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Daf Yomi

March 16, 2020 | 讻壮 讘讗讚专 转砖状驻

Masechet Shabbat is sponsored in memory of Elliot Freilich, Eliyahu Daniel ben Bar Tzion David Halevi z"l by a group of women from Kehilath Jeshurun, Manhattan.

  • This month's learning is sponsored by Shifra Tyberg and Rephael Wenger in loving memory of Zvi ben Yisrael Yitzhak Tyberg on his yahrzeit, and in honor of their daughter Ayelet's upcoming marriage to Ori Kinberg.

  • This month's learning is sponsored by Rabbi Hayim Herring with pride and love, in honor of his spouse, Terri Krivosha, who received this year's Sidney Barrows Lifetime Commitment Award from the Mpls. And St. Paul Federations in recognition of her distinguished contribution to the Twin Cities Legal and Jewish Communities.聽

Shabbat 10

Today’s shiur is dedicated in memory of Emanuel Plotker – Menachem Mendel ben Yechiel and Henya z”l by Candace Plotzker-Herman.

How should one dress for prayer? Does it depend on the situation? If one prays for a long time, is it a problem that it detracts from the time one should be learning? When is it considered that one started judgement and does not need to stop to pray mincha? Should one judge all day long? What time of day was the first meal eaten? Different categories of people ate at different specific times. Can one pray in a bathhouse? Under what circumstances? Why can’t one greet a friend in the inner room of the bathhouse? Can one say the word “emunah” in a bathhouse? If one gives a gift to another, one should tell the friend. From where is this derived? One should not favor one child over another – learned out from Jacob who favored Joseph. One should settle in a newer developed city as there are less sins there- this is learned out from Tzoar and S’dom.

转讜讻谉 讝讛 转讜专讙诐 讙诐 诇: 注讘专讬转

讛转诐 诇讗 砖讻讬讞讗 砖讻专讜转 讛讻讗 砖讻讬讞讗 砖讻专讜转 讗讬 谞诪讬 讘诪谞讞讛 讻讬讜谉 讚拽讘讬注讗 诇讛 讝讬诪谞讗 诪讬专转转 讜诇讗 讗转讬 诇诪驻砖注 注专讘讬转 讻讬讜谉 讚讻讜诇讗 诇讬诇讬讗 讝诪谉 注专讘讬转 诇讗 诪讬专转转 讜讗转讬 诇诪驻砖注 诪转拽讬祝 诇讛 专讘 砖砖转 讟专讬讞讜转讗 诇诪讬住专 讛诪讬讬谞讬讛 讜注讜讚 诇讬拽讜 讛讻讬 讜诇讬爪诇讬 诪砖讜诐 砖谞讗诪专 讛讻讜谉 诇拽专讗转 讗诇讛讬讱 讬砖专讗诇


The Gemara responds that there is a difference between the cases. There, at the time of the afternoon prayer, drunkenness is uncommon, as it is unusual to drink excessively during the day. However, here, in the case of the evening prayer, drunkenness is common, and therefore there was room to issue a decree requiring one to interrupt his meal to recite the evening prayer. Alternatively, it is possible to explain that with regard to the afternoon prayer, since its time is fixed, he is anxious, and he won鈥檛 come to be negligent and forget to pray. However, with regard to the evening prayer, since all night is the time for the evening prayer, he is not anxious, and he will come to be negligent. Rav Sheshet strongly objects to this: Is it a burden to tie his belt? In addition, if it is a burden, let him stand that way, without a belt, and pray. The Gemara answers: It is necessary to wear a belt while praying, since it is stated: 鈥淧repare to greet your God, Israel鈥 (Amos 4:12). One must prepare and adorn himself when standing before God.


专讘讗 讘专 专讘 讛讜谞讗 专诪讬 驻讜讝诪拽讬 讜诪爪诇讬 讗诪专 讛讻讜谉 诇拽专讗转 讜讙讜壮 专讘讗 砖讚讬 讙诇讬诪讬讛 讜驻讻专 讬讚讬讛 讜诪爪诇讬 讗诪专 讻注讘讚讗 拽诪讬讛 诪专讬讛 讗诪专 专讘 讗砖讬 讞讝讬谞讗 诇讬讛 诇专讘 讻讛谞讗 讻讬 讗讬讻讗 爪注专讗 讘注诇诪讗 砖讚讬 讙诇讬诪讬讛 讜驻讻专 讬讚讬讛 讜诪爪诇讬 讗诪专 讻注讘讚讗 拽诪讬 诪专讬讛 讻讬 讗讬讻讗 砖诇诪讗 诇讘讬砖 讜诪转讻住讬 讜诪转注讟祝 讜诪爪诇讬 讗诪专 讛讻讜谉 诇拽专讗转 讗诇讛讬讱 讬砖专讗诇


Since the verse: 鈥淧repare to greet your God, Israel,鈥 was cited with regard to the obligation to prepare and adorn oneself before prayer, the Gemara cites that indeed Rava bar Rav Huna would don expensive socks and pray and he said he would do this as it is written: 鈥淧repare to greet your God, Israel.鈥 On the other hand, Rava would not do so; rather, in his prayer he would remove his cloak and clasp his hands and pray. He said that he would do so as a slave before his master, who appears before him with extreme submission. Rav Ashi said: I saw that Rav Kahana, when there is suffering in the world, would remove his cloak and clasp his hands and pray. And he said that he did so as a slave before his master. When there is peace in the world, he would dress, and cover himself, and wrap himself in a significant garment, and pray, and he said that he did so in fulfillment of the verse: 鈥淧repare to greet your God, Israel.鈥


专讘讗 讞讝讬讬讛 诇专讘 讛诪谞讜谞讗 讚拽讗 诪讗专讬讱 讘爪诇讜转讬讛 讗诪专 诪谞讬讞讬谉 讞讬讬 注讜诇诐 讜注讜住拽讬诐 讘讞讬讬 砖注讛 讜讛讜讗 住讘专 讝诪谉 转驻诇讛 诇讞讜讚 讜讝诪谉 转讜专讛 诇讞讜讚 专讘讬 讬专诪讬讛 讛讜讛 讬转讬讘 拽诪讬讛 讚专讘讬 讝讬专讗 讜讛讜讜 注住拽讬 讘砖诪注转讗 谞讙讛 诇爪诇讜讬讬 讜讛讜讛 拽讗 诪住专讛讘 专讘讬 讬专诪讬讛 拽专讬 注诇讬讛 专讘讬 讝讬专讗 诪住讬专 讗讝谞讜 诪砖诪讜注 转讜专讛 讙诐 转驻诇转讜 转讜注讘讛


Speaking of prayer, the Gemara relates that Rava saw Rav Hamnuna, who was prolonging his prayer. He said about him: They abandon eternal life, the study of Torah, and engage in temporal life, prayer, which includes requests for mundane needs. The Gemara explains: And Rav Hamnuna held that the time for prayer is distinct and the time for Torah is distinct. The time that one devotes to prayer is not at the expense of the time devoted to Torah study. Similarly, the Gemara relates that Rabbi Yirmeya was sitting before Rabbi Zeira and they were engaged in the study of halakha. The time for prayer was approaching and it was getting late and Rabbi Yirmeya was hurrying to conclude the subject that they were studying in order to pray. Rabbi Zeira read this verse as applying to Rabbi Yirmeya: 鈥淥ne who turns his ear from hearing Torah, his prayer is also an abomination鈥 (Proverbs 28:9).


诪讗讬诪转讬 讛转讞诇转 讚讬谉 专讘讬 讬专诪讬讛 讜专讘讬 讬讜谞讛 讞讚 讗诪专 诪砖讬转注讟驻讜 讛讚讬讬谞讬谉 讜讞讚 讗诪专 诪砖讬驻转讞讜 讘注诇讬 讚讬谞讬诐 讜诇讗 驻诇讬讙讬 讛讗 讚注住拽讬 讜讗转讜 讘讚讬谞讗 讛讗 讚诇讗 注住拽讬 讜讗转讜 讘讚讬谞讗


We learned that if one enters to sit in judgment adjacent to min岣, he need not interrupt the trial and pray. The Gemara clarifies: From when is it considered the beginning of a trial? Rabbi Yirmeya and Rabbi Yona disagreed. One said that it begins from when the judges wrap themselves in their prayer shawls, as judges were accustomed to do before sitting in judgment. And one of them said that the beginning of judgment is from when the litigants begin articulating their claims. The Gemara comments: And they do not disagree. Rather, this amora, who says that it is from when the litigants begin, refers to a case where they were already engaged in a previous trial, and the judges were already wrapped in their prayer shawls. And that amora, who says that it is from when the judges wrap themselves in their prayer shawls, refers to a case where they were not engaged in a previous trial, and, as a result, the trial begins when they wrap themselves in the prayer shawls.


专讘 讗诪讬 讜专讘 讗住讬 讛讜讜 讬转讘讬 讜讙专住讬 讘讬谞讬 注诪讜讚讬 讜讻诇 砖注转讗 讜砖注转讗 讛讜讜 讟驻讞讬 讗注讬讘专讗 讚讚砖讗 讜讗诪专讬 讗讬 讗讬讻讗 讚讗讬转 诇讬讛 讚讬谞讗 诇讬注讜诇 讜诇讬转讬 专讘 讞住讚讗 讜专讘讛 讘专 专讘 讛讜谞讗 讛讜讜 讬转讘讬 讘讚讬谞讗 讻讜诇讬 讬讜诪讗 讛讜讛 拽讗 讞诇讬砖 诇讘讬讬讛讜 转谞讗 诇讛讜 专讘 讞讬讬讗 讘专 专讘 诪讚驻转讬 讜讬注诪讚 讛注诐 注诇 诪砖讛 诪谉 讛讘拽专 注讚 讛注专讘 讜讻讬 转注诇讛 注诇 讚注转讱 砖诪砖讛 讬讜砖讘 讜讚谉 讻诇 讛讬讜诐 讻讜诇讜 转讜专转讜 诪转讬 谞注砖讬转 讗诇讗 诇讜诪专 诇讱 讻诇 讚讬讬谉 砖讚谉 讚讬谉 讗诪转 诇讗诪讬转讜 讗驻讬诇讜 砖注讛 讗讞转 诪注诇讛 注诇讬讜 讛讻转讜讘 讻讗讬诇讜 谞注砖讛 砖讜转祝 诇讛拽讚讜砖 讘专讜讱 讛讜讗 讘诪注砖讛 讘专讗砖讬转 讻转讬讘 讛讻讗 讜讬注诪讚 讛注诐 注诇 诪砖讛 诪谉 讛讘拽专 注讚 讛注专讘 讜讻转讬讘 讛转诐 讜讬讛讬 注专讘 讜讬讛讬 讘拽专 讬讜诐 讗讞讚


Speaking of judgment, the Gemara relates that Rav Ami and Rav Asi would sit and study between the pillars beneath the study hall. And each and every hour they would knock on the bolt of the door and say: If there is someone who has a case that requires judgment, let him enter and come before us. The Gemara also relates that Rav 岣sda and Rabba bar Rav Huna would sit in judgment all day and their hearts would grow weak from hunger. Therefore, Rav 岣yya bar Rav from Difti taught them a baraita with regard to the verse: 鈥淎nd it was the next day and Moses sat to judge the people and the people stood over Moses from the morning until the evening鈥 (Exodus 18:13). Does it enter your mind that Moses would sit and judge all day long? If so, when was his Torah study accomplished? Rather, surely the verse is coming to tell you: Any judge who judges a true judgment truthfully, even if he sits in judgment only one hour, the verse ascribes to him as if he became a partner to the Holy One, Blessed be He, in the act of Creation, as by means of a true judgment he upholds the world (Me鈥檌ri). This conclusion is derived by means of a verbal analogy [gezera shava]: It is written here: 鈥淎nd the people stood over Moses from the morning until the evening.鈥 And it is written there, in the act of Creation: 鈥淎nd it was evening and it was morning, one day鈥 (Genesis 1:5). The evening and part of the morning are considered a whole day. With regard to this issue as well, it is sufficient for the judges to sit in judgment for only part of the day and there is no need for them to starve themselves by sitting in judgment all day.


注讚 诪转讬 讬讜砖讘讬谉 讘讚讬谉 讗诪专 专讘 砖砖转 注讚 讝诪谉 住注讜讚讛 讗诪专 专讘 讞诪讗 诪讗讬 拽专讗 讚讻转讬讘 讗讬 诇讱 讗专抓 砖诪诇讻讱 谞注专 讜砖专讬讱 讘讘拽专 讬讗讻诇讜 讗砖专讬讱 讗专抓 砖诪诇讻讱 讘谉 讞讜专讬诐 讜砖专讬讱 讘注转 讬讗讻诇讜 讘讙讘讜专讛 讜诇讗 讘砖转讬 讘讙讘讜专讛 砖诇 转讜专讛 讜诇讗 讘砖转讬讬讛 砖诇 讬讬谉


The Gemara questions further: Until when do they sit in judgment? What is the usual time that court adjourns? Rav Sheshet said: Until mealtime, noon. Rav 岣ma said: What is the verse that alludes to this? As it is written: 鈥淲oe to you, land that your king is a lad and your ministers eat in the morning. Happy are you, land that your king is free and your ministers eat on time in strength and not in drunkenness鈥 (Ecclesiastes 10:16鈥17). He interprets the verse: The ministers in a proper country sit to eat only after they engaged in the strength of Torah and in judgment and not in the drunkenness of wine.


转谞讜 专讘谞谉 砖注讛 专讗砖讜谞讛 诪讗讻诇 诇讜讚讬诐 砖谞讬讛 诪讗讻诇 诇住讟讬诐 砖诇讬砖讬转 诪讗讻诇 讬讜专砖讬谉 专讘讬注讬转 诪讗讻诇 驻讜注诇讬诐 讞诪讬砖讬转 诪讗讻诇 讻诇 讗讚诐


The Sages taught in a baraita: Eating in the first hour of the morning is the time of eating for Ludim, who are members of a nation of cannibals, and they are ravenous and hurry to eat. The second hour is the time of the eating of robbers. Since they spend the night stealing, they eat early in the morning. The third hour is the time of eating for heirs, i.e., people who inherited a lot of money and do not work for their sustenance. Their only preoccupation in the early hours of the morning is eating. The fourth hour is the time of eating for workers. The fifth hour is the time of eating for all people.


讗讬谞讬 讜讛讗诪专 专讘 驻驻讗 专讘讬注讬转 讝诪谉 住注讜讚讛 诇讻诇 讗讚诐 讗诇讗 专讘讬注讬转 诪讗讻诇 讻诇 讗讚诐 讞诪讬砖讬转 诪讗讻诇 驻讜注诇讬诐 砖砖讬转 诪讗讻诇 转诇诪讬讚讬 讞讻诪讬诐 诪讻讗谉 讜讗讬诇讱 讻讝讜专拽 讗讘谉 诇讞诪转 讗诪专 讗讘讬讬 诇讗 讗诪专谉 讗诇讗 讚诇讗 讟注讬诐 诪讬讚讬 讘爪驻专讗 讗讘诇 讟注讬诐 诪讬讚讬 讘爪驻专讗 诇讬转 诇谉 讘讛


The Gemara asks: Is that so? Didn鈥檛 Rav Pappa say that the fourth hour is mealtime for all people? Rather, emend the statement and say: The fourth hour is the time of eating for all people. The fifth hour is the time of eating for workers who do not have time to eat beforehand. The sixth hour is the time of eating for Torah scholars as, until then, court is in session. The Gemara adds: One who eats from then on is as if he is throwing a stone into a barrel, meaning that by then it does not contribute to the body鈥檚 health. Abaye said: We only said that eating from the sixth hour on is not beneficial, when he did not taste anything in the morning; however, if he tasted something in the morning, we have no problem with it.


讗诪专 专讘 讗讚讗 讘专 讗讛讘讛 诪转驻诇诇 讗讚诐 转驻诇转讜 讘讘讬转 讛诪专讞抓 诪讬转讬讘讬 讛谞讻谞住 诇讘讬转 讛诪专讞抓 诪拽讜诐 砖讘谞讬 讗讚诐 注讜诪讚讬谉 诇讘讜砖讬谉 讬砖 砖诐 诪拽专讗 讜转驻诇讛 讜讗讬谉 爪专讬讱 诇讜诪专 砖讗讬诇转 砖诇讜诐 讜诪谞讬讞 转驻讬诇讬谉 讜讗讬谉 爪专讬讱 诇讜诪专 砖讗讬谞讜 讞讜诇抓


Rav Adda bar Ahava said: A person may, ab initio, recite his prayer in the bathhouse. The Gemara raises an objection from what was taught in the Tosefta: One who enters the bathhouse, in the first room, a place where all people stand dressed, it is like any other place and reading the Torah and prayer are permitted there, and, needless to say, in that room greeting [shalom] others is permitted. And he may don phylacteries there, and, needless to say, if he was already donning phylacteries that he need not remove them.


诪拽讜诐 砖讘谞讬 讗讚诐 注讜诪讚讬诐 注专讜诪讬诐 讜诇讘讜砖讬谉 讬砖 砖诐 砖讗讬诇转 砖诇讜诐 讜讗讬谉 砖诐 诪拽专讗 讜转驻诇讛 讜讗讬谞讜 讞讜诇抓 转驻讬诇讬谉 讜讗讬谞讜 诪谞讬讞 诇讻转讞诇讛


In the next room, a place where people dress and undress and they stand both naked and dressed, greeting others is permitted there. However, reading the Torah and prayer are not permitted there. And if one was already donning phylacteries there, he need not remove the phylacteries. However, he may not don phylacteries there ab initio.


诪拽讜诐 砖讘谞讬 讗讚诐 注讜诪讚讬谉 注专讜诪讬诐 讗讬谉 砖诐 砖讗讬诇转 砖诇讜诐 讜讗讬谉 爪专讬讱 诇讜诪专 诪拽专讗 讜转驻诇讛 讜讞讜诇抓 转驻讬诇讬谉 讜讗讬谉 爪专讬讱 诇讜诪专 砖讗讬谞讜 诪谞讬讞谉


In the innermost room, which is a place where people stand naked, greeting others is not permitted there, and, needless to say, reading the Torah and prayer are prohibited there. And if he is donning phylacteries there, he must remove the phylacteries, and, needless to say, he may not don them there ab initio. Apparently, the Tosefta contradicts the statement of Rav Adda bar Ahava as he was, no doubt, referring to the innermost room in the bathhouse, which alone is referred to simply as a bathhouse, and, according to him, one may pray there ab initio.


讻讬 拽讗诪专 专讘 讗讚讗 讘专 讗讛讘讛 讘诪专讞抓 砖讗讬谉 讘讜 讗讚诐 讜讛讗 讗诪专 专讘讬 讬讜住讬 讘专 讞谞讬谞讗 诪专讞抓 砖讗诪专讜 讗祝 注诇 驻讬 砖讗讬谉 讘讜 讗讚诐 讘讬转 讛讻住讗 砖讗诪专讜 讗祝 注诇 驻讬 砖讗讬谉 讘讜 爪讜讗讛


The Gemara answers: When Rav Adda bar Ahava said his halakha, he was referring to an empty bathhouse in which there are no people. The Gemara asks: Didn鈥檛 Rabbi Yosei bar 岣nina say: With regard to the bathhouse in which they said that it is prohibited to pray, the prohibition exists even though there are no people in it? With regard to the bathroom in which they said that it is prohibited to pray, the prohibition exists even though there are no feces in it. Certainly, since the place serves a repugnant purpose, it is inappropriate to pray there at any time.


讗诇讗 讻讬 拽讗诪专 专讘 讗讚讗 讘讞讚转讬 讜讛讗 诪讘注讬讗 讘注讗 诇讬讛 专讘讬谞讗 讛讝诪讬谞讜 诇讘讬转 讛讻住讗 诪讛讜 讬砖 讝讬诪讜谉 讗讜 讗讬谉 讝讬诪讜谉 讜诇讗 讗讬驻砖讬讟讗 诇讬讛 诇讗讜 讛讜讗 讛讚讬谉 诇诪专讞抓 诇讗 讚讬诇诪讗


The Gemara answers: Rather, when Rav Adda made his statement, he was referring to a new bathhouse that had not yet been used for bathing. The Gemara asks: Didn鈥檛 Ravina raise a dilemma before Rav Adda with regard to this matter: A place that one designated as a bathroom, what is its legal status as far as praying there is concerned? Is there designation as a significant and determining factor in this case? Or, is designation not a halakhically significant matter? And the dilemma was not resolved for him. Is the same not true with regard to the bathhouse? Doesn鈥檛 the same dilemma exist there? The Gemara answers: No, perhaps


砖讗谞讬 讘讬转 讛讻住讗 讚诪讗讬住:


the bathroom is different, as it is disgusting. Once a place is called a bathroom it is disgusting and no longer fit for prayer. However, until he actually bathes in a bathhouse it remains fit for prayer.


讗讬谉 砖诐 砖讗讬诇转 砖诇讜诐 诪住讬讬注 诇讬讛 诇专讘 讛诪谞讜谞讗 诪砖诪讬讛 讚注讜诇讗 讚讗诪专 讗住讜专 诇讗讚诐 砖讬转谉 砖诇讜诐 诇讞讘讬专讜 讘讘讬转 讛诪专讞抓 诪砖讜诐 砖谞讗诪专 讜讬拽专讗 诇讜 讛壮 砖诇讜诐


It was taught in the Tosefta: There is no greeting [shalom] others permitted in the bathhouse. The Gemara comments that this statement supports the opinion of Rav Hamnuna in the name of Ulla, who said: It is forbidden for a person to greet [shalom] his friend in the bathhouse because Shalom is one of the names of God, as it is stated: 鈥淎nd Gideon built there an altar for God and he called Him Lord Shalom鈥 (Judges 6:24). Therefore, it is prohibited to utter the word shalom in a dishonorable place.


讗诇讗 诪注转讛 讛讬诪谞讜转讗 谞诪讬 讗住讜专 诇诪讬诪专 讘讘讬转 讛讻住讗 讚讻转讬讘 讛讗诇 讛谞讗诪谉 讜讻讬 转讬诪讗 讛讻讬 谞诪讬 讜讛讗诪专 专讘讗 讘专 诪讞住讬讗 讗诪专 专讘 讞诪讗 讘专 讙讜专讬讗 讗诪专 专讘 砖专讬 诇诪讬诪专 讛讬诪谞讜转讗 讘讘讬转 讛讻住讗 讛转诐 砖诐 讙讜驻讬讛 诇讗 讗讬拽专讬 讛讻讬 讚诪转专讙诪讬谞谉 讗诇讛讗 诪讛讬诪谞讗 讛讻讗 砖诐 讙讜驻讬讛 讗讬拽专讬 砖诇讜诐 讚讻转讬讘 讜讬拽专讗 诇讜 讛壮 砖诇讜诐:


The Gemara asks: But if so, words connoting faithfulness are also forbidden to say in the bathroom, as it is written 鈥淭he faithful God who keeps the covenant and the kindness鈥 (Deuteronomy 7:9). And if you say that it is indeed so, that it is forbidden to use the language of faithfulness in the bathroom, didn鈥檛 Rava bar Me岣sseya say that Rav 岣ma bar Gurya said that Rav said: It is permitted to say faithfulness in the bathroom? The Gemara answers: There is a difference between the terms: There, the name of God itself is not called in that way, as we translate it as 鈥渢he faithful God.鈥 However, here, the name of God Himself is called Shalom, as it is written: 鈥淎nd he called Him Lord Shalom.鈥 It is not an adjective, but a holy name in and of itself.


讜讗诪专 专讘讗 讘专 诪讞住讬讗 讗诪专 专讘 讞诪讗 讘专 讙讜专讬讗 讗诪专 专讘 讛谞讜转谉 诪转谞讛 诇讞讘讬专讜 爪专讬讱 诇讛讜讚讬注讜 砖谞讗诪专 诇讚注转 讻讬 讗谞讬 讛壮 诪拽讚砖讻诐 转谞讬讗 谞诪讬 讛讻讬 诇讚注转 讻讬 讗谞讬 讛壮 诪拽讚砖讻诐 讗诪专 诇讜 讛拽讚讜砖 讘专讜讱 讛讜讗 诇诪砖讛 诪转谞讛 讟讜讘讛 讬砖 诇讬 讘讘讬转 讙谞讝讬 讜砖讘转 砖诪讛 讜讗谞讬 诪讘拽砖 诇讬转谞讛 诇讬砖专讗诇 诇讱 讜讛讜讚讬注诐 诪讻讗谉 讗诪专 专讘谉 砖诪注讜谉 讘谉 讙诪诇讬讗诇 讛谞讜转谉 驻转 诇转讬谞讜拽 爪专讬讱 诇讛讜讚讬注 诇讗诪讜 诪讗讬 注讘讬讚 诇讬讛 讗诪专 讗讘讬讬 砖讗讬祝 诇讬讛 诪砖讞讗 讜诪诇讬 诇讬讛 讻讜讞诇讗 讜讛讗讬讚谞讗 讚讞讬讬砖讬谞谉 诇讻砖驻讬诐 诪讗讬 讗诪专 专讘 驻驻讗 砖讗讬祝 诇讬讛 诪讗讜转讜 讛诪讬谉


Incidental to the halakhic statement in his name, the Gemara also cites another statement that Rava bar Me岣sseya said that Rav 岣ma bar Gurya said that Rav said: One who gives a gift to another must inform him that he is giving it to him. As it is stated: 鈥淥nly keep My Shabbatot for it is a sign between Me and you for your generations to know that I am God Who sanctifies you鈥 (Exodus 31:13). When the Holy One, Blessed be He, gave Shabbat to Israel, He told Moses to inform them about it. That was also taught in a baraita: The verse states: 鈥淔or I am God Who sanctifies you,鈥 meaning that the Holy One, Blessed be He, said to Moses: I have a good gift in My treasure house and Shabbat is its name, and I seek to give it to Israel. Go inform them about it. From here Rabban Shimon ben Gamliel said: One who gives a gift of bread to a child needs to inform his mother that he gave it to him. The Gemara asks: What does he do to the child, so that his mother will know that he gave him a gift? Abaye said: He should smear him with oil or place blue shadow around his eye in an obvious manner. When the mother of the child notices and asks him about it, he will tell her that so-and-so gave him a piece of bread. The Gemara asks: And now that we are concerned about witchcraft involving oil or eye shadow, what should one who gives a gift do? Rav Pappa said: He should smear him with food of the same type that he gave him to eat.


讗讬谞讬 讜讛讗诪专 专讘 讞诪讗 (讘专) 讞谞讬谞讗 讛谞讜转谉 诪转谞讛 诇讞讘讬专讜 讗讬谉 爪专讬讱 诇讛讜讚讬注讜 砖谞讗诪专 讜诪砖讛 诇讗 讬讚注 讻讬 拽专谉 注讜专 驻谞讬讜 讘讚讘专讜 讗转讜 诇讗 拽砖讬讗 讛讗 讘诪讬诇转讗 讚注讘讬讚讗 诇讗讙诇讜讬讬 讛讗 讘诪讬诇转讗 讚诇讗 注讘讬讚讗 诇讗讙诇讜讬讬 讜讛讗 砖讘转 讚注讘讬讚讗 诇讙诇讜讬讬 诪转谉 砖讻专讛 诇讗 注讘讬讚 诇讙诇讜讬讬


With regard to the halakha itself, the Gemara asks: Is that so? Didn鈥檛 Rav 岣ma bar 岣nina say: One who gives a gift to his friend need not inform him, as God made Moses鈥 face glow, and nevertheless it is stated with regard to Moses: 鈥淎nd Moses did not know that the skin of his face shone when He spoke with him鈥 (Exodus 34:29)? The Gemara answers: This is not difficult. When Rav 岣ma bar 岣nina said that he need not inform him, he was referring to a matter that is likely to be revealed. When Rabban Shimon ben Gamliel said that he needs to inform him, he was referring to a matter that is not likely to be revealed. The Gemara asked: If so, isn鈥檛 Shabbat likely to be revealed, as it will be necessary to inform them of Shabbat together with the other mitzvot? Why was Moses asked to inform them about Shabbat separately? The Gemara answers: The giving of its reward is not likely to be revealed, and it was necessary to inform them about so extraordinary a gift.


专讘 讞住讚讗 讛讜讛 谞拽讬讟 讘讬讚讬讛 转专转讬 诪转谞转讗 讚转讜专讗 讗诪专 讻诇 诪讗谉 讚讗转讬 讜讗诪专 诇讬 砖诪注转转讗 讞讚转讗 诪砖诪讬讛 讚专讘 讬讛讬讘谞讗 诇讬讛 谞讬讛诇讬讛 讗诪专 诇讬讛 专讘讗 讘专 诪讞住讬讗 讛讻讬 讗诪专 专讘 讛谞讜转谉 诪转谞讛 诇讞讘讬专讜 爪专讬讱 诇讛讜讚讬注讜 砖谞讗诪专 诇讚注转 讻讬 讗谞讬 讛壮 诪拽讚砖讻诐 讬讛讘讛 谞讬讛诇讬讛 讗诪专 讞讘讬讘讬谉 注诇讱 砖诪注转转讗 讚专讘 讻讜诇讬 讛讗讬 讗诪专 诇讬讛 讗讬谉 讗诪专 诇讬讛 讛讬讬谞讜 讚讗诪专 专讘 诪讬诇转讗 讗诇讘讬砖讬讬讛讜 讬拽讬专讗 讗诪专 诇讬讛 讗诪专 专讘 讛讻讬 讘转专讬讬转讗 注讚讬驻讗 诇讬 诪拽诪讬讬转讗 讜讗讬 讛讜讛 谞拽讬讟谞讗 讗讞专讬转讬 讬讛讬讘谞讗 诇讱:


The Gemara relates that Rav 岣sda would take in his hand two gifts of the priesthood separated from an ox. He said: Anyone who comes and tells me a new halakha in the name of Rav, I will give these gifts to him. Rava bar Me岣sseya said to him, Rav said as follows: One who gives a gift to his friend needs to inform him, as it stated: 鈥淭o know that I am God Who sanctifies you.鈥 He gave the gift to Rava bar Me岣sseya. Rava bar Me岣sseya said to Rav 岣sda: Are the halakhot of Rav so beloved to you? Rav 岣sda said to him: Yes. Rava bar Me岣sseya said to him, this is what Rav said: Fine wool is precious to those who wear it (Rav Ya鈥檃kov Emden), meaning only a person who is used to delicate items can appreciate their quality. Rav 岣sda said to him excitedly: Did Rav say that? The latter statement is preferable to me more than the first. And if I were holding another gift I would give it to you.


讜讗诪专 专讘讗 讘专 诪讞住讬讗 讗诪专 专讘 讞诪讗 讘专 讙讜专讬讗 讗诪专 专讘 诇注讜诇诐 讗诇 讬砖谞讛 讗讚诐 讘谞讜 讘讬谉 讛讘谞讬诐 砖讘砖讘讬诇 诪砖拽诇 砖谞讬 住诇注讬诐 诪讬诇转 砖谞转谉 讬注拽讘 诇讬讜住祝 讬讜转专 诪砖讗专 讘谞讬讜 谞转拽谞讗讜 讘讜 讗讞讬讜 讜谞转讙诇讙诇 讛讚讘专 讜讬专讚讜 讗讘讜转讬谞讜 诇诪爪专讬诐:


And Rava bar Me岣sseya said that Rav 岣ma bar Gurya said that Rav said: A person should never distinguish one of his sons from among the other sons by giving him preferential treatment. As, due to the weight of two sela of fine wool [meilat] that Jacob gave to Joseph, beyond what he gave the rest of his sons, in making him the striped coat, his brothers became jealous of him and the matter unfolded and our forefathers descended to Egypt.


讜讗诪专 专讘讗 讘专 诪讞住讬讗 讗诪专 专讘 讞诪讗 讘专 讙讜专讬讗 讗诪专 专讘 诇注讜诇诐 讬讞讝专 讗讚诐 讜讬砖讘 讘注讬专 砖讬砖讬讘转讛 拽专讜讘讛 砖诪转讜讱 砖讬砖讬讘转讛 拽专讜讘讛 注讜谞讜转讬讛 诪讜注讟讬谉 砖谞讗诪专 讛谞讛 谞讗 讛注讬专 讛讝讗转 拽专讜讘讛 诇谞讜住 砖诪讛 讜讛讬讗 诪爪注专 诪讗讬 拽专讜讘讛 讗讬诇讬诪讗 拽专讜讘讛 讚诪讬拽专讘讗 讜讝讜讟讗 讜讛讗 拽讗 讞讝讜 诇讛 讗诇讗 诪转讜讱 砖讬砖讬讘转讛 拽专讜讘讛 注讜谞讜转讬讛 诪讜爪注专讬谉 讗诪专 专讘讬 讗讘讬谉 诪讗讬 拽专讗 讚讻转讬讘 讗诪诇讟讛 谞讗 砖诪讛 谞讗 讘讙讬诪讟专讬讗 讞诪砖讬谉 讜讗讞转 讛讜讬 讜砖诇 住讚讜诐 讞诪讬砖讬诐 讜砖转讬诐 讜砖诇讜转讛


And Rava bar Me岣sseya said that Rav 岣ma bar Gurya said Rav said: A person should always seek and dwell in a city whose settling took place in the recent past, meaning that it was recently established, as due to the fact that its settling is recent its sins are few, as its residents have not yet had the opportunity to commit many sins there. As it is stated that Lot said to the angel: 鈥淏ehold, here is this city that is close to run away to and it is small鈥 (Genesis 19:20). What is the meaning of the word close? If you say: That it is close in distance and truly small, why did he need to say that to the angel? Didn鈥檛 they see it? Rather, the meaning of the word close must be because its settling was close, that it had been recently settled, and therefore its sins were few. Rabbi Avin said: What is the verse that teaches us that Zoar was newer than the other cities? As it is written: 鈥淚 will escape there please [na]鈥 (Genesis 19:20); the numerological value of nun alef, the letters of the word na, is fifty-one, while Sodom was fifty-two years old. And Sodom鈥檚 tranquil period


Masechet Shabbat is sponsored in memory of Elliot Freilich, Eliyahu Daniel ben Bar Tzion David Halevi z"l by a group of women from Kehilath Jeshurun, Manhattan.

  • This month's learning is sponsored by Shifra Tyberg and Rephael Wenger in loving memory of Zvi ben Yisrael Yitzhak Tyberg on his yahrzeit, and in honor of their daughter Ayelet's upcoming marriage to Ori Kinberg.

  • This month's learning is sponsored by Rabbi Hayim Herring with pride and love, in honor of his spouse, Terri Krivosha, who received this year's Sidney Barrows Lifetime Commitment Award from the Mpls. And St. Paul Federations in recognition of her distinguished contribution to the Twin Cities Legal and Jewish Communities.聽

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Shabbat 10

讛转诐 诇讗 砖讻讬讞讗 砖讻专讜转 讛讻讗 砖讻讬讞讗 砖讻专讜转 讗讬 谞诪讬 讘诪谞讞讛 讻讬讜谉 讚拽讘讬注讗 诇讛 讝讬诪谞讗 诪讬专转转 讜诇讗 讗转讬 诇诪驻砖注 注专讘讬转 讻讬讜谉 讚讻讜诇讗 诇讬诇讬讗 讝诪谉 注专讘讬转 诇讗 诪讬专转转 讜讗转讬 诇诪驻砖注 诪转拽讬祝 诇讛 专讘 砖砖转 讟专讬讞讜转讗 诇诪讬住专 讛诪讬讬谞讬讛 讜注讜讚 诇讬拽讜 讛讻讬 讜诇讬爪诇讬 诪砖讜诐 砖谞讗诪专 讛讻讜谉 诇拽专讗转 讗诇讛讬讱 讬砖专讗诇


The Gemara responds that there is a difference between the cases. There, at the time of the afternoon prayer, drunkenness is uncommon, as it is unusual to drink excessively during the day. However, here, in the case of the evening prayer, drunkenness is common, and therefore there was room to issue a decree requiring one to interrupt his meal to recite the evening prayer. Alternatively, it is possible to explain that with regard to the afternoon prayer, since its time is fixed, he is anxious, and he won鈥檛 come to be negligent and forget to pray. However, with regard to the evening prayer, since all night is the time for the evening prayer, he is not anxious, and he will come to be negligent. Rav Sheshet strongly objects to this: Is it a burden to tie his belt? In addition, if it is a burden, let him stand that way, without a belt, and pray. The Gemara answers: It is necessary to wear a belt while praying, since it is stated: 鈥淧repare to greet your God, Israel鈥 (Amos 4:12). One must prepare and adorn himself when standing before God.


专讘讗 讘专 专讘 讛讜谞讗 专诪讬 驻讜讝诪拽讬 讜诪爪诇讬 讗诪专 讛讻讜谉 诇拽专讗转 讜讙讜壮 专讘讗 砖讚讬 讙诇讬诪讬讛 讜驻讻专 讬讚讬讛 讜诪爪诇讬 讗诪专 讻注讘讚讗 拽诪讬讛 诪专讬讛 讗诪专 专讘 讗砖讬 讞讝讬谞讗 诇讬讛 诇专讘 讻讛谞讗 讻讬 讗讬讻讗 爪注专讗 讘注诇诪讗 砖讚讬 讙诇讬诪讬讛 讜驻讻专 讬讚讬讛 讜诪爪诇讬 讗诪专 讻注讘讚讗 拽诪讬 诪专讬讛 讻讬 讗讬讻讗 砖诇诪讗 诇讘讬砖 讜诪转讻住讬 讜诪转注讟祝 讜诪爪诇讬 讗诪专 讛讻讜谉 诇拽专讗转 讗诇讛讬讱 讬砖专讗诇


Since the verse: 鈥淧repare to greet your God, Israel,鈥 was cited with regard to the obligation to prepare and adorn oneself before prayer, the Gemara cites that indeed Rava bar Rav Huna would don expensive socks and pray and he said he would do this as it is written: 鈥淧repare to greet your God, Israel.鈥 On the other hand, Rava would not do so; rather, in his prayer he would remove his cloak and clasp his hands and pray. He said that he would do so as a slave before his master, who appears before him with extreme submission. Rav Ashi said: I saw that Rav Kahana, when there is suffering in the world, would remove his cloak and clasp his hands and pray. And he said that he did so as a slave before his master. When there is peace in the world, he would dress, and cover himself, and wrap himself in a significant garment, and pray, and he said that he did so in fulfillment of the verse: 鈥淧repare to greet your God, Israel.鈥


专讘讗 讞讝讬讬讛 诇专讘 讛诪谞讜谞讗 讚拽讗 诪讗专讬讱 讘爪诇讜转讬讛 讗诪专 诪谞讬讞讬谉 讞讬讬 注讜诇诐 讜注讜住拽讬诐 讘讞讬讬 砖注讛 讜讛讜讗 住讘专 讝诪谉 转驻诇讛 诇讞讜讚 讜讝诪谉 转讜专讛 诇讞讜讚 专讘讬 讬专诪讬讛 讛讜讛 讬转讬讘 拽诪讬讛 讚专讘讬 讝讬专讗 讜讛讜讜 注住拽讬 讘砖诪注转讗 谞讙讛 诇爪诇讜讬讬 讜讛讜讛 拽讗 诪住专讛讘 专讘讬 讬专诪讬讛 拽专讬 注诇讬讛 专讘讬 讝讬专讗 诪住讬专 讗讝谞讜 诪砖诪讜注 转讜专讛 讙诐 转驻诇转讜 转讜注讘讛


Speaking of prayer, the Gemara relates that Rava saw Rav Hamnuna, who was prolonging his prayer. He said about him: They abandon eternal life, the study of Torah, and engage in temporal life, prayer, which includes requests for mundane needs. The Gemara explains: And Rav Hamnuna held that the time for prayer is distinct and the time for Torah is distinct. The time that one devotes to prayer is not at the expense of the time devoted to Torah study. Similarly, the Gemara relates that Rabbi Yirmeya was sitting before Rabbi Zeira and they were engaged in the study of halakha. The time for prayer was approaching and it was getting late and Rabbi Yirmeya was hurrying to conclude the subject that they were studying in order to pray. Rabbi Zeira read this verse as applying to Rabbi Yirmeya: 鈥淥ne who turns his ear from hearing Torah, his prayer is also an abomination鈥 (Proverbs 28:9).


诪讗讬诪转讬 讛转讞诇转 讚讬谉 专讘讬 讬专诪讬讛 讜专讘讬 讬讜谞讛 讞讚 讗诪专 诪砖讬转注讟驻讜 讛讚讬讬谞讬谉 讜讞讚 讗诪专 诪砖讬驻转讞讜 讘注诇讬 讚讬谞讬诐 讜诇讗 驻诇讬讙讬 讛讗 讚注住拽讬 讜讗转讜 讘讚讬谞讗 讛讗 讚诇讗 注住拽讬 讜讗转讜 讘讚讬谞讗


We learned that if one enters to sit in judgment adjacent to min岣, he need not interrupt the trial and pray. The Gemara clarifies: From when is it considered the beginning of a trial? Rabbi Yirmeya and Rabbi Yona disagreed. One said that it begins from when the judges wrap themselves in their prayer shawls, as judges were accustomed to do before sitting in judgment. And one of them said that the beginning of judgment is from when the litigants begin articulating their claims. The Gemara comments: And they do not disagree. Rather, this amora, who says that it is from when the litigants begin, refers to a case where they were already engaged in a previous trial, and the judges were already wrapped in their prayer shawls. And that amora, who says that it is from when the judges wrap themselves in their prayer shawls, refers to a case where they were not engaged in a previous trial, and, as a result, the trial begins when they wrap themselves in the prayer shawls.


专讘 讗诪讬 讜专讘 讗住讬 讛讜讜 讬转讘讬 讜讙专住讬 讘讬谞讬 注诪讜讚讬 讜讻诇 砖注转讗 讜砖注转讗 讛讜讜 讟驻讞讬 讗注讬讘专讗 讚讚砖讗 讜讗诪专讬 讗讬 讗讬讻讗 讚讗讬转 诇讬讛 讚讬谞讗 诇讬注讜诇 讜诇讬转讬 专讘 讞住讚讗 讜专讘讛 讘专 专讘 讛讜谞讗 讛讜讜 讬转讘讬 讘讚讬谞讗 讻讜诇讬 讬讜诪讗 讛讜讛 拽讗 讞诇讬砖 诇讘讬讬讛讜 转谞讗 诇讛讜 专讘 讞讬讬讗 讘专 专讘 诪讚驻转讬 讜讬注诪讚 讛注诐 注诇 诪砖讛 诪谉 讛讘拽专 注讚 讛注专讘 讜讻讬 转注诇讛 注诇 讚注转讱 砖诪砖讛 讬讜砖讘 讜讚谉 讻诇 讛讬讜诐 讻讜诇讜 转讜专转讜 诪转讬 谞注砖讬转 讗诇讗 诇讜诪专 诇讱 讻诇 讚讬讬谉 砖讚谉 讚讬谉 讗诪转 诇讗诪讬转讜 讗驻讬诇讜 砖注讛 讗讞转 诪注诇讛 注诇讬讜 讛讻转讜讘 讻讗讬诇讜 谞注砖讛 砖讜转祝 诇讛拽讚讜砖 讘专讜讱 讛讜讗 讘诪注砖讛 讘专讗砖讬转 讻转讬讘 讛讻讗 讜讬注诪讚 讛注诐 注诇 诪砖讛 诪谉 讛讘拽专 注讚 讛注专讘 讜讻转讬讘 讛转诐 讜讬讛讬 注专讘 讜讬讛讬 讘拽专 讬讜诐 讗讞讚


Speaking of judgment, the Gemara relates that Rav Ami and Rav Asi would sit and study between the pillars beneath the study hall. And each and every hour they would knock on the bolt of the door and say: If there is someone who has a case that requires judgment, let him enter and come before us. The Gemara also relates that Rav 岣sda and Rabba bar Rav Huna would sit in judgment all day and their hearts would grow weak from hunger. Therefore, Rav 岣yya bar Rav from Difti taught them a baraita with regard to the verse: 鈥淎nd it was the next day and Moses sat to judge the people and the people stood over Moses from the morning until the evening鈥 (Exodus 18:13). Does it enter your mind that Moses would sit and judge all day long? If so, when was his Torah study accomplished? Rather, surely the verse is coming to tell you: Any judge who judges a true judgment truthfully, even if he sits in judgment only one hour, the verse ascribes to him as if he became a partner to the Holy One, Blessed be He, in the act of Creation, as by means of a true judgment he upholds the world (Me鈥檌ri). This conclusion is derived by means of a verbal analogy [gezera shava]: It is written here: 鈥淎nd the people stood over Moses from the morning until the evening.鈥 And it is written there, in the act of Creation: 鈥淎nd it was evening and it was morning, one day鈥 (Genesis 1:5). The evening and part of the morning are considered a whole day. With regard to this issue as well, it is sufficient for the judges to sit in judgment for only part of the day and there is no need for them to starve themselves by sitting in judgment all day.


注讚 诪转讬 讬讜砖讘讬谉 讘讚讬谉 讗诪专 专讘 砖砖转 注讚 讝诪谉 住注讜讚讛 讗诪专 专讘 讞诪讗 诪讗讬 拽专讗 讚讻转讬讘 讗讬 诇讱 讗专抓 砖诪诇讻讱 谞注专 讜砖专讬讱 讘讘拽专 讬讗讻诇讜 讗砖专讬讱 讗专抓 砖诪诇讻讱 讘谉 讞讜专讬诐 讜砖专讬讱 讘注转 讬讗讻诇讜 讘讙讘讜专讛 讜诇讗 讘砖转讬 讘讙讘讜专讛 砖诇 转讜专讛 讜诇讗 讘砖转讬讬讛 砖诇 讬讬谉


The Gemara questions further: Until when do they sit in judgment? What is the usual time that court adjourns? Rav Sheshet said: Until mealtime, noon. Rav 岣ma said: What is the verse that alludes to this? As it is written: 鈥淲oe to you, land that your king is a lad and your ministers eat in the morning. Happy are you, land that your king is free and your ministers eat on time in strength and not in drunkenness鈥 (Ecclesiastes 10:16鈥17). He interprets the verse: The ministers in a proper country sit to eat only after they engaged in the strength of Torah and in judgment and not in the drunkenness of wine.


转谞讜 专讘谞谉 砖注讛 专讗砖讜谞讛 诪讗讻诇 诇讜讚讬诐 砖谞讬讛 诪讗讻诇 诇住讟讬诐 砖诇讬砖讬转 诪讗讻诇 讬讜专砖讬谉 专讘讬注讬转 诪讗讻诇 驻讜注诇讬诐 讞诪讬砖讬转 诪讗讻诇 讻诇 讗讚诐


The Sages taught in a baraita: Eating in the first hour of the morning is the time of eating for Ludim, who are members of a nation of cannibals, and they are ravenous and hurry to eat. The second hour is the time of the eating of robbers. Since they spend the night stealing, they eat early in the morning. The third hour is the time of eating for heirs, i.e., people who inherited a lot of money and do not work for their sustenance. Their only preoccupation in the early hours of the morning is eating. The fourth hour is the time of eating for workers. The fifth hour is the time of eating for all people.


讗讬谞讬 讜讛讗诪专 专讘 驻驻讗 专讘讬注讬转 讝诪谉 住注讜讚讛 诇讻诇 讗讚诐 讗诇讗 专讘讬注讬转 诪讗讻诇 讻诇 讗讚诐 讞诪讬砖讬转 诪讗讻诇 驻讜注诇讬诐 砖砖讬转 诪讗讻诇 转诇诪讬讚讬 讞讻诪讬诐 诪讻讗谉 讜讗讬诇讱 讻讝讜专拽 讗讘谉 诇讞诪转 讗诪专 讗讘讬讬 诇讗 讗诪专谉 讗诇讗 讚诇讗 讟注讬诐 诪讬讚讬 讘爪驻专讗 讗讘诇 讟注讬诐 诪讬讚讬 讘爪驻专讗 诇讬转 诇谉 讘讛


The Gemara asks: Is that so? Didn鈥檛 Rav Pappa say that the fourth hour is mealtime for all people? Rather, emend the statement and say: The fourth hour is the time of eating for all people. The fifth hour is the time of eating for workers who do not have time to eat beforehand. The sixth hour is the time of eating for Torah scholars as, until then, court is in session. The Gemara adds: One who eats from then on is as if he is throwing a stone into a barrel, meaning that by then it does not contribute to the body鈥檚 health. Abaye said: We only said that eating from the sixth hour on is not beneficial, when he did not taste anything in the morning; however, if he tasted something in the morning, we have no problem with it.


讗诪专 专讘 讗讚讗 讘专 讗讛讘讛 诪转驻诇诇 讗讚诐 转驻诇转讜 讘讘讬转 讛诪专讞抓 诪讬转讬讘讬 讛谞讻谞住 诇讘讬转 讛诪专讞抓 诪拽讜诐 砖讘谞讬 讗讚诐 注讜诪讚讬谉 诇讘讜砖讬谉 讬砖 砖诐 诪拽专讗 讜转驻诇讛 讜讗讬谉 爪专讬讱 诇讜诪专 砖讗讬诇转 砖诇讜诐 讜诪谞讬讞 转驻讬诇讬谉 讜讗讬谉 爪专讬讱 诇讜诪专 砖讗讬谞讜 讞讜诇抓


Rav Adda bar Ahava said: A person may, ab initio, recite his prayer in the bathhouse. The Gemara raises an objection from what was taught in the Tosefta: One who enters the bathhouse, in the first room, a place where all people stand dressed, it is like any other place and reading the Torah and prayer are permitted there, and, needless to say, in that room greeting [shalom] others is permitted. And he may don phylacteries there, and, needless to say, if he was already donning phylacteries that he need not remove them.


诪拽讜诐 砖讘谞讬 讗讚诐 注讜诪讚讬诐 注专讜诪讬诐 讜诇讘讜砖讬谉 讬砖 砖诐 砖讗讬诇转 砖诇讜诐 讜讗讬谉 砖诐 诪拽专讗 讜转驻诇讛 讜讗讬谞讜 讞讜诇抓 转驻讬诇讬谉 讜讗讬谞讜 诪谞讬讞 诇讻转讞诇讛


In the next room, a place where people dress and undress and they stand both naked and dressed, greeting others is permitted there. However, reading the Torah and prayer are not permitted there. And if one was already donning phylacteries there, he need not remove the phylacteries. However, he may not don phylacteries there ab initio.


诪拽讜诐 砖讘谞讬 讗讚诐 注讜诪讚讬谉 注专讜诪讬诐 讗讬谉 砖诐 砖讗讬诇转 砖诇讜诐 讜讗讬谉 爪专讬讱 诇讜诪专 诪拽专讗 讜转驻诇讛 讜讞讜诇抓 转驻讬诇讬谉 讜讗讬谉 爪专讬讱 诇讜诪专 砖讗讬谞讜 诪谞讬讞谉


In the innermost room, which is a place where people stand naked, greeting others is not permitted there, and, needless to say, reading the Torah and prayer are prohibited there. And if he is donning phylacteries there, he must remove the phylacteries, and, needless to say, he may not don them there ab initio. Apparently, the Tosefta contradicts the statement of Rav Adda bar Ahava as he was, no doubt, referring to the innermost room in the bathhouse, which alone is referred to simply as a bathhouse, and, according to him, one may pray there ab initio.


讻讬 拽讗诪专 专讘 讗讚讗 讘专 讗讛讘讛 讘诪专讞抓 砖讗讬谉 讘讜 讗讚诐 讜讛讗 讗诪专 专讘讬 讬讜住讬 讘专 讞谞讬谞讗 诪专讞抓 砖讗诪专讜 讗祝 注诇 驻讬 砖讗讬谉 讘讜 讗讚诐 讘讬转 讛讻住讗 砖讗诪专讜 讗祝 注诇 驻讬 砖讗讬谉 讘讜 爪讜讗讛


The Gemara answers: When Rav Adda bar Ahava said his halakha, he was referring to an empty bathhouse in which there are no people. The Gemara asks: Didn鈥檛 Rabbi Yosei bar 岣nina say: With regard to the bathhouse in which they said that it is prohibited to pray, the prohibition exists even though there are no people in it? With regard to the bathroom in which they said that it is prohibited to pray, the prohibition exists even though there are no feces in it. Certainly, since the place serves a repugnant purpose, it is inappropriate to pray there at any time.


讗诇讗 讻讬 拽讗诪专 专讘 讗讚讗 讘讞讚转讬 讜讛讗 诪讘注讬讗 讘注讗 诇讬讛 专讘讬谞讗 讛讝诪讬谞讜 诇讘讬转 讛讻住讗 诪讛讜 讬砖 讝讬诪讜谉 讗讜 讗讬谉 讝讬诪讜谉 讜诇讗 讗讬驻砖讬讟讗 诇讬讛 诇讗讜 讛讜讗 讛讚讬谉 诇诪专讞抓 诇讗 讚讬诇诪讗


The Gemara answers: Rather, when Rav Adda made his statement, he was referring to a new bathhouse that had not yet been used for bathing. The Gemara asks: Didn鈥檛 Ravina raise a dilemma before Rav Adda with regard to this matter: A place that one designated as a bathroom, what is its legal status as far as praying there is concerned? Is there designation as a significant and determining factor in this case? Or, is designation not a halakhically significant matter? And the dilemma was not resolved for him. Is the same not true with regard to the bathhouse? Doesn鈥檛 the same dilemma exist there? The Gemara answers: No, perhaps


砖讗谞讬 讘讬转 讛讻住讗 讚诪讗讬住:


the bathroom is different, as it is disgusting. Once a place is called a bathroom it is disgusting and no longer fit for prayer. However, until he actually bathes in a bathhouse it remains fit for prayer.


讗讬谉 砖诐 砖讗讬诇转 砖诇讜诐 诪住讬讬注 诇讬讛 诇专讘 讛诪谞讜谞讗 诪砖诪讬讛 讚注讜诇讗 讚讗诪专 讗住讜专 诇讗讚诐 砖讬转谉 砖诇讜诐 诇讞讘讬专讜 讘讘讬转 讛诪专讞抓 诪砖讜诐 砖谞讗诪专 讜讬拽专讗 诇讜 讛壮 砖诇讜诐


It was taught in the Tosefta: There is no greeting [shalom] others permitted in the bathhouse. The Gemara comments that this statement supports the opinion of Rav Hamnuna in the name of Ulla, who said: It is forbidden for a person to greet [shalom] his friend in the bathhouse because Shalom is one of the names of God, as it is stated: 鈥淎nd Gideon built there an altar for God and he called Him Lord Shalom鈥 (Judges 6:24). Therefore, it is prohibited to utter the word shalom in a dishonorable place.


讗诇讗 诪注转讛 讛讬诪谞讜转讗 谞诪讬 讗住讜专 诇诪讬诪专 讘讘讬转 讛讻住讗 讚讻转讬讘 讛讗诇 讛谞讗诪谉 讜讻讬 转讬诪讗 讛讻讬 谞诪讬 讜讛讗诪专 专讘讗 讘专 诪讞住讬讗 讗诪专 专讘 讞诪讗 讘专 讙讜专讬讗 讗诪专 专讘 砖专讬 诇诪讬诪专 讛讬诪谞讜转讗 讘讘讬转 讛讻住讗 讛转诐 砖诐 讙讜驻讬讛 诇讗 讗讬拽专讬 讛讻讬 讚诪转专讙诪讬谞谉 讗诇讛讗 诪讛讬诪谞讗 讛讻讗 砖诐 讙讜驻讬讛 讗讬拽专讬 砖诇讜诐 讚讻转讬讘 讜讬拽专讗 诇讜 讛壮 砖诇讜诐:


The Gemara asks: But if so, words connoting faithfulness are also forbidden to say in the bathroom, as it is written 鈥淭he faithful God who keeps the covenant and the kindness鈥 (Deuteronomy 7:9). And if you say that it is indeed so, that it is forbidden to use the language of faithfulness in the bathroom, didn鈥檛 Rava bar Me岣sseya say that Rav 岣ma bar Gurya said that Rav said: It is permitted to say faithfulness in the bathroom? The Gemara answers: There is a difference between the terms: There, the name of God itself is not called in that way, as we translate it as 鈥渢he faithful God.鈥 However, here, the name of God Himself is called Shalom, as it is written: 鈥淎nd he called Him Lord Shalom.鈥 It is not an adjective, but a holy name in and of itself.


讜讗诪专 专讘讗 讘专 诪讞住讬讗 讗诪专 专讘 讞诪讗 讘专 讙讜专讬讗 讗诪专 专讘 讛谞讜转谉 诪转谞讛 诇讞讘讬专讜 爪专讬讱 诇讛讜讚讬注讜 砖谞讗诪专 诇讚注转 讻讬 讗谞讬 讛壮 诪拽讚砖讻诐 转谞讬讗 谞诪讬 讛讻讬 诇讚注转 讻讬 讗谞讬 讛壮 诪拽讚砖讻诐 讗诪专 诇讜 讛拽讚讜砖 讘专讜讱 讛讜讗 诇诪砖讛 诪转谞讛 讟讜讘讛 讬砖 诇讬 讘讘讬转 讙谞讝讬 讜砖讘转 砖诪讛 讜讗谞讬 诪讘拽砖 诇讬转谞讛 诇讬砖专讗诇 诇讱 讜讛讜讚讬注诐 诪讻讗谉 讗诪专 专讘谉 砖诪注讜谉 讘谉 讙诪诇讬讗诇 讛谞讜转谉 驻转 诇转讬谞讜拽 爪专讬讱 诇讛讜讚讬注 诇讗诪讜 诪讗讬 注讘讬讚 诇讬讛 讗诪专 讗讘讬讬 砖讗讬祝 诇讬讛 诪砖讞讗 讜诪诇讬 诇讬讛 讻讜讞诇讗 讜讛讗讬讚谞讗 讚讞讬讬砖讬谞谉 诇讻砖驻讬诐 诪讗讬 讗诪专 专讘 驻驻讗 砖讗讬祝 诇讬讛 诪讗讜转讜 讛诪讬谉


Incidental to the halakhic statement in his name, the Gemara also cites another statement that Rava bar Me岣sseya said that Rav 岣ma bar Gurya said that Rav said: One who gives a gift to another must inform him that he is giving it to him. As it is stated: 鈥淥nly keep My Shabbatot for it is a sign between Me and you for your generations to know that I am God Who sanctifies you鈥 (Exodus 31:13). When the Holy One, Blessed be He, gave Shabbat to Israel, He told Moses to inform them about it. That was also taught in a baraita: The verse states: 鈥淔or I am God Who sanctifies you,鈥 meaning that the Holy One, Blessed be He, said to Moses: I have a good gift in My treasure house and Shabbat is its name, and I seek to give it to Israel. Go inform them about it. From here Rabban Shimon ben Gamliel said: One who gives a gift of bread to a child needs to inform his mother that he gave it to him. The Gemara asks: What does he do to the child, so that his mother will know that he gave him a gift? Abaye said: He should smear him with oil or place blue shadow around his eye in an obvious manner. When the mother of the child notices and asks him about it, he will tell her that so-and-so gave him a piece of bread. The Gemara asks: And now that we are concerned about witchcraft involving oil or eye shadow, what should one who gives a gift do? Rav Pappa said: He should smear him with food of the same type that he gave him to eat.


讗讬谞讬 讜讛讗诪专 专讘 讞诪讗 (讘专) 讞谞讬谞讗 讛谞讜转谉 诪转谞讛 诇讞讘讬专讜 讗讬谉 爪专讬讱 诇讛讜讚讬注讜 砖谞讗诪专 讜诪砖讛 诇讗 讬讚注 讻讬 拽专谉 注讜专 驻谞讬讜 讘讚讘专讜 讗转讜 诇讗 拽砖讬讗 讛讗 讘诪讬诇转讗 讚注讘讬讚讗 诇讗讙诇讜讬讬 讛讗 讘诪讬诇转讗 讚诇讗 注讘讬讚讗 诇讗讙诇讜讬讬 讜讛讗 砖讘转 讚注讘讬讚讗 诇讙诇讜讬讬 诪转谉 砖讻专讛 诇讗 注讘讬讚 诇讙诇讜讬讬


With regard to the halakha itself, the Gemara asks: Is that so? Didn鈥檛 Rav 岣ma bar 岣nina say: One who gives a gift to his friend need not inform him, as God made Moses鈥 face glow, and nevertheless it is stated with regard to Moses: 鈥淎nd Moses did not know that the skin of his face shone when He spoke with him鈥 (Exodus 34:29)? The Gemara answers: This is not difficult. When Rav 岣ma bar 岣nina said that he need not inform him, he was referring to a matter that is likely to be revealed. When Rabban Shimon ben Gamliel said that he needs to inform him, he was referring to a matter that is not likely to be revealed. The Gemara asked: If so, isn鈥檛 Shabbat likely to be revealed, as it will be necessary to inform them of Shabbat together with the other mitzvot? Why was Moses asked to inform them about Shabbat separately? The Gemara answers: The giving of its reward is not likely to be revealed, and it was necessary to inform them about so extraordinary a gift.


专讘 讞住讚讗 讛讜讛 谞拽讬讟 讘讬讚讬讛 转专转讬 诪转谞转讗 讚转讜专讗 讗诪专 讻诇 诪讗谉 讚讗转讬 讜讗诪专 诇讬 砖诪注转转讗 讞讚转讗 诪砖诪讬讛 讚专讘 讬讛讬讘谞讗 诇讬讛 谞讬讛诇讬讛 讗诪专 诇讬讛 专讘讗 讘专 诪讞住讬讗 讛讻讬 讗诪专 专讘 讛谞讜转谉 诪转谞讛 诇讞讘讬专讜 爪专讬讱 诇讛讜讚讬注讜 砖谞讗诪专 诇讚注转 讻讬 讗谞讬 讛壮 诪拽讚砖讻诐 讬讛讘讛 谞讬讛诇讬讛 讗诪专 讞讘讬讘讬谉 注诇讱 砖诪注转转讗 讚专讘 讻讜诇讬 讛讗讬 讗诪专 诇讬讛 讗讬谉 讗诪专 诇讬讛 讛讬讬谞讜 讚讗诪专 专讘 诪讬诇转讗 讗诇讘讬砖讬讬讛讜 讬拽讬专讗 讗诪专 诇讬讛 讗诪专 专讘 讛讻讬 讘转专讬讬转讗 注讚讬驻讗 诇讬 诪拽诪讬讬转讗 讜讗讬 讛讜讛 谞拽讬讟谞讗 讗讞专讬转讬 讬讛讬讘谞讗 诇讱:


The Gemara relates that Rav 岣sda would take in his hand two gifts of the priesthood separated from an ox. He said: Anyone who comes and tells me a new halakha in the name of Rav, I will give these gifts to him. Rava bar Me岣sseya said to him, Rav said as follows: One who gives a gift to his friend needs to inform him, as it stated: 鈥淭o know that I am God Who sanctifies you.鈥 He gave the gift to Rava bar Me岣sseya. Rava bar Me岣sseya said to Rav 岣sda: Are the halakhot of Rav so beloved to you? Rav 岣sda said to him: Yes. Rava bar Me岣sseya said to him, this is what Rav said: Fine wool is precious to those who wear it (Rav Ya鈥檃kov Emden), meaning only a person who is used to delicate items can appreciate their quality. Rav 岣sda said to him excitedly: Did Rav say that? The latter statement is preferable to me more than the first. And if I were holding another gift I would give it to you.


讜讗诪专 专讘讗 讘专 诪讞住讬讗 讗诪专 专讘 讞诪讗 讘专 讙讜专讬讗 讗诪专 专讘 诇注讜诇诐 讗诇 讬砖谞讛 讗讚诐 讘谞讜 讘讬谉 讛讘谞讬诐 砖讘砖讘讬诇 诪砖拽诇 砖谞讬 住诇注讬诐 诪讬诇转 砖谞转谉 讬注拽讘 诇讬讜住祝 讬讜转专 诪砖讗专 讘谞讬讜 谞转拽谞讗讜 讘讜 讗讞讬讜 讜谞转讙诇讙诇 讛讚讘专 讜讬专讚讜 讗讘讜转讬谞讜 诇诪爪专讬诐:


And Rava bar Me岣sseya said that Rav 岣ma bar Gurya said that Rav said: A person should never distinguish one of his sons from among the other sons by giving him preferential treatment. As, due to the weight of two sela of fine wool [meilat] that Jacob gave to Joseph, beyond what he gave the rest of his sons, in making him the striped coat, his brothers became jealous of him and the matter unfolded and our forefathers descended to Egypt.


讜讗诪专 专讘讗 讘专 诪讞住讬讗 讗诪专 专讘 讞诪讗 讘专 讙讜专讬讗 讗诪专 专讘 诇注讜诇诐 讬讞讝专 讗讚诐 讜讬砖讘 讘注讬专 砖讬砖讬讘转讛 拽专讜讘讛 砖诪转讜讱 砖讬砖讬讘转讛 拽专讜讘讛 注讜谞讜转讬讛 诪讜注讟讬谉 砖谞讗诪专 讛谞讛 谞讗 讛注讬专 讛讝讗转 拽专讜讘讛 诇谞讜住 砖诪讛 讜讛讬讗 诪爪注专 诪讗讬 拽专讜讘讛 讗讬诇讬诪讗 拽专讜讘讛 讚诪讬拽专讘讗 讜讝讜讟讗 讜讛讗 拽讗 讞讝讜 诇讛 讗诇讗 诪转讜讱 砖讬砖讬讘转讛 拽专讜讘讛 注讜谞讜转讬讛 诪讜爪注专讬谉 讗诪专 专讘讬 讗讘讬谉 诪讗讬 拽专讗 讚讻转讬讘 讗诪诇讟讛 谞讗 砖诪讛 谞讗 讘讙讬诪讟专讬讗 讞诪砖讬谉 讜讗讞转 讛讜讬 讜砖诇 住讚讜诐 讞诪讬砖讬诐 讜砖转讬诐 讜砖诇讜转讛


And Rava bar Me岣sseya said that Rav 岣ma bar Gurya said Rav said: A person should always seek and dwell in a city whose settling took place in the recent past, meaning that it was recently established, as due to the fact that its settling is recent its sins are few, as its residents have not yet had the opportunity to commit many sins there. As it is stated that Lot said to the angel: 鈥淏ehold, here is this city that is close to run away to and it is small鈥 (Genesis 19:20). What is the meaning of the word close? If you say: That it is close in distance and truly small, why did he need to say that to the angel? Didn鈥檛 they see it? Rather, the meaning of the word close must be because its settling was close, that it had been recently settled, and therefore its sins were few. Rabbi Avin said: What is the verse that teaches us that Zoar was newer than the other cities? As it is written: 鈥淚 will escape there please [na]鈥 (Genesis 19:20); the numerological value of nun alef, the letters of the word na, is fifty-one, while Sodom was fifty-two years old. And Sodom鈥檚 tranquil period


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