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Today's Daf Yomi

July 12, 2020 | ื›ืณ ื‘ืชืžื•ื– ืชืฉืดืค

Masechet Shabbat is sponsored in memory of Elliot Freilich, Eliyahu Daniel ben Bar Tzion David Halevi z"l by a group of women from Kehilath Jeshurun, Manhattan.

  • This month's learning is dedicated by Debbie and Yossi Gevir to Rabbanit Michelle and the Hadran Zoom group for their kindness, support, and care during a medically challenging year.

Shabbat 128

The gemara goes through all the cases in the mishna regarding items in the storehouse that are considered muktze that one is not allowed to move. All of the cases seem obvious that they are muktze so what is the mishna trying to tell us? If there are food items that are worthy for animals that only rich people have, can one carry them or not? Do we view all of us as if we are like “sons of kings”? Can one carry meat that is unsalted on Shabbat? What about unsalted fish? What actions are allowed to be performed for animals if it is to prevent financial loss or prevent the animal from suffering? How can one help an animal (who is considered muktze) to return home – what type of help is allowed – pushing only or actually helping to walk? Why are the rules for hens different than for other animals/birds? What about a child? Preventing animals from suffering, tzaar baalei chayim, is a Torah law – what is the source? And because if that, is can override a rabbinic law. What can be done to help an animal giving birth on Shabbat? What can be done to help a woman giving birth? A midwife is allowed to travel from far to help with the birth? How else can one desecrate Shabbat on her behalf?

ืื‘ืœ ืœื ืืช ื”ื˜ื‘ืœ ื•ื›ื•ืณ: ืคืฉื™ื˜ื ืœื ืฆืจื™ื›ื ื‘ื˜ื‘ืœ ื˜ื‘ื•ืœ ืžื“ืจื‘ื ืŸ ืฉื–ืจืขื• ื‘ืขืฆื™ืฅ ืฉืื™ื ื• ื ืงื•ื‘:

We learned in the mishna: However, one may not move untithed produce on Shabbat. The Gemara asks: This is obvious. The Gemara answers: It was only necessary to teach this halakha with regard to a case in which the produce is permitted by Torah law, but is considered untithed produce only by rabbinic law. What are the circumstances? It is referring to a case where the produce grew in an unperforated flowerpot. The legal status of produce that grows in an unperforated flowerpot is not like that of produce that grows in the ground.

ื•ืœื ืžืขืฉืจ ืจืืฉื•ืŸ ื•ื›ื•ืณ: ืคืฉื™ื˜ื ืœื ืฆืจื™ื›ื ืฉื”ืงื“ื™ืžื• ื‘ื›ืจื™ ืฉื ื˜ืœ ืžืžื ื• ืžืขืฉืจ ื•ืœื ื ื˜ืœื” ืžืžื ื• ืชืจื•ืžื” ื’ื“ื•ืœื” ืžื”ื• ื“ืชื™ืžื ื›ื“ืืžืจ ืœื™ื” ืจื‘ ืคืคื ืœืื‘ื™ื™ ืงื ืžืฉืžืข ืœืŸ ื›ื“ืฉื ื™ ืœื™ื” ืื‘ื™ื™:

We learned in the mishna: Nor may one move first tithe from which teruma has not been taken. The Gemara asks: This is obvious. The Gemara answers: It was only necessary for the mishna to teach this halakha for a case in which the Levite preceded the priest after the kernels of grain were placed in a pile, where first tithe was taken and teruma gedola was not taken. Lest you say concerning this case, as Rav Pappa said to Abaye, here too, the produce should be exempt from the obligation to separate teruma gedola, the tanna of the mishna teaches us as Abaye responded to Rav Pappa: There is a difference between the case in which the grain was on the stalks and the case in which the grain was in a pile.

ื•ืœื ืืช ืžืขืฉืจ ืฉื ื™ ื•ื›ื•ืณ: ืคืฉื™ื˜ื ืœื ืฆืจื™ื›ื ื“ื ืคื“ื• ื•ืœื ื ืคื“ื• ื›ื”ืœื›ืชืŸ ืžืขืฉืจ ืฉืคื“ืื• ืขืœ ื’ื‘ื™ ืืกื™ืžื•ืŸ ื“ืจื—ืžื ื ืืžืจ ื•ืฆืจืช ื”ื›ืกืฃ ื‘ื™ื“ืš ื“ื‘ืจ ืฉื™ืฉ ื‘ื• ืฆื•ืจื” ื”ืงื“ืฉ ืฉื—ื™ืœืœื• ืขืœ ื’ื‘ื™ ืงืจืงืข ื“ืจื—ืžื ื ืืžืจ ื•ื ืชืŸ ื”ื›ืกืฃ ื•ืงื ืœื•:

We learned in the mishna: Nor may one move second tithe and consecrated items that were not redeemed. The Gemara asks: This is obvious. It was only necessary for the mishna to teach this halakha with regard to a case where they were redeemed but not redeemed properly. When the mishna lists the second tithe, it is referring to that which was redeemed with an unminted coin [asimon], i.e., a silver bullion that had not been engraved. And God, in the Torah, states in the case of second tithe: โ€œAnd bind up [vetzarta] the money in your handโ€ (Deuteronomy 14:25). The Sages interpreted this as follows: Vetzarta is money that has a form [tzura] engraved upon it. When the mishna lists consecrated property, it is referring to that which was redeemed by exchanging it for land instead of money. And God, in the Torah, states with regard to this: He will give the money โ€œand it will be assured to himโ€ (Leviticus 27:19). Money and not land may be used in redeeming consecrated property.

ื•ืœื ืืช ื”ืœื•ืฃ: ืชื ื• ืจื‘ื ืŸ ืžื˜ืœื˜ืœื™ืŸ ืืช ื”ื—ืฆื‘ ืžืคื ื™ ืฉื”ื•ื ืžืื›ืœ ืœืฆื‘ื™ื™ื ื•ืืช ื”ื—ืจื“ืœ ืžืคื ื™ ืฉื”ื•ื ืžืื›ืœ ืœื™ื•ื ื™ื ืจื‘ืŸ ืฉืžืขื•ืŸ ื‘ืŸ ื’ืžืœื™ืืœ ืื•ืžืจ ืืฃ ืžื˜ืœื˜ืœื™ืŸ ืฉื‘ืจื™ ื–ื›ื•ื›ื™ืช ืžืคื ื™ ืฉื”ื•ื ืžืื›ืœ ืœื ืขืžื™ื•ืช

We learned in the mishna: Nor may one move arum on Shabbat. The Sages taught in a Tosefta: One may move squill on Shabbat because it is food for deer and mustard because it is food for doves. Rabban Shimon ben Gamliel says: One may even move glass shards because they are food for ostriches.

ืืžืจ ืœื™ื” ืจื‘ื™ ื ืชืŸ ืืœื ืžืขืชื” ื—ื‘ื™ืœื™ ื–ืžื•ืจื•ืช ื™ื˜ืœื˜ืœื• ืžืคื ื™ ืฉื”ื•ื ืžืื›ืœ ืœืคื™ืœื™ืŸ ื•ืจื‘ืŸ ืฉืžืขื•ืŸ ื‘ืŸ ื’ืžืœื™ืืœ ื ืขืžื™ื•ืช ืฉื›ื™ื—ื™ ืคื™ืœื™ืŸ ืœื ืฉื›ื™ื—ื™

Rabbi Natan said to Rabban Shimon ben Gamliel: If that is so, even bundles of grapevines one should be permitted to move because they are food for elephants. The Gemara answers that Rabban Shimon ben Gamliel responded: Ostriches are common, whereas elephants are not common.

ืืžืจ ืืžื™ืžืจ ื•ื”ื•ื ื“ืื™ืช ืœื™ื” ื ืขืžื™ื•ืช ืืžืจ ืจื‘ ืืฉื™ ืœืืžื™ืžืจ ืืœื ื“ืงืืžืจ ืœื™ื” ืจื‘ื™ ื ืชืŸ ืœืจื‘ืŸ ืฉืžืขื•ืŸ ื‘ืŸ ื’ืžืœื™ืืœ ื—ื‘ื™ืœื™ ื–ืžื•ืจื•ืช ื™ื˜ืœื˜ืœ ืžืคื ื™ ืฉื”ื•ื ืžืื›ืœ ืœืคื™ืœื™ืŸ ืื™ ืื™ืช ืœื™ื” ืคื™ืœื™ืŸ ืืžืื™ ืœื ืืœื ืจืื•ื™ ื”ื›ื ื ืžื™ ืจืื•ื™

Ameimar said: And Rabban Shimon ben Gamliel permits moving glass shards only in a case where one has ostriches. Rav Ashi said to Ameimar: However, with regard to that which Rabbi Natan said to Rabban Shimon ben Gamliel: If that is so, even bundles of grapevines one should be permitted to move because they are food for elephants. If one has elephants, why would he not feed them? The relevant criterion to permit moving the animal food is not whether or not one owns an elephant, but rather whether or not the food is suitable as food for elephants. Here too, in the case of glass shards, the criterion is whether or not they are suitable as food for ostriches, not whether or not one owns an ostrich.

