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Today's Daf Yomi

July 2, 2020 | י׳ בתמוז תש״פ

Masechet Shabbat is sponsored in memory of Elliot Freilich, Eliyahu Daniel ben Bar Tzion David Halevi z"l by a group of women from Kehilath Jeshurun, Manhattan.

Shabbat 118

Today’s daf is sponsored by Emma Rinberg in memory of her beloved and much missed father Dr. Eric Glick, Yitzchak Nisan ben Yaacov z”l on his 30th yahrzeit and by Barbara Ashkenas in memory of her dear parents Edward and Evelyn Weinberger z”l who together taught her the beauty of learning Torah performing acts of kindness and giving Tzdakah. And in memory of Dr. Sandra Shimoff who devoted her life to Torah and Talmud study sponsored by her daughter and son in law Sharonna and Ozer Shuster and her grandchildren, Bentzi and Shiffy Shuster.

How many meals does one need to eat on Shabbat- three or four? The gemara grapples with the different approaches in light of different tannaitic sources. The gemara brings several statements to encourage people to keep the mitzva of eating three meals on Shabbat by promising rewards in this world or in the future. Why was all this necessary? There are rabbis that mention mitzvot they are keeping or customs that they do in a way that stands out from others who are either not keeping these laws or not as meticulously.

מצילין מזון שלש סעודות מאי לאו דלא אכל לא דאכל שחרית מצילין מזון שתי סעודות מאי לאו דלא אכל לא דאכל במנחה מצילין מזון סעודה אחת מאי לאו דלא אכל לא דאכל

one rescues food for three meals. What, is this not referring to a situation where he has not yet eaten any meals? Apparently, one is obligated to eat only three meals on Shabbat. The Gemara rejects this: No, it is referring to a situation where one already ate one meal. Three meals still remain, in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Ḥidka, who requires four meals. The Gemara challenges this from the continuation of the mishna: If a fire ignited in the morning, one may only rescue food for two meals. What, is it not referring to a situation where one has not yet eaten one’s morning meal and the obligation is to eat only three meals, one at night and two during the day? The Gemara rejects this: No, it is referring to a situation where one has already eaten the morning meal. The Gemara challenges this from the continuation of the mishna: If a fire ignited in the afternoon, one may rescue food for one meal. What, is it not referring to a situation where one has not yet eaten the afternoon meal and the obligation is to eat only three meals? The Gemara rejects this: No, it is referring to a situation where one has already eaten.

והא מדקתני סיפא רבי יוסי אומר לעולם מצילין מזון שלש סעודות מכלל דתנא קמא שלש סבירא ליה אלא מחוורתא מתניתין דלא כרבי חידקא

The Gemara challenges this: From the fact that it is taught in the latter clause of the mishna: Rabbi Yosei says: One may always rescue food for three meals, by inference, even the first tanna holds that the obligation is to eat three meals, as there is no dispute with regard to the number of meals on Shabbat. Rather, it is clear that the mishna is not in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Ḥidka. According to the tanna’im in the mishna, one is obligated to eat three meals on Shabbat.

והא דתנן מי שיש לו מזון שתי סעודות לא יטול מן התמחוי מזון ארבע עשרה לא יטול מן הקופה מני לא רבנן ולא רבי חידקא אי רבנן חמסרי הויין אי רבי חידקא שית סרי הויין לעולם רבנן דאמרינן ליה מאי דבעית למיכל באפוקי שבתא אכליה בשבתא

And that which we learned in another mishna: One who has sufficient food for two meals in his possession may not take food from the charity plate that is distributed to the poor. He is not considered needy and would be taking food at the expense of people who are worse off than he. And one who has food for fourteen meals, enough meals for an entire week, may not take money from the charity fund. The Gemara asks: In accordance with whose opinion is this mishna? Apparently, it is neither in accordance with the opinion of the Rabbis nor in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Ḥidka. If it were in accordance with the opinion of the Rabbis, they maintain that they are fifteen meals that are eaten in a week, two each day, evening and morning, and three on Shabbat. If it were in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Ḥidka, they are sixteen meals that are eaten in a week, twelve during the six days of the week and four on Shabbat. The Gemara rejects this: Actually, the mishna is in accordance with the opinion of the Rabbis, but we say to him: That which you want to eat at the conclusion of Shabbat, Saturday night, eat it as the third meal on Shabbat.

לימא רבנן היא ולא רבי חידקא אפילו תימא רבי חידקא דאמרינן ליה מאי דבעית למיכל במעלי שבתא אכליה לאורתא וכולי יומא דמעלי שבתא בתעניתא מותבינן ליה אלא הא מני רבי עקיבא היא דאמר עשה שבתך חול ואל תצטרך לבריות

The Gemara asks: Let us say that this mishna is in accordance with the opinion of the Rabbis and not in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Ḥidka. The Gemara rejects that approach: Even if you say that it is in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Ḥidka, the mishna can be understood, as we can say to him: That which you want to eat on Shabbat eve, Friday afternoon, eat at night on Shabbat instead. The Gemara asks: And do we have a person sit and fast all day on Shabbat eve? According to this suggestion, he would not eat at all on Friday. Rather, we must say: In accordance with whose opinion is this mishna? It is in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Akiva, who said: Make your Shabbat like a weekday and do not be beholden to other beings. It is preferable to eat two meals on Shabbat as he does during the week if he can thereby avoid taking charity.

