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Today's Daf Yomi

June 29, 2020 | ז׳ בתמוז תש״פ

Masechet Shabbat is sponsored in memory of Elliot Freilich, Eliyahu Daniel ben Bar Tzion David Halevi z"l by a group of women from Kehilath Jeshurun, Manhattan.

Shabbat 115

Shoshana and Moshe Halberstadt are sponsoring the daf learning in memory of Shoshana’s father, AJ Kurtz, Avraham Yaakov ben Eliyakum v’Chana z’l on his 3rd yahrzeit.

If there is a fire, what types of sacred books would you be able to remove from your house in a case of a fire (|in a place without an eiruv)? Can one move sacred books that are translated? Do those books need to be buried? Rav Huna and Rav Chisda disagree regarding books that were translated. How do each of the opinions fit in with the mishna? The gemara brought sources to question Rav Huna’s opinion. If there a difference between books that are written in ink and ones written with substances that don’t last? What if the Torah had large portions erased an only 85 letters in the scroll – could one carry it out of the fire? On what is it dependent?

מותר בקניבת ירק (ואמר רבי חייא בר אבא אמר רבי יוחנן יום כיפורים שחל להיות בחול) מפצעין באגוזים ומפרכסין ברימונים מן המנחה ולמעלה מפני עגמת נפש דבי רב יהודה מקנבי כרבא דבי רבה גרדי קארי כיון דחזא דהוו קא מחרפי אמר להו אתא איגרתא ממערבא משמיה דרבי יוחנן דאסיר:

trimming vegetables is permitted. And Rabbi Ḥiyya bar Abba said that Rabbi Yoḥanan said: If Yom Kippur occurs on a weekday, one may crack nuts and remove pomegranate seeds from the late afternoon and onward, because doing so involves no actual labor and due to anxiety, i.e., if a person does not know that there is food prepared for when the fast ends, he suffers more during the final hours of the day (Rabbi Zeraḥia HaLevi). The Gemara relates: The members of Rav Yehuda’s house would trim cabbage. The members of Rabba’s house would scrub gourds. Once Rabba saw that they were doing this early, before the late afternoon, he said to them: A letter came from the West, i.e., from Eretz Yisrael, in the name of Rabbi Yoḥanan, saying that doing so is prohibited.

הדרן עלך ואלו קשרים

 

מתני׳ כל כתבי הקדש מצילין אותן מפני הדליקה בין שקורין בהן ובין שאין קורין בהן אף על פי שכתובים בכל לשון טעונים גניזה ומפני מה אין קורין בהם מפני ביטול בית המדרש:

MISHNA: With regard to all sacred writings, one may rescue them from the fire on Shabbat, whether they are read in public, e.g., Torah or Prophets scrolls, or whether they are not read in public, e.g., Writings scrolls. This ruling applies even though they were written in any foreign language. According to the Rabbis, those scrolls are not read in public, but they are still sacred and require burial. And why does one not read the Writings on Shabbat? Due to suspension of Torah study in the study hall. People came to the study hall at specific times on Shabbat to hear words of halakha, and other texts were not allowed at those times.

גמ׳ איתמר היו כתובים תרגום או בכל לשון רב הונא אמר אין מצילין אותן מפני הדליקה ורב חסדא אמר מצילין אותן מפני הדליקה אליבא דמאן דאמר ניתנו לקרות בהן דכולי עלמא לא פליגי דמצילין כי פליגי אליבא דמאן דאמר לא ניתנו לקרות בהן רב הונא אמר אין מצילין דהא לא ניתנו לקרות בהן רב חסדא אמר מצילין משום בזיון כתבי הקדש תנן כל כתבי הקדש מצילין אותן מפני הדליקה בין שקורין בהן בין שאין קורין בהן אף על פי שכתובין בכל לשון מאי לאו שקורין בהן נביאים ושאין קורין בהן כתובים אף על פי שכתובין בכל לשון דלא ניתנו לקרות בהן וקתני מצילין ותיובתא דרב הונא

GEMARA: It was stated that amora’im debated the status of sacred writings written in Aramaic translation or in any other language. Rav Huna said: One may not rescue them from the fire on Shabbat. And Rav Ḥisda said: One may rescue them from the fire on Shabbat. The Gemara adds: According to the one who said that sacred writings written in other languages may be read, everybody agrees that one may rescue them. Where they argue is according to the one who said that they may not be read. Rav Huna said: One may not rescue them, as they may not be read. Whereas Rav Ḥisda said: One may rescue them due to disgrace to sacred writings that will result. We learned in the mishna: With regard to all sacred writings, one may rescue them from the fire on Shabbat whether they are read in public or whether they are not read in public, even if they are written in any foreign language. What, is it not that the phrase: “That they are read” is referring to the books of the Prophets, and the phrase: “That they are not read” is referring to the Writings? Even though these are books written in any foreign language, which may not be read, it is taught that one may save them. This then is a conclusive refutation of the opinion of Rav Huna.