ืืžืจ ืื‘ื™ื™ ืจื‘ืŸ ืฉืžืขื•ืŸ ื‘ืŸ ื’ืžืœื™ืืœ ื•ืจื‘ื™ ืฉืžืขื•ืŸ ื•ืจื‘ื™ ื™ืฉืžืขืืœ ื•ืจื‘ื™ ืขืงื™ื‘ื ื›ื•ืœื”ื• ืกื‘ื™ืจื ืœื”ื• ื›ืœ ื™ืฉืจืืœ ื‘ื ื™ ืžืœื›ื™ื ื”ื

Abaye said: Rabban Shimon ben Gamliel, Rabbi Shimon, Rabbi Yishmael, and Rabbi Akiva all hold that all Jewish people are princes. There is nothing that is unsuitable for them due to its extravagance. How do we know that all of them hold this position?

ืจื‘ืŸ ืฉืžืขื•ืŸ ื‘ืŸ ื’ืžืœื™ืืœ ื”ื ื“ืืžืจืŸ

Rabban Shimon ben Gamliel: From that which we said in the mishna, that it is permitted to move arum, this is because arum is food for ravens, and it is as if every Jew owns ravens.

ืจื‘ื™ ืฉืžืขื•ืŸ ื“ืชื ืŸ ื‘ื ื™ ืžืœื›ื™ื ืกื›ื™ืŸ ืขืœ ื’ื‘ื™ ืžื›ื•ืชื™ื”ืŸ ืฉืžืŸ ื•ื•ืจื“ ืฉื›ืŸ ื“ืจื›ืŸ ืฉืœ ื‘ื ื™ ืžืœื›ื™ื ืœืกื•ืš ื‘ื—ื•ืœ ืจื‘ื™ ืฉืžืขื•ืŸ ืื•ืžืจ ื›ืœ ื™ืฉืจืืœ ื‘ื ื™ ืžืœื›ื™ื ื”ื

Rabbi Shimon: As we learned in a mishna: Princes may smear rose oil on their wounds on Shabbat, as it is the way of princes to smear it on during the week, even without the purpose of healing a wound. Rabbi Shimon says: All the Jewish people are princes, and it is permitted for them to smear themselves with rose oil on Shabbat.

ืจื‘ื™ ื™ืฉืžืขืืœ ื•ืจื‘ื™ ืขืงื™ื‘ื ื“ืชื ื™ื ื”ืจื™ ืฉื”ื™ื• ื ื•ืฉื™ืŸ ื‘ื• ืืœืฃ ืžื ื” ื•ืœื‘ื•ืฉ ืื™ืฆื˜ืœื ื‘ืช ืžืื” ืžื ื” ืžืคืฉื™ื˜ื™ืŸ ืื•ืชื• ื•ืžืœื‘ื™ืฉื™ืŸ ืื•ืชื• ืื™ืฆื˜ืœื ื”ืจืื•ื™ื” ืœื• ืชื ื ืžืฉื•ื ืจื‘ื™ ื™ืฉืžืขืืœ ื•ืชื ื ืžืฉื•ื ืจื‘ื™ ืขืงื™ื‘ื ื›ืœ ื™ืฉืจืืœ ืจืื•ื™ืŸ ืœืื•ืชื” ืื™ืฆื˜ืœื:

Rabbi Yishmael and Rabbi Akiva: From that which was taught in a baraita: One from whom his creditors were demanding repayment of a debt of a thousand times one hundred dinar [maneh] and he was wearing a cloak [itztela] worth one hundred times one hundred dinar, they strip him of that cloak and sell it, and dress him with a cloak worthy of him based on his wealth. It was taught in the name of Rabbi Yishmael, and it was taught in the name of Rabbi Akiva: All the Jewish people are worthy of that more expensive cloak, and it cannot be said that one is unworthy of it. Rather, the coat is treated like any other vital garment. The principle that one need not sell his vital garments to pay off a debt applies to it.

ื—ื‘ื™ืœื™ ืงืฉ ื•ื—ื‘ื™ืœื™ ื›ื•ืณ: ืชื ื• ืจื‘ื ืŸ ื—ื‘ื™ืœื™ ืงืฉ ื•ื—ื‘ื™ืœื™ ืขืฆื™ื ื•ื—ื‘ื™ืœื™ ื–ืจื“ื™ื ืื ื”ืชืงื™ื ืŸ ืœืžืื›ืœ ื‘ื”ืžื” ืžื˜ืœื˜ืœื™ืŸ ืื•ืชืŸ ื•ืื ืœืื• ืื™ืŸ ืžื˜ืœื˜ืœื™ืŸ ืื•ืชืŸ ืจื‘ืŸ ืฉืžืขื•ืŸ ื‘ืŸ ื’ืžืœื™ืืœ ืื•ืžืจ ื—ื‘ื™ืœื™ืŸ ื”ื ื™ื˜ืœื™ืŸ ื‘ื™ื“ ืื—ื“ ืžื•ืชืจ ืœื˜ืœื˜ืœืŸ ื‘ืฉืชื™ ื™ื“ื™ื ืืกื•ืจ ืœื˜ืœื˜ืœืŸ

We learned in the mishna: With regard to bundles of straw, and bundles of wood, and bundles of twigs, if one prepared them on Shabbat eve for animal food, one may move them. If not, one may not move them. The Sages taught in a Tosefta: With regard to bundles of straw, and bundles of wood, and bundles of twigs, if one prepared them on Shabbat eve for animal food, one may move them. And if not, one may not move them. Rabban Shimon ben Gamliel says: Bundles that are taken in one hand, it is permitted to move them, as no exertion is involved. However, if they can only be taken in two hands, it is prohibited to move them.

ื—ื‘ื™ืœื™ ืกื™ืื” ืื–ื•ื‘ ื•ืงื•ืจื ื™ืช ื”ื›ื ื™ืกืŸ ืœืขืฆื™ื ืื™ืŸ ืžืกืชืคืง ืžื”ืŸ ื‘ืฉื‘ืช ืœืžืื›ืœ ื‘ื”ืžื” ืžืกืชืคืง ืžื”ืŸ ื‘ืฉื‘ืช

With regard to bundles of savory, hyssop, and thyme, fragrant plants suitable as food for people, if one brought them in for use as firewood, he may not supply himself from them on Shabbat for food. If he brought them in for use as food for animals, he too may supply himself from them on Shabbat.

ื•ืงื•ื˜ื ื‘ื™ื“ ื•ืื•ื›ืœ ื•ื‘ืœื‘ื“ ืฉืœื ื™ืงื˜ื•ื ื‘ื›ืœื™ ื•ืžื•ืœืœ ื•ืื•ื›ืœ ื•ื‘ืœื‘ื“ ืฉืœื ื™ืžืœื•ืœ ื‘ื›ืœื™ ื”ืจื‘ื” ื“ื‘ืจื™ ืจื‘ื™ ื™ื”ื•ื“ื” ื•ื—ื›ืžื™ื ืื•ืžืจื™ื ืžื•ืœืœ ื‘ืจืืฉื™ ืืฆื‘ืขื•ืชื™ื• ื•ืื•ื›ืœ ื•ื‘ืœื‘ื“ ืฉืœื ื™ืžืœื•ืœ ื‘ื™ื“ื• ื”ืจื‘ื” ื›ื“ืจืš ืฉื”ื•ื ืขื•ืฉื” ื‘ื—ื•ืœ

And one may pick them with his hand and eat, as long as he does not pick them with a vessel. And one may crush and remove the seeds with his hand and eat them, as long as he does not crush a lot with a vessel; this is the statement of Rabbi Yehuda. And the Rabbis say: One may crush them only with the ends of his fingers, in an atypical manner, as long as he does not crush a lot with his hand in the manner that he does during the week.

ื•ื›ืŸ ื‘ืืžื™ืชื ื•ื›ืŸ ื‘ืคื™ื’ื ื•ื›ืŸ ื‘ืฉืืจ ืžื™ื ื™ ืชื‘ืœื™ืŸ ืžืื™ ืืžื™ืชื ื ื™ื ื™ื ืกื™ืื” ืืžืจ ืจื‘ ื™ื”ื•ื“ื” (ืกื™ืื”) ืฆืชืจื™ ืื–ื•ื‘ ืื‘ืจืชื ืงื•ืจื ื™ืช ืงื•ืจื ื™ืชื ืฉืžื”

And that too is the halakha with regard to amita, and with regard to rue [peigam], and with regard to all the other types of spices. The Sages asked: What is amita? They answered: It is mint [ninya]. What is sia? Rav Yehuda says: Sia is savory. Ezov is hyssop. Koranit is called koranita, i.e., it is not known to us by any other name.