והא דתנן אין פוחתין לעני העובר ממקום למקום מככר בפונדיון מארבע סאין בסלע לן נותנין לו פרנסת לינה ואם שבת נותנין לו מזון שלש סעודות לימא רבנן היא ולא רבי חידקא לעולם רבי חידקא כגון דאיכא סעודה בהדיה דאמרינן ליה הא דאיכא בהדך אכליה וכי אזיל בריקן אזיל דמלווינן ליה סעודה בהדיה מאי פרנסת לינה אמר רב פפא פוריא ובי סדיא:

And that which we learned in another mishna: One gives no less charity to a poor person who is traveling from place to place than a loaf worth a pundeyon, one forty-eighth of a sela, when the standard price of grain is four se’a for a sela. If he sleeps there, one gives him money for sleeping; and if he spends Shabbat in that city, one gives him food for three meals. Let us say that is in accordance with the opinion of the Rabbis and not the opinion of Rabbi Ḥidka. The Gemara rejects this: Actually, it is in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Ḥidka. When it says that if the poor traveler spends Shabbat there one gives him food for three meals, it is referring to a case where there is one meal that he brought with him, for we say to him: This meal that you have with you, eat it. The Gemara is surprised at this: And when he goes, does he go empty-handed, with no food. The Gemara answers: We provide him a meal to accompany him when he leaves. The Gemara asks: What is the meaning of money for sleeping? Rav Pappa said: It means that one provides his sleeping needs, i.e., a bed and cushions.

תנו רבנן קערות שאכל בהן ערבית מדיחן לאכול בהן שחרית שחרית מדיחן לאכול בהן בצהרים בצהרים מדיחן לאכול בהן במנחה מן המנחה ואילך שוב אינו מדיח אבל כוסות וקיתוניות וצלוחיות מדיח והולך כל היום כולו לפי שאין קבע לשתיה

The Sages taught in a baraita: With regard to bowls from which one ate in the evening on Shabbat, he may rinse them in order to eat from them in the morning. Bowls from which one ate in the morning, he may rinse them to eat from them in the afternoon. Bowls from which one ate in the afternoon, he may rinse them to eat from them in the afternoon. However, from the afternoon onward, one may no longer rinse them because there is no further need for these bowls on Shabbat, and it is prohibited to make preparations on Shabbat for a weekday. However, with regard to cups, and ladles, and flasks, which are vessels used for drinking, one rinses them all day long because there is no fixed time for drinking, and one does not know when he will drink again.

אמר רבי שמעון בן פזי אמר רבי יהושע בן לוי משום בר קפרא כל המקיים שלש סעודות בשבת ניצול משלש פורעניות מחבלו של משיח ומדינה של גיהנם וממלחמת גוג ומגוג מחבלו של משיח כתיב הכא יום וכתיב התם הנה אנכי שולח לכם את אליה הנביא לפני בוא יום וגו׳ מדינה של גיהנם כתיב הכא יום וכתיב התם יום עברה היום ההוא ממלחמת גוג ומגוג כתיב הכא יום וכתיב התם ביום בא גוג

Rabbi Shimon ben Pazi said that Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi said in the name of bar Kappara: Anyone who fulfills the obligation to eat three meals on Shabbat is rescued from three punishments: From the pangs of the Messiah, i.e., the suffering that precedes the advent of Messiah, and from the judgment of Gehenna, and from the war of Gog and Magog. The Gemara derives that one is rescued from the pangs of Messiah by means of a verbal analogy. It is written here, with regard to Shabbat, day: “Eat it today” (Exodus 16:25). And it is written there, with regard to Messiah, day: “Behold, I am sending you Elijah the prophet before the coming of the great and awesome day of God” (Malachi 3:23). The Gemara derives that one is rescued from the judgment of Gehenna by means of a verbal analogy. It is written here, with regard to Shabbat, day, as cited above. And it is written there, day: “That day will be a day of wrath, a day of trouble and distress, a day of destruction and desolation, a day of darkness and blackness, a day of cloud and thick fog” (Zephaniah 1:15), which is interpreted as referring to the punishment of Gehenna. The Gemara derives that one is rescued from the war of Gog and Magog by means of a verbal analogy. It is written here, with regard to Shabbat, day. And it is written there, with regard to the War of Gog and Magog, day: “And it shall be on that day, on the day that Gog arrives on the land of Israel” (Ezekiel 38:18).

אמר רבי יוחנן משום רבי יוסי כל המענג את השבת נותנין לו נחלה בלי מצרים שנאמר אז תתענג על ה׳ והרכבתיך על במתי ארץ והאכלתיך

Rabbi Yoḥanan said in the name of Rabbi Yosei: With regard to anyone who delights in the Shabbat, God gives him a boundless portion, i.e., a very large reward, as it is stated: “If you keep your feet from violating Shabbat, from pursuing your affairs on My holy day, and you call Shabbat a delight, the Lord’s holy day honored, and you honor it by not going your own way, or attending to your own matters or speaking idle words. Then you shall delight in the Lord and I will cause you to ride on the heights of the world, and to feast

נחלת יעקב אביך וגו׳ לא כאברהם שכתוב בו קום התהלך בארץ לארכה וגו׳ ולא כיצחק שכתוב בו כי לך ולזרעך אתן את כל הארצות האל אלא כיעקב שכתוב בו ופרצת ימה וקדמה וצפונה ונגבה

on the inheritance of Jacob your father, as the mouth of God has spoken” (Isaiah 58:13–14). The reward for delighting in Shabbat is specifically the portion of Jacob. Not that of Abraham, about whom it is written, “Rise, walk through the land through its length and its width because I have given it to you” (Genesis 13:17), i.e., only this land alone in its borders. And not that of Isaac, about whom it is written, “Dwell in this land and I will be with you and I will bless you because I will give all of these lands to you and your offspring” (Genesis 26:3), meaning these lands and no others. Rather, that of Jacob, about whom it is written, “And your offspring will be like the dust of the earth, and you will spread out to the west and to the east and to the north and to the south, and all of the families of the land will be blessed through you and your offspring” (Genesis 28:14). There are no boundaries for Jacob’s portion.