אמר לך רב הונא ותסברא אימא סיפא טעונין גניזה השתא אצולי מצילינן גניזה מיבעי אלא רב הונא מתרץ לטעמיה ורב חסדא מתרץ לטעמיה רב הונא מתרץ לטעמיה בין שקורין בהם נביאים ובין שאין קורין בהם כתובים במה דברים אמורים שכתובין בלשון הקדש אבל בכל לשון אין מצילין ואפילו הכי גניזה בעו רב חסדא מתרץ לטעמיה בין שקורין בהן נביאים ובין שאין קורין בהן כתובים אף על פי שכתובין בכל לשון נמי מצילין והכי קאמר ומקק שלהן טעונין גניזה

Rav Huna could have said to you: And do you understand the mishna that way? Say the latter clause of the mishna, which states: They require burial. This is unnecessary, as now, that it was mentioned that we rescue them from the fire, is it necessary to say that they require burial? Rather, the mishna must be emended. Rav Huna reconciles the mishna in accordance with his reasoning, and Rav Ḥisda reconciles the mishna in accordance with his reasoning. Rav Huna reconciles this in accordance with his reasoning: Whether they are read is referring to the Prophets, and whether they are not read is referring to the Writings. In what case is this statement said? It is in a case where they are written in the holy tongue, but if they are not written in Hebrew but in any other language, they are not rescued from the fire on Shabbat, and even so, they require burial. Rav Ḥisda reconciles the mishna in accordance with his reasoning: Whether they are read is referring to the Prophets, and whether they are not read is referring to the Writings, even if they are written in any language other than Hebrew, they are also rescued. And this is what the mishna is saying: And even the decayed sections of parchment require burial.

מיתיבי היו כתובים תרגום וכל לשון מצילין אותן מפני הדליקה תיובתא דרב הונא אמר לך רב הונא האי תנא סבר ניתנו לקרות בהן תא שמע היו כתובין גיפטית מדית עיברית עילמית יוונית אף על פי שלא ניתנו לקרות בהן מצילין אותן מפני הדליקה תיובתא דרב הונא אמר לך רב הונא תנאי היא דתניא היו כתובין תרגום ובכל לשון מצילין אותן מפני הדליקה רבי יוסי אומר אין מצילין אותן מפני הדליקה

The Gemara raises an objection from that which was taught in a baraita: If they were written in Aramaic translation or in any language other than Hebrew, they are rescued from the fire on Shabbat. And this is a conclusive refutation of the opinion of Rav Huna, who states that these are not rescued. Rav Huna could have said to you: This tanna holds that sacred writings not written in Hebrew may be read, whereas Rav Huna stated his ruling in accordance with the opinion of the tanna who holds that they may not be read, and therefore may not be rescued. Come and hear another proof from that which was taught in a different baraita: Sacred writings that were written in Coptic, Egyptian; Median; Ivrit, i.e., ancient Hebrew script; Eilamitic; or Greek are rescued from the fire on Shabbat, even though they may not be read. This is a conclusive refutation of the opinion of Rav Huna, who holds that they are not rescued. Rav Huna could have said to you: This is a dispute between tanna’im, as it was taught in a baraita: If they were written in Aramaic translation or in any language other than Hebrew, one may rescue them from the fire on Shabbat. Rabbi Yosei says: One may not rescue them from the fire.

אמר רבי יוסי מעשה באבא חלפתא שהלך אצל רבן גמליאל בריבי לטבריא ומצאו שהיה יושב על שלחנו של (יוחנן הנזוף) ובידו ספר איוב תרגום והוא קורא בו אמר לו זכור אני ברבן גמליאל אבי אביך שהיה עומד על גבי מעלה בהר הבית והביאו לפניו ספר איוב תרגום ואמר לבנאי שקעהו תחת הנדבך אף הוא צוה עליו וגנזו רבי יוסי ברבי יהודה אומר עריבה של טיט כפו עליו אמר רבי שתי תשובות בדבר חדא וכי טיט בהר הבית מנין ועוד וכי מותר לאבדן ביד אלא מניחן במקום התורפה והן מרקיבין מאליהן מאן תנאי

Rabbi Yosei said: There was an incident involving my father, Ḥalafta, who went to the esteemed Rabban Gamliel of Yavne in Tiberias, where he found him sitting at the table of Yoḥanan HaNazuf and in his hand there was a translation of the book of Job, and he was reading from it. Yoḥanan said to Rabban Gamliel of Yavne: I remember Rabban Gamliel, your father’s father, who was standing on top of a step on the Temple Mount. And they brought before him a translation of the book of Job, and he said to the builder: Bury this book under the course of bricks. When he heard of that incident, Rabban Gamliel of Yavne ordered that it be buried and he buried it. Rabbi Yosei, son of Rabbi Yehuda, says that on the Temple Mount they overturned a large bowl of mortar on it. Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi said: There are two responses to this that prove that it did not happen: One, from where would they get mortar on the Temple Mount? Construction on the Temple Mount was performed with other materials, not with mortar. And furthermore, is it permitted to actively destroy even sacred writings that are not read, with one’s hands? Rather, at the very least they leave them in a neglected place, where they are likely to decompose quickly, and they decay on their own. The Gemara seeks to clarify: Who are the tanna’im who dispute this halakha according to Rav Huna?