ื•ื”ื ื”ื”ื•ื ื“ืืžืจ ืœื”ื• ืžืืŸ ื‘ืขื™ ืงื•ืจื ื™ืชื ื•ืื™ืฉืชื›ื— ื—ืฉื™ ืืœื ืกื™ืื” ืฆืชืจื™ ืื–ื•ื‘ ืื‘ืจืชื ืงื•ืจื ื™ืชื ื—ืฉื™:

The Gemara asks: The one who came to sell and said to them: Who wants koranita? And he was found to be selling thyme. Therefore, we see that koranita is in fact a plant that is known to us. Rather, it should be explained: Sia is savory, ezov is hyssop, and koranita is thyme.

ืื™ืชืžืจ ื‘ืฉืจ ืžืœื™ื— ืžื•ืชืจ ืœื˜ืœื˜ืœื• ื‘ืฉื‘ืช ื‘ืฉืจ ืชืคืœ ืจื‘ ื”ื•ื ื ืืžืจ ืžื•ืชืจ ืœื˜ืœื˜ืœื• ืจื‘ ื—ืกื“ื ืืžืจ ืืกื•ืจ ืœื˜ืœื˜ืœื•

It was stated: It is permitted to move salted meat on Shabbat, as it is fit for consumption. With regard to unsalted meat, Rav Huna said: It is permitted to move it. Rav แธคisda said: It is prohibited to move it.

ืจื‘ ื”ื•ื ื ืืžืจ ืžื•ืชืจ ืœื˜ืœื˜ืœื• ื•ื”ื ืจื‘ ื”ื•ื ื ืชืœืžื™ื“ ื“ืจื‘ ื”ื•ื” ื•ืจื‘ ื›ืจื‘ื™ ื™ื”ื•ื“ื” ืกื‘ื™ืจื ืœื™ื” ื“ืื™ืช ืœื™ื” ืžื•ืงืฆื”

The Gemara asks: Did Rav Huna say that it is permitted to move it? Wasnโ€™t Rav Huna a student of Rav, and Rav holds in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Yehuda, who is of the opinion that there is a prohibition of set-aside for salted meat? How could Rav Huna disagree with the opinion of his teacher?

ื‘ืžื•ืงืฆื” ืœืื›ื™ืœื” ืกื‘ืจ ืœื” ื›ืจื‘ื™ ื™ื”ื•ื“ื” ื‘ืžื•ืงืฆื” ืœื˜ืœื˜ืœ ืกื‘ืจ ืœื” ื›ืจื‘ื™ ืฉืžืขื•ืŸ

The Gemara answers: With regard to a food item set aside from eating, Rav holds in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Yehuda, that it may not be eaten. With regard to an item set aside from moving, he holds in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Shimon, who is not of the opinion that there is a prohibition of set-aside, and moving it is permitted.

ืจื‘ ื—ืกื“ื ืืžืจ ืืกื•ืจ ืœื˜ืœื˜ืœื• ื•ื”ื ืจื‘ ื™ืฆื—ืง ื‘ืจ ืืžื™ ืื™ืงืœืข ืœื‘ื™ ืจื‘ ื—ืกื“ื ื•ื—ื–ื ื”ื”ื•ื ื‘ืจ ืื•ื•ื–ื ื“ื”ื•ื• ืงื ืžื˜ืœื˜ืœื• ืœื™ื” ืžืฉืžืฉื ืœื˜ื•ืœื ื•ืืžืจ ืจื‘ ื—ืกื“ื ื—ืกืจื•ืŸ ื›ื™ืก ืงื ื—ื–ื™ื ืŸ ื”ื›ื ืฉืื ื™ ื‘ืจ ืื•ื•ื–ื ื“ื—ื–ื™ ืœืื•ืžืฆื

Rav แธคisda said: It is prohibited to move unsalted meat on Shabbat. The Gemara asks: Didnโ€™t Rav Yitzแธฅak bar Ami happen to come to Rav แธคisdaโ€™s house, and he saw the meat of that duck? He saw that they were moving it from the sun to the shade so that it would not spoil. And Rav แธคisda said to the members of his household: We see a case of monetary loss here. One must make certain that the meat does not stay in the sun and spoil. Apparently, Rav แธคisda holds that it is permitted to move inedible meat. The Gemara answers: The meat of a duck is different, as it is fit to be eaten as raw meat.

ืชื ื• ืจื‘ื ืŸ ื“ื’ ืžืœื™ื— ืžื•ืชืจ ืœื˜ืœื˜ืœื• ื“ื’ ืชืคืœ ืืกื•ืจ ืœื˜ืœื˜ืœื• ื‘ืฉืจ ื‘ื™ืŸ ืชืคืœ ื•ื‘ื™ืŸ ืžืœื™ื— ืžื•ืชืจ ืœื˜ืœื˜ืœื• (ื•ืกืชืžื ื›ืจื‘ื™ ืฉืžืขื•ืŸ)

The Sages taught in a baraita: With regard to salted fish, it is permitted to move it on Shabbat. With regard to unsalted fish, it is prohibited to move it. Meat, both unsalted meat and salted meat, it is permitted to carry it. And this unattributed baraita is in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Shimon.

ืชื ื• ืจื‘ื ืŸ ืžื˜ืœื˜ืœื™ืŸ ืืช ื”ืขืฆืžื•ืช ืžืคื ื™ ืฉื”ื•ื ืžืื›ืœ ืœื›ืœื‘ื™ื

The Sages taught: One may move bones on Shabbat, because they are food for dogs.

ื‘ืฉืจ ืชืคื•ื— ืžืคื ื™ ืฉื”ื•ื ืžืื›ืœ ืœื—ื™ื” ืžื™ื ืžื’ื•ืœื™ืŸ ืžืคื ื™ ืฉื”ืŸ ืจืื•ื™ื™ืŸ ืœื—ืชื•ืœ ืจื‘ืŸ ืฉืžืขื•ืŸ ื‘ืŸ ื’ืžืœื™ืืœ ืื•ืžืจ ื›ืœ ืขืฆืžืŸ ืืกื•ืจ ืœืฉื”ื•ืชืŸ ืžืคื ื™ ื”ืกื›ื ื”:

With regard to swollen meat that began to putrefy, it is permitted to move it because it is food for non-domesticated animals. With regard to exposed water, from which a snake might have drunk and into which it injected its venom, it is permitted to move it because it is suitable for a cat, which is somewhat immune to snake venom. Rabban Shimon ben Gamliel says: Exposed water itself may not be kept due to the danger that one may inadvertently drink it.

ืžืชื ื™ืณ ื›ื•ืคื™ืŸ ืืช ื”ืกืœ ืœืคื ื™ ื”ืืคืจื•ื—ื™ื ื›ื“ื™ ืฉื™ืขืœื• ื•ื™ืจื“ื• ืชืจื ื’ื•ืœืช ืฉื‘ืจื—ื” ื“ื•ื—ื™ืŸ ืื•ืชื” ืขื“ ืฉืชื›ื ืก

MISHNA: One may overturn a basket in front of the chicks so that they can climb on and climb off of it. Likewise, with regard to a hen that fled that one seeks to retrieve, one may push it even with his hands until it reenters the house.

ืžื“ื“ื™ืŸ ืขื’ืœื™ืŸ ื•ืกื™ื™ื—ื™ืŸ ืืฉื” ืžื“ื“ื” ืืช ื‘ื ื” ืืžืจ ืจื‘ื™ ื™ื”ื•ื“ื” ืื™ืžืชื™ ื‘ื–ืžืŸ ืฉื”ื•ื ื ื•ื˜ืœ ืื—ืช ื•ืžื ื™ื— ืื—ืช ืื‘ืœ ืื ื”ื™ื” ื’ื•ืจืจ ืืกื•ืจ:

One may help calves and foals to walk, and likewise a woman may help her son to walk. Rabbi Yehuda said: When is it permitted? When her son picks one foot up and puts one foot down by himself. However, if her son were dragging both his feet, it would be prohibited because it would be like carrying him in the public domain.

ื’ืžืณ ืืžืจ ืจื‘ ื™ื”ื•ื“ื” ืืžืจ ืจื‘ ื‘ื”ืžื” ืฉื ืคืœื” ืœืืžืช ื”ืžื™ื ืžื‘ื™ื ื›ืจื™ื ื•ื›ืกืชื•ืช ื•ืžื ื™ื— ืชื—ืชื™ื” ื•ืื ืขืœืชื” ืขืœืชื”

GEMARA: Rav Yehuda said that Rav said: With regard to an animal that fell into an aqueduct, one brings cushions and blankets, and throws them into the water ditch, and places them beneath the animal in the aqueduct. And if the animal thereby emerges, it emerges.