רב נחמן בר יצחק אמר ניצול משעבוד גליות כתיב הכא והרכבתיך על במתי ארץ וכתיב התם ואתה על במותימו תדרוך אמר רב יהודה אמר רב כל המענג את השבת נותנין לו משאלות לבו שנאמר והתענג על ה׳ ויתן לך משאלות לבך עונג זה איני יודע מהו כשהוא אומר וקראת לשבת עונג הוי אומר זה עונג שבת במה מענגו רב יהודה בריה דרב שמואל בר שילת משמיה דרב אמר בתבשיל של תרדין ודגים גדולים וראשי שומין רב חייא בר אשי אמר רב אפילו דבר מועט ולכבוד שבת עשאו הרי זה עונג מאי היא אמר רב פפא כסא דהרסנא

Rav Naḥman bar Yitzḥak said: One who delights in Shabbat is rescued from the oppression of exile. He derives it by means of a verbal analogy. It is written here, with regard to Shabbat: “And I will cause you to ride on the heights [bamotei] of the world” (Isaiah 58:14), and it is written there: “You are fortunate Israel, who is like you? A nation redeemed by God, the shield that aids you and the sword of your triumph. Your enemies will try to defeat you and you will trample their high places [bamoteimo]” (Deuteronomy 33:29). Rav Yehuda said that Rav said: With regard to anyone who delights in the Shabbat, God grants him his heart’s desires, as it is stated: “And you shall delight in God and He will grant you your heart’s desires” (Psalms 37:4). This delight in God, which is mentioned in the verse, I do not know what it is. When it says: “And you shall call the Shabbat delight,” one must say: It is the delight of Shabbat. The Gemara asks: With what does one delight in the day of Shabbat? Rav Yehuda, son of Rav Shmuel bar Sheilat, said in the name of Rav: With a dish of beets, and large fish, and heads of garlic. Rav Ḥiyya bar Ashi said that Rav said: Even with regard to a small item and one prepared it in deference to Shabbat, it is a delight. The Gemara asks: What is the small item mentioned? Rav Pappa said: Small fried fish.

אמר רבי חייא בר אבא אמר רבי יוחנן כל המשמר שבת כהלכתו אפילו עובד עבודה זרה [כדור] אנוש מוחלין לו שנאמר אשרי אנוש יעשה זאת וגו׳ מחללו אל תקרי מחללו אלא מחול לו

Rabbi Ḥiyya bar Abba said that Rabbi Yoḥanan said: With regard to anyone who observes Shabbat in accordance with its halakhot, even if he worships idolatry as in the generation of Enosh, God forgives him his sins, as it is stated: “Fortunate is the man [enosh] who does this and the person who holds strong to it, one who guards the Shabbat from desecrating it [meḥallelo], and guards his hand from doing any evil” (Isaiah 56:2). Do not read it as: From desecrating it [meḥallelo], but rather: He is forgiven [maḥul lo]. With regard to the generation of Enosh it is written: “And to Seth, to him also there was born a son; and he called his name Enosh. Then they began [huḥal] to call upon the Name of God” (Genesis 4:26), meaning to desecrate [leḥallel] His name.

אמר רב יהודה אמר רב אלמלי שמרו ישראל שבת ראשונה לא שלטה בהן אומה ולשון שנאמר ויהי ביום השביעי יצאו מן העם ללקוט וכתיב בתריה ויבא עמלק אמר רבי יוחנן משום רבי שמעון בן יוחי אלמלי משמרין ישראל שתי שבתות כהלכתן מיד נגאלים שנאמר כה אמר ה׳ לסריסים אשר ישמרו את שבתותי וכתיב בתריה והביאותים אל הר קדשי וגו׳

Rav Yehuda said that Rav said: Had the Jewish people properly observed the first Shabbat that was commanded them, no nation or tongue would have ever ruled them, as it is stated: “And it happened on the seventh day, some people went out from the nation to collect and they did not find” (Exodus 16:27). And it is written after they went out to collect manna: “And Amalek came and fought with Israel in Refidim” (Exodus 17:8). Rabbi Yoḥanan said in the name of Rabbi Shimon ben Yoḥai: If only the Jewish people would keep two Shabbatot in accordance with their halakhot, they would be immediately redeemed, as it is stated: “So said God to the eunuchs who will keep My Shabbatot” (Isaiah 56:4), and it is written after that: “And I will bring them to My holy mountain and will let them rejoice in My house of prayer” (Isaiah 56:7).

אמר רבי יוסי יהא חלקי מאוכלי שלש סעודות בשבת אמר רבי יוסי יהא חלקי מגומרי הלל בכל יום איני והאמר מר הקורא הלל בכל יום הרי זה מחרף ומגדף כי קאמרינן בפסוקי דזמרא

Rabbi Yosei said: May my portion be among those who eat three meals on Shabbat. Apropos this statement of Rabbi Yosei, the Gemara cites additional declarations. Rabbi Yosei said: May my portion be among those who complete hallel every day. The Gemara is surprised at this: Is that so? Didn’t the Master say: One who reads hallel every day is tantamount to one who curses and blasphemes God. He displays contempt for hallel by not reserving it for days on which miracles occurred. The Gemara answers: When we say this statement of Rabbi Yosei, we are referring to the verses of praise [pesukei dezimra], recited during the morning service, not to hallel (Psalms 113–118) recited on special days.

אמר רבי יוסי יהא חלקי ממתפללים עם דמדומי חמה אמר רבי חייא בר אבא אמר רבי יוחנן מצוה להתפלל עם דמדומי חמה אמר רבי זירא מאי קרא ייראוך עם שמש ולפני ירח דור דורים

And furthermore, Rabbi Yosei said: May my portion be among those who pray the morning and afternoon prayers with the reddening of the sun, i.e., the morning prayer at sunrise and the afternoon prayer adjacent to nightfall. Rabbi Ḥiyya bar Abba said that Rabbi Yoḥanan said: It is a mitzva to pray with the reddening of the sun. Rabbi Zeira said: What verse alludes to this? “They will fear You with the sun and before the moon, generation upon generation” (Psalms 72:5). Fear of God, prayer, should be with the sun and before the moon.

ואמר רבי יוסי יהא חלקי ממתי בחולי מעיים דאמר מר רובן של צדיקים מתים בחולי מעיים ואמר רבי יוסי יהא חלקי ממתי בדרך מצוה ואמר רבי יוסי יהא חלקי ממכניסי שבת בטבריא וממוציאי שבת בצפורי ואמר רבי יוסי יהא חלקי ממושיבי בית המדרש ולא ממעמידי בית המדרש

And Rabbi Yosei said: May my portion be among those who die from intestinal disease, as the Master said: Most righteous people die of intestinal disease. It is a very harsh disease through which the sins of righteous people are cleansed before their death and also, as a result, they die with a clean body. And Rabbi Yosei said: May my portion be among those who die on the path to perform a mitzva. And Rabbi Yosei said: May my portion be among those who accept Shabbat in Tiberias, which is in a valley where day turns to evening earlier, and among those who see Shabbat out in Tzippori, which is located on a mountain top where the sun is visible for longer, and Shabbat ends later. And Rabbi Yosei said: May my portion be among those who seat others in the study hall, i.e., who cause others to come sit and study, and not among those who cause others to stand in the study hall, i.e., who announce that it is time to leave the study hall and go to eat.

ואמר רבי יוסי יהא חלקי מגבאי צדקה ולא ממחלקי צדקה ואמר רבי יוסי יהא חלקי ממי שחושדין אותו ואין בו אמר רב פפא לדידי חשדן ולא הוה בי

And Rabbi Yosei said: May my portion be among the collectors of charity and not the distributors of charity. One who collects charity collects fixed amounts, whereas distributors may inadvertently fail to give the poor person enough to cover his needs. And Rabbi Yosei said: May my portion be with one whom others suspect of sin and there is no basis for suspecting him. Rav Pappa said: They suspected me, and there was no basis for suspecting me.

אמר רבי יוסי חמש בעילות בעלתי ונטעתי חמשה ארזים בישראל ומאן אינון רבי ישמעאל ברבי יוסי ורבי אלעזר ברבי יוסי ורבי חלפתא ברבי יוסי ורבי אבטילס ברבי יוסי ורבי מנחם ברבי יוסי והאיכא ורדימס היינו ורדימס היינו מנחם ואמאי קרי ליה ורדימס שפניו דומין לורד למימרא דרבי יוסי מצות עונה לא קיים אלא אימא חמש בעילות בעלתי ושניתי

Furthermore, Rabbi Yosei said: I engaged in relations five times, and I planted five cedars in Eretz Yisrael. And who are these cedars? The sons of Rabbi Yosei, who were great Sages of Israel: Rabbi Yishmael, son of Rabbi Yosei, and Rabbi Elazar, son of Rabbi Yosei, and Rabbi Ḥalafta, son of Rabbi Yosei, and Rabbi Avtilas, son of Rabbi Yosei, and Rabbi Menaḥem, son of Rabbi Yosei. The Gemara asks: Isn’t there Vardimas, who was also Rabbi Yosei’s son? The Gemara answers: Vardimas is the same as Menaḥem. And why did they call him Vardimas? Because his face was as beautiful as a rose [vered]. The Gemara asks: Is that to say based on this statement that Rabbi Yosei did not fulfill the mitzva of his wife’s conjugal rights, but only had relations with her five times? Rather, say it this way: I engaged in relations five times and I did so again, and the Sages said that one who seeks to father male offspring should engage in relations and do so again.

אמר רבי יוסי מימי לא קריתי לאשתי אשתי ולשורי שורי אלא לאשתי ביתי ולשורי שדי

Furthermore, Rabbi Yosei said that he always spoke euphemistically: In all my days, I did not call my wife, my wife, nor my ox, my ox. Rather, I called my wife, my home, because she is the essence of the home, and my ox, my field, because it is the primary force in the fields.

אמר רבי יוסי מימי לא נסתכלתי במילה שלי איני והאמרו ליה לרבי מאי טעמא קראו לך רבינו הקדוש אמר להו מימי לא נסתכלתי במילה שלי ברבי מילתא אחריתי הוה ביה שלא הכניס ידו תחת אבנטו ואמר רבי יוסי מימי לא ראו קורות ביתי אימרי חלוקי

Rabbi Yosei said: In all my days, due to modesty, I never looked at my circumcision. The Gemara asks: Is that so? Didn’t they say to Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi: Why did they call you our holy Rabbi? He said to them: It is because in all my days I never looked at my circumcision. If so, why wasn’t Rabbi Yosei also called our holy Rabbi? The Gemara replies: In the case of Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi, another matter of modesty was present in him, as he did not insert his hand below his belt due to his great modesty. And Rabbi Yosei said: In all my days, the walls of my house never saw the seams of my robe due to modesty, as he would only undress under his bed sheets.

ואמר רבי יוסי מימי לא עברתי על דברי חברי יודע אני בעצמי שאיני כהן אם אומרים לי חבירי עלה לדוכן אני עולה ואמר רבי יוסי מימי לא אמרתי דבר וחזרתי לאחורי

And Rabbi Yosei said: In all my days I never violated the words of my friends. I know about myself that I am not a priest, and nevertheless, if my friends say to me: Go up to the platform with the priests, I go up. And Rabbi Yosei said: In all my days I never said something and then retreated from it. Rabbi Yosei never said something positive or negative about a specific person and then denied it.

אמר רב נחמן תיתי לי דקיימית שלש סעודות בשבת אמר רב יהודה תיתי לי דקיימית עיון תפלה אמר רב הונא בריה דרב יהושע תיתי לי דלא סגינא ארבע אמות בגילוי הראש אמר רב ששת תיתי לי דקיימית מצות תפילין ואמר רב נחמן תיתי לי דקיימית מצות ציצית

Rav Naḥman said: May I receive my reward because I fulfilled the obligation to eat three meals on Shabbat magnificently. Rav Yehuda said: May I receive my reward because I fulfilled the obligation of consideration during prayer. Rav Huna, son of Rav Yehoshua, said: May I receive my reward because I never walked four cubits with my head uncovered. Rav Sheshet said: May I receive my reward because I fulfilled the mitzva of phylacteries magnificently. And Rav Naḥman said: May I receive my reward because I fulfilled the mitzva of ritual fringes magnificently.

אמר ליה רב יוסף לרב יוסף בריה דרבה אבוך במאי זהיר טפי אמר ליה בציצית יומא חד הוה קא סליק בדרגא איפסיק ליה חוטא ולא נחית ואתא כמה דלא רמיה ואמר אביי תיתי לי דכי חזינא צורבא מרבנן דשלים מסכתיה

Rav Yosef said to Rav Yosef, son of Rabba: In what area was your father, Rabba, especially vigilant? He said to him: It was in the mitzva of ritual fringes. The Gemara relates: One day he was climbing the stairs when a string from his ritual fringes was severed, and he would not descend until he placed a new string on the garment. And Abaye said: May I receive my reward because when I see a young Torah scholar who has completed a tractate that he studied

Masechet Shabbat is sponsored in memory of Elliot Freilich, Eliyahu Daniel ben Bar Tzion David Halevi z"l by a group of women from Kehilath Jeshurun, Manhattan.

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Shabbat 118

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Shabbat 118

מצילין מזון שלש סעודות מאי לאו דלא אכל לא דאכל שחרית מצילין מזון שתי סעודות מאי לאו דלא אכל לא דאכל במנחה מצילין מזון סעודה אחת מאי לאו דלא אכל לא דאכל

one rescues food for three meals. What, is this not referring to a situation where he has not yet eaten any meals? Apparently, one is obligated to eat only three meals on Shabbat. The Gemara rejects this: No, it is referring to a situation where one already ate one meal. Three meals still remain, in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Ḥidka, who requires four meals. The Gemara challenges this from the continuation of the mishna: If a fire ignited in the morning, one may only rescue food for two meals. What, is it not referring to a situation where one has not yet eaten one’s morning meal and the obligation is to eat only three meals, one at night and two during the day? The Gemara rejects this: No, it is referring to a situation where one has already eaten the morning meal. The Gemara challenges this from the continuation of the mishna: If a fire ignited in the afternoon, one may rescue food for one meal. What, is it not referring to a situation where one has not yet eaten the afternoon meal and the obligation is to eat only three meals? The Gemara rejects this: No, it is referring to a situation where one has already eaten.

והא מדקתני סיפא רבי יוסי אומר לעולם מצילין מזון שלש סעודות מכלל דתנא קמא שלש סבירא ליה אלא מחוורתא מתניתין דלא כרבי חידקא

The Gemara challenges this: From the fact that it is taught in the latter clause of the mishna: Rabbi Yosei says: One may always rescue food for three meals, by inference, even the first tanna holds that the obligation is to eat three meals, as there is no dispute with regard to the number of meals on Shabbat. Rather, it is clear that the mishna is not in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Ḥidka. According to the tanna’im in the mishna, one is obligated to eat three meals on Shabbat.

והא דתנן מי שיש לו מזון שתי סעודות לא יטול מן התמחוי מזון ארבע עשרה לא יטול מן הקופה מני לא רבנן ולא רבי חידקא אי רבנן חמסרי הויין אי רבי חידקא שית סרי הויין לעולם רבנן דאמרינן ליה מאי דבעית למיכל באפוקי שבתא אכליה בשבתא

And that which we learned in another mishna: One who has sufficient food for two meals in his possession may not take food from the charity plate that is distributed to the poor. He is not considered needy and would be taking food at the expense of people who are worse off than he. And one who has food for fourteen meals, enough meals for an entire week, may not take money from the charity fund. The Gemara asks: In accordance with whose opinion is this mishna? Apparently, it is neither in accordance with the opinion of the Rabbis nor in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Ḥidka. If it were in accordance with the opinion of the Rabbis, they maintain that they are fifteen meals that are eaten in a week, two each day, evening and morning, and three on Shabbat. If it were in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Ḥidka, they are sixteen meals that are eaten in a week, twelve during the six days of the week and four on Shabbat. The Gemara rejects this: Actually, the mishna is in accordance with the opinion of the Rabbis, but we say to him: That which you want to eat at the conclusion of Shabbat, Saturday night, eat it as the third meal on Shabbat.

לימא רבנן היא ולא רבי חידקא אפילו תימא רבי חידקא דאמרינן ליה מאי דבעית למיכל במעלי שבתא אכליה לאורתא וכולי יומא דמעלי שבתא בתעניתא מותבינן ליה אלא הא מני רבי עקיבא היא דאמר עשה שבתך חול ואל תצטרך לבריות

The Gemara asks: Let us say that this mishna is in accordance with the opinion of the Rabbis and not in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Ḥidka. The Gemara rejects that approach: Even if you say that it is in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Ḥidka, the mishna can be understood, as we can say to him: That which you want to eat on Shabbat eve, Friday afternoon, eat at night on Shabbat instead. The Gemara asks: And do we have a person sit and fast all day on Shabbat eve? According to this suggestion, he would not eat at all on Friday. Rather, we must say: In accordance with whose opinion is this mishna? It is in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Akiva, who said: Make your Shabbat like a weekday and do not be beholden to other beings. It is preferable to eat two meals on Shabbat as he does during the week if he can thereby avoid taking charity.

והא דתנן אין פוחתין לעני העובר ממקום למקום מככר בפונדיון מארבע סאין בסלע לן נותנין לו פרנסת לינה ואם שבת נותנין לו מזון שלש סעודות לימא רבנן היא ולא רבי חידקא לעולם רבי חידקא כגון דאיכא סעודה בהדיה דאמרינן ליה הא דאיכא בהדך אכליה וכי אזיל בריקן אזיל דמלווינן ליה סעודה בהדיה מאי פרנסת לינה אמר רב פפא פוריא ובי סדיא:

And that which we learned in another mishna: One gives no less charity to a poor person who is traveling from place to place than a loaf worth a pundeyon, one forty-eighth of a sela, when the standard price of grain is four se’a for a sela. If he sleeps there, one gives him money for sleeping; and if he spends Shabbat in that city, one gives him food for three meals. Let us say that is in accordance with the opinion of the Rabbis and not the opinion of Rabbi Ḥidka. The Gemara rejects this: Actually, it is in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Ḥidka. When it says that if the poor traveler spends Shabbat there one gives him food for three meals, it is referring to a case where there is one meal that he brought with him, for we say to him: This meal that you have with you, eat it. The Gemara is surprised at this: And when he goes, does he go empty-handed, with no food. The Gemara answers: We provide him a meal to accompany him when he leaves. The Gemara asks: What is the meaning of money for sleeping? Rav Pappa said: It means that one provides his sleeping needs, i.e., a bed and cushions.

תנו רבנן קערות שאכל בהן ערבית מדיחן לאכול בהן שחרית שחרית מדיחן לאכול בהן בצהרים בצהרים מדיחן לאכול בהן במנחה מן המנחה ואילך שוב אינו מדיח אבל כוסות וקיתוניות וצלוחיות מדיח והולך כל היום כולו לפי שאין קבע לשתיה

The Sages taught in a baraita: With regard to bowls from which one ate in the evening on Shabbat, he may rinse them in order to eat from them in the morning. Bowls from which one ate in the morning, he may rinse them to eat from them in the afternoon. Bowls from which one ate in the afternoon, he may rinse them to eat from them in the afternoon. However, from the afternoon onward, one may no longer rinse them because there is no further need for these bowls on Shabbat, and it is prohibited to make preparations on Shabbat for a weekday. However, with regard to cups, and ladles, and flasks, which are vessels used for drinking, one rinses them all day long because there is no fixed time for drinking, and one does not know when he will drink again.

אמר רבי שמעון בן פזי אמר רבי יהושע בן לוי משום בר קפרא כל המקיים שלש סעודות בשבת ניצול משלש פורעניות מחבלו של משיח ומדינה של גיהנם וממלחמת גוג ומגוג מחבלו של משיח כתיב הכא יום וכתיב התם הנה אנכי שולח לכם את אליה הנביא לפני בוא יום וגו׳ מדינה של גיהנם כתיב הכא יום וכתיב התם יום עברה היום ההוא ממלחמת גוג ומגוג כתיב הכא יום וכתיב התם ביום בא גוג

Rabbi Shimon ben Pazi said that Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi said in the name of bar Kappara: Anyone who fulfills the obligation to eat three meals on Shabbat is rescued from three punishments: From the pangs of the Messiah, i.e., the suffering that precedes the advent of Messiah, and from the judgment of Gehenna, and from the war of Gog and Magog. The Gemara derives that one is rescued from the pangs of Messiah by means of a verbal analogy. It is written here, with regard to Shabbat, day: “Eat it today” (Exodus 16:25). And it is written there, with regard to Messiah, day: “Behold, I am sending you Elijah the prophet before the coming of the great and awesome day of God” (Malachi 3:23). The Gemara derives that one is rescued from the judgment of Gehenna by means of a verbal analogy. It is written here, with regard to Shabbat, day, as cited above. And it is written there, day: “That day will be a day of wrath, a day of trouble and distress, a day of destruction and desolation, a day of darkness and blackness, a day of cloud and thick fog” (Zephaniah 1:15), which is interpreted as referring to the punishment of Gehenna. The Gemara derives that one is rescued from the war of Gog and Magog by means of a verbal analogy. It is written here, with regard to Shabbat, day. And it is written there, with regard to the War of Gog and Magog, day: “And it shall be on that day, on the day that Gog arrives on the land of Israel” (Ezekiel 38:18).

אמר רבי יוחנן משום רבי יוסי כל המענג את השבת נותנין לו נחלה בלי מצרים שנאמר אז תתענג על ה׳ והרכבתיך על במתי ארץ והאכלתיך

Rabbi Yoḥanan said in the name of Rabbi Yosei: With regard to anyone who delights in the Shabbat, God gives him a boundless portion, i.e., a very large reward, as it is stated: “If you keep your feet from violating Shabbat, from pursuing your affairs on My holy day, and you call Shabbat a delight, the Lord’s holy day honored, and you honor it by not going your own way, or attending to your own matters or speaking idle words. Then you shall delight in the Lord and I will cause you to ride on the heights of the world, and to feast

נחלת יעקב אביך וגו׳ לא כאברהם שכתוב בו קום התהלך בארץ לארכה וגו׳ ולא כיצחק שכתוב בו כי לך ולזרעך אתן את כל הארצות האל אלא כיעקב שכתוב בו ופרצת ימה וקדמה וצפונה ונגבה

on the inheritance of Jacob your father, as the mouth of God has spoken” (Isaiah 58:13–14). The reward for delighting in Shabbat is specifically the portion of Jacob. Not that of Abraham, about whom it is written, “Rise, walk through the land through its length and its width because I have given it to you” (Genesis 13:17), i.e., only this land alone in its borders. And not that of Isaac, about whom it is written, “Dwell in this land and I will be with you and I will bless you because I will give all of these lands to you and your offspring” (Genesis 26:3), meaning these lands and no others. Rather, that of Jacob, about whom it is written, “And your offspring will be like the dust of the earth, and you will spread out to the west and to the east and to the north and to the south, and all of the families of the land will be blessed through you and your offspring” (Genesis 28:14). There are no boundaries for Jacob’s portion.

רב נחמן בר יצחק אמר ניצול משעבוד גליות כתיב הכא והרכבתיך על במתי ארץ וכתיב התם ואתה על במותימו תדרוך אמר רב יהודה אמר רב כל המענג את השבת נותנין לו משאלות לבו שנאמר והתענג על ה׳ ויתן לך משאלות לבך עונג זה איני יודע מהו כשהוא אומר וקראת לשבת עונג הוי אומר זה עונג שבת במה מענגו רב יהודה בריה דרב שמואל בר שילת משמיה דרב אמר בתבשיל של תרדין ודגים גדולים וראשי שומין רב חייא בר אשי אמר רב אפילו דבר מועט ולכבוד שבת עשאו הרי זה עונג מאי היא אמר רב פפא כסא דהרסנא

Rav Naḥman bar Yitzḥak said: One who delights in Shabbat is rescued from the oppression of exile. He derives it by means of a verbal analogy. It is written here, with regard to Shabbat: “And I will cause you to ride on the heights [bamotei] of the world” (Isaiah 58:14), and it is written there: “You are fortunate Israel, who is like you? A nation redeemed by God, the shield that aids you and the sword of your triumph. Your enemies will try to defeat you and you will trample their high places [bamoteimo]” (Deuteronomy 33:29). Rav Yehuda said that Rav said: With regard to anyone who delights in the Shabbat, God grants him his heart’s desires, as it is stated: “And you shall delight in God and He will grant you your heart’s desires” (Psalms 37:4). This delight in God, which is mentioned in the verse, I do not know what it is. When it says: “And you shall call the Shabbat delight,” one must say: It is the delight of Shabbat. The Gemara asks: With what does one delight in the day of Shabbat? Rav Yehuda, son of Rav Shmuel bar Sheilat, said in the name of Rav: With a dish of beets, and large fish, and heads of garlic. Rav Ḥiyya bar Ashi said that Rav said: Even with regard to a small item and one prepared it in deference to Shabbat, it is a delight. The Gemara asks: What is the small item mentioned? Rav Pappa said: Small fried fish.

אמר רבי חייא בר אבא אמר רבי יוחנן כל המשמר שבת כהלכתו אפילו עובד עבודה זרה [כדור] אנוש מוחלין לו שנאמר אשרי אנוש יעשה זאת וגו׳ מחללו אל תקרי מחללו אלא מחול לו

Rabbi Ḥiyya bar Abba said that Rabbi Yoḥanan said: With regard to anyone who observes Shabbat in accordance with its halakhot, even if he worships idolatry as in the generation of Enosh, God forgives him his sins, as it is stated: “Fortunate is the man [enosh] who does this and the person who holds strong to it, one who guards the Shabbat from desecrating it [meḥallelo], and guards his hand from doing any evil” (Isaiah 56:2). Do not read it as: From desecrating it [meḥallelo], but rather: He is forgiven [maḥul lo]. With regard to the generation of Enosh it is written: “And to Seth, to him also there was born a son; and he called his name Enosh. Then they began [huḥal] to call upon the Name of God” (Genesis 4:26), meaning to desecrate [leḥallel] His name.

אמר רב יהודה אמר רב אלמלי שמרו ישראל שבת ראשונה לא שלטה בהן אומה ולשון שנאמר ויהי ביום השביעי יצאו מן העם ללקוט וכתיב בתריה ויבא עמלק אמר רבי יוחנן משום רבי שמעון בן יוחי אלמלי משמרין ישראל שתי שבתות כהלכתן מיד נגאלים שנאמר כה אמר ה׳ לסריסים אשר ישמרו את שבתותי וכתיב בתריה והביאותים אל הר קדשי וגו׳

Rav Yehuda said that Rav said: Had the Jewish people properly observed the first Shabbat that was commanded them, no nation or tongue would have ever ruled them, as it is stated: “And it happened on the seventh day, some people went out from the nation to collect and they did not find” (Exodus 16:27). And it is written after they went out to collect manna: “And Amalek came and fought with Israel in Refidim” (Exodus 17:8). Rabbi Yoḥanan said in the name of Rabbi Shimon ben Yoḥai: If only the Jewish people would keep two Shabbatot in accordance with their halakhot, they would be immediately redeemed, as it is stated: “So said God to the eunuchs who will keep My Shabbatot” (Isaiah 56:4), and it is written after that: “And I will bring them to My holy mountain and will let them rejoice in My house of prayer” (Isaiah 56:7).

אמר רבי יוסי יהא חלקי מאוכלי שלש סעודות בשבת אמר רבי יוסי יהא חלקי מגומרי הלל בכל יום איני והאמר מר הקורא הלל בכל יום הרי זה מחרף ומגדף כי קאמרינן בפסוקי דזמרא

Rabbi Yosei said: May my portion be among those who eat three meals on Shabbat. Apropos this statement of Rabbi Yosei, the Gemara cites additional declarations. Rabbi Yosei said: May my portion be among those who complete hallel every day. The Gemara is surprised at this: Is that so? Didn’t the Master say: One who reads hallel every day is tantamount to one who curses and blasphemes God. He displays contempt for hallel by not reserving it for days on which miracles occurred. The Gemara answers: When we say this statement of Rabbi Yosei, we are referring to the verses of praise [pesukei dezimra], recited during the morning service, not to hallel (Psalms 113–118) recited on special days.

אמר רבי יוסי יהא חלקי ממתפללים עם דמדומי חמה אמר רבי חייא בר אבא אמר רבי יוחנן מצוה להתפלל עם דמדומי חמה אמר רבי זירא מאי קרא ייראוך עם שמש ולפני ירח דור דורים

And furthermore, Rabbi Yosei said: May my portion be among those who pray the morning and afternoon prayers with the reddening of the sun, i.e., the morning prayer at sunrise and the afternoon prayer adjacent to nightfall. Rabbi Ḥiyya bar Abba said that Rabbi Yoḥanan said: It is a mitzva to pray with the reddening of the sun. Rabbi Zeira said: What verse alludes to this? “They will fear You with the sun and before the moon, generation upon generation” (Psalms 72:5). Fear of God, prayer, should be with the sun and before the moon.

ואמר רבי יוסי יהא חלקי ממתי בחולי מעיים דאמר מר רובן של צדיקים מתים בחולי מעיים ואמר רבי יוסי יהא חלקי ממתי בדרך מצוה ואמר רבי יוסי יהא חלקי ממכניסי שבת בטבריא וממוציאי שבת בצפורי ואמר רבי יוסי יהא חלקי ממושיבי בית המדרש ולא ממעמידי בית המדרש

And Rabbi Yosei said: May my portion be among those who die from intestinal disease, as the Master said: Most righteous people die of intestinal disease. It is a very harsh disease through which the sins of righteous people are cleansed before their death and also, as a result, they die with a clean body. And Rabbi Yosei said: May my portion be among those who die on the path to perform a mitzva. And Rabbi Yosei said: May my portion be among those who accept Shabbat in Tiberias, which is in a valley where day turns to evening earlier, and among those who see Shabbat out in Tzippori, which is located on a mountain top where the sun is visible for longer, and Shabbat ends later. And Rabbi Yosei said: May my portion be among those who seat others in the study hall, i.e., who cause others to come sit and study, and not among those who cause others to stand in the study hall, i.e., who announce that it is time to leave the study hall and go to eat.

