan ben Nuri.

מתני׳ אין מזכירין זכרון מלכות ושופר של פורענות מתחיל בתורה ומשלים בנביא רבי יוסי אומר אם השלים בתורה יצא

MISHNA: One does not mention verses of Remembrance, Kingship, and Shofar that have a theme of punishment. When reciting the ten verses, one begins with verses from the Torah and concludes with verses from the Prophets. Rabbi Yosei says: If he concluded with a verse from the Torah, he has fulfilled his obligation.

גמ׳ מלכיות כגון חי אני נאם ה׳ [אלהים] אם לא ביד חזקה ובזרוע נטויה ובחמה שפוכה אמלוך עליכם ואף על גב דאמר רב נחמן כל כי האי ריתחא לירתח קודשא בריך הוא עלן וליפרוקינן כיון דבריתחא אמור אדכורי ריתחא בריש שתא לא מדכרינן

GEMARA: The Gemara cites examples of verses that may not be used in Rosh HaShana prayers because they deal with punishment. With regard to verses of Kingship, for example: “As I live, says the Lord God, surely with a mighty hand, and with an outstretched arm, and with fury poured out, will I be King over you” (Ezekiel 20:33). And although Rav Naḥman said about this verse: With regard to any anger like this, let the Holy One, blessed be He, express that anger upon us and let Him redeem us, if that is the process necessary for redemption, since the verse was said with anger it is not included, as one does not mention anger on Rosh HaShana.

זכרון כגון ויזכור כי בשר המה וגו׳ שופר כגון תקעו שופר בגבעה וגו׳

Similarly, verses of remembrance that speak of a punishment may not be used in Rosh HaShana prayers, for example: “So He remembered that they were but flesh, a wind that passes away, and does not come again” (Psalms 78:39). Nor verses of shofar, which refer to calamity, for example: “Sound the shofar in Giva, and the trumpet in Rama; sound an alarm at Beit Aven, behind you, O Benjamin” (Hosea 5:8).

אבל אם בא לומר מלכות זכרון ושופר של פורענות של נכרים אומר מלכות כגון ה׳ מלך ירגזו עמים וכגון ה׳ מלך עולם ועד אבדו גוים מארצו זכרון כגון זכור ה׳ לבני אדום וגו׳ שופר כגון וה׳ אלהים בשופר יתקע והלך בסערות תימן וכתיב ה׳ צבאות יגן עליהם

The Gemara qualifies the mishna’s ruling. However, if one comes to recite verses of Kingship, remembrance, and shofar with a theme of the punishment of gentiles, one may recite them. The Gemara offers examples of these verses: With regard to the verses of Kingship, for example: “The Lord reigns, let the peoples tremble” (Psalms 99:1), and, for example: “The Lord is King for ever and ever; the nations are perished out of His land” (Psalms 10:16). With regard to remembrance, for example: “Remember, O Lord, against the children of Edom the day of Jerusalem, who said: Raze it, raze it, to its very foundation” (Psalms 137:7). With regard to the verses of shofar, for example: “And the Lord God will sound the shofar, and will go with whirlwinds of the south” (Zechariah 9:14), and it is written: “The Lord of hosts will defend them” (Zechariah 9:15), i.e., God will defend the Jewish people against their enemies.

אין מזכירין זכרון של יחיד ואפילו לטובה כגון זכרני ה׳ ברצון עמך וכגון זכרה לי אלהי לטובה

The Gemara states: One does not recite a verse dealing with the remembrance of an individual, even if it is for good, for example: “Remember me, O Lord, when You show favor to Your people” (Psalms 106:4), and, for example: “Remember me, my God, for good” (Nehemiah 5:19).

פקדונות הרי הן כזכרונות כגון וה׳ פקד את שרה וכגון פקוד פקדתי אתכם דברי רב יוסי רבי יהודה אומר אינן כזכרונות

Verses that mention God’s revisitings [pikdonot] are equivalent to verses of remembrances [zikhronot], and therefore they may be counted in the ten verses.For example: “And the Lord revisited [pakad] Sarah” (Genesis 21:1), and, for example: “I have surely revisited [pakadeti] you” (Exodus 3:16). This is the statement of Rabbi Yosei. Rabbi Yehuda says: They are not equivalent to verses of remembrances.

ולרבי יוסי נהי נמי דפקדונות הרי הן כזכרונות וה׳ פקד את שרה פקדון דיחיד הוא כיון דאתו רבים מינה כרבים דמיא

The Gemara asks: And according to the opinion of Rabbi Yosei, although verses that speak of God revisiting man are equivalent to verses of remembrances, he cites the following verse as an example: “And the Lord revisited Sarah,” which is a revisiting of an individual. Despite the fact that it was stated above that a remembrance must refer to the collective, since many descendants came from her, as Sarah is the mother of the Jewish people, she is considered like many. Therefore, this verse is effectively dealing with the remembrance of the entire Jewish people.

שאו שערים ראשיכם והנשאו פתחי עולם ויבוא מלך הכבוד מי זה מלך הכבוד ה׳ עזוז וגבור ה׳ גבור מלחמה שאו שערים ראשיכם ושאו פתחי עולם ויבא מלך הכבוד מי הוא זה מלך הכבוד ה׳ צבאות הוא מלך הכבוד סלה ראשונה שתים שניה שלש דברי רבי יוסי

The Gemara discusses several verses from Psalms. “Lift up your heads, O you gates, and be lifted up, you everlasting doors, that the King of glory may come in. Who is the King of glory? The Lord strong and mighty, the Lord mighty in battle” (Psalms 24:7–8). The psalm continues: “Lift up your heads, O you gates, and lift them up, you everlasting doors; that the King of glory may come in. Who then is the King of glory? The Lord of hosts, He is the King of glory, Selah” (Psalms 24:9–10). The first section is counted as two verses of Kingship, as the term king is mentioned twice, while the second section is counted as three verses of Kingship; this is the statement of Rabbi Yosei.

רבי יהודה אומר ראשונה אחת שניה שתים

Rabbi Yehuda says: The first section is counted as only one verse of Kingship, as the question: “Who is the King of glory,” is not considered a verse of Kingship. By the same reasoning, the second section is counted as only two verses of Kingship.

זמרו אלהים זמרו זמרו למלכנו זמרו כי מלך כל הארץ אלהים שתים דברי רבי יוסי רבי יהודה אומר אחת ושוין במלך אלהים על גוים אלהים ישב על כסא קדשו שהיא אחת

Similarly, the Gemara discusses the following verses: “Sing praises to God, sing praises, sing praises to our King, sing praises. For God is the King of all the earth; sing praises in a skillful song” (Psalms 47:7–8). These are counted as two verses of Kingship; this is the statement of Rabbi Yosei. Rabbi Yehuda says: They count as only one verse of Kingship, as the phrase: “Sing praises to our King,” is referring to God as the King of the Jewish people, not the King of the entire world. And they both agree with regard to the verse: “God reigns over the nations, God sits upon His sacred throne” (Psalms 47:9), that it is considered as only one verse of Kingship, as the phrase: “Sits upon His sacred throne,” is not referring to God explicitly as King.

זכרון שיש בו תרועה כגון שבתון זכרון תרועה מקרא קדש אומרה עם הזכרונות ואומרה עם השופרות דברי רבי יוסי רבי יהודה אומר אינו אומרה אלא עם הזכרונות בלבד

With regard to a verse of remembrance that also has a mention of sounding the shofar, for example: “A solemn rest, a memorial of blasts, a sacred convocation” (Leviticus 23:24), one may recite it with the verses of remembrances, and one may also recite it with the verses of shofarot; this is the statement of Rabbi Yosei. Rabbi Yehuda says: One may recite it only with the verses of remembrances alone, as it does not explicitly mention a shofar.

מלכות שיש עמו תרועה כגון ה׳ אלהיו עמו ותרועת מלך בו אומרה עם המלכיות ואומרה עם השופרות דברי רבי יוסי רבי יהודה אומר אינו אומרה אלא עם המלכיות בלבד

With regard to a verse of Kingship that also has a mention of sounding the shofar, for example: “The Lord his God is with him, and the sounding of a king is among them” (Numbers 23:21), one may recite it with the verses of Kingship and one may also recite it with the verses of shofarot; This is the statement of Rabbi Yosei. Rabbi Yehuda says: One may recite it only with the verses of Kingship.

תרועה שאין עמה לא כלום כגון יום תרועה יהיה לכם אומרה עם השופרות דברי רבי יוסי רבי יהודה אומר אינו אומרה כל עיקר

With regard to a verse that mentions sounding the shofar that has nothing else with it, i.e., no mention of remembrances, Kingship, or an actual shofar, for example: “It is a day of sounding the shofar to you” (Numbers 29:1), one may recite it with the verses of shofarot; this is the statement of Rabbi Yosei. Rabbi Yehuda says: One may not recite it at all, as it contains no explicit mention of a shofar.

מתחיל בתורה ומשלים בנביא רבי יוסי אומר אם השלים בתורה יצא אם השלים דיעבד אין לכתחילה לא והתניא רבי יוסי אומר המשלים בתורה הרי זה משובח אימא משלים

§ The mishna taught: When reciting the ten verses, one begins with verses from the Torah and concludes with verses from the Prophets. Rabbi Yosei says: If he concluded with a verse from the Torah, he has fulfilled his obligation. The Gemara notes that Rabbi Yosei’s formulation: If he concluded, indicates that after the fact, yes, he has fulfilled his obligation; ab initio, no, he has not fulfilled his obligation to recite the necessary verses. The Gemara asks: But isn’t it taught in a baraita that Rabbi Yosei says: One who concludes the series of verses with a verse from the Torah is praiseworthy? The Gemara answers: Say that the text of the mishna must be modified so that it reads: Rabbi Yosei says: He concludes with a verse from the Torah, i.e., one should do so ab initio.

והא אם השלים קתני דיעבד אין לכתחילה לא הכי קאמר מתחיל בתורה ומשלים בנביא רבי יוסי אומר משלים בתורה ואם השלים בנביא יצא תניא נמי הכי אמר רבי אלעזר ברבי יוסי וותיקין היו משלימין אותה בתורה

The Gemara raises a difficulty. Doesn’t the mishna teach: If he concluded? This indicates that after the fact, yes, one has fulfilled his obligation; ab initio, no, he has not fulfilled his obligation. The Gemara answers that this is what the mishna is saying: One begins with verses from the Torah and concludes with a single verse from the Prophets. Rabbi Yosei says: One concludes with a single verse from the Torah, and if he concluded with a single verse from the Prophets he has fulfilled his obligation. This is also taught in a baraita. Rabbi Elazar, son of Rabbi Yosei, said: Pious individuals [vatikin], who were scrupulous in their performance of mitzvot, would conclude the series with a single verse from the Torah. Presumably, Rabbi Elazar followed the opinion of his father, Rabbi Yosei.

בשלמא זכרונות ושופרות איכא טובא אלא מלכיות תלת הוא דהויין ה׳ אלהיו עמו ותרועת מלך בו ויהי בישורון מלך ה׳ ימלוך לעולם ועד ואנן בעינן עשר וליכא

The Gemara asks: Granted, it is possible to conclude Remembrances and Shofarot with a verse from the Torah, as there are many such verses. However, with regard to Kingship, there are only three: “The Lord his God is with him, and the sounding of a king is among them” (Numbers 23:21); “And he was king in Jeshurun” (Deuteronomy 33:5); and: “The Lord shall reign for ever and ever” (Exodus 15:18). And we require ten verses, and according to Rabbi Yosei there are not enough, as he maintains that one should recite four verses from the Torah, the first three and the concluding one.

אמר רב הונא תא שמע שמע ישראל ה׳ אלהינו ה׳ אחד מלכות דברי רבי יוסי רבי יהודה אומר אינה מלכות

Rav Huna said: Come and hear a solution from that which was taught in the Tosefta (2:11): The verse: “Hear, O Israel, the Lord our God, the Lord is one” (Deuteronomy 6:4), is a verse of Kingship; this is the statement of Rabbi Yosei.Rabbi Yehuda says: It is not a verse of Kingship.

וידעת היום והשבות אל לבבך כי ה׳ הוא האלהיםאין עוד מלכות דברי רבי יוסי רבי יהודה אומר אינה מלכות אתה הראת לדעת כי ה׳ הוא האלהים אין עוד מלבדו מלכות דברי רבי יוסי רבי יהודה אומר אינה מלכות

“Know this day, and lay it to your heart, that the Lord, He is God in heaven above, and upon the earth beneath; there is none else” (Deuteronomy 4:39), is a verse of Kingship; this is the statement of Rabbi Yosei. Rabbi Yehuda says: It is not a verse of Kingship. “To you it was shown, that you might know that the Lord, He is God; there is none else beside Him” (Deuteronomy 4:35), is a verse of Kingship; this is the statement of Rabbi Yosei. Rabbi Yehuda says: It is not a verse of Kingship. This shows that according to the opinion of Rabbi Yosei there are sufficient verses of Kingship in the Torah to recite three at the beginning and one at the end.

מתני׳ העובר לפני התיבה ביום טוב של ראש השנה השני מתקיע ובשעת ההלל הראשון מקרא את ההלל

MISHNA: With regard to one who is passing before the ark, as prayer leader, on the festival of Rosh HaShana, it is the second prayer leader, i.e., the one who leads the additional prayer, who sounds the shofar on behalf of the congregation. And on a day when the hallel is recited, the first prayer leader, i.e., the one who leads the morning prayer, recites the hallel on behalf of the congregation.

גמ׳ מאי שנא שני מתקיע משום דברוב עם הדרת מלך אי הכי הלל נמי נימא בשני משום דברוב עם הדרת מלך

GEMARA: The Gemara asks: What is different about the second prayer leader, that he sounds the shofar during the additional prayer? Is it due to the principle that: “The splendor of the King is in the multitude of the people” (Proverbs 14:28)? In other words, is the shofar sounded during the additional prayer because all of the congregants will have arrived by then? If so, with regard to hallel too, let us say that it should be read by the second prayer leader, due to the principle that “The splendor of the King is in the multitude of the people.”

אלא מאי שנא הלל דבראשון משום דזריזין מקדימין למצות תקיעה נמי נעביד בראשון משום דזריזין מקדימין למצות

Rather, what is different about hallel that it is recited by the first prayer leader? It is due to the principle that the vigilant are early in the performance of mitzvot. This is also difficult. With regard to the sounding of the shofar, too, let us perform it by means of the first prayer leader, due to the principle that the vigilant are early in the performance of mitzvot.

אמר רבי יוחנן בשעת השמד שנו

Rabbi Yoḥanan said: They taught the halakha that the shofar is sounded during the additional prayer in a time of religious persecution. The gentile authorities prohibited sounding the shofar and appointed guards during the morning to ensure that the Jews comply. Therefore, the Sages delayed the sounding of the shofar until after the guards had left. A similar decree was not imposed against the recitation of hallel, and therefore it was recited during the morning prayer, at the earliest possible time.

מדקאמר בשעת הלל מכלל דבראש השנה ליכא הלל מאי טעמא אמר רבי אבהו אמרו מלאכי השרת לפני הקדוש ברוך הוא רבונו של עולם מפני מה אין ישראל אומרים שירה לפניך בראש השנה וביום הכפורים אמר להם אפשר מלך יושב על כסא דין וספרי חיים וספרי מתים פתוחין לפניו וישראל אומרים שירה

§ The Gemara comments: From the fact that the mishna states: When hallel is recited, one can conclude by inference that on Rosh HaShana there is no recitation of hallel. What is the reason that hallel is omitted on Rosh HaShana? Rabbi Abbahu said: The ministering angels said before the Holy One, Blessed be He: Master of the Universe, for what reason don’t the Jewish people recite songs of praise, i.e., hallel, before You on Rosh HaShana and on Yom Kippur? He said to them: Is it possible that while the King is sitting on the throne of judgment and the books of life and the books of death are open before Him, the Jewish people are reciting joyous songs of praise? Rosh HaShana and Yom Kippur are somber days of judgment whose mood is incompatible with the recitation of hallel.

מתני׳ שופר של ראש השנה אין מעבירין עליו את התחום ואין מפקחין עליו את הגל לא עולין באילן ולא רוכבין על גבי בהמה ולא שטין על פני המים ואין חותכין אותו בין בדבר שהוא משום שבות ובין בדבר שהוא משום לא תעשה אבל אם רצה ליתן לתוכו מים או יין יתן

MISHNA: With regard to the shofar of Rosh HaShana, one may not pass the Shabbat limit for it, i.e., to go and hear it, nor may one clear a pile of rubble to uncover a buried shofar. One may not climb a tree, nor may one ride on an animal, nor may one swim in water, in order to find a shofar to sound.And one may not cut the shofar to prepare it for use, neither with an object that is prohibited due to a rabbinic decree nor with an object that may not be used due to a prohibition by Torah law. However, if one wishes to place water or wine into the shofar on Rosh HaShana so that it emits a clear sound, he may place it, as this does not constitute a prohibited labor.

אין מעכבין את התנוקות מלתקוע אבל מתעסקין עמהן עד שילמדו והמתעסק לא יצא והשומע מן המתעסק לא יצא

One need not prevent children from sounding the shofar on Rosh HaShana, despite the fact that they are not obligated in mitzvot. Rather, one occupies himself with them, encouraging and instructing them, until they learn how to sound it properly. The mishna adds: One who acts unawares and sounds the shofar without any intention to perform the mitzva has not fulfilled his obligation. And, similarly, one who hears the shofar blasts from one who acts unawares has not fulfilled his obligation.

גמ׳ מאי טעמא שופר עשה הוא ויום טוב עשה ולא תעשה ואין עשה דוחה את לא תעשה ועשה

GEMARA: The Gemara asks: There is a principle that a positive mitzva overrides a negative mitzva. With this in mind, what is the reason that one may not perform a prohibited labor on Rosh HaShana to fulfill the positive mitzva of sounding the shofar? The Gemara answers: Sounding the shofar is a positive mitzva, but performing prohibited labor on a Festival violates both the positive mitzva to rest and the prohibition against performing prohibited labor, and a positive mitzva does not override both a prohibition and a positive mitzva.

לא עולין באילן ולא רוכבין על גבי בהמה וכו׳ השתא דרבנן אמרת לא דאורייתא מיבעיא זו ואין צריך לומר זו קתני

§ The mishna taught: One may not pass the Shabbat limit for it, i.e., to go and hear it, nor may one clear a pile of rubble to uncover a buried shofar. One may not climb a tree, nor may one ride on an animal to find a shofar to sound. The Gemara questions the order of these prohibitions: Now that you have said that to sound the shofar one may not perform an action that is prohibited by rabbinic law, i.e., passing the Shabbat limit or clearing a pile of rubble, is it necessary to say that one may not perform an action that could lead to an act prohibited by Torah law, i.e., climbing a tree or riding an animal? The Gemara answers: The mishna teaches employing the style: This, and it is unnecessary to say that. It begins with the more novel case before moving on to the more straightforward one.

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Rosh Hashanah 32

The William Davidson Talmud | Powered by Sefaria

Rosh Hashanah 32

וקבעיה רביה בשמיה

and his teacher established it in his name. Consequently, it is counted as one of Rabban Yoḥanan ben Zakkai’s ordinances.

מתני׳ סדר ברכות אומר אבות וגבורות וקדושת השם וכולל מלכיות עמהן ואינו תוקע

MISHNA: The order of the blessings of the additional prayer on Rosh HaShana is as follows: One recites the blessing of the Patriarchs, the blessing of God’s Mighty Deeds, and the blessing of the Sanctification of God’s Name, all of which are recited all year long. And one includes the blessing of Kingship, containing many biblical verses on that theme, with them, i.e., in the blessing of the Sanctification of God’s Name, and he does not sound the shofar after it.

קדושת היום ותוקע זכרונות ותוקע שופרות ותוקע ואומר עבודה והודאה וברכת כהנים דברי רבי יוחנן בן נורי

Next, one adds a special blessing for the Sanctification of the Day, and sounds the shofar after it; followed by the blessing of Remembrances, which contains many biblical verses addressing that theme, and sounds the shofar after it; and recites the blessing of Shofarot, which includes verses that mention the shofar, and sounds the shofar after it. And he then returns to the regular Amida prayer and recites the blessing of God’s Service and the blessing of Thanksgiving and the Priestly Blessing. This is the statement of Rabbi Yoḥanan ben Nuri.

אמר לו רבי עקיבא אם אינו תוקע למלכיות למה הוא מזכיר אלא אומר אבות וגבורות וקדושת השם וכולל מלכיות עם קדושת היום ותוקע זכרונות ותוקע שופרות ותוקע ואומר עבודה והודאה וברכת כהנים

Rabbi Akiva said to him: If one does not sound the shofar for the blessing of Kingship, why does he mention it? Rather, the order of the blessings is as follows: One recites the blessing of the Patriarchs and that of God’s Mighty Deeds and that of the Sanctification of God’s Name. He subsequently includes the blessing of Kingship in the blessing of the Sanctification of the Day, and sounds the shofar. Next he recites the blessing of Remembrances, and sounds the shofar after it, and the blessing of Shofarot and sounds the shofar after it. He then recites the blessing of God’s Service and the blessing of Thanksgiving and the Priestly Blessing.

גמ׳ אמר לו רבי עקיבא אם אינו תוקע למלכיות למה הוא מזכיר למה הוא מזכיר רחמנא אמר אידכר אלא למה עשר לימא תשע דהואיל ואשתני אשתני

GEMARA: The mishna taught that Rabbi Akiva said to him: If one does not sound the shofar for the blessing of Kingship, why does he mention it? The Gemara expresses surprise at this question: Why does he mention it? The Merciful One states that one should mention it. It is a mitzva to recite the blessing of Kingship, regardless of the sounding of the shofar. Rather, this is what Rabbi Akiva meant: Why does one mention ten verses of Kingship, as in the other blessings? Let him recite nine verses or fewer. Since the blessing is different in that it is not followed by shofar blasts, let it also be different with regard to the number of verses it includes.

תנו רבנן מנין שאומרים אבות שנאמר הבו לה׳ בני אלים ומנין שאומרים גבורות שנאמר הבו לה׳ כבוד ועוז ומנין שאומרים קדושות שנאמר הבו לה׳ כבוד שמו השתחוו לה׳ בהדרת קדש

§ The Sages taught in a baraita: From where is it derived that one recites the blessing of the Patriarchs? As it is stated: “Ascribe to the Lord, O you sons of the mighty” (Psalms 29:1), which is interpreted to mean that one should mention before God the greatness of the mighty, i.e., the righteous Patriarchs. And from where is it derived that one recites the blessing of God’s Mighty Deeds? As it is stated: “Ascribe to the Lord glory and strength” (Psalms 29:1). And from where is it derived that one recites the blessing of the Sanctification of God’s Name? As it is stated: “Ascribe to the Lord the glory due to His name; worship the Lord in the beauty of sanctity” (Psalms 29:2).

ומנין שאומרים מלכיות זכרונות ושופרות רבי אליעזר אומר דכתיב שבתון זכרון תרועה מקרא קדש שבתון זה קדושת היום זכרון אלו זכרונות תרועה אלו שופרות מקרא קדש קדשהו בעשיית מלאכה

And from where is it derived that on Rosh HaShana one recites the blessings of Kingship, Remembrances, and Shofarot? Rabbi Eliezer says: As it is written: “In the seventh month, on the first day of the month, you shall have a solemn rest, a memorial of blasts, a sacred convocation” (Leviticus 23:24). This verse is interpreted as follows: “A solemn rest,” this is referring to the blessing of the Sanctification of the Day; “a memorial,” this is Remembrances; “blasts,” this is Shofarot; “a sacred convocation” this means sanctify it by abstaining from performing prohibited labor.

אמר לו רבי עקיבא מפני מה לא נאמר שבתון שבות שבו פתח הכתוב תחילה אלא שבתון קדשהו בעשיית מלאכה זכרון אלו זכרונות תרועה אלו שופרות מקרא קדש זו קדושת היום

Rabbi Akiva said to Rabbi Eliezer: For what reason isn’t it stated instead that the phrase “solemn rest” teaches that one must rest by abstaining from prohibited labor, as this is the term with which the verse opened first. It stands to reason that the verse would begin with the main issue, i.e., that this day is a Festival on which performing labor is prohibited. Rather, the verse should be explained as follows: “A solemn rest,” sanctify it by abstaining from performing prohibited labor; “a memorial,” this is Remembrances; “blasts,” this is Shofarot; “a sacred convocation,” this is the Sanctification of the Day.

מנין שאומרים מלכיות תניא רבי אומר אני ה׳ אלהיכם ובחדש השביעי זו מלכות

From where is it derived that that one recites the blessing of Kingship? It is taught in a baraita that Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi says: One verse states: “I am the Lord your God” (Leviticus 23:22), which is referring to God’s Kingship over the world; and two verses later it states: “In the seventh month” (Leviticus 23:24). This teaches that God’s Kingship must be mentioned on Rosh HaShana.

רבי יוסי בר יהודה אומר אינו צריך הרי הוא אומר והיו לכם לזכרון לפני אלהיכם שאין תלמוד לומר אני ה׳ אלהיכם ומה תלמוד לומר אני ה׳ אלהיכם זה בנה אב לכל מקום שנאמר בו זכרונות יהיו מלכיות עמהן

Rabbi Yosei bar Yehuda says: This is not necessary, as the verse states: “Also in the day of your gladness, and in your appointed seasons, and in your New Moons, you shall blow with the trumpets over your burnt-offerings, and over the sacrifices of your peace-offerings; that they may be to you for a remembrance before your God: I am the Lord your God” (Numbers 10:10). As there is no need for the verse to state: “I am the Lord your God,” and therefore what is the meaning when the verse states: “I am the Lord your God”? This is a paradigm that in all places where verses of Remembrances are stated, verses of Kingship should be recited with them.

והיכן אומרה לקדושת היום תניא רבי אומר עם המלכיות אומרה מה מצינו בכל מקום ברביעית אף כאן ברביעית

§ The Gemara returns to the issue discussed in the mishna: And where does one recite the Sanctification of the Day? It is taught in a baraita that Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi says: One recites it with the blessing of Kingship, in the fourth blessing. He explains: Just as we find in all other places that the Sanctification of the Day is mentioned in the fourth blessing of the Amida prayer, so too here, it is recited in the fourth blessing.

רבן שמעון בן גמליאל אומר עם הזכרונות אומרה מה מצינו בכל מקום באמצע אף כאן באמצע

Rabban Shimon ben Gamliel says: One recites it together with the blessing of Remembrances, in the fifth blessing. He explains: Just as we find in all other places that the Sanctification of the Day is mentioned in the middle blessing of the Amida prayer, e.g., on Shabbat, when it is the fourth of seven blessings, so too here, it is recited in the middle blessing, which in the case of Rosh HaShana is the fifth blessing, as the Rosh HaShana Amida prayer is comprised of nine blessings.

וכשקידשו בית דין את השנה באושא ירד רבי יוחנן בן ברוקא לפני רבן שמעון בן גמליאל ועשה כרבי יוחנן בן נורי אמר לו רבן שמעון לא היו נוהגין כן ביבנה ליום השני ירד רבי חנינא בנו של רבי יוסי הגלילי ועשה כרבי עקיבא אמר רבן שמעון בן גמליאל כך היו נוהגין ביבנה

§ And the baraita relates that when the court sanctified the year in Usha, Rabbi Yoḥanan ben Beroka descended as the prayer leader in the presence of Rabban Shimon ben Gamliel, and he acted in accordance with the opinion of Rabban Yoḥanan ben Nuri by including the blessing of Kingship in the blessing of the Sanctification of God’s Name. Rabban Shimon said to him: They were not accustomed to act in this manner in Yavne. On the second day, Rabbi Ḥanina, son of Rabbi Yosei HaGelili, descended as the prayer leader, and he acted in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Akiva by including the blessing of Kingship in the blessing of the Sanctification of the Day. Rabban Shimon ben Gamliel said: This is how they were accustomed to act in Yavne.

למימרא דרבן שמעון בן גמליאל כרבי עקיבא סבירא ליה והא אמר רבי עקיבא מלכיות עם קדושת היום אמר להו ורבן שמעון בן גמליאל אומר קדושת היום עם הזכרונות אמר להו אמר רבי זירא לומר שתוקעין למלכיות

The Gemara asks a question concerning this baraita: Is that to say that Rabban Shimon ben Gamliel holds in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Akiva? But didn’t Rabbi Akiva say that one recites the blessing of Kingship with the blessing of the Sanctification of the Day, and Rabban Shimon ben Gamliel says that one recites the blessing of the Sanctification of the Day with the blessing of Remembrances? Why then did Rabban Shimon ben Gamliel indicate his agreement with Rabbi Akiva’s practice? Rabbi Zeira said: Rabban Shimon ben Gamliel merely meant to say that he agrees that one sounds the shofar together with the blessing of Kingship, and that this was how they were accustomed to act in Yavne.

ליום השני ירד רבי חנינא מאי שני אילימא יום טוב שני למימרא דעברוה לאלול והאמר רבי חנינא בר כהנא מימות עזרא ואילך לא מצינו אלול מעובר אמר רב חסדא מאי שני ליום שני לשנה הבאה

The baraita taught that on the second day Rabbi Ḥanina descended as the prayer leader. The Gemara asks: What is the meaning of: The second day? If we say that this is referring to the second day of the Festival day of Rosh HaShana, is that to say that they rendered Elul a full month, so that the thirtieth day of Elul was the first day of Rosh HaShana and the first day of Tishrei was the second day? But didn’t Rabbi Ḥanina bar Kahana say: From the days of Ezra onward we have not found that the month of Elul was ever rendered full. If so, it is difficult to believe that a case of this kind occurred in the time of the tanna’im. Rav Ḥisda said: What is the meaning of: The second day? It means on the second day, the next time it was Rosh HaShana, i.e., on Rosh HaShana of the following year.

מתני׳ אין פוחתין מעשרה מלכיות מעשרה זכרונות מעשרה שופרות רבי יוחנן בן נורי אומר אם אמר שלש שלש מכולן יצא

MISHNA: One does not recite fewer than ten verses in theblessing of Kingship, or fewer than ten verses in the blessing of Remembrances, or fewer than ten verses in the blessing of Shofarot. Rabbi Yoḥanan ben Nuri says: If one recited three from each of them, he has fulfilled his obligation.

גמ׳ הני עשרה מלכיות כנגד מי אמר רבי כנגד עשרה הלולים שאמר דוד בספר תהלים הלולים טובא הוו הנך דכתיב בהו הללוהו בתקע שופר

GEMARA: The Gemara asks: These ten verses of Kingship, to what do they correspond? Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi said: They correspond to the ten praises that David said in the book of Psalms. The Gemara asks: There are many more praises than that in the book of Psalms. The Gemara answers that he means those in which it is written by them: “Praise Him with the blast of the shofar” (Psalms 150:3). In that chapter the phrase “Praise Him” appears ten times.

רב יוסף אמר כנגד עשרת הדברות שנאמרו לו למשה בסיני רבי יוחנן אמר כנגד עשרה מאמרות שבהן נברא העולם הי נינהו ויאמר

Rav Yosef said: The ten verses correspond to the Ten Commandments, which were said to Moses at Sinai. Rabbi Yoḥanan said: They correspond to the ten utterances through which the world was created. The Gemara asks: Which are these ten utterances? The Gemara explains: This is referring to the ten times that the phrase “And He said” appears in the story of Creation in the first two chapters of Genesis.

ויאמר דבראשית תשעה הוו בראשית נמי מאמר הוא דכתיב בדבר ה׳ שמים נעשו

The Gemara asks: Does it refer to the repetition of the phrase: “And He said” in Genesis? There are only nine such phrases, not ten. The Gemara answers that the phrase “In the beginning” is also considered an utterance, as it is written: “By the word of the Lord were the heavens made” (Psalms 33:6), which indicates that all of creation came into existence through a single utterance, after which all matter was formed into separate and distinct entities by means of the other nine utterances.

רבי יוחנן בן נורי אומר אם אמר שלש שלש מכולן יצא איבעיא להו היכי קתני שלש מן התורה שלש מן הנביאים ושלש מן הכתובים דהוו תשע ואיכא בינייהו חדא או דלמא אחד מן התורה ואחד מן הנביאים ואחד מן הכתובים דהויין להו שלש ואיכא בינייהו טובא

§ The mishna taught that Rabbi Yoḥanan ben Nuri says: If one recited three from each of them, he has fulfilled his obligation. A dilemma was raised before the Sages: What is he teaching here? Does Rabbi Yoḥanan ben Nuri mean that one must recite three verses from the Torah, three from the Prophets, and three from the Writings, which are nine in total, and if so the practical difference between the opinions of Rabbi Yoḥanan ben Nuri and the first tanna is only one verse? Or perhaps he means that one must recite one verse from the Torah and one from the Prophets and one from the Writings, which are three altogether, and the practical difference between them is a large number of verses, i.e., seven.

תא שמע דתניא אין פוחתין מעשרה מלכיות מעשרה זכרונות מעשרה שופרות ואם אמר שבע מכולן יצא כנגד שבעה רקיעים

The Gemara clarifies this matter: Come and hear a proof, as it is taught in a baraita: One does not recite fewer than ten verses of Kingship, or fewer than ten verses of Remembrances, or fewer than ten verses of Shofarot. And if one recited seven from each of them, he has fulfilled his obligation, as they correspond to the seven firmaments in heaven.

רבי יוחנן בן נורי אמר הפוחת לא יפחות משבע ואם אמר שלש מכולן יצא כנגד תורה נביאים וכתובים ואמרי לה כנגד כהנים לוים וישראלים אמר רב הונא אמר שמואל הלכה כרבי יוחנן בן נורי

Rabbi Yoḥanan ben Nuri said: One who recites fewer than the requisite ten should not recite fewer than seven, but if he recited three from each of them he has fulfilled his obligation, as they correspond to the Torah, the Prophets, and the Writings. And some say: They correspond to the priests, the Levites, and the Israelites. This indicates that Rabbi Yoḥanan ben Nuri means a total of three verses for each blessing. Rav Huna said that Shmuel said: The halakha is in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Yoḥanan ben Nuri.

מתני׳ אין מזכירין זכרון מלכות ושופר של פורענות מתחיל בתורה ומשלים בנביא רבי יוסי אומר אם השלים בתורה יצא

MISHNA: One does not mention verses of Remembrance, Kingship, and Shofar that have a theme of punishment. When reciting the ten verses, one begins with verses from the Torah and concludes with verses from the Prophets. Rabbi Yosei says: If he concluded with a verse from the Torah, he has fulfilled his obligation.

גמ׳ מלכיות כגון חי אני נאם ה׳ [אלהים] אם לא ביד חזקה ובזרוע נטויה ובחמה שפוכה אמלוך עליכם ואף על גב דאמר רב נחמן כל כי האי ריתחא לירתח קודשא בריך הוא עלן וליפרוקינן כיון דבריתחא אמור אדכורי ריתחא בריש שתא לא מדכרינן

GEMARA: The Gemara cites examples of verses that may not be used in Rosh HaShana prayers because they deal with punishment. With regard to verses of Kingship, for example: “As I live, says the Lord God, surely with a mighty hand, and with an outstretched arm, and with fury poured out, will I be King over you” (Ezekiel 20:33). And although Rav Naḥman said about this verse: With regard to any anger like this, let the Holy One, blessed be He, express that anger upon us and let Him redeem us, if that is the process necessary for redemption, since the verse was said with anger it is not included, as one does not mention anger on Rosh HaShana.

זכרון כגון ויזכור כי בשר המה וגו׳ שופר כגון תקעו שופר בגבעה וגו׳

Similarly, verses of remembrance that speak of a punishment may not be used in Rosh HaShana prayers, for example: “So He remembered that they were but flesh, a wind that passes away, and does not come again” (Psalms 78:39). Nor verses of shofar, which refer to calamity, for example: “Sound the shofar in Giva, and the trumpet in Rama; sound an alarm at Beit Aven, behind you, O Benjamin” (Hosea 5:8).

אבל אם בא לומר מלכות זכרון ושופר של פורענות של נכרים אומר מלכות כגון ה׳ מלך ירגזו עמים וכגון ה׳ מלך עולם ועד אבדו גוים מארצו זכרון כגון זכור ה׳ לבני אדום וגו׳ שופר כגון וה׳ אלהים בשופר יתקע והלך בסערות תימן וכתיב ה׳ צבאות יגן עליהם

The Gemara qualifies the mishna’s ruling. However, if one comes to recite verses of Kingship, remembrance, and shofar with a theme of the punishment of gentiles, one may recite them. The Gemara offers examples of these verses: With regard to the verses of Kingship, for example: “The Lord reigns, let the peoples tremble” (Psalms 99:1), and, for example: “The Lord is King for ever and ever; the nations are perished out of His land” (Psalms 10:16). With regard to remembrance, for example: “Remember, O Lord, against the children of Edom the day of Jerusalem, who said: Raze it, raze it, to its very foundation” (Psalms 137:7). With regard to the verses of shofar, for example: “And the Lord God will sound the shofar, and will go with whirlwinds of the south” (Zechariah 9:14), and it is written: “The Lord of hosts will defend them” (Zechariah 9:15), i.e., God will defend the Jewish people against their enemies.

אין מזכירין זכרון של יחיד ואפילו לטובה כגון זכרני ה׳ ברצון עמך וכגון זכרה לי אלהי לטובה

The Gemara states: One does not recite a verse dealing with the remembrance of an individual, even if it is for good, for example: “Remember me, O Lord, when You show favor to Your people” (Psalms 106:4), and, for example: “Remember me, my God, for good” (Nehemiah 5:19).

פקדונות הרי הן כזכרונות כגון וה׳ פקד את שרה וכגון פקוד פקדתי אתכם דברי רב יוסי רבי יהודה אומר אינן כזכרונות

Verses that mention God’s revisitings [pikdonot] are equivalent to verses of remembrances [zikhronot], and therefore they may be counted in the ten verses.For example: “And the Lord revisited [pakad] Sarah” (Genesis 21:1), and, for example: “I have surely revisited [pakadeti] you” (Exodus 3:16). This is the statement of Rabbi Yosei. Rabbi Yehuda says: They are not equivalent to verses of remembrances.

ולרבי יוסי נהי נמי דפקדונות הרי הן כזכרונות וה׳ פקד את שרה פקדון דיחיד הוא כיון דאתו רבים מינה כרבים דמיא

The Gemara asks: And according to the opinion of Rabbi Yosei, although verses that speak of God revisiting man are equivalent to verses of remembrances, he cites the following verse as an example: “And the Lord revisited Sarah,” which is a revisiting of an individual. Despite the fact that it was stated above that a remembrance must refer to the collective, since many descendants came from her, as Sarah is the mother of the Jewish people, she is considered like many. Therefore, this verse is effectively dealing with the remembrance of the entire Jewish people.

שאו שערים ראשיכם והנשאו פתחי עולם ויבוא מלך הכבוד מי זה מלך הכבוד ה׳ עזוז וגבור ה׳ גבור מלחמה שאו שערים ראשיכם ושאו פתחי עולם ויבא מלך הכבוד מי הוא זה מלך הכבוד ה׳ צבאות הוא מלך הכבוד סלה ראשונה שתים שניה שלש דברי רבי יוסי

The Gemara discusses several verses from Psalms. “Lift up your heads, O you gates, and be lifted up, you everlasting doors, that the King of glory may come in. Who is the King of glory? The Lord strong and mighty, the Lord mighty in battle” (Psalms 24:7–8). The psalm continues: “Lift up your heads, O you gates, and lift them up, you everlasting doors; that the King of glory may come in. Who then is the King of glory? The Lord of hosts, He is the King of glory, Selah” (Psalms 24:9–10). The first section is counted as two verses of Kingship, as the term king is mentioned twice, while the second section is counted as three verses of Kingship; this is the statement of Rabbi Yosei.

רבי יהודה אומר ראשונה אחת שניה שתים

Rabbi Yehuda says: The first section is counted as only one verse of Kingship, as the question: “Who is the King of glory,” is not considered a verse of Kingship. By the same reasoning, the second section is counted as only two verses of Kingship.

זמרו אלהים זמרו זמרו למלכנו זמרו כי מלך כל הארץ אלהים שתים דברי רבי יוסי רבי יהודה אומר אחת ושוין במלך אלהים על גוים אלהים ישב על כסא קדשו שהיא אחת

Similarly, the Gemara discusses the following verses: “Sing praises to God, sing praises, sing praises to our King, sing praises. For God is the King of all the earth; sing praises in a skillful song” (Psalms 47:7–8). These are counted as two verses of Kingship; this is the statement of Rabbi Yosei. Rabbi Yehuda says: They count as only one verse of Kingship, as the phrase: “Sing praises to our King,” is referring to God as the King of the Jewish people, not the King of the entire world. And they both agree with regard to the verse: “God reigns over the nations, God sits upon His sacred throne” (Psalms 47:9), that it is considered as only one verse of Kingship, as the phrase: “Sits upon His sacred throne,” is not referring to God explicitly as King.

זכרון שיש בו תרועה כגון שבתון זכרון תרועה מקרא קדש אומרה עם הזכרונות ואומרה עם השופרות דברי רבי יוסי רבי יהודה אומר אינו אומרה אלא עם הזכרונות בלבד

With regard to a verse of remembrance that also has a mention of sounding the shofar, for example: “A solemn rest, a memorial of blasts, a sacred convocation” (Leviticus 23:24), one may recite it with the verses of remembrances, and one may also recite it with the verses of shofarot; this is the statement of Rabbi Yosei. Rabbi Yehuda says: One may recite it only with the verses of remembrances alone, as it does not explicitly mention a shofar.

מלכות שיש עמו תרועה כגון ה׳ אלהיו עמו ותרועת מלך בו אומרה עם המלכיות ואומרה עם השופרות דברי רבי יוסי רבי יהודה אומר אינו אומרה אלא עם המלכיות בלבד

With regard to a verse of Kingship that also has a mention of sounding the shofar, for example: “The Lord his God is with him, and the sounding of a king is among them” (Numbers 23:21), one may recite it with the verses of Kingship and one may also recite it with the verses of shofarot; This is the statement of Rabbi Yosei. Rabbi Yehuda says: One may recite it only with the verses of Kingship.

תרועה שאין עמה לא כלום כגון יום תרועה יהיה לכם אומרה עם השופרות דברי רבי יוסי רבי יהודה אומר אינו אומרה כל עיקר

With regard to a verse that mentions sounding the shofar that has nothing else with it, i.e., no mention of remembrances, Kingship, or an actual shofar, for example: “It is a day of sounding the shofar to you” (Numbers 29:1), one may recite it with the verses of shofarot; this is the statement of Rabbi Yosei. Rabbi Yehuda says: One may not recite it at all, as it contains no explicit mention of a shofar.

מתחיל בתורה ומשלים בנביא רבי יוסי אומר אם השלים בתורה יצא אם השלים דיעבד אין לכתחילה לא והתניא רבי יוסי אומר המשלים בתורה הרי זה משובח אימא משלים

§ The mishna taught: When reciting the ten verses, one begins with verses from the Torah and concludes with verses from the Prophets. Rabbi Yosei says: If he concluded with a verse from the Torah, he has fulfilled his obligation. The Gemara notes that Rabbi Yosei’s formulation: If he concluded, indicates that after the fact, yes, he has fulfilled his obligation; ab initio, no, he has not fulfilled his obligation to recite the necessary verses. The Gemara asks: But isn’t it taught in a baraita that Rabbi Yosei says: One who concludes the series of verses with a verse from the Torah is praiseworthy? The Gemara answers: Say that the text of the mishna must be modified so that it reads: Rabbi Yosei says: He concludes with a verse from the Torah, i.e., one should do so ab initio.

והא אם השלים קתני דיעבד אין לכתחילה לא הכי קאמר מתחיל בתורה ומשלים בנביא רבי יוסי אומר משלים בתורה ואם השלים בנביא יצא תניא נמי הכי אמר רבי אלעזר ברבי יוסי וותיקין היו משלימין אותה בתורה

The Gemara raises a difficulty. Doesn’t the mishna teach: If he concluded? This indicates that after the fact, yes, one has fulfilled his obligation; ab initio, no, he has not fulfilled his obligation. The Gemara answers that this is what the mishna is saying: One begins with verses from the Torah and concludes with a single verse from the Prophets. Rabbi Yosei says: One concludes with a single verse from the Torah, and if he concluded with a single verse from the Prophets he has fulfilled his obligation. This is also taught in a baraita. Rabbi Elazar, son of Rabbi Yosei, said: Pious individuals [vatikin], who were scrupulous in their performance of mitzvot, would conclude the series with a single verse from the Torah. Presumably, Rabbi Elazar followed the opinion of his father, Rabbi Yosei.

בשלמא זכרונות ושופרות איכא טובא אלא מלכיות תלת הוא דהויין ה׳ אלהיו עמו ותרועת מלך בו ויהי בישורון מלך ה׳ ימלוך לעולם ועד ואנן בעינן עשר וליכא

The Gemara asks: Granted, it is possible to conclude Remembrances and Shofarot with a verse from the Torah, as there are many such verses. However, with regard to Kingship, there are only three: “The Lord his God is with him, and the sounding of a king is among them” (Numbers 23:21); “And he was king in Jeshurun” (Deuteronomy 33:5); and: “The Lord shall reign for ever and ever” (Exodus 15:18). And we require ten verses, and according to Rabbi Yosei there are not enough, as he maintains that one should recite four verses from the Torah, the first three and the concluding one.

אמר רב הונא תא שמע שמע ישראל ה׳ אלהינו ה׳ אחד מלכות דברי רבי יוסי רבי יהודה אומר אינה מלכות

Rav Huna said: Come and hear a solution from that which was taught in the Tosefta (2:11): The verse: “Hear, O Israel, the Lord our God, the Lord is one” (Deuteronomy 6:4), is a verse of Kingship; this is the statement of Rabbi Yosei.Rabbi Yehuda says: It is not a verse of Kingship.

וידעת היום והשבות אל לבבך כי ה׳ הוא האלהיםאין עוד מלכות דברי רבי יוסי רבי יהודה אומר אינה מלכות אתה הראת לדעת כי ה׳ הוא האלהים אין עוד מלבדו מלכות דברי רבי יוסי רבי יהודה אומר אינה מלכות

“Know this day, and lay it to your heart, that the Lord, He is God in heaven above, and upon the earth beneath; there is none else” (Deuteronomy 4:39), is a verse of Kingship; this is the statement of Rabbi Yosei. Rabbi Yehuda says: It is not a verse of Kingship. “To you it was shown, that you might know that the Lord, He is God; there is none else beside Him” (Deuteronomy 4:35), is a verse of Kingship; this is the statement of Rabbi Yosei. Rabbi Yehuda says: It is not a verse of Kingship. This shows that according to the opinion of Rabbi Yosei there are sufficient verses of Kingship in the Torah to recite three at the beginning and one at the end.

מתני׳ העובר לפני התיבה ביום טוב של ראש השנה השני מתקיע ובשעת ההלל הראשון מקרא את ההלל

MISHNA: With regard to one who is passing before the ark, as prayer leader, on the festival of Rosh HaShana, it is the second prayer leader, i.e., the one who leads the additional prayer, who sounds the shofar on behalf of the congregation. And on a day when the hallel is recited, the first prayer leader, i.e., the one who leads the morning prayer, recites the hallel on behalf of the congregation.

גמ׳ מאי שנא שני מתקיע משום דברוב עם הדרת מלך אי הכי הלל נמי נימא בשני משום דברוב עם הדרת מלך

GEMARA: The Gemara asks: What is different about the second prayer leader, that he sounds the shofar during the additional prayer? Is it due to the principle that: “The splendor of the King is in the multitude of the people” (Proverbs 14:28)? In other words, is the shofar sounded during the additional prayer because all of the congregants will have arrived by then? If so, with regard to hallel too, let us say that it should be read by the second prayer leader, due to the principle that “The splendor of the King is in the multitude of the people.”

אלא מאי שנא הלל דבראשון משום דזריזין מקדימין למצות תקיעה נמי נעביד בראשון משום דזריזין מקדימין למצות

Rather, what is different about hallel that it is recited by the first prayer leader? It is due to the principle that the vigilant are early in the performance of mitzvot. This is also difficult. With regard to the sounding of the shofar, too, let us perform it by means of the first prayer leader, due to the principle that the vigilant are early in the performance of mitzvot.

אמר רבי יוחנן בשעת השמד שנו

Rabbi Yoḥanan said: They taught the halakha that the shofar is sounded during the additional prayer in a time of religious persecution. The gentile authorities prohibited sounding the shofar and appointed guards during the morning to ensure that the Jews comply. Therefore, the Sages delayed the sounding of the shofar until after the guards had left. A similar decree was not imposed against the recitation of hallel, and therefore it was recited during the morning prayer, at the earliest possible time.

מדקאמר בשעת הלל מכלל דבראש השנה ליכא הלל מאי טעמא אמר רבי אבהו אמרו מלאכי השרת לפני הקדוש ברוך הוא רבונו של עולם מפני מה אין ישראל אומרים שירה לפניך בראש השנה וביום הכפורים אמר להם אפשר מלך יושב על כסא דין וספרי חיים וספרי מתים פתוחין לפניו וישראל אומרים שירה

§ The Gemara comments: From the fact that the mishna states: When hallel is recited, one can conclude by inference that on Rosh HaShana there is no recitation of hallel. What is the reason that hallel is omitted on Rosh HaShana? Rabbi Abbahu said: The ministering angels said before the Holy One, Blessed be He: Master of the Universe, for what reason don’t the Jewish people recite songs of praise, i.e., hallel, before You on Rosh HaShana and on Yom Kippur? He said to them: Is it possible that while the King is sitting on the throne of judgment and the books of life and the books of death are open before Him, the Jewish people are reciting joyous songs of praise? Rosh HaShana and Yom Kippur are somber days of judgment whose mood is incompatible with the recitation of hallel.

מתני׳ שופר של ראש השנה אין מעבירין עליו את התחום ואין מפקחין עליו את הגל לא עולין באילן ולא רוכבין על גבי בהמה ולא שטין על פני המים ואין חותכין אותו בין בדבר שהוא משום שבות ובין בדבר שהוא משום לא תעשה אבל אם רצה ליתן לתוכו מים או יין יתן

MISHNA: With regard to the shofar of Rosh HaShana, one may not pass the Shabbat limit for it, i.e., to go and hear it, nor may one clear a pile of rubble to uncover a buried shofar. One may not climb a tree, nor may one ride on an animal, nor may one swim in water, in order to find a shofar to sound.And one may not cut the shofar to prepare it for use, neither with an object that is prohibited due to a rabbinic decree nor with an object that may not be used due to a prohibition by Torah law. However, if one wishes to place water or wine into the shofar on Rosh HaShana so that it emits a clear sound, he may place it, as this does not constitute a prohibited labor.

אין מעכבין את התנוקות מלתקוע אבל מתעסקין עמהן עד שילמדו והמתעסק לא יצא והשומע מן המתעסק לא יצא

One need not prevent children from sounding the shofar on Rosh HaShana, despite the fact that they are not obligated in mitzvot. Rather, one occupies himself with them, encouraging and instructing them, until they learn how to sound it properly. The mishna adds: One who acts unawares and sounds the shofar without any intention to perform the mitzva has not fulfilled his obligation. And, similarly, one who hears the shofar blasts from one who acts unawares has not fulfilled his obligation.

גמ׳ מאי טעמא שופר עשה הוא ויום טוב עשה ולא תעשה ואין עשה דוחה את לא תעשה ועשה

GEMARA: The Gemara asks: There is a principle that a positive mitzva overrides a negative mitzva. With this in mind, what is the reason that one may not perform a prohibited labor on Rosh HaShana to fulfill the positive mitzva of sounding the shofar? The Gemara answers: Sounding the shofar is a positive mitzva, but performing prohibited labor on a Festival violates both the positive mitzva to rest and the prohibition against performing prohibited labor, and a positive mitzva does not override both a prohibition and a positive mitzva.

לא עולין באילן ולא רוכבין על גבי בהמה וכו׳ השתא דרבנן אמרת לא דאורייתא מיבעיא זו ואין צריך לומר זו קתני

§ The mishna taught: One may not pass the Shabbat limit for it, i.e., to go and hear it, nor may one clear a pile of rubble to uncover a buried shofar. One may not climb a tree, nor may one ride on an animal to find a shofar to sound. The Gemara questions the order of these prohibitions: Now that you have said that to sound the shofar one may not perform an action that is prohibited by rabbinic law, i.e., passing the Shabbat limit or clearing a pile of rubble, is it necessary to say that one may not perform an action that could lead to an act prohibited by Torah law, i.e., climbing a tree or riding an animal? The Gemara answers: The mishna teaches employing the style: This, and it is unnecessary to say that. It begins with the more novel case before moving on to the more straightforward one.

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