ืžื™ืชื™ื‘ื™ ื‘ื”ืžื” ืฉื ืคืœื” ืœืืžืช ื”ืžื™ื ืขื•ืฉื” ืœื” ืคืจื ืกื” ื‘ืžืงื•ืžื” ื‘ืฉื‘ื™ืœ ืฉืœื ืชืžื•ืช ืคืจื ืกื” ืื™ืŸ ื›ืจื™ื ื•ื›ืกืชื•ืช ืœื

The Gemara raises an objection from a Tosefta: With regard to an animal that fell into an aqueduct on Shabbat, one provides it with sustenance in its place so that it will not die. This implies that providing it with sustenance, yes, that is permitted, providing it with cushions and blankets, no, that it is prohibited.

ืœื ืงืฉื™ื ื”ื ื“ืืคืฉืจ ื‘ืคืจื ืกื” ื”ื ื“ืื™ ืืคืฉืจ ื‘ืคืจื ืกื” ืืคืฉืจ ื‘ืคืจื ืกื” ืื™ืŸ ื•ืื™ ืœื ืžื‘ื™ื ื›ืจื™ื ื•ื›ืกืชื•ืช ื•ืžื ื™ื— ืชื—ืชื™ื”

The Gemara answers: This is not difficult, as there is room to distinguish between the cases. This, the Tosefta in which it was taught that one provides the animal with sustenance, is referring to a case where it is possible to provide it with sustenance. That, the mishna in which Rav said that one brings cushions and blankets, is referring to a case where it is impossible to provide it with sustenance. Where it is possible to provide it with sustenance, yes, he does so. And if it is not possible to provide it with sustenance, he brings cushions and blankets and places them beneath the animal.

ื•ื”ื ืงื ืžื‘ื˜ืœ ื›ืœื™ ืžื”ื™ื›ื ื• ืกื‘ืจ ืžื‘ื˜ืœ ื›ืœื™ ืžื”ื™ื›ื ื• ื“ืจื‘ื ืŸ ืฆืขืจ ื‘ืขืœื™ ื—ื™ื™ื ื“ืื•ืจื™ื™ืชื ื•ืืชื™ ื“ืื•ืจื™ื™ืชื ื•ื“ื—ื™ ื“ืจื‘ื ืŸ:

The Gemara asks: Does he not, by placing the cushions and blankets, negate a vesselโ€™s preparedness? The cushions and blankets are no longer fit for their designated use on Shabbat, and this negation of their designated use is similar to the prohibited labor of dismantling. The Gemara answers: Rav holds that negating a vesselโ€™s preparedness is prohibited by rabbinic law. Causing a living creature to suffer is a Torah prohibition. And a matter prohibited by Torah law comes and overrides a matter prohibited by rabbinic law.

ืชืจื ื’ื•ืœืช ืฉื‘ืจื—ื” ื•ื›ื•ืณ: ื“ื•ื—ื™ืŸ ืื™ืŸ ืžื“ื“ื™ืŸ ืœื ืชื ื™ื ื ืœื”ื ื“ืชื ื• ืจื‘ื ืŸ ืžื“ื“ื™ืŸ ื‘ื”ืžื” ื—ื™ื” ื•ืขื•ืฃ ื‘ื—ืฆืจ ืื‘ืœ ืœื ืืช ื”ืชืจื ื’ื•ืœืช

We learned in the mishna: With regard to a hen that fled that one seeks to retrieve, he may push it back to its place. By inference: Push the hen, yes, it is permitted, help it to walk, no, it is prohibited. The Gemara comments: We already learned this, as the Sages taught: One may help domesticated animals, non-domesticated animals, and fowl walk in the courtyard on Shabbat, but not hens.

ืชืจื ื’ื•ืœืช ืžืื™ ื˜ืขืžื ืœื ืืžืจ ืื‘ื™ื™ ืžืฉื•ื ื“ืžืงืคื™ื ื ืคืฉื”

The Gemara asks: With regard to a hen, what is the reason that one may not help it walk? Abaye says: It is prohibited because the hen lifts itself off the ground. As a result, one actually carries it.

ืชื ื™ ื—ื“ื ืžื“ื“ื™ืŸ ื‘ื”ืžื” ื•ื—ื™ื” ื•ืขื•ืฃ ื‘ื—ืฆืจ ืื‘ืœ ืœื ื‘ืจืฉื•ืช ื”ืจื‘ื™ื ื•ื”ืืฉื” ืžื“ื“ื” ืืช ื‘ื ื” ื‘ืจืฉื•ืช ื”ืจื‘ื™ื ื•ืื™ืŸ ืฆืจื™ืš ืœื•ืžืจ ื‘ื—ืฆืจ ื•ืชื ื™ื ืื™ื“ืš ืื™ืŸ ืขื•ืงืจื™ืŸ ื‘ื”ืžื” ื•ื—ื™ื” ื•ืขื•ืฃ ื‘ื—ืฆืจ ืื‘ืœ ื“ื•ื—ื™ืŸ ื‘ื”ืŸ ืฉื™ื›ื ืกื•

It was taught in one baraita: One may help domesticated animals, non-domesticated animals, and fowl walk in the courtyard, but not in the public domain. And a woman may help her son walk in the public domain, and, needless to say, it is permitted in the courtyard. And it was taught in another baraita: One may not lift domesticated animals, non-domesticated animals, and fowl off the ground in the courtyard, but one may push them so that they will enter.

ื”ื ื’ื•ืคื ืงืฉื™ื ืืžืจืช ืื™ืŸ ืขื•ืงืจื™ืŸ ืื‘ืœ ื“ื“ื•ื™ื™ ืžื“ื“ื™ื ืŸ ื”ื“ืจ ืืžืจืช ื“ื•ื—ื™ืŸ ืื™ืŸ ืžื“ื“ื™ืŸ ืœื ืืžืจ ืื‘ื™ื™ ืกื™ืคื ืืชืืŸ ืœืชืจื ื’ื•ืœืช

The Gemara first seeks to clarify the second baraita. This baraita itself is difficult. On the one hand, you said that one may not lift, from which it may be inferred, however, that one may help it walk. Then you said: Push, yes, it is permitted, help walk, no, it is prohibited. Abaye said: The latter clause, which states that one may not help it walk, we came to the halakha of a hen, which, as mentioned above, one may not help it walk.

ืืžืจ ืื‘ื™ื™ ื”ืื™ ืžืืŸ ื“ืฉื—ื™ื˜ ืชืจื ื’ื•ืœืช ืœื›ื‘ืฉื™ื ื”ื• ืœื›ืจืขื™ื” ื‘ืืจืขื ืื™ ื ืžื™ ื ื™ื“ืœ ืœื”ื• ืžื™ื“ืœ ื“ื“ื™ืœืžื ืžื ื— ืœื”ื• ืœื˜ื•ืคืจื™ื” ื‘ืืจืขื ื•ืขืงืจ ืœื”ื• ืœืกื™ืžื ื™ื:

Having mentioned moving the hen, the Gemara cites that which Abaye said: One who slaughters a hen should force its legs into the ground, or alternatively lift it entirely into the air. Failure to do so leads to the concern lest the hen place its claws into the ground and convulse during the slaughter and dislocate the signs, the trachea and gullet. This would invalidate the slaughter and render the hen an unslaughtered animal carcass.

ืžืชื ื™ืณ ืื™ืŸ ืžื™ืœื“ื™ืŸ ืืช ื”ื‘ื”ืžื” ื‘ื™ื•ื ื˜ื•ื‘ ืื‘ืœ ืžืกืขื“ื™ืŸ ื•ืžื™ืœื“ื™ืŸ ืืช ื”ืืฉื” ื‘ืฉื‘ืช ื•ืงื•ืจื™ืŸ ืœื” ื—ื›ืžื” ืžืžืงื•ื ืœืžืงื•ื ื•ืžื—ืœืœื™ืŸ ืขืœื™ื” ืืช ื”ืฉื‘ืช ื•ืงื•ืฉืจื™ืŸ ืืช ื”ื˜ื™ื‘ื•ืจ ืจื‘ื™ ื™ื•ืกื™ ืื•ืžืจ ืืฃ ื—ื•ืชื›ื™ืŸ ื•ื›ืœ ืฆืจื›ื™ ืžื™ืœื” ืขื•ืฉื™ืŸ ื‘ืฉื‘ืช:

MISHNA: One may not birth an animal on a Festival, and all the more one may not birth it on Shabbat. However, one may assist it to give birth. And one may birth a woman even on Shabbat, and call a midwife for her to travel from place to place, even when the midwifeโ€™s travel involves the desecration of Shabbat. And one may desecrate Shabbat for a woman giving birth. And one may tie the umbilical cord of a child born on Shabbat. Rabbi Yosei says: One may even cut the umbilical cord. And all the requirements of circumcision may be performed for a baby whose eighth day of life occurs on Shabbat.