ואמר רבי יוסי יהא חלקי מגבאי צדקה ולא ממחלקי צדקה ואמר רבי יוסי יהא חלקי ממי שחושדין אותו ואין בו אמר רב פפא לדידי חשדן ולא הוה בי

And Rabbi Yosei said: May my portion be among the collectors of charity and not the distributors of charity. One who collects charity collects fixed amounts, whereas distributors may inadvertently fail to give the poor person enough to cover his needs. And Rabbi Yosei said: May my portion be with one whom others suspect of sin and there is no basis for suspecting him. Rav Pappa said: They suspected me, and there was no basis for suspecting me.

אמר רבי יוסי חמש בעילות בעלתי ונטעתי חמשה ארזים בישראל ומאן אינון רבי ישמעאל ברבי יוסי ורבי אלעזר ברבי יוסי ורבי חלפתא ברבי יוסי ורבי אבטילס ברבי יוסי ורבי מנחם ברבי יוסי והאיכא ורדימס היינו ורדימס היינו מנחם ואמאי קרי ליה ורדימס שפניו דומין לורד למימרא דרבי יוסי מצות עונה לא קיים אלא אימא חמש בעילות בעלתי ושניתי

Furthermore, Rabbi Yosei said: I engaged in relations five times, and I planted five cedars in Eretz Yisrael. And who are these cedars? The sons of Rabbi Yosei, who were great Sages of Israel: Rabbi Yishmael, son of Rabbi Yosei, and Rabbi Elazar, son of Rabbi Yosei, and Rabbi Ḥalafta, son of Rabbi Yosei, and Rabbi Avtilas, son of Rabbi Yosei, and Rabbi Menaḥem, son of Rabbi Yosei. The Gemara asks: Isn’t there Vardimas, who was also Rabbi Yosei’s son? The Gemara answers: Vardimas is the same as Menaḥem. And why did they call him Vardimas? Because his face was as beautiful as a rose [vered]. The Gemara asks: Is that to say based on this statement that Rabbi Yosei did not fulfill the mitzva of his wife’s conjugal rights, but only had relations with her five times? Rather, say it this way: I engaged in relations five times and I did so again, and the Sages said that one who seeks to father male offspring should engage in relations and do so again.

אמר רבי יוסי מימי לא קריתי לאשתי אשתי ולשורי שורי אלא לאשתי ביתי ולשורי שדי

Furthermore, Rabbi Yosei said that he always spoke euphemistically: In all my days, I did not call my wife, my wife, nor my ox, my ox. Rather, I called my wife, my home, because she is the essence of the home, and my ox, my field, because it is the primary force in the fields.

אמר רבי יוסי מימי לא נסתכלתי במילה שלי איני והאמרו ליה לרבי מאי טעמא קראו לך רבינו הקדוש אמר להו מימי לא נסתכלתי במילה שלי ברבי מילתא אחריתי הוה ביה שלא הכניס ידו תחת אבנטו ואמר רבי יוסי מימי לא ראו קורות ביתי אימרי חלוקי

Rabbi Yosei said: In all my days, due to modesty, I never looked at my circumcision. The Gemara asks: Is that so? Didn’t they say to Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi: Why did they call you our holy Rabbi? He said to them: It is because in all my days I never looked at my circumcision. If so, why wasn’t Rabbi Yosei also called our holy Rabbi? The Gemara replies: In the case of Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi, another matter of modesty was present in him, as he did not insert his hand below his belt due to his great modesty. And Rabbi Yosei said: In all my days, the walls of my house never saw the seams of my robe due to modesty, as he would only undress under his bed sheets.

ואמר רבי יוסי מימי לא עברתי על דברי חברי יודע אני בעצמי שאיני כהן אם אומרים לי חבירי עלה לדוכן אני עולה ואמר רבי יוסי מימי לא אמרתי דבר וחזרתי לאחורי

And Rabbi Yosei said: In all my days I never violated the words of my friends. I know about myself that I am not a priest, and nevertheless, if my friends say to me: Go up to the platform with the priests, I go up. And Rabbi Yosei said: In all my days I never said something and then retreated from it. Rabbi Yosei never said something positive or negative about a specific person and then denied it.

אמר רב נחמן תיתי לי דקיימית שלש סעודות בשבת אמר רב יהודה תיתי לי דקיימית עיון תפלה אמר רב הונא בריה דרב יהושע תיתי לי דלא סגינא ארבע אמות בגילוי הראש אמר רב ששת תיתי לי דקיימית מצות תפילין ואמר רב נחמן תיתי לי דקיימית מצות ציצית

Rav Naḥman said: May I receive my reward because I fulfilled the obligation to eat three meals on Shabbat magnificently. Rav Yehuda said: May I receive my reward because I fulfilled the obligation of consideration during prayer. Rav Huna, son of Rav Yehoshua, said: May I receive my reward because I never walked four cubits with my head uncovered. Rav Sheshet said: May I receive my reward because I fulfilled the mitzva of phylacteries magnificently. And Rav Naḥman said: May I receive my reward because I fulfilled the mitzva of ritual fringes magnificently.

אמר ליה רב יוסף לרב יוסף בריה דרבה אבוך במאי זהיר טפי אמר ליה בציצית יומא חד הוה קא סליק בדרגא איפסיק ליה חוטא ולא נחית ואתא כמה דלא רמיה ואמר אביי תיתי לי דכי חזינא צורבא מרבנן דשלים מסכתיה

Rav Yosef said to Rav Yosef, son of Rabba: In what area was your father, Rabba, especially vigilant? He said to him: It was in the mitzva of ritual fringes. The Gemara relates: One day he was climbing the stairs when a string from his ritual fringes was severed, and he would not descend until he placed a new string on the garment. And Abaye said: May I receive my reward because when I see a young Torah scholar who has completed a tractate that he studied

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