אילימא תנא קמא דרבי יוסי ודילמא בהא קמיפלגי מר סבר ניתנו לקרות בהן ומר סבר לא ניתנו לקרות בהן אלא רבי יוסי ותנא דגיפטית

If we say it is the first tanna who disagrees with Rabbi Yosei, that is not necessarily so, and perhaps they are disagreeing about this: This Master, the first tanna, holds that books written in other languages may be read; and this Master, Rabbi Yosei, holds that they may not be read, and their dispute is unrelated to the dispute between Rav Huna and Rav Ḥisda. Rather, it is the dispute between Rabbi Yosei and the first tanna, who spoke about books written in Coptic. According to that tanna, even books that may not be read are rescued, whereas Rabbi Yosei holds that they are not rescued.

תנו רבנן הברכות והקמיעין אף על פי שיש בהן אותיות של שם ומעניינות הרבה שבתורה אין מצילין אותן מפני הדליקה אלא נשרפים במקומן [הן ואזכרותיהן] מכאן אמרו כותבי ברכות כשורפי תורה מעשה באחד שהיה כותב בצידן באו והודיעו את רבי ישמעאל והלך רבי ישמעאל לבודקו כשהיה עולה בסולם הרגיש בו נטל טומוס של ברכות ושקען בספל של מים ובלשון הזה אמר לו רבי ישמעאל גדול עונש האחרון מן הראשון

The Sages taught in a baraita: The blessings that are written and the amulets, even though there are the letters of the Name of God in them and matters that appear in the Torah are mentioned in them, they are not rescued from the fire; rather, they burn in their place, they and the names of God contained therein. From here the Sages said: Writers of blessings are like burners of Torah scrolls, as it is prohibited to rescue these texts from the fire on Shabbat even though it is likely that they will be destroyed. There was an incident involving one who was writing pages with blessings in Sidon. They came and informed Rabbi Yishmael of his actions, and Rabbi Yishmael went to examine him to determine if the report was true. When Rabbi Yishmael was ascending the ladder to confront him, the scribe sensed his presence, took a bundle [tomos] of blessings, and submerged it in a basin of water to conceal it from Rabbi Yishmael. And in these words Rabbi Yishmael said to him: The punishment for the latter action is greater than the punishment for the former. Although it is prohibited to write blessings, destroying them is a greater violation.

בעא מיניה ריש גלותא מרבה בר רב הונא היו כתובין בסם ובסיקרא בקומוס ובקנקנתום בלשון הקדש מצילין אותן מפני הדליקה או אין מצילין תיבעי למאן דאמר מצילין תיבעי למאן דאמר אין מצילין תיבעי למאן דאמר אין מצילין הני מילי היכא דכתיבי תרגום ובכל לשון אבל הכא דכתיבי בלשון הקדש מצילין או דילמא אפילו למאן דאמר מצילין הני מילי היכא דכתיבי בדיו דמיקיים אבל הכא כיון דלא מיקיים לא אמר ליה אין מצילין והא רב המנונא תנא מצילין אמר ליה אי תניא תניא מאי תניא אמר רב אשי כדתניא אין בין ספרים למגילה אלא שהספרים נכתבים בכל לשון ומגילה עד שתהא כתובה אשורית על הספר ובדיו

The Exilarch raised a dilemma before Rabba bar Rav Huna: If the sacred scrolls were written in yellow-tinged arsenic, or red paint, in gum, or in iron sulfate, types of ink which may not be used to write Torah scrolls; however, the scrolls were written properly in the holy tongue, does one rescue them from the fire on Shabbat or does one not rescue them? The Gemara adds: This dilemma is raised according to the one who said that one rescues sacred writings written in other languages; and this dilemma is raised according to the one who said that one does not rescue them. The Gemara elaborates. This dilemma is raised according to the one who said that one does not rescue them: Perhaps that applies specifically in a case where they are written in Aramaic translation and in any foreign language; however, here, where they are written in the holy tongue, one rescues them. Or perhaps even according to the one who said that one rescues them, that applies specifically in a case where they are written in ink that endures; however, here, since the script does not endure, they are not rescued. Rabba bar Rav Huna said to him: One does not rescue them. The Exilarch said to him: Didn’t Rav Hamnuna teach in a baraita that one saves them. Rabba bar Rav Huna said to him: If it was taught in a baraita, it was taught, and I retract my statement. The Gemara asks: What is the baraita that was taught on this matter? Rav Ashi said, as it was taught in a baraita: The only difference between the books of the Bible and the Megilla of Esther is that the books are written in any language and are valid, and the Megilla is only valid if it is written in Assyrian script, the familiar square Hebrew script, on a parchment scroll, and in ink. Apparently, other sacred books need not be written in ink.

בעא מיניה רב הונא בר חלוב מרב נחמן ספר תורה שאין בו ללקט שמונים וחמש אותיות כגון פרשת ויהי בנסוע הארון מצילין אותה מפני הדליקה או אין מצילין אמר ליה ותיבעי לך פרשת ויהי בנסוע הארון גופה היכא דחסר פרשת ויהי בנסוע לא קמיבעיא לי דכיון דאית ביה הזכרות אף על גב דלית ביה שמונים וחמש אותיות מצילין כי קא מיבעיא לי ספר תורה שאין בו ללקט מאי אמר ליה אין מצילין

Rav Huna bar Ḥaluv raised a dilemma before Rav Naḥman: With regard to a Torah scroll in which there is not enough to compile from it eighty-five complete letters written properly and in order, which is the minimum measure determined by the Sages for a Torah to maintain the sanctity of a Torah scroll, as in the portion of: “And when the Ark traveled” (Numbers 10:35–36), does one rescue it from the fire on Shabbat or does one not rescue it? Rav Naḥman said to him: And raise a dilemma with regard to the portion of: “And when the Ark traveled,” itself, i.e., does one rescue it on Shabbat if it is missing a single letter? Rav Huna bar Ḥaluv answered: In a case where the portion of: “And when the Ark traveled,” is incomplete, it is not a dilemma for me, as since it contains names of God, even though there are not eighty-five letters in it, it is rescued. However, the case where it is a dilemma for me is with regard to a Torah scroll in which there is not enough to compile from it eighty-five complete letters; what is the ruling? Is it rescued on Shabbat or not? Rav Naḥman said to him: It is not rescued.

איתיביה תרגום שכתבו מקרא ומקרא שכתבו תרגום וכתב עברית מצילין מפני הדליקה ואין צריך לומר תרגום שבעזרא ושבדניאל ושבתורה תרגום שבתורה מאי ניהו יגר שהדותא ואף על גב דלית בה שמונים וחמש אותיות כי תניא ההיא להשלים

Rav Huna bar Ḥaluv raised an objection to his opinion from that which we learned: A verse that is originally written in Aramaic translation that was written in the language of the Bible, and a verse that is originally written in the language of the Bible that was written in Aramaic translation, and a Torah that was written in ancient Hebrew script, one rescues them from the fire on Shabbat. And, needless to say, one saves the verses written in Aramaic translation that are in the book of Ezra, and that are in the book of Daniel, and that are in the Torah. What are the verses originally written in Aramaic translation in the Torah? It is the verse: “And Laban called it Yegar Sahaduta, and Jacob called it Gal Ed” (Genesis 31:47), and apparently, it is rescued, even though there are not eighty-five letters in it. Rav Naḥman answered him: That is no proof, as when that baraita was taught, it was in a case where the Aramaic verse is counted to complete the total of eighty-five letters, but it is not independently significant.

איבעיא להו הני שמונים וחמש אותיות מכונסות או מפוזרות רב הונא אמר מכונסות רב חסדא אמר אפילו מפוזרות מיתיבי ספר תורה שבלה אם יש בו ללקט שמונים וחמש אותיות כגון פרשת ויהי בנסוע הארון מצילין ואם לאו אין מצילין תיובתא דרב הונא תרגמה רב חסדא אליבא דרב הונא בתיבות

A dilemma was raised before the Sages: With regard to these eighty-five letters that allow one to rescue a Torah scroll, is that specifically when they are juxtaposed, or even when they are scattered? Rav Huna said: Only when they are juxtaposed. Rav Ḥisda said: Even when they are scattered. The Gemara raises an objection from that which we learned: With regard to a Torah scroll that is worn, if there is enough to compile from it eighty-five complete letters as in the portion of: “And when the Ark traveled,” one rescues it from the fire, and if not one does not rescue it. The term: To compile, indicates that the letters are not juxtaposed, and this is a conclusive refutation of the opinion of Rav Huna. Rav Ḥisda interpreted it according to the opinion of Rav Huna: Indeed, the baraita is referring to a case where the letters are scattered, but they are juxtaposed in the form of words. In that case, even Rav Huna agrees that it is a sacred book. Rav Huna and Rav Ḥisda only disagree in a case where isolated letters are scattered.

תנו רבנן ויהי בנסוע הארון ויאמר משה פרשה זו עשה לה הקדוש ברוך הוא סימניות מלמעלה ולמטה לומר

Apropos the portion: “And when the Ark traveled,” the Gemara cites that which the Sages taught in a baraita. It is stated: “And when the Ark traveled and Moses proclaimed: Rise up, God, and Your enemies will scatter and those who hate You will flee from before You.” And The Holy One, Blessed be He, made signs in the Torah for this portion, above and below, i.e., before and after it, in order to say

Masechet Shabbat is sponsored in memory of Elliot Freilich, Eliyahu Daniel ben Bar Tzion David Halevi z"l by a group of women from Kehilath Jeshurun, Manhattan.

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Shabbat 115

מותר בקניבת ירק (ואמר רבי חייא בר אבא אמר רבי יוחנן יום כיפורים שחל להיות בחול) מפצעין באגוזים ומפרכסין ברימונים מן המנחה ולמעלה מפני עגמת נפש דבי רב יהודה מקנבי כרבא דבי רבה גרדי קארי כיון דחזא דהוו קא מחרפי אמר להו אתא איגרתא ממערבא משמיה דרבי יוחנן דאסיר:

trimming vegetables is permitted. And Rabbi Ḥiyya bar Abba said that Rabbi Yoḥanan said: If Yom Kippur occurs on a weekday, one may crack nuts and remove pomegranate seeds from the late afternoon and onward, because doing so involves no actual labor and due to anxiety, i.e., if a person does not know that there is food prepared for when the fast ends, he suffers more during the final hours of the day (Rabbi Zeraḥia HaLevi). The Gemara relates: The members of Rav Yehuda’s house would trim cabbage. The members of Rabba’s house would scrub gourds. Once Rabba saw that they were doing this early, before the late afternoon, he said to them: A letter came from the West, i.e., from Eretz Yisrael, in the name of Rabbi Yoḥanan, saying that doing so is prohibited.

הדרן עלך ואלו קשרים

 

מתני׳ כל כתבי הקדש מצילין אותן מפני הדליקה בין שקורין בהן ובין שאין קורין בהן אף על פי שכתובים בכל לשון טעונים גניזה ומפני מה אין קורין בהם מפני ביטול בית המדרש:

MISHNA: With regard to all sacred writings, one may rescue them from the fire on Shabbat, whether they are read in public, e.g., Torah or Prophets scrolls, or whether they are not read in public, e.g., Writings scrolls. This ruling applies even though they were written in any foreign language. According to the Rabbis, those scrolls are not read in public, but they are still sacred and require burial. And why does one not read the Writings on Shabbat? Due to suspension of Torah study in the study hall. People came to the study hall at specific times on Shabbat to hear words of halakha, and other texts were not allowed at those times.

גמ׳ איתמר היו כתובים תרגום או בכל לשון רב הונא אמר אין מצילין אותן מפני הדליקה ורב חסדא אמר מצילין אותן מפני הדליקה אליבא דמאן דאמר ניתנו לקרות בהן דכולי עלמא לא פליגי דמצילין כי פליגי אליבא דמאן דאמר לא ניתנו לקרות בהן רב הונא אמר אין מצילין דהא לא ניתנו לקרות בהן רב חסדא אמר מצילין משום בזיון כתבי הקדש תנן כל כתבי הקדש מצילין אותן מפני הדליקה בין שקורין בהן בין שאין קורין בהן אף על פי שכתובין בכל לשון מאי לאו שקורין בהן נביאים ושאין קורין בהן כתובים אף על פי שכתובין בכל לשון דלא ניתנו לקרות בהן וקתני מצילין ותיובתא דרב הונא

GEMARA: It was stated that amora’im debated the status of sacred writings written in Aramaic translation or in any other language. Rav Huna said: One may not rescue them from the fire on Shabbat. And Rav Ḥisda said: One may rescue them from the fire on Shabbat. The Gemara adds: According to the one who said that sacred writings written in other languages may be read, everybody agrees that one may rescue them. Where they argue is according to the one who said that they may not be read. Rav Huna said: One may not rescue them, as they may not be read. Whereas Rav Ḥisda said: One may rescue them due to disgrace to sacred writings that will result. We learned in the mishna: With regard to all sacred writings, one may rescue them from the fire on Shabbat whether they are read in public or whether they are not read in public, even if they are written in any foreign language. What, is it not that the phrase: “That they are read” is referring to the books of the Prophets, and the phrase: “That they are not read” is referring to the Writings? Even though these are books written in any foreign language, which may not be read, it is taught that one may save them. This then is a conclusive refutation of the opinion of Rav Huna.

אמר לך רב הונא ותסברא אימא סיפא טעונין גניזה השתא אצולי מצילינן גניזה מיבעי אלא רב הונא מתרץ לטעמיה ורב חסדא מתרץ לטעמיה רב הונא מתרץ לטעמיה בין שקורין בהם נביאים ובין שאין קורין בהם כתובים במה דברים אמורים שכתובין בלשון הקדש אבל בכל לשון אין מצילין ואפילו הכי גניזה בעו רב חסדא מתרץ לטעמיה בין שקורין בהן נביאים ובין שאין קורין בהן כתובים אף על פי שכתובין בכל לשון נמי מצילין והכי קאמר ומקק שלהן טעונין גניזה

Rav Huna could have said to you: And do you understand the mishna that way? Say the latter clause of the mishna, which states: They require burial. This is unnecessary, as now, that it was mentioned that we rescue them from the fire, is it necessary to say that they require burial? Rather, the mishna must be emended. Rav Huna reconciles the mishna in accordance with his reasoning, and Rav Ḥisda reconciles the mishna in accordance with his reasoning. Rav Huna reconciles this in accordance with his reasoning: Whether they are read is referring to the Prophets, and whether they are not read is referring to the Writings. In what case is this statement said? It is in a case where they are written in the holy tongue, but if they are not written in Hebrew but in any other language, they are not rescued from the fire on Shabbat, and even so, they require burial. Rav Ḥisda reconciles the mishna in accordance with his reasoning: Whether they are read is referring to the Prophets, and whether they are not read is referring to the Writings, even if they are written in any language other than Hebrew, they are also rescued. And this is what the mishna is saying: And even the decayed sections of parchment require burial.

מיתיבי היו כתובים תרגום וכל לשון מצילין אותן מפני הדליקה תיובתא דרב הונא אמר לך רב הונא האי תנא סבר ניתנו לקרות בהן תא שמע היו כתובין גיפטית מדית עיברית עילמית יוונית אף על פי שלא ניתנו לקרות בהן מצילין אותן מפני הדליקה תיובתא דרב הונא אמר לך רב הונא תנאי היא דתניא היו כתובין תרגום ובכל לשון מצילין אותן מפני הדליקה רבי יוסי אומר אין מצילין אותן מפני הדליקה

The Gemara raises an objection from that which was taught in a baraita: If they were written in Aramaic translation or in any language other than Hebrew, they are rescued from the fire on Shabbat. And this is a conclusive refutation of the opinion of Rav Huna, who states that these are not rescued. Rav Huna could have said to you: This tanna holds that sacred writings not written in Hebrew may be read, whereas Rav Huna stated his ruling in accordance with the opinion of the tanna who holds that they may not be read, and therefore may not be rescued. Come and hear another proof from that which was taught in a different baraita: Sacred writings that were written in Coptic, Egyptian; Median; Ivrit, i.e., ancient Hebrew script; Eilamitic; or Greek are rescued from the fire on Shabbat, even though they may not be read. This is a conclusive refutation of the opinion of Rav Huna, who holds that they are not rescued. Rav Huna could have said to you: This is a dispute between tanna’im, as it was taught in a baraita: If they were written in Aramaic translation or in any language other than Hebrew, one may rescue them from the fire on Shabbat. Rabbi Yosei says: One may not rescue them from the fire.

אמר רבי יוסי מעשה באבא חלפתא שהלך אצל רבן גמליאל בריבי לטבריא ומצאו שהיה יושב על שלחנו של (יוחנן הנזוף) ובידו ספר איוב תרגום והוא קורא בו אמר לו זכור אני ברבן גמליאל אבי אביך שהיה עומד על גבי מעלה בהר הבית והביאו לפניו ספר איוב תרגום ואמר לבנאי שקעהו תחת הנדבך אף הוא צוה עליו וגנזו רבי יוסי ברבי יהודה אומר עריבה של טיט כפו עליו אמר רבי שתי תשובות בדבר חדא וכי טיט בהר הבית מנין ועוד וכי מותר לאבדן ביד אלא מניחן במקום התורפה והן מרקיבין מאליהן מאן תנאי

Rabbi Yosei said: There was an incident involving my father, Ḥalafta, who went to the esteemed Rabban Gamliel of Yavne in Tiberias, where he found him sitting at the table of Yoḥanan HaNazuf and in his hand there was a translation of the book of Job, and he was reading from it. Yoḥanan said to Rabban Gamliel of Yavne: I remember Rabban Gamliel, your father’s father, who was standing on top of a step on the Temple Mount. And they brought before him a translation of the book of Job, and he said to the builder: Bury this book under the course of bricks. When he heard of that incident, Rabban Gamliel of Yavne ordered that it be buried and he buried it. Rabbi Yosei, son of Rabbi Yehuda, says that on the Temple Mount they overturned a large bowl of mortar on it. Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi said: There are two responses to this that prove that it did not happen: One, from where would they get mortar on the Temple Mount? Construction on the Temple Mount was performed with other materials, not with mortar. And furthermore, is it permitted to actively destroy even sacred writings that are not read, with one’s hands? Rather, at the very least they leave them in a neglected place, where they are likely to decompose quickly, and they decay on their own. The Gemara seeks to clarify: Who are the tanna’im who dispute this halakha according to Rav Huna?

אילימא תנא קמא דרבי יוסי ודילמא בהא קמיפלגי מר סבר ניתנו לקרות בהן ומר סבר לא ניתנו לקרות בהן אלא רבי יוסי ותנא דגיפטית

If we say it is the first tanna who disagrees with Rabbi Yosei, that is not necessarily so, and perhaps they are disagreeing about this: This Master, the first tanna, holds that books written in other languages may be read; and this Master, Rabbi Yosei, holds that they may not be read, and their dispute is unrelated to the dispute between Rav Huna and Rav Ḥisda. Rather, it is the dispute between Rabbi Yosei and the first tanna, who spoke about books written in Coptic. According to that tanna, even books that may not be read are rescued, whereas Rabbi Yosei holds that they are not rescued.

תנו רבנן הברכות והקמיעין אף על פי שיש בהן אותיות של שם ומעניינות הרבה שבתורה אין מצילין אותן מפני הדליקה אלא נשרפים במקומן [הן ואזכרותיהן] מכאן אמרו כותבי ברכות כשורפי תורה מעשה באחד שהיה כותב בצידן באו והודיעו את רבי ישמעאל והלך רבי ישמעאל לבודקו כשהיה עולה בסולם הרגיש בו נטל טומוס של ברכות ושקען בספל של מים ובלשון הזה אמר לו רבי ישמעאל גדול עונש האחרון מן הראשון

The Sages taught in a baraita: The blessings that are written and the amulets, even though there are the letters of the Name of God in them and matters that appear in the Torah are mentioned in them, they are not rescued from the fire; rather, they burn in their place, they and the names of God contained therein. From here the Sages said: Writers of blessings are like burners of Torah scrolls, as it is prohibited to rescue these texts from the fire on Shabbat even though it is likely that they will be destroyed. There was an incident involving one who was writing pages with blessings in Sidon. They came and informed Rabbi Yishmael of his actions, and Rabbi Yishmael went to examine him to determine if the report was true. When Rabbi Yishmael was ascending the ladder to confront him, the scribe sensed his presence, took a bundle [tomos] of blessings, and submerged it in a basin of water to conceal it from Rabbi Yishmael. And in these words Rabbi Yishmael said to him: The punishment for the latter action is greater than the punishment for the former. Although it is prohibited to write blessings, destroying them is a greater violation.

בעא מיניה ריש גלותא מרבה בר רב הונא היו כתובין בסם ובסיקרא בקומוס ובקנקנתום בלשון הקדש מצילין אותן מפני הדליקה או אין מצילין תיבעי למאן דאמר מצילין תיבעי למאן דאמר אין מצילין תיבעי למאן דאמר אין מצילין הני מילי היכא דכתיבי תרגום ובכל לשון אבל הכא דכתיבי בלשון הקדש מצילין או דילמא אפילו למאן דאמר מצילין הני מילי היכא דכתיבי בדיו דמיקיים אבל הכא כיון דלא מיקיים לא אמר ליה אין מצילין והא רב המנונא תנא מצילין אמר ליה אי תניא תניא מאי תניא אמר רב אשי כדתניא אין בין ספרים למגילה אלא שהספרים נכתבים בכל לשון ומגילה עד שתהא כתובה אשורית על הספר ובדיו

The Exilarch raised a dilemma before Rabba bar Rav Huna: If the sacred scrolls were written in yellow-tinged arsenic, or red paint, in gum, or in iron sulfate, types of ink which may not be used to write Torah scrolls; however, the scrolls were written properly in the holy tongue, does one rescue them from the fire on Shabbat or does one not rescue them? The Gemara adds: This dilemma is raised according to the one who said that one rescues sacred writings written in other languages; and this dilemma is raised according to the one who said that one does not rescue them. The Gemara elaborates. This dilemma is raised according to the one who said that one does not rescue them: Perhaps that applies specifically in a case where they are written in Aramaic translation and in any foreign language; however, here, where they are written in the holy tongue, one rescues them. Or perhaps even according to the one who said that one rescues them, that applies specifically in a case where they are written in ink that endures; however, here, since the script does not endure, they are not rescued. Rabba bar Rav Huna said to him: One does not rescue them. The Exilarch said to him: Didn’t Rav Hamnuna teach in a baraita that one saves them. Rabba bar Rav Huna said to him: If it was taught in a baraita, it was taught, and I retract my statement. The Gemara asks: What is the baraita that was taught on this matter? Rav Ashi said, as it was taught in a baraita: The only difference between the books of the Bible and the Megilla of Esther is that the books are written in any language and are valid, and the Megilla is only valid if it is written in Assyrian script, the familiar square Hebrew script, on a parchment scroll, and in ink. Apparently, other sacred books need not be written in ink.

בעא מיניה רב הונא בר חלוב מרב נחמן ספר תורה שאין בו ללקט שמונים וחמש אותיות כגון פרשת ויהי בנסוע הארון מצילין אותה מפני הדליקה או אין מצילין אמר ליה ותיבעי לך פרשת ויהי בנסוע הארון גופה היכא דחסר פרשת ויהי בנסוע לא קמיבעיא לי דכיון דאית ביה הזכרות אף על גב דלית ביה שמונים וחמש אותיות מצילין כי קא מיבעיא לי ספר תורה שאין בו ללקט מאי אמר ליה אין מצילין

Rav Huna bar Ḥaluv raised a dilemma before Rav Naḥman: With regard to a Torah scroll in which there is not enough to compile from it eighty-five complete letters written properly and in order, which is the minimum measure determined by the Sages for a Torah to maintain the sanctity of a Torah scroll, as in the portion of: “And when the Ark traveled” (Numbers 10:35–36), does one rescue it from the fire on Shabbat or does one not rescue it? Rav Naḥman said to him: And raise a dilemma with regard to the portion of: “And when the Ark traveled,” itself, i.e., does one rescue it on Shabbat if it is missing a single letter? Rav Huna bar Ḥaluv answered: In a case where the portion of: “And when the Ark traveled,” is incomplete, it is not a dilemma for me, as since it contains names of God, even though there are not eighty-five letters in it, it is rescued. However, the case where it is a dilemma for me is with regard to a Torah scroll in which there is not enough to compile from it eighty-five complete letters; what is the ruling? Is it rescued on Shabbat or not? Rav Naḥman said to him: It is not rescued.

איתיביה תרגום שכתבו מקרא ומקרא שכתבו תרגום וכתב עברית מצילין מפני הדליקה ואין צריך לומר תרגום שבעזרא ושבדניאל ושבתורה תרגום שבתורה מאי ניהו יגר שהדותא ואף על גב דלית בה שמונים וחמש אותיות כי תניא ההיא להשלים

Rav Huna bar Ḥaluv raised an objection to his opinion from that which we learned: A verse that is originally written in Aramaic translation that was written in the language of the Bible, and a verse that is originally written in the language of the Bible that was written in Aramaic translation, and a Torah that was written in ancient Hebrew script, one rescues them from the fire on Shabbat. And, needless to say, one saves the verses written in Aramaic translation that are in the book of Ezra, and that are in the book of Daniel, and that are in the Torah. What are the verses originally written in Aramaic translation in the Torah? It is the verse: “And Laban called it Yegar Sahaduta, and Jacob called it Gal Ed” (Genesis 31:47), and apparently, it is rescued, even though there are not eighty-five letters in it. Rav Naḥman answered him: That is no proof, as when that baraita was taught, it was in a case where the Aramaic verse is counted to complete the total of eighty-five letters, but it is not independently significant.

איבעיא להו הני שמונים וחמש אותיות מכונסות או מפוזרות רב הונא אמר מכונסות רב חסדא אמר אפילו מפוזרות מיתיבי ספר תורה שבלה אם יש בו ללקט שמונים וחמש אותיות כגון פרשת ויהי בנסוע הארון מצילין ואם לאו אין מצילין תיובתא דרב הונא תרגמה רב חסדא אליבא דרב הונא בתיבות

A dilemma was raised before the Sages: With regard to these eighty-five letters that allow one to rescue a Torah scroll, is that specifically when they are juxtaposed, or even when they are scattered? Rav Huna said: Only when they are juxtaposed. Rav Ḥisda said: Even when they are scattered. The Gemara raises an objection from that which we learned: With regard to a Torah scroll that is worn, if there is enough to compile from it eighty-five complete letters as in the portion of: “And when the Ark traveled,” one rescues it from the fire, and if not one does not rescue it. The term: To compile, indicates that the letters are not juxtaposed, and this is a conclusive refutation of the opinion of Rav Huna. Rav Ḥisda interpreted it according to the opinion of Rav Huna: Indeed, the baraita is referring to a case where the letters are scattered, but they are juxtaposed in the form of words. In that case, even Rav Huna agrees that it is a sacred book. Rav Huna and Rav Ḥisda only disagree in a case where isolated letters are scattered.

תנו רבנן ויהי בנסוע הארון ויאמר משה פרשה זו עשה לה הקדוש ברוך הוא סימניות מלמעלה ולמטה לומר

Apropos the portion: “And when the Ark traveled,” the Gemara cites that which the Sages taught in a baraita. It is stated: “And when the Ark traveled and Moses proclaimed: Rise up, God, and Your enemies will scatter and those who hate You will flee from before You.” And The Holy One, Blessed be He, made signs in the Torah for this portion, above and below, i.e., before and after it, in order to say

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