ื’ืžืณ ื›ื™ืฆื“ ืžืกืขื“ื™ืŸ ืจื‘ ื™ื”ื•ื“ื” ืืžืจ ืื•ื—ื– ืืช ื”ื•ืœื“ ืฉืœื ื™ืคื•ืœ ืœืืจืฅ ืจื‘ ื ื—ืžืŸ ืืžืจ ื“ื•ื—ืง ื‘ื‘ืฉืจ ื›ื“ื™ ืฉื™ืฆื ื”ื•ืœื“

GEMARA: The Gemara asks: How may one assist in the birth of an animal? Rav Yehuda said: One holds the newborn so that it will not fall to the ground. Rav Naแธฅman says: One presses the flesh around the womb so that the newborn will emerge.

ืชื ื™ื ื›ื•ื•ืชื™ื” ื“ืจื‘ ื™ื”ื•ื“ื” ื›ื™ืฆื“ ืžืกืขื“ื™ืŸ ืื•ื—ื–ื™ืŸ ืืช ื”ื•ืœื“ ืฉืœื ื™ืคื•ืœ ืœืืจืฅ ื•ื ื•ืคื— ืœื• ื‘ื—ื•ื˜ืžื• ื•ื ื•ืชืŸ ืœื• ื“ื“ ืœืชื•ืš ืคื™ื• ื›ื“ื™ ืฉื™ื ืง

It was taught in a baraita in accordance with the opinion of Rav Yehuda: How may one assist in the birth of an animal? One holds the newborn so that it will not fall to the ground, and he blows into its nostrils to remove mucus obstructing the air passages, enabling the offspring to breathe, and he places the motherโ€™s teat into its mouth so that it will suckle.

ืืžืจ ืจื‘ืŸ ืฉืžืขื•ืŸ ื‘ืŸ ื’ืžืœื™ืืœ ืžืจื—ืžื™ืŸ ื”ื™ื™ื ื• ืขืœ ื‘ื”ืžื” ื˜ื”ื•ืจื” ื‘ื™ื•ื ื˜ื•ื‘ ื”ื™ื›ื™ ืขื‘ื™ื“ ืืžืจ ืื‘ื™ื™ ืžื‘ื™ื ื‘ื•ืœ ืฉืœ ืžืœื— ื•ืžื ื™ื— ืœื” ื‘ืชื•ืš ื”ืจื—ื ื›ื“ื™ ืฉืชื–ื›ื•ืจ ืฆืขืจื” ื•ืชืจื—ื ืขืœื™ื• ื•ืžื–ืœืคื™ืŸ ืžื™ ืฉืœื™ื ืขืœ ื’ื‘ื™ ื•ืœื“ ื›ื“ื™ ืฉืชืจื™ื— ืจื™ื—ื• ื•ืชืจื—ื ืขืœื™ื• ื•ื“ื•ืงื ื˜ื”ื•ืจื” ืื‘ืœ ื˜ืžืื” ืœื

Rabban Shimon ben Gamliel says: We would have mercy on kosher animals on a Festival, to help the offspring. The Gemara asks: How does one have mercy? Abaye said: If the mother does not draw her offspring near and tend to it, one may bring a lump of salt and place it in the animalโ€™s womb, so that it will suffer, remember its suffering while giving birth, and have mercy on the offspring. And one may pour fluids of the afterbirth on the offspring so that the mother will smell it and have mercy on it, her offspring. And this may be done specifically for a kosher animal, but for a non-kosher animal, no, it may not be done.

ืžืื™ ื˜ืขืžื ื˜ืžืื” ืœื ืžืจื—ืงื ื•ืœื“ื ื•ืื™ ืžืจื—ืงื ื•ืœื“ื ืœื ืžืงืจื‘ื:

The Gemara asks: What is the reason one may not do so for a non-kosher animal? The Gemara answers: A non-kosher animal does not distance its offspring, and if it does distance its offspring, it will not draw it near again. No purpose is served by taking these steps with a non-kosher animal.

ืžื™ืœื“ื™ืŸ ืืช ื”ืืฉื” ื•ื›ื•ืณ: ืžื›ื“ื™ ืชื ื ืœื™ื” ืžื™ืœื“ื™ืŸ ืืช ื”ืืฉื” ื•ืงื•ืจื™ืŸ ืœื” ื—ื›ืžื” ืžืžืงื•ื ืœืžืงื•ื ื•ืžื—ืœืœื™ืŸ ืขืœื™ื” ืืช ื”ืฉื‘ืช ืœืืชื•ื™ื™ ืžืื™

We learned in the mishna: And one may birth a woman even when that involves the desecration of Shabbat The Gemara asks: After all, it was taught explicitly in the mishna: And one may birth a woman even on Shabbat, and call a midwife for her to travel from place to place. The phrase: And one may desecrate Shabbat for a woman giving birth, what does it come to include? All the possible acts of desecrating Shabbat for the birthing woman were already listed.

ืœืืชื•ื™ื™ ื”ื ื“ืชื ื• ืจื‘ื ืŸ ืื ื”ื™ืชื” ืฆืจื™ื›ื” ืœื ืจ ื—ื‘ื™ืจืชื” ืžื“ืœืงืช ืœื” ืืช ื”ื ืจ ื•ืื ื”ื™ืชื” ืฆืจื™ื›ื” ืœืฉืžืŸ ื—ื‘ื™ืจืชื” ืžื‘ื™ืื” ืœื” ืฉืžืŸ ื‘ื™ื“ ื•ืื ืื™ื ื• ืกืคืง ื‘ื™ื“ ืžื‘ื™ืื” ื‘ืฉืขืจื” ื•ืื ืื™ื ื• ืกืคืง ื‘ืฉืขืจื” ืžื‘ื™ืื” ืœื” ื‘ื›ืœื™

The Gemara answers: It comes to include that which the Sages taught with regard to this issue: If a woman giving birth were to need a lamp, her friend lights the lamp for her on Shabbat. And if she were to need oil, her friend brings her oil via the public domain in an atypical manner, carrying it in the palm of her hand but not in a vessel. And if the oil that her friend brings in her hand is not enough, she brings oil in her hair. And if oil that she brings in her hair is not enough, she brings oil for her in the typical manner, in a vessel.

ืืžืจ ืžืจ ืื ื”ื™ืชื” ืฆืจื™ื›ื” ืœื ืจ ื—ื‘ื™ืจืชื” ืžื“ืœืงืช ืœื” ืืช ื”ื ืจ ืคืฉื™ื˜ื ืœื ืฆืจื™ื›ื ื‘ืกื•ืžื ืžื”ื• ื“ืชื™ืžื ื›ื™ื•ืŸ ื“ืœื ื—ื–ื™ื ืืกื•ืจ ืงื ืžืฉืžืข ืœืŸ ืื™ืชื•ื‘ื™ ืžื™ืชื‘ื ื“ืขืชื” ืกื‘ืจื ืื™ ืื™ื›ื ืžื™ื“ื™ ื—ื–ื™ื ื—ื‘ื™ืจืชื” ื•ืขื‘ื“ื” ืœื™:

The Master said in the baraita: If a woman giving birth were to need a lamp, her friend would light the lamp for her on Shabbat. The Gemara asks: This is obvious. The Gemara answers: It is necessary to teach this halakha only in the case of a blind woman giving birth. Lest you say: Since she cannot see even with the light it is prohibited to bring a lamp for her, it teaches us that lighting the lamp is permitted to settle her mind. The blind woman thinks: If there is something that needs to be done in the course of childbirth, the lamp will enable my friend to see and she will do it for me.

ืื ื”ื™ืชื” ืฆืจื™ื›ื” ืœืฉืžืŸ ื•ื›ื•ืณ: ืชื™ืคื•ืง ืœื™ื” ืžืฉื•ื ืกื—ื™ื˜ื”

We learned in the mishna: And if she needed oil, her friend brings her oil in her hair. The Gemara asks: What good is this advice? Derive that it is prohibited due to the prohibited labor of wringing. The friend will need to wring her hair in order to extract the oil for the birthing woman.

ืจื‘ื” ื•ืจื‘ ื™ื•ืกืฃ ื“ืืžืจื™ ืชืจื•ื•ื™ื™ื”ื• ืื™ืŸ ืกื—ื™ื˜ื” ื‘ืฉื™ืขืจ ืจื‘ ืืฉื™ ืืžืจ ืืคื™ืœื• ืชื™ืžื ื™ืฉ ืกื—ื™ื˜ื” ื‘ืฉื™ืขืจ ืžื‘ื™ืื” ืœื” ื‘ื›ืœื™ ื“ืจืš ืฉืขืจื” ื“ื›ืžื” ื“ืืคืฉืจ ืœืฉื ื•ื™ื™ ืžืฉื ื™ื ืŸ

It was Rabba and Rav Yosef who both said: There is no prohibition of wringing with regard to hair, since hair does not absorb liquids like other materials. Rav Ashi said: Even if you say that there is a prohibition of wringing with regard to hair, here the friend does not actually bring the oil in her hair. Rather, she brings it in a vessel tied through her hair. She does this because as much as it is possible to change the manner in which one performs a labor that is being done to save a life, we change it.

ืืžืจ ืจื‘ ื™ื”ื•ื“ื” ืืžืจ ืฉืžื•ืืœ ื—ื™ื” ื›ืœ ื–ืžืŸ ืฉื”ืงื‘ืจ ืคืชื•ื— ื‘ื™ืŸ ืืžืจื” ืฆืจื™ื›ื” ืื ื™ ื‘ื™ืŸ ืœื ืืžืจื” ืฆืจื™ื›ื” ืื ื™ ืžื—ืœืœื™ืŸ ืขืœื™ื” ืืช ื”ืฉื‘ืช

Rav Yehuda said that Shmuel said: With regard to a woman in childbirth, as long as the womb is open, whether she said: I need Shabbat to be desecrated, or whether she did not say: I need Shabbat to be desecrated, one desecrates Shabbat for her. Generally, a woman in childbirth is in danger, and prohibited labors may be performed in life-threatening circumstances.

ื ืกืชื ื”ืงื‘ืจ ื‘ื™ืŸ ืืžืจื”

Once the womb closed after birth, whether the woman who gave birth said:

Masechet Shabbat is sponsored in memory of Elliot Freilich, Eliyahu Daniel ben Bar Tzion David Halevi z"l by a group of women from Kehilath Jeshurun, Manhattan.

  • This month's learning is dedicated by Debbie and Yossi Gevir to Rabbanit Michelle and the Hadran Zoom group for their kindness, support, and care during a medically challenging year.

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Shabbat 128

ืื‘ืœ ืœื ืืช ื”ื˜ื‘ืœ ื•ื›ื•ืณ: ืคืฉื™ื˜ื ืœื ืฆืจื™ื›ื ื‘ื˜ื‘ืœ ื˜ื‘ื•ืœ ืžื“ืจื‘ื ืŸ ืฉื–ืจืขื• ื‘ืขืฆื™ืฅ ืฉืื™ื ื• ื ืงื•ื‘:

We learned in the mishna: However, one may not move untithed produce on Shabbat. The Gemara asks: This is obvious. The Gemara answers: It was only necessary to teach this halakha with regard to a case in which the produce is permitted by Torah law, but is considered untithed produce only by rabbinic law. What are the circumstances? It is referring to a case where the produce grew in an unperforated flowerpot. The legal status of produce that grows in an unperforated flowerpot is not like that of produce that grows in the ground.

ื•ืœื ืžืขืฉืจ ืจืืฉื•ืŸ ื•ื›ื•ืณ: ืคืฉื™ื˜ื ืœื ืฆืจื™ื›ื ืฉื”ืงื“ื™ืžื• ื‘ื›ืจื™ ืฉื ื˜ืœ ืžืžื ื• ืžืขืฉืจ ื•ืœื ื ื˜ืœื” ืžืžื ื• ืชืจื•ืžื” ื’ื“ื•ืœื” ืžื”ื• ื“ืชื™ืžื ื›ื“ืืžืจ ืœื™ื” ืจื‘ ืคืคื ืœืื‘ื™ื™ ืงื ืžืฉืžืข ืœืŸ ื›ื“ืฉื ื™ ืœื™ื” ืื‘ื™ื™:

We learned in the mishna: Nor may one move first tithe from which teruma has not been taken. The Gemara asks: This is obvious. The Gemara answers: It was only necessary for the mishna to teach this halakha for a case in which the Levite preceded the priest after the kernels of grain were placed in a pile, where first tithe was taken and teruma gedola was not taken. Lest you say concerning this case, as Rav Pappa said to Abaye, here too, the produce should be exempt from the obligation to separate teruma gedola, the tanna of the mishna teaches us as Abaye responded to Rav Pappa: There is a difference between the case in which the grain was on the stalks and the case in which the grain was in a pile.

ื•ืœื ืืช ืžืขืฉืจ ืฉื ื™ ื•ื›ื•ืณ: ืคืฉื™ื˜ื ืœื ืฆืจื™ื›ื ื“ื ืคื“ื• ื•ืœื ื ืคื“ื• ื›ื”ืœื›ืชืŸ ืžืขืฉืจ ืฉืคื“ืื• ืขืœ ื’ื‘ื™ ืืกื™ืžื•ืŸ ื“ืจื—ืžื ื ืืžืจ ื•ืฆืจืช ื”ื›ืกืฃ ื‘ื™ื“ืš ื“ื‘ืจ ืฉื™ืฉ ื‘ื• ืฆื•ืจื” ื”ืงื“ืฉ ืฉื—ื™ืœืœื• ืขืœ ื’ื‘ื™ ืงืจืงืข ื“ืจื—ืžื ื ืืžืจ ื•ื ืชืŸ ื”ื›ืกืฃ ื•ืงื ืœื•:

We learned in the mishna: Nor may one move second tithe and consecrated items that were not redeemed. The Gemara asks: This is obvious. It was only necessary for the mishna to teach this halakha with regard to a case where they were redeemed but not redeemed properly. When the mishna lists the second tithe, it is referring to that which was redeemed with an unminted coin [asimon], i.e., a silver bullion that had not been engraved. And God, in the Torah, states in the case of second tithe: โ€œAnd bind up [vetzarta] the money in your handโ€ (Deuteronomy 14:25). The Sages interpreted this as follows: Vetzarta is money that has a form [tzura] engraved upon it. When the mishna lists consecrated property, it is referring to that which was redeemed by exchanging it for land instead of money. And God, in the Torah, states with regard to this: He will give the money โ€œand it will be assured to himโ€ (Leviticus 27:19). Money and not land may be used in redeeming consecrated property.

ื•ืœื ืืช ื”ืœื•ืฃ: ืชื ื• ืจื‘ื ืŸ ืžื˜ืœื˜ืœื™ืŸ ืืช ื”ื—ืฆื‘ ืžืคื ื™ ืฉื”ื•ื ืžืื›ืœ ืœืฆื‘ื™ื™ื ื•ืืช ื”ื—ืจื“ืœ ืžืคื ื™ ืฉื”ื•ื ืžืื›ืœ ืœื™ื•ื ื™ื ืจื‘ืŸ ืฉืžืขื•ืŸ ื‘ืŸ ื’ืžืœื™ืืœ ืื•ืžืจ ืืฃ ืžื˜ืœื˜ืœื™ืŸ ืฉื‘ืจื™ ื–ื›ื•ื›ื™ืช ืžืคื ื™ ืฉื”ื•ื ืžืื›ืœ ืœื ืขืžื™ื•ืช

We learned in the mishna: Nor may one move arum on Shabbat. The Sages taught in a Tosefta: One may move squill on Shabbat because it is food for deer and mustard because it is food for doves. Rabban Shimon ben Gamliel says: One may even move glass shards because they are food for ostriches.

ืืžืจ ืœื™ื” ืจื‘ื™ ื ืชืŸ ืืœื ืžืขืชื” ื—ื‘ื™ืœื™ ื–ืžื•ืจื•ืช ื™ื˜ืœื˜ืœื• ืžืคื ื™ ืฉื”ื•ื ืžืื›ืœ ืœืคื™ืœื™ืŸ ื•ืจื‘ืŸ ืฉืžืขื•ืŸ ื‘ืŸ ื’ืžืœื™ืืœ ื ืขืžื™ื•ืช ืฉื›ื™ื—ื™ ืคื™ืœื™ืŸ ืœื ืฉื›ื™ื—ื™

Rabbi Natan said to Rabban Shimon ben Gamliel: If that is so, even bundles of grapevines one should be permitted to move because they are food for elephants. The Gemara answers that Rabban Shimon ben Gamliel responded: Ostriches are common, whereas elephants are not common.

ืืžืจ ืืžื™ืžืจ ื•ื”ื•ื ื“ืื™ืช ืœื™ื” ื ืขืžื™ื•ืช ืืžืจ ืจื‘ ืืฉื™ ืœืืžื™ืžืจ ืืœื ื“ืงืืžืจ ืœื™ื” ืจื‘ื™ ื ืชืŸ ืœืจื‘ืŸ ืฉืžืขื•ืŸ ื‘ืŸ ื’ืžืœื™ืืœ ื—ื‘ื™ืœื™ ื–ืžื•ืจื•ืช ื™ื˜ืœื˜ืœ ืžืคื ื™ ืฉื”ื•ื ืžืื›ืœ ืœืคื™ืœื™ืŸ ืื™ ืื™ืช ืœื™ื” ืคื™ืœื™ืŸ ืืžืื™ ืœื ืืœื ืจืื•ื™ ื”ื›ื ื ืžื™ ืจืื•ื™

Ameimar said: And Rabban Shimon ben Gamliel permits moving glass shards only in a case where one has ostriches. Rav Ashi said to Ameimar: However, with regard to that which Rabbi Natan said to Rabban Shimon ben Gamliel: If that is so, even bundles of grapevines one should be permitted to move because they are food for elephants. If one has elephants, why would he not feed them? The relevant criterion to permit moving the animal food is not whether or not one owns an elephant, but rather whether or not the food is suitable as food for elephants. Here too, in the case of glass shards, the criterion is whether or not they are suitable as food for ostriches, not whether or not one owns an ostrich.

ืืžืจ ืื‘ื™ื™ ืจื‘ืŸ ืฉืžืขื•ืŸ ื‘ืŸ ื’ืžืœื™ืืœ ื•ืจื‘ื™ ืฉืžืขื•ืŸ ื•ืจื‘ื™ ื™ืฉืžืขืืœ ื•ืจื‘ื™ ืขืงื™ื‘ื ื›ื•ืœื”ื• ืกื‘ื™ืจื ืœื”ื• ื›ืœ ื™ืฉืจืืœ ื‘ื ื™ ืžืœื›ื™ื ื”ื

Abaye said: Rabban Shimon ben Gamliel, Rabbi Shimon, Rabbi Yishmael, and Rabbi Akiva all hold that all Jewish people are princes. There is nothing that is unsuitable for them due to its extravagance. How do we know that all of them hold this position?

ืจื‘ืŸ ืฉืžืขื•ืŸ ื‘ืŸ ื’ืžืœื™ืืœ ื”ื ื“ืืžืจืŸ

Rabban Shimon ben Gamliel: From that which we said in the mishna, that it is permitted to move arum, this is because arum is food for ravens, and it is as if every Jew owns ravens.

ืจื‘ื™ ืฉืžืขื•ืŸ ื“ืชื ืŸ ื‘ื ื™ ืžืœื›ื™ื ืกื›ื™ืŸ ืขืœ ื’ื‘ื™ ืžื›ื•ืชื™ื”ืŸ ืฉืžืŸ ื•ื•ืจื“ ืฉื›ืŸ ื“ืจื›ืŸ ืฉืœ ื‘ื ื™ ืžืœื›ื™ื ืœืกื•ืš ื‘ื—ื•ืœ ืจื‘ื™ ืฉืžืขื•ืŸ ืื•ืžืจ ื›ืœ ื™ืฉืจืืœ ื‘ื ื™ ืžืœื›ื™ื ื”ื

Rabbi Shimon: As we learned in a mishna: Princes may smear rose oil on their wounds on Shabbat, as it is the way of princes to smear it on during the week, even without the purpose of healing a wound. Rabbi Shimon says: All the Jewish people are princes, and it is permitted for them to smear themselves with rose oil on Shabbat.

ืจื‘ื™ ื™ืฉืžืขืืœ ื•ืจื‘ื™ ืขืงื™ื‘ื ื“ืชื ื™ื ื”ืจื™ ืฉื”ื™ื• ื ื•ืฉื™ืŸ ื‘ื• ืืœืฃ ืžื ื” ื•ืœื‘ื•ืฉ ืื™ืฆื˜ืœื ื‘ืช ืžืื” ืžื ื” ืžืคืฉื™ื˜ื™ืŸ ืื•ืชื• ื•ืžืœื‘ื™ืฉื™ืŸ ืื•ืชื• ืื™ืฆื˜ืœื ื”ืจืื•ื™ื” ืœื• ืชื ื ืžืฉื•ื ืจื‘ื™ ื™ืฉืžืขืืœ ื•ืชื ื ืžืฉื•ื ืจื‘ื™ ืขืงื™ื‘ื ื›ืœ ื™ืฉืจืืœ ืจืื•ื™ืŸ ืœืื•ืชื” ืื™ืฆื˜ืœื:

Rabbi Yishmael and Rabbi Akiva: From that which was taught in a baraita: One from whom his creditors were demanding repayment of a debt of a thousand times one hundred dinar [maneh] and he was wearing a cloak [itztela] worth one hundred times one hundred dinar, they strip him of that cloak and sell it, and dress him with a cloak worthy of him based on his wealth. It was taught in the name of Rabbi Yishmael, and it was taught in the name of Rabbi Akiva: All the Jewish people are worthy of that more expensive cloak, and it cannot be said that one is unworthy of it. Rather, the coat is treated like any other vital garment. The principle that one need not sell his vital garments to pay off a debt applies to it.

ื—ื‘ื™ืœื™ ืงืฉ ื•ื—ื‘ื™ืœื™ ื›ื•ืณ: ืชื ื• ืจื‘ื ืŸ ื—ื‘ื™ืœื™ ืงืฉ ื•ื—ื‘ื™ืœื™ ืขืฆื™ื ื•ื—ื‘ื™ืœื™ ื–ืจื“ื™ื ืื ื”ืชืงื™ื ืŸ ืœืžืื›ืœ ื‘ื”ืžื” ืžื˜ืœื˜ืœื™ืŸ ืื•ืชืŸ ื•ืื ืœืื• ืื™ืŸ ืžื˜ืœื˜ืœื™ืŸ ืื•ืชืŸ ืจื‘ืŸ ืฉืžืขื•ืŸ ื‘ืŸ ื’ืžืœื™ืืœ ืื•ืžืจ ื—ื‘ื™ืœื™ืŸ ื”ื ื™ื˜ืœื™ืŸ ื‘ื™ื“ ืื—ื“ ืžื•ืชืจ ืœื˜ืœื˜ืœืŸ ื‘ืฉืชื™ ื™ื“ื™ื ืืกื•ืจ ืœื˜ืœื˜ืœืŸ

We learned in the mishna: With regard to bundles of straw, and bundles of wood, and bundles of twigs, if one prepared them on Shabbat eve for animal food, one may move them. If not, one may not move them. The Sages taught in a Tosefta: With regard to bundles of straw, and bundles of wood, and bundles of twigs, if one prepared them on Shabbat eve for animal food, one may move them. And if not, one may not move them. Rabban Shimon ben Gamliel says: Bundles that are taken in one hand, it is permitted to move them, as no exertion is involved. However, if they can only be taken in two hands, it is prohibited to move them.

ื—ื‘ื™ืœื™ ืกื™ืื” ืื–ื•ื‘ ื•ืงื•ืจื ื™ืช ื”ื›ื ื™ืกืŸ ืœืขืฆื™ื ืื™ืŸ ืžืกืชืคืง ืžื”ืŸ ื‘ืฉื‘ืช ืœืžืื›ืœ ื‘ื”ืžื” ืžืกืชืคืง ืžื”ืŸ ื‘ืฉื‘ืช

With regard to bundles of savory, hyssop, and thyme, fragrant plants suitable as food for people, if one brought them in for use as firewood, he may not supply himself from them on Shabbat for food. If he brought them in for use as food for animals, he too may supply himself from them on Shabbat.

ื•ืงื•ื˜ื ื‘ื™ื“ ื•ืื•ื›ืœ ื•ื‘ืœื‘ื“ ืฉืœื ื™ืงื˜ื•ื ื‘ื›ืœื™ ื•ืžื•ืœืœ ื•ืื•ื›ืœ ื•ื‘ืœื‘ื“ ืฉืœื ื™ืžืœื•ืœ ื‘ื›ืœื™ ื”ืจื‘ื” ื“ื‘ืจื™ ืจื‘ื™ ื™ื”ื•ื“ื” ื•ื—ื›ืžื™ื ืื•ืžืจื™ื ืžื•ืœืœ ื‘ืจืืฉื™ ืืฆื‘ืขื•ืชื™ื• ื•ืื•ื›ืœ ื•ื‘ืœื‘ื“ ืฉืœื ื™ืžืœื•ืœ ื‘ื™ื“ื• ื”ืจื‘ื” ื›ื“ืจืš ืฉื”ื•ื ืขื•ืฉื” ื‘ื—ื•ืœ

And one may pick them with his hand and eat, as long as he does not pick them with a vessel. And one may crush and remove the seeds with his hand and eat them, as long as he does not crush a lot with a vessel; this is the statement of Rabbi Yehuda. And the Rabbis say: One may crush them only with the ends of his fingers, in an atypical manner, as long as he does not crush a lot with his hand in the manner that he does during the week.

ื•ื›ืŸ ื‘ืืžื™ืชื ื•ื›ืŸ ื‘ืคื™ื’ื ื•ื›ืŸ ื‘ืฉืืจ ืžื™ื ื™ ืชื‘ืœื™ืŸ ืžืื™ ืืžื™ืชื ื ื™ื ื™ื ืกื™ืื” ืืžืจ ืจื‘ ื™ื”ื•ื“ื” (ืกื™ืื”) ืฆืชืจื™ ืื–ื•ื‘ ืื‘ืจืชื ืงื•ืจื ื™ืช ืงื•ืจื ื™ืชื ืฉืžื”

And that too is the halakha with regard to amita, and with regard to rue [peigam], and with regard to all the other types of spices. The Sages asked: What is amita? They answered: It is mint [ninya]. What is sia? Rav Yehuda says: Sia is savory. Ezov is hyssop. Koranit is called koranita, i.e., it is not known to us by any other name.

ื•ื”ื ื”ื”ื•ื ื“ืืžืจ ืœื”ื• ืžืืŸ ื‘ืขื™ ืงื•ืจื ื™ืชื ื•ืื™ืฉืชื›ื— ื—ืฉื™ ืืœื ืกื™ืื” ืฆืชืจื™ ืื–ื•ื‘ ืื‘ืจืชื ืงื•ืจื ื™ืชื ื—ืฉื™:

The Gemara asks: The one who came to sell and said to them: Who wants koranita? And he was found to be selling thyme. Therefore, we see that koranita is in fact a plant that is known to us. Rather, it should be explained: Sia is savory, ezov is hyssop, and koranita is thyme.

ืื™ืชืžืจ ื‘ืฉืจ ืžืœื™ื— ืžื•ืชืจ ืœื˜ืœื˜ืœื• ื‘ืฉื‘ืช ื‘ืฉืจ ืชืคืœ ืจื‘ ื”ื•ื ื ืืžืจ ืžื•ืชืจ ืœื˜ืœื˜ืœื• ืจื‘ ื—ืกื“ื ืืžืจ ืืกื•ืจ ืœื˜ืœื˜ืœื•

It was stated: It is permitted to move salted meat on Shabbat, as it is fit for consumption. With regard to unsalted meat, Rav Huna said: It is permitted to move it. Rav แธคisda said: It is prohibited to move it.

ืจื‘ ื”ื•ื ื ืืžืจ ืžื•ืชืจ ืœื˜ืœื˜ืœื• ื•ื”ื ืจื‘ ื”ื•ื ื ืชืœืžื™ื“ ื“ืจื‘ ื”ื•ื” ื•ืจื‘ ื›ืจื‘ื™ ื™ื”ื•ื“ื” ืกื‘ื™ืจื ืœื™ื” ื“ืื™ืช ืœื™ื” ืžื•ืงืฆื”

The Gemara asks: Did Rav Huna say that it is permitted to move it? Wasnโ€™t Rav Huna a student of Rav, and Rav holds in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Yehuda, who is of the opinion that there is a prohibition of set-aside for salted meat? How could Rav Huna disagree with the opinion of his teacher?

ื‘ืžื•ืงืฆื” ืœืื›ื™ืœื” ืกื‘ืจ ืœื” ื›ืจื‘ื™ ื™ื”ื•ื“ื” ื‘ืžื•ืงืฆื” ืœื˜ืœื˜ืœ ืกื‘ืจ ืœื” ื›ืจื‘ื™ ืฉืžืขื•ืŸ

The Gemara answers: With regard to a food item set aside from eating, Rav holds in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Yehuda, that it may not be eaten. With regard to an item set aside from moving, he holds in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Shimon, who is not of the opinion that there is a prohibition of set-aside, and moving it is permitted.

ืจื‘ ื—ืกื“ื ืืžืจ ืืกื•ืจ ืœื˜ืœื˜ืœื• ื•ื”ื ืจื‘ ื™ืฆื—ืง ื‘ืจ ืืžื™ ืื™ืงืœืข ืœื‘ื™ ืจื‘ ื—ืกื“ื ื•ื—ื–ื ื”ื”ื•ื ื‘ืจ ืื•ื•ื–ื ื“ื”ื•ื• ืงื ืžื˜ืœื˜ืœื• ืœื™ื” ืžืฉืžืฉื ืœื˜ื•ืœื ื•ืืžืจ ืจื‘ ื—ืกื“ื ื—ืกืจื•ืŸ ื›ื™ืก ืงื ื—ื–ื™ื ืŸ ื”ื›ื ืฉืื ื™ ื‘ืจ ืื•ื•ื–ื ื“ื—ื–ื™ ืœืื•ืžืฆื

Rav แธคisda said: It is prohibited to move unsalted meat on Shabbat. The Gemara asks: Didnโ€™t Rav Yitzแธฅak bar Ami happen to come to Rav แธคisdaโ€™s house, and he saw the meat of that duck? He saw that they were moving it from the sun to the shade so that it would not spoil. And Rav แธคisda said to the members of his household: We see a case of monetary loss here. One must make certain that the meat does not stay in the sun and spoil. Apparently, Rav แธคisda holds that it is permitted to move inedible meat. The Gemara answers: The meat of a duck is different, as it is fit to be eaten as raw meat.

ืชื ื• ืจื‘ื ืŸ ื“ื’ ืžืœื™ื— ืžื•ืชืจ ืœื˜ืœื˜ืœื• ื“ื’ ืชืคืœ ืืกื•ืจ ืœื˜ืœื˜ืœื• ื‘ืฉืจ ื‘ื™ืŸ ืชืคืœ ื•ื‘ื™ืŸ ืžืœื™ื— ืžื•ืชืจ ืœื˜ืœื˜ืœื• (ื•ืกืชืžื ื›ืจื‘ื™ ืฉืžืขื•ืŸ)

The Sages taught in a baraita: With regard to salted fish, it is permitted to move it on Shabbat. With regard to unsalted fish, it is prohibited to move it. Meat, both unsalted meat and salted meat, it is permitted to carry it. And this unattributed baraita is in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Shimon.

ืชื ื• ืจื‘ื ืŸ ืžื˜ืœื˜ืœื™ืŸ ืืช ื”ืขืฆืžื•ืช ืžืคื ื™ ืฉื”ื•ื ืžืื›ืœ ืœื›ืœื‘ื™ื

The Sages taught: One may move bones on Shabbat, because they are food for dogs.

ื‘ืฉืจ ืชืคื•ื— ืžืคื ื™ ืฉื”ื•ื ืžืื›ืœ ืœื—ื™ื” ืžื™ื ืžื’ื•ืœื™ืŸ ืžืคื ื™ ืฉื”ืŸ ืจืื•ื™ื™ืŸ ืœื—ืชื•ืœ ืจื‘ืŸ ืฉืžืขื•ืŸ ื‘ืŸ ื’ืžืœื™ืืœ ืื•ืžืจ ื›ืœ ืขืฆืžืŸ ืืกื•ืจ ืœืฉื”ื•ืชืŸ ืžืคื ื™ ื”ืกื›ื ื”:

With regard to swollen meat that began to putrefy, it is permitted to move it because it is food for non-domesticated animals. With regard to exposed water, from which a snake might have drunk and into which it injected its venom, it is permitted to move it because it is suitable for a cat, which is somewhat immune to snake venom. Rabban Shimon ben Gamliel says: Exposed water itself may not be kept due to the danger that one may inadvertently drink it.

ืžืชื ื™ืณ ื›ื•ืคื™ืŸ ืืช ื”ืกืœ ืœืคื ื™ ื”ืืคืจื•ื—ื™ื ื›ื“ื™ ืฉื™ืขืœื• ื•ื™ืจื“ื• ืชืจื ื’ื•ืœืช ืฉื‘ืจื—ื” ื“ื•ื—ื™ืŸ ืื•ืชื” ืขื“ ืฉืชื›ื ืก

MISHNA: One may overturn a basket in front of the chicks so that they can climb on and climb off of it. Likewise, with regard to a hen that fled that one seeks to retrieve, one may push it even with his hands until it reenters the house.

ืžื“ื“ื™ืŸ ืขื’ืœื™ืŸ ื•ืกื™ื™ื—ื™ืŸ ืืฉื” ืžื“ื“ื” ืืช ื‘ื ื” ืืžืจ ืจื‘ื™ ื™ื”ื•ื“ื” ืื™ืžืชื™ ื‘ื–ืžืŸ ืฉื”ื•ื ื ื•ื˜ืœ ืื—ืช ื•ืžื ื™ื— ืื—ืช ืื‘ืœ ืื ื”ื™ื” ื’ื•ืจืจ ืืกื•ืจ:

One may help calves and foals to walk, and likewise a woman may help her son to walk. Rabbi Yehