Please ensure Javascript is enabled for purposes of website accessibility Skip to content

December 5, 2021 | ב׳ בטבת תשפ״ב | TODAY'S DAF: Taanit 23

Today's Daf Yomi

March 16, 2020 | כ׳ באדר תש״פ

Masechet Shabbat is sponsored in memory of Elliot Freilich, Eliyahu Daniel ben Bar Tzion David Halevi z"l by a group of women from Kehilath Jeshurun, Manhattan.

Shabbat 10

Today’s shiur is dedicated in memory of Emanuel Plotker – Menachem Mendel ben Yechiel and Henya z”l by Candace Plotzker-Herman.

How should one dress for prayer? Does it depend on the situation? If one prays for a long time, is it a problem that it detracts from the time one should be learning? When is it considered that one started judgement and does not need to stop to pray mincha? Should one judge all day long? What time of day was the first meal eaten? Different categories of people ate at different specific times. Can one pray in a bathhouse? Under what circumstances? Why can’t one greet a friend in the inner room of the bathhouse? Can one say the word “emunah” in a bathhouse? If one gives a gift to another, one should tell the friend. From where is this derived? One should not favor one child over another – learned out from Jacob who favored Joseph. One should settle in a newer developed city as there are less sins there- this is learned out from Tzoar and S’dom.

תוכן זה תורגם גם ל: עברית

התם לא שכיחא שכרות הכא שכיחא שכרות אי נמי במנחה כיון דקביעא לה זימנא מירתת ולא אתי למפשע ערבית כיון דכולא ליליא זמן ערבית לא מירתת ואתי למפשע מתקיף לה רב ששת טריחותא למיסר המייניה ועוד ליקו הכי וליצלי משום שנאמר הכון לקראת אלהיך ישראל

The Gemara responds that there is a difference between the cases. There, at the time of the afternoon prayer, drunkenness is uncommon, as it is unusual to drink excessively during the day. However, here, in the case of the evening prayer, drunkenness is common, and therefore there was room to issue a decree requiring one to interrupt his meal to recite the evening prayer. Alternatively, it is possible to explain that with regard to the afternoon prayer, since its time is fixed, he is anxious, and he won’t come to be negligent and forget to pray. However, with regard to the evening prayer, since all night is the time for the evening prayer, he is not anxious, and he will come to be negligent. Rav Sheshet strongly objects to this: Is it a burden to tie his belt? In addition, if it is a burden, let him stand that way, without a belt, and pray. The Gemara answers: It is necessary to wear a belt while praying, since it is stated: “Prepare to greet your God, Israel” (Amos 4:12). One must prepare and adorn himself when standing before God.

רבא בר רב הונא רמי פוזמקי ומצלי אמר הכון לקראת וגו׳ רבא שדי גלימיה ופכר ידיה ומצלי אמר כעבדא קמיה מריה אמר רב אשי חזינא ליה לרב כהנא כי איכא צערא בעלמא שדי גלימיה ופכר ידיה ומצלי אמר כעבדא קמי מריה כי איכא שלמא לביש ומתכסי ומתעטף ומצלי אמר הכון לקראת אלהיך ישראל

Since the verse: “Prepare to greet your God, Israel,” was cited with regard to the obligation to prepare and adorn oneself before prayer, the Gemara cites that indeed Rava bar Rav Huna would don expensive socks and pray and he said he would do this as it is written: “Prepare to greet your God, Israel.” On the other hand, Rava would not do so; rather, in his prayer he would remove his cloak and clasp his hands and pray. He said that he would do so as a slave before his master, who appears before him with extreme submission. Rav Ashi said: I saw that Rav Kahana, when there is suffering in the world, would remove his cloak and clasp his hands and pray. And he said that he did so as a slave before his master. When there is peace in the world, he would dress, and cover himself, and wrap himself in a significant garment, and pray, and he said that he did so in fulfillment of the verse: “Prepare to greet your God, Israel.”

רבא חזייה לרב המנונא דקא מאריך בצלותיה אמר מניחין חיי עולם ועוסקים בחיי שעה והוא סבר זמן תפלה לחוד וזמן תורה לחוד רבי ירמיה הוה יתיב קמיה דרבי זירא והוו עסקי בשמעתא נגה לצלויי והוה קא מסרהב רבי ירמיה קרי עליה רבי זירא מסיר אזנו משמוע תורה גם תפלתו תועבה

Speaking of prayer, the Gemara relates that Rava saw Rav Hamnuna, who was prolonging his prayer. He said about him: They abandon eternal life, the study of Torah, and engage in temporal life, prayer, which includes requests for mundane needs. The Gemara explains: And Rav Hamnuna held that the time for prayer is distinct and the time for Torah is distinct. The time that one devotes to prayer is not at the expense of the time devoted to Torah study. Similarly, the Gemara relates that Rabbi Yirmeya was sitting before Rabbi Zeira and they were engaged in the study of halakha. The time for prayer was approaching and it was getting late and Rabbi Yirmeya was hurrying to conclude the subject that they were studying in order to pray. Rabbi Zeira read this verse as applying to Rabbi Yirmeya: “One who turns his ear from hearing Torah, his prayer is also an abomination” (Proverbs 28:9).

מאימתי התחלת דין רבי ירמיה ורבי יונה חד אמר משיתעטפו הדיינין וחד אמר משיפתחו בעלי דינים ולא פליגי הא דעסקי ואתו בדינא הא דלא עסקי ואתו בדינא

We learned that if one enters to sit in judgment adjacent to minḥa, he need not interrupt the trial and pray. The Gemara clarifies: From when is it considered the beginning of a trial? Rabbi Yirmeya and Rabbi Yona disagreed. One said that it begins from when the judges wrap themselves in their prayer shawls, as judges were accustomed to do before sitting in judgment. And one of them said that the beginning of judgment is from when the litigants begin articulating their claims. The Gemara comments: And they do not disagree. Rather, this amora, who says that it is from when the litigants begin, refers to a case where they were already engaged in a previous trial, and the judges were already wrapped in their prayer shawls. And that amora, who says that it is from when the judges wrap themselves in their prayer shawls, refers to a case where they were not engaged in a previous trial, and, as a result, the trial begins when they wrap themselves in the prayer shawls.

רב אמי ורב אסי הוו יתבי וגרסי ביני עמודי וכל שעתא ושעתא הוו טפחי אעיברא דדשא ואמרי אי איכא דאית ליה דינא ליעול וליתי רב חסדא ורבה בר רב הונא הוו יתבי בדינא כולי יומא הוה קא חליש לבייהו תנא להו רב חייא בר רב מדפתי ויעמד העם על משה מן הבקר עד הערב וכי תעלה על דעתך שמשה יושב ודן כל היום כולו תורתו מתי נעשית אלא לומר לך כל דיין שדן דין אמת לאמיתו אפילו שעה אחת מעלה עליו הכתוב כאילו נעשה שותף להקדוש ברוך הוא במעשה בראשית כתיב הכא ויעמד העם על משה מן הבקר עד הערב וכתיב התם ויהי ערב ויהי בקר יום אחד

Speaking of judgment, the Gemara relates that Rav Ami and Rav Asi would sit and study between the pillars beneath the study hall. And each and every hour they would knock on the bolt of the door and say: If there is someone who has a case that requires judgment, let him enter and come before us. The Gemara also relates that Rav Ḥisda and Rabba bar Rav Huna would sit in judgment all day and their hearts would grow weak from hunger. Therefore, Rav Ḥiyya bar Rav from Difti taught them a baraita with regard to the verse: “And it was the next day and Moses sat to judge the people and the people stood over Moses from the morning until the evening” (Exodus 18:13). Does it enter your mind that Moses would sit and judge all day long? If so, when was his Torah study accomplished? Rather, surely the verse is coming to tell you: Any judge who judges a true judgment truthfully, even if he sits in judgment only one hour, the verse ascribes to him as if he became a partner to the Holy One, Blessed be He, in the act of Creation, as by means of a true judgment he upholds the world (Me’iri). This conclusion is derived by means of a verbal analogy [gezera shava]: It is written here: “And the people stood over Moses from the morning until the evening.” And it is written there, in the act of Creation: “And it was evening and it was morning, one day” (Genesis 1:5). The evening and part of the morning are considered a whole day. With regard to this issue as well, it is sufficient for the judges to sit in judgment for only part of the day and there is no need for them to starve themselves by sitting in judgment all day.

עד מתי יושבין בדין אמר רב ששת עד זמן סעודה אמר רב חמא מאי קרא דכתיב אי לך ארץ שמלכך נער ושריך בבקר יאכלו אשריך ארץ שמלכך בן חורים ושריך בעת יאכלו בגבורה ולא בשתי בגבורה של תורה ולא בשתייה של יין

The Gemara questions further: Until when do they sit in judgment? What is the usual time that court adjourns? Rav Sheshet said: Until mealtime, noon. Rav Ḥama said: What is the verse that alludes to this? As it is written: “Woe to you, land that your king is a lad and your ministers eat in the morning. Happy are you, land that your king is free and your ministers eat on time in strength and not in drunkenness” (Ecclesiastes 10:16–17). He interprets the verse: The ministers in a proper country sit to eat only after they engaged in the strength of Torah and in judgment and not in the drunkenness of wine.

תנו רבנן שעה ראשונה מאכל לודים שניה מאכל לסטים שלישית מאכל יורשין רביעית מאכל פועלים חמישית מאכל כל אדם

The Sages taught in a baraita: Eating in the first hour of the morning is the time of eating for Ludim, who are members of a nation of cannibals, and they are ravenous and hurry to eat. The second hour is the time of the eating of robbers. Since they spend the night stealing, they eat early in the morning. The third hour is the time of eating for heirs, i.e., people who inherited a lot of money and do not work for their sustenance. Their only preoccupation in the early hours of the morning is eating. The fourth hour is the time of eating for workers. The fifth hour is the time of eating for all people.

איני והאמר רב פפא רביעית זמן סעודה לכל אדם אלא רביעית מאכל כל אדם חמישית מאכל פועלים ששית מאכל תלמידי חכמים מכאן ואילך כזורק אבן לחמת אמר אביי לא אמרן אלא דלא טעים מידי בצפרא אבל טעים מידי בצפרא לית לן בה

The Gemara asks: Is that so? Didn’t Rav Pappa say that the fourth hour is mealtime for all people? Rather, emend the statement and say: The fourth hour is the time of eating for all people. The fifth hour is the time of eating for workers who do not have time to eat beforehand. The sixth hour is the time of eating for Torah scholars as, until then, court is in session. The Gemara adds: One who eats from then on is as if he is throwing a stone into a barrel, meaning that by then it does not contribute to the body’s health. Abaye said: We only said that eating from the sixth hour on is not beneficial, when he did not taste anything in the morning; however, if he tasted something in the morning, we have no problem with it.

אמר רב אדא בר אהבה מתפלל אדם תפלתו בבית המרחץ מיתיבי הנכנס לבית המרחץ מקום שבני אדם עומדין לבושין יש שם מקרא ותפלה ואין צריך לומר שאילת שלום ומניח תפילין ואין צריך לומר שאינו חולץ

Rav Adda bar Ahava said: A person may, ab initio, recite his prayer in the bathhouse. The Gemara raises an objection from what was taught in the Tosefta: One who enters the bathhouse, in the first room, a place where all people stand dressed, it is like any other place and reading the Torah and prayer are permitted there, and, needless to say, in that room greeting [shalom] others is permitted. And he may don phylacteries there, and, needless to say, if he was already donning phylacteries that he need not remove them.

מקום שבני אדם עומדים ערומים ולבושין יש שם שאילת שלום ואין שם מקרא ותפלה ואינו חולץ תפילין ואינו מניח לכתחלה

In the next room, a place where people dress and undress and they stand both naked and dressed, greeting others is permitted there. However, reading the Torah and prayer are not permitted there. And if one was already donning phylacteries there, he need not remove the phylacteries. However, he may not don phylacteries there ab initio.

מקום שבני אדם עומדין ערומים אין שם שאילת שלום ואין צריך לומר מקרא ותפלה וחולץ תפילין ואין צריך לומר שאינו מניחן

In the innermost room, which is a place where people stand naked, greeting others is not permitted there, and, needless to say, reading the Torah and prayer are prohibited there. And if he is donning phylacteries there, he must remove the phylacteries, and, needless to say, he may not don them there ab initio. Apparently, the Tosefta contradicts the statement of Rav Adda bar Ahava as he was, no doubt, referring to the innermost room in the bathhouse, which alone is referred to simply as a bathhouse, and, according to him, one may pray there ab initio.

כי קאמר רב אדא בר אהבה במרחץ שאין בו אדם והא אמר רבי יוסי בר חנינא מרחץ שאמרו אף על פי שאין בו אדם בית הכסא שאמרו אף על פי שאין בו צואה

The Gemara answers: When Rav Adda bar Ahava said his halakha, he was referring to an empty bathhouse in which there are no people. The Gemara asks: Didn’t Rabbi Yosei bar Ḥanina say: With regard to the bathhouse in which they said that it is prohibited to pray, the prohibition exists even though there are no people in it? With regard to the bathroom in which they said that it is prohibited to pray, the prohibition exists even though there are no feces in it. Certainly, since the place serves a repugnant purpose, it is inappropriate to pray there at any time.

אלא כי קאמר רב אדא בחדתי והא מבעיא בעא ליה רבינא הזמינו לבית הכסא מהו יש זימון או אין זימון ולא איפשיטא ליה לאו הוא הדין למרחץ לא דילמא

The Gemara answers: Rather, when Rav Adda made his statement, he was referring to a new bathhouse that had not yet been used for bathing. The Gemara asks: Didn’t Ravina raise a dilemma before Rav Adda with regard to this matter: A place that one designated as a bathroom, what is its legal status as far as praying there is concerned? Is there designation as a significant and determining factor in this case? Or, is designation not a halakhically significant matter? And the dilemma was not resolved for him. Is the same not true with regard to the bathhouse? Doesn’t the same dilemma exist there? The Gemara answers: No, perhaps

שאני בית הכסא דמאיס:

the bathroom is different, as it is disgusting. Once a place is called a bathroom it is disgusting and no longer fit for prayer. However, until he actually bathes in a bathhouse it remains fit for prayer.

אין שם שאילת שלום מסייע ליה לרב המנונא משמיה דעולא דאמר אסור לאדם שיתן שלום לחבירו בבית המרחץ משום שנאמר ויקרא לו ה׳ שלום

It was taught in the Tosefta: There is no greeting [shalom] others permitted in the bathhouse. The Gemara comments that this statement supports the opinion of Rav Hamnuna in the name of Ulla, who said: It is forbidden for a person to greet [shalom] his friend in the bathhouse because Shalom is one of the names of God, as it is stated: “And Gideon built there an altar for God and he called Him Lord Shalom” (Judges 6:24). Therefore, it is prohibited to utter the word shalom in a dishonorable place.

אלא מעתה הימנותא נמי אסור למימר בבית הכסא דכתיב האל הנאמן וכי תימא הכי נמי והאמר רבא בר מחסיא אמר רב חמא בר גוריא אמר רב שרי למימר הימנותא בבית הכסא התם שם גופיה לא איקרי הכי דמתרגמינן אלהא מהימנא הכא שם גופיה איקרי שלום דכתיב ויקרא לו ה׳ שלום:

The Gemara asks: But if so, words connoting faithfulness are also forbidden to say in the bathroom, as it is written “The faithful God who keeps the covenant and the kindness” (Deuteronomy 7:9). And if you say that it is indeed so, that it is forbidden to use the language of faithfulness in the bathroom, didn’t Rava bar Meḥasseya say that Rav Ḥama bar Gurya said that Rav said: It is permitted to say faithfulness in the bathroom? The Gemara answers: There is a difference between the terms: There, the name of God itself is not called in that way, as we translate it as “the faithful God.” However, here, the name of God Himself is called Shalom, as it is written: “And he called Him Lord Shalom.” It is not an adjective, but a holy name in and of itself.

ואמר רבא בר מחסיא אמר רב חמא בר גוריא אמר רב הנותן מתנה לחבירו צריך להודיעו שנאמר לדעת כי אני ה׳ מקדשכם תניא נמי הכי לדעת כי אני ה׳ מקדשכם אמר לו הקדוש ברוך הוא למשה מתנה טובה יש לי בבית גנזי ושבת שמה ואני מבקש ליתנה לישראל לך והודיעם מכאן אמר רבן שמעון בן גמליאל הנותן פת לתינוק צריך להודיע לאמו מאי עביד ליה אמר אביי שאיף ליה משחא ומלי ליה כוחלא והאידנא דחיישינן לכשפים מאי אמר רב פפא שאיף ליה מאותו המין

Incidental to the halakhic statement in his name, the Gemara also cites another statement that Rava bar Meḥasseya said that Rav Ḥama bar Gurya said that Rav said: One who gives a gift to another must inform him that he is giving it to him. As it is stated: “Only keep My Shabbatot for it is a sign between Me and you for your generations to know that I am God Who sanctifies you” (Exodus 31:13). When the Holy One, Blessed be He, gave Shabbat to Israel, He told Moses to inform them about it. That was also taught in a baraita: The verse states: “For I am God Who sanctifies you,” meaning that the Holy One, Blessed be He, said to Moses: I have a good gift in My treasure house and Shabbat is its name, and I seek to give it to Israel. Go inform them about it. From here Rabban Shimon ben Gamliel said: One who gives a gift of bread to a child needs to inform his mother that he gave it to him. The Gemara asks: What does he do to the child, so that his mother will know that he gave him a gift? Abaye said: He should smear him with oil or place blue shadow around his eye in an obvious manner. When the mother of the child notices and asks him about it, he will tell her that so-and-so gave him a piece of bread. The Gemara asks: And now that we are concerned about witchcraft involving oil or eye shadow, what should one who gives a gift do? Rav Pappa said: He should smear him with food of the same type that he gave him to eat.

איני והאמר רב חמא (בר) חנינא הנותן מתנה לחבירו אין צריך להודיעו שנאמר ומשה לא ידע כי קרן עור פניו בדברו אתו לא קשיא הא במילתא דעבידא לאגלויי הא במילתא דלא עבידא לאגלויי והא שבת דעבידא לגלויי מתן שכרה לא עביד לגלויי

With regard to the halakha itself, the Gemara asks: Is that so? Didn’t Rav Ḥama bar Ḥanina say: One who gives a gift to his friend need not inform him, as God made Moses’ face glow, and nevertheless it is stated with regard to Moses: “And Moses did not know that the skin of his face shone when He spoke with him” (Exodus 34:29)? The Gemara answers: This is not difficult. When Rav Ḥama bar Ḥanina said that he need not inform him, he was referring to a matter that is likely to be revealed. When Rabban Shimon ben Gamliel said that he needs to inform him, he was referring to a matter that is not likely to be revealed. The Gemara asked: If so, isn’t Shabbat likely to be revealed, as it will be necessary to inform them of Shabbat together with the other mitzvot? Why was Moses asked to inform them about Shabbat separately? The Gemara answers: The giving of its reward is not likely to be revealed, and it was necessary to inform them about so extraordinary a gift.

רב חסדא הוה נקיט בידיה תרתי מתנתא דתורא אמר כל מאן דאתי ואמר לי שמעתתא חדתא משמיה דרב יהיבנא ליה ניהליה אמר ליה רבא בר מחסיא הכי אמר רב הנותן מתנה לחבירו צריך להודיעו שנאמר לדעת כי אני ה׳ מקדשכם יהבה ניהליה אמר חביבין עלך שמעתתא דרב כולי האי אמר ליה אין אמר ליה היינו דאמר רב מילתא אלבישייהו יקירא אמר ליה אמר רב הכי בתרייתא עדיפא לי מקמייתא ואי הוה נקיטנא אחריתי יהיבנא לך:

The Gemara relates that Rav Ḥisda would take in his hand two gifts of the priesthood separated from an ox. He said: Anyone who comes and tells me a new halakha in the name of Rav, I will give these gifts to him. Rava bar Meḥasseya said to him, Rav said as follows: One who gives a gift to his friend needs to inform him, as it stated: “To know that I am God Who sanctifies you.” He gave the gift to Rava bar Meḥasseya. Rava bar Meḥasseya said to Rav Ḥisda: Are the halakhot of Rav so beloved to you? Rav Ḥisda said to him: Yes. Rava bar Meḥasseya said to him, this is what Rav said: Fine wool is precious to those who wear it (Rav Ya’akov Emden), meaning only a person who is used to delicate items can appreciate their quality. Rav Ḥisda said to him excitedly: Did Rav say that? The latter statement is preferable to me more than the first. And if I were holding another gift I would give it to you.

ואמר רבא בר מחסיא אמר רב חמא בר גוריא אמר רב לעולם אל ישנה אדם בנו בין הבנים שבשביל משקל שני סלעים מילת שנתן יעקב ליוסף יותר משאר בניו נתקנאו בו אחיו ונתגלגל הדבר וירדו אבותינו למצרים:

And Rava bar Meḥasseya said that Rav Ḥama bar Gurya said that Rav said: A person should never distinguish one of his sons from among the other sons by giving him preferential treatment. As, due to the weight of two sela of fine wool [meilat] that Jacob gave to Joseph, beyond what he gave the rest of his sons, in making him the striped coat, his brothers became jealous of him and the matter unfolded and our forefathers descended to Egypt.

ואמר רבא בר מחסיא אמר רב חמא בר גוריא אמר רב לעולם יחזר אדם וישב בעיר שישיבתה קרובה שמתוך שישיבתה קרובה עונותיה מועטין שנאמר הנה נא העיר הזאת קרובה לנוס שמה והיא מצער מאי קרובה אילימא קרובה דמיקרבא וזוטא והא קא חזו לה אלא מתוך שישיבתה קרובה עונותיה מוצערין אמר רבי אבין מאי קרא דכתיב אמלטה נא שמה נא בגימטריא חמשין ואחת הוי ושל סדום חמישים ושתים ושלותה

And Rava bar Meḥasseya said that Rav Ḥama bar Gurya said Rav said: A person should always seek and dwell in a city whose settling took place in the recent past, meaning that it was recently established, as due to the fact that its settling is recent its sins are few, as its residents have not yet had the opportunity to commit many sins there. As it is stated that Lot said to the angel: “Behold, here is this city that is close to run away to and it is small” (Genesis 19:20). What is the meaning of the word close? If you say: That it is close in distance and truly small, why did he need to say that to the angel? Didn’t they see it? Rather, the meaning of the word close must be because its settling was close, that it had been recently settled, and therefore its sins were few. Rabbi Avin said: What is the verse that teaches us that Zoar was newer than the other cities? As it is written: “I will escape there please [na]” (Genesis 19:20); the numerological value of nun alef, the letters of the word na, is fifty-one, while Sodom was fifty-two years old. And Sodom’s tranquil period

Masechet Shabbat is sponsored in memory of Elliot Freilich, Eliyahu Daniel ben Bar Tzion David Halevi z"l by a group of women from Kehilath Jeshurun, Manhattan.

Want to explore more about the Daf?

See insights from our partners, contributors and community of women learners

Ilana Kurshan

Daf Yomi in the Time of Corona- Vayakhel-Pekudei

I began learning Masechet Shabbat against the backdrop of the Corona Crisis, as I gradually realized that people all over...
Daf Yomi: One Week at a Time

Daf Yomi: One Week at a Time- Daf 3-11

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=_VVV4BSVPlg&t= For audio only:   Join Rabbanit Dr. Tamara Spitz each week as she reviews the key topics...
talking talmud_square

Shabbat 10: Is Prayer Like a Good Meal?

Among the many brief topics on this daf (yes, this page returns to that), we found two passages that address...

Shabbat 10

The William Davidson Talmud | Powered by Sefaria

Shabbat 10

התם לא שכיחא שכרות הכא שכיחא שכרות אי נמי במנחה כיון דקביעא לה זימנא מירתת ולא אתי למפשע ערבית כיון דכולא ליליא זמן ערבית לא מירתת ואתי למפשע מתקיף לה רב ששת טריחותא למיסר המייניה ועוד ליקו הכי וליצלי משום שנאמר הכון לקראת אלהיך ישראל

The Gemara responds that there is a difference between the cases. There, at the time of the afternoon prayer, drunkenness is uncommon, as it is unusual to drink excessively during the day. However, here, in the case of the evening prayer, drunkenness is common, and therefore there was room to issue a decree requiring one to interrupt his meal to recite the evening prayer. Alternatively, it is possible to explain that with regard to the afternoon prayer, since its time is fixed, he is anxious, and he won’t come to be negligent and forget to pray. However, with regard to the evening prayer, since all night is the time for the evening prayer, he is not anxious, and he will come to be negligent. Rav Sheshet strongly objects to this: Is it a burden to tie his belt? In addition, if it is a burden, let him stand that way, without a belt, and pray. The Gemara answers: It is necessary to wear a belt while praying, since it is stated: “Prepare to greet your God, Israel” (Amos 4:12). One must prepare and adorn himself when standing before God.

רבא בר רב הונא רמי פוזמקי ומצלי אמר הכון לקראת וגו׳ רבא שדי גלימיה ופכר ידיה ומצלי אמר כעבדא קמיה מריה אמר רב אשי חזינא ליה לרב כהנא כי איכא צערא בעלמא שדי גלימיה ופכר ידיה ומצלי אמר כעבדא קמי מריה כי איכא שלמא לביש ומתכסי ומתעטף ומצלי אמר הכון לקראת אלהיך ישראל

Since the verse: “Prepare to greet your God, Israel,” was cited with regard to the obligation to prepare and adorn oneself before prayer, the Gemara cites that indeed Rava bar Rav Huna would don expensive socks and pray and he said he would do this as it is written: “Prepare to greet your God, Israel.” On the other hand, Rava would not do so; rather, in his prayer he would remove his cloak and clasp his hands and pray. He said that he would do so as a slave before his master, who appears before him with extreme submission. Rav Ashi said: I saw that Rav Kahana, when there is suffering in the world, would remove his cloak and clasp his hands and pray. And he said that he did so as a slave before his master. When there is peace in the world, he would dress, and cover himself, and wrap himself in a significant garment, and pray, and he said that he did so in fulfillment of the verse: “Prepare to greet your God, Israel.”

רבא חזייה לרב המנונא דקא מאריך בצלותיה אמר מניחין חיי עולם ועוסקים בחיי שעה והוא סבר זמן תפלה לחוד וזמן תורה לחוד רבי ירמיה הוה יתיב קמיה דרבי זירא והוו עסקי בשמעתא נגה לצלויי והוה קא מסרהב רבי ירמיה קרי עליה רבי זירא מסיר אזנו משמוע תורה גם תפלתו תועבה

Speaking of prayer, the Gemara relates that Rava saw Rav Hamnuna, who was prolonging his prayer. He said about him: They abandon eternal life, the study of Torah, and engage in temporal life, prayer, which includes requests for mundane needs. The Gemara explains: And Rav Hamnuna held that the time for prayer is distinct and the time for Torah is distinct. The time that one devotes to prayer is not at the expense of the time devoted to Torah study. Similarly, the Gemara relates that Rabbi Yirmeya was sitting before Rabbi Zeira and they were engaged in the study of halakha. The time for prayer was approaching and it was getting late and Rabbi Yirmeya was hurrying to conclude the subject that they were studying in order to pray. Rabbi Zeira read this verse as applying to Rabbi Yirmeya: “One who turns his ear from hearing Torah, his prayer is also an abomination” (Proverbs 28:9).

מאימתי התחלת דין רבי ירמיה ורבי יונה חד אמר משיתעטפו הדיינין וחד אמר משיפתחו בעלי דינים ולא פליגי הא דעסקי ואתו בדינא הא דלא עסקי ואתו בדינא

We learned that if one enters to sit in judgment adjacent to minḥa, he need not interrupt the trial and pray. The Gemara clarifies: From when is it considered the beginning of a trial? Rabbi Yirmeya and Rabbi Yona disagreed. One said that it begins from when the judges wrap themselves in their prayer shawls, as judges were accustomed to do before sitting in judgment. And one of them said that the beginning of judgment is from when the litigants begin articulating their claims. The Gemara comments: And they do not disagree. Rather, this amora, who says that it is from when the litigants begin, refers to a case where they were already engaged in a previous trial, and the judges were already wrapped in their prayer shawls. And that amora, who says that it is from when the judges wrap themselves in their prayer shawls, refers to a case where they were not engaged in a previous trial, and, as a result, the trial begins when they wrap themselves in the prayer shawls.

רב אמי ורב אסי הוו יתבי וגרסי ביני עמודי וכל שעתא ושעתא הוו טפחי אעיברא דדשא ואמרי אי איכא דאית ליה דינא ליעול וליתי רב חסדא ורבה בר רב הונא הוו יתבי בדינא כולי יומא הוה קא חליש לבייהו תנא להו רב חייא בר רב מדפתי ויעמד העם על משה מן הבקר עד הערב וכי תעלה על דעתך שמשה יושב ודן כל היום כולו תורתו מתי נעשית אלא לומר לך כל דיין שדן דין אמת לאמיתו אפילו שעה אחת מעלה עליו הכתוב כאילו נעשה שותף להקדוש ברוך הוא במעשה בראשית כתיב הכא ויעמד העם על משה מן הבקר עד הערב וכתיב התם ויהי ערב ויהי בקר יום אחד

Speaking of judgment, the Gemara relates that Rav Ami and Rav Asi would sit and study between the pillars beneath the study hall. And each and every hour they would knock on the bolt of the door and say: If there is someone who has a case that requires judgment, let him enter and come before us. The Gemara also relates that Rav Ḥisda and Rabba bar Rav Huna would sit in judgment all day and their hearts would grow weak from hunger. Therefore, Rav Ḥiyya bar Rav from Difti taught them a baraita with regard to the verse: “And it was the next day and Moses sat to judge the people and the people stood over Moses from the morning until the evening” (Exodus 18:13). Does it enter your mind that Moses would sit and judge all day long? If so, when was his Torah study accomplished? Rather, surely the verse is coming to tell you: Any judge who judges a true judgment truthfully, even if he sits in judgment only one hour, the verse ascribes to him as if he became a partner to the Holy One, Blessed be He, in the act of Creation, as by means of a true judgment he upholds the world (Me’iri). This conclusion is derived by means of a verbal analogy [gezera shava]: It is written here: “And the people stood over Moses from the morning until the evening.” And it is written there, in the act of Creation: “And it was evening and it was morning, one day” (Genesis 1:5). The evening and part of the morning are considered a whole day. With regard to this issue as well, it is sufficient for the judges to sit in judgment for only part of the day and there is no need for them to starve themselves by sitting in judgment all day.

עד מתי יושבין בדין אמר רב ששת עד זמן סעודה אמר רב חמא מאי קרא דכתיב אי לך ארץ שמלכך נער ושריך בבקר יאכלו אשריך ארץ שמלכך בן חורים ושריך בעת יאכלו בגבורה ולא בשתי בגבורה של תורה ולא בשתייה של יין

The Gemara questions further: Until when do they sit in judgment? What is the usual time that court adjourns? Rav Sheshet said: Until mealtime, noon. Rav Ḥama said: What is the verse that alludes to this? As it is written: “Woe to you, land that your king is a lad and your ministers eat in the morning. Happy are you, land that your king is free and your ministers eat on time in strength and not in drunkenness” (Ecclesiastes 10:16–17). He interprets the verse: The ministers in a proper country sit to eat only after they engaged in the strength of Torah and in judgment and not in the drunkenness of wine.

תנו רבנן שעה ראשונה מאכל לודים שניה מאכל לסטים שלישית מאכל יורשין רביעית מאכל פועלים חמישית מאכל כל אדם

The Sages taught in a baraita: Eating in the first hour of the morning is the time of eating for Ludim, who are members of a nation of cannibals, and they are ravenous and hurry to eat. The second hour is the time of the eating of robbers. Since they spend the night stealing, they eat early in the morning. The third hour is the time of eating for heirs, i.e., people who inherited a lot of money and do not work for their sustenance. Their only preoccupation in the early hours of the morning is eating. The fourth hour is the time of eating for workers. The fifth hour is the time of eating for all people.

איני והאמר רב פפא רביעית זמן סעודה לכל אדם אלא רביעית מאכל כל אדם חמישית מאכל פועלים ששית מאכל תלמידי חכמים מכאן ואילך כזורק אבן לחמת אמר אביי לא אמרן אלא דלא טעים מידי בצפרא אבל טעים מידי בצפרא לית לן בה

The Gemara asks: Is that so? Didn’t Rav Pappa say that the fourth hour is mealtime for all people? Rather, emend the statement and say: The fourth hour is the time of eating for all people. The fifth hour is the time of eating for workers who do not have time to eat beforehand. The sixth hour is the time of eating for Torah scholars as, until then, court is in session. The Gemara adds: One who eats from then on is as if he is throwing a stone into a barrel, meaning that by then it does not contribute to the body’s health. Abaye said: We only said that eating from the sixth hour on is not beneficial, when he did not taste anything in the morning; however, if he tasted something in the morning, we have no problem with it.

אמר רב אדא בר אהבה מתפלל אדם תפלתו בבית המרחץ מיתיבי הנכנס לבית המרחץ מקום שבני אדם עומדין לבושין יש שם מקרא ותפלה ואין צריך לומר שאילת שלום ומניח תפילין ואין צריך לומר שאינו חולץ

Rav Adda bar Ahava said: A person may, ab initio, recite his prayer in the bathhouse. The Gemara raises an objection from what was taught in the Tosefta: One who enters the bathhouse, in the first room, a place where all people stand dressed, it is like any other place and reading the Torah and prayer are permitted there, and, needless to say, in that room greeting [shalom] others is permitted. And he may don phylacteries there, and, needless to say, if he was already donning phylacteries that he need not remove them.

מקום שבני אדם עומדים ערומים ולבושין יש שם שאילת שלום ואין שם מקרא ותפלה ואינו חולץ תפילין ואינו מניח לכתחלה

In the next room, a place where people dress and undress and they stand both naked and dressed, greeting others is permitted there. However, reading the Torah and prayer are not permitted there. And if one was already donning phylacteries there, he need not remove the phylacteries. However, he may not don phylacteries there ab initio.

מקום שבני אדם עומדין ערומים אין שם שאילת שלום ואין צריך לומר מקרא ותפלה וחולץ תפילין ואין צריך לומר שאינו מניחן

In the innermost room, which is a place where people stand naked, greeting others is not permitted there, and, needless to say, reading the Torah and prayer are prohibited there. And if he is donning phylacteries there, he must remove the phylacteries, and, needless to say, he may not don them there ab initio. Apparently, the Tosefta contradicts the statement of Rav Adda bar Ahava as he was, no doubt, referring to the innermost room in the bathhouse, which alone is referred to simply as a bathhouse, and, according to him, one may pray there ab initio.

כי קאמר רב אדא בר אהבה במרחץ שאין בו אדם והא אמר רבי יוסי בר חנינא מרחץ שאמרו אף על פי שאין בו אדם בית הכסא שאמרו אף על פי שאין בו צואה

The Gemara answers: When Rav Adda bar Ahava said his halakha, he was referring to an empty bathhouse in which there are no people. The Gemara asks: Didn’t Rabbi Yosei bar Ḥanina say: With regard to the bathhouse in which they said that it is prohibited to pray, the prohibition exists even though there are no people in it? With regard to the bathroom in which they said that it is prohibited to pray, the prohibition exists even though there are no feces in it. Certainly, since the place serves a repugnant purpose, it is inappropriate to pray there at any time.

אלא כי קאמר רב אדא בחדתי והא מבעיא בעא ליה רבינא הזמינו לבית הכסא מהו יש זימון או אין זימון ולא איפשיטא ליה לאו הוא הדין למרחץ לא דילמא

The Gemara answers: Rather, when Rav Adda made his statement, he was referring to a new bathhouse that had not yet been used for bathing. The Gemara asks: Didn’t Ravina raise a dilemma before Rav Adda with regard to this matter: A place that one designated as a bathroom, what is its legal status as far as praying there is concerned? Is there designation as a significant and determining factor in this case? Or, is designation not a halakhically significant matter? And the dilemma was not resolved for him. Is the same not true with regard to the bathhouse? Doesn’t the same dilemma exist there? The Gemara answers: No, perhaps

שאני בית הכסא דמאיס:

the bathroom is different, as it is disgusting. Once a place is called a bathroom it is disgusting and no longer fit for prayer. However, until he actually bathes in a bathhouse it remains fit for prayer.

אין שם שאילת שלום מסייע ליה לרב המנונא משמיה דעולא דאמר אסור לאדם שיתן שלום לחבירו בבית המרחץ משום שנאמר ויקרא לו ה׳ שלום

It was taught in the Tosefta: There is no greeting [shalom] others permitted in the bathhouse. The Gemara comments that this statement supports the opinion of Rav Hamnuna in the name of Ulla, who said: It is forbidden for a person to greet [shalom] his friend in the bathhouse because Shalom is one of the names of God, as it is stated: “And Gideon built there an altar for God and he called Him Lord Shalom” (Judges 6:24). Therefore, it is prohibited to utter the word shalom in a dishonorable place.

אלא מעתה הימנותא נמי אסור למימר בבית הכסא דכתיב האל הנאמן וכי תימא הכי נמי והאמר רבא בר מחסיא אמר רב חמא בר גוריא אמר רב שרי למימר הימנותא בבית הכסא התם שם גופיה לא איקרי הכי דמתרגמינן אלהא מהימנא הכא שם גופיה איקרי שלום דכתיב ויקרא לו ה׳ שלום:

The Gemara asks: But if so, words connoting faithfulness are also forbidden to say in the bathroom, as it is written “The faithful God who keeps the covenant and the kindness” (Deuteronomy 7:9). And if you say that it is indeed so, that it is forbidden to use the language of faithfulness in the bathroom, didn’t Rava bar Meḥasseya say that Rav Ḥama bar Gurya said that Rav said: It is permitted to say faithfulness in the bathroom? The Gemara answers: There is a difference between the terms: There, the name of God itself is not called in that way, as we translate it as “the faithful God.” However, here, the name of God Himself is called Shalom, as it is written: “And he called Him Lord Shalom.” It is not an adjective, but a holy name in and of itself.

ואמר רבא בר מחסיא אמר רב חמא בר גוריא אמר רב הנותן מתנה לחבירו צריך להודיעו שנאמר לדעת כי אני ה׳ מקדשכם תניא נמי הכי לדעת כי אני ה׳ מקדשכם אמר לו הקדוש ברוך הוא למשה מתנה טובה יש לי בבית גנזי ושבת שמה ואני מבקש ליתנה לישראל לך והודיעם מכאן אמר רבן שמעון בן גמליאל הנותן פת לתינוק צריך להודיע לאמו מאי עביד ליה אמר אביי שאיף ליה משחא ומלי ליה כוחלא והאידנא דחיישינן לכשפים מאי אמר רב פפא שאיף ליה מאותו המין

Incidental to the halakhic statement in his name, the Gemara also cites another statement that Rava bar Meḥasseya said that Rav Ḥama bar Gurya said that Rav said: One who gives a gift to another must inform him that he is giving it to him. As it is stated: “Only keep My Shabbatot for it is a sign between Me and you for your generations to know that I am God Who sanctifies you” (Exodus 31:13). When the Holy One, Blessed be He, gave Shabbat to Israel, He told Moses to inform them about it. That was also taught in a baraita: The verse states: “For I am God Who sanctifies you,” meaning that the Holy One, Blessed be He, said to Moses: I have a good gift in My treasure house and Shabbat is its name, and I seek to give it to Israel. Go inform them about it. From here Rabban Shimon ben Gamliel said: One who gives a gift of bread to a child needs to inform his mother that he gave it to him. The Gemara asks: What does he do to the child, so that his mother will know that he gave him a gift? Abaye said: He should smear him with oil or place blue shadow around his eye in an obvious manner. When the mother of the child notices and asks him about it, he will tell her that so-and-so gave him a piece of bread. The Gemara asks: And now that we are concerned about witchcraft involving oil or eye shadow, what should one who gives a gift do? Rav Pappa said: He should smear him with food of the same type that he gave him to eat.

איני והאמר רב חמא (בר) חנינא הנותן מתנה לחבירו אין צריך להודיעו שנאמר ומשה לא ידע כי קרן עור פניו בדברו אתו לא קשיא הא במילתא דעבידא לאגלויי הא במילתא דלא עבידא לאגלויי והא שבת דעבידא לגלויי מתן שכרה לא עביד לגלויי

With regard to the halakha itself, the Gemara asks: Is that so? Didn’t Rav Ḥama bar Ḥanina say: One who gives a gift to his friend need not inform him, as God made Moses’ face glow, and nevertheless it is stated with regard to Moses: “And Moses did not know that the skin of his face shone when He spoke with him” (Exodus 34:29)? The Gemara answers: This is not difficult. When Rav Ḥama bar Ḥanina said that he need not inform him, he was referring to a matter that is likely to be revealed. When Rabban Shimon ben Gamliel said that he needs to inform him, he was referring to a matter that is not likely to be revealed. The Gemara asked: If so, isn’t Shabbat likely to be revealed, as it will be necessary to inform them of Shabbat together with the other mitzvot? Why was Moses asked to inform them about Shabbat separately? The Gemara answers: The giving of its reward is not likely to be revealed, and it was necessary to inform them about so extraordinary a gift.

רב חסדא הוה נקיט בידיה תרתי מתנתא דתורא אמר כל מאן דאתי ואמר לי שמעתתא חדתא משמיה דרב יהיבנא ליה ניהליה אמר ליה רבא בר מחסיא הכי אמר רב הנותן מתנה לחבירו צריך להודיעו שנאמר לדעת כי אני ה׳ מקדשכם יהבה ניהליה אמר חביבין עלך שמעתתא דרב כולי האי אמר ליה אין אמר ליה היינו דאמר רב מילתא אלבישייהו יקירא אמר ליה אמר רב הכי בתרייתא עדיפא לי מקמייתא ואי הוה נקיטנא אחריתי יהיבנא לך:

The Gemara relates that Rav Ḥisda would take in his hand two gifts of the priesthood separated from an ox. He said: Anyone who comes and tells me a new halakha in the name of Rav, I will give these gifts to him. Rava bar Meḥasseya said to him, Rav said as follows: One who gives a gift to his friend needs to inform him, as it stated: “To know that I am God Who sanctifies you.” He gave the gift to Rava bar Meḥasseya. Rava bar Meḥasseya said to Rav Ḥisda: Are the halakhot of Rav so beloved to you? Rav Ḥisda said to him: Yes. Rava bar Meḥasseya said to him, this is what Rav said: Fine wool is precious to those who wear it (Rav Ya’akov Emden), meaning only a person who is used to delicate items can appreciate their quality. Rav Ḥisda said to him excitedly: Did Rav say that? The latter statement is preferable to me more than the first. And if I were holding another gift I would give it to you.

ואמר רבא בר מחסיא אמר רב חמא בר גוריא אמר רב לעולם אל ישנה אדם בנו בין הבנים שבשביל משקל שני סלעים מילת שנתן יעקב ליוסף יותר משאר בניו נתקנאו בו אחיו ונתגלגל הדבר וירדו אבותינו למצרים:

And Rava bar Meḥasseya said that Rav Ḥama bar Gurya said that Rav said: A person should never distinguish one of his sons from among the other sons by giving him preferential treatment. As, due to the weight of two sela of fine wool [meilat] that Jacob gave to Joseph, beyond what he gave the rest of his sons, in making him the striped coat, his brothers became jealous of him and the matter unfolded and our forefathers descended to Egypt.

ואמר רבא בר מחסיא אמר רב חמא בר גוריא אמר רב לעולם יחזר אדם וישב בעיר שישיבתה קרובה שמתוך שישיבתה קרובה עונותיה מועטין שנאמר הנה נא העיר הזאת קרובה לנוס שמה והיא מצער מאי קרובה אילימא קרובה דמיקרבא וזוטא והא קא חזו לה אלא מתוך שישיבתה קרובה עונותיה מוצערין אמר רבי אבין מאי קרא דכתיב אמלטה נא שמה נא בגימטריא חמשין ואחת הוי ושל סדום חמישים ושתים ושלותה

And Rava bar Meḥasseya said that Rav Ḥama bar Gurya said Rav said: A person should always seek and dwell in a city whose settling took place in the recent past, meaning that it was recently established, as due to the fact that its settling is recent its sins are few, as its residents have not yet had the opportunity to commit many sins there. As it is stated that Lot said to the angel: “Behold, here is this city that is close to run away to and it is small” (Genesis 19:20). What is the meaning of the word close? If you say: That it is close in distance and truly small, why did he need to say that to the angel? Didn’t they see it? Rather, the meaning of the word close must be because its settling was close, that it had been recently settled, and therefore its sins were few. Rabbi Avin said: What is the verse that teaches us that Zoar was newer than the other cities? As it is written: “I will escape there please [na]” (Genesis 19:20); the numerological value of nun alef, the letters of the word na, is fifty-one, while Sodom was fifty-two years old. And Sodom’s tranquil period

Scroll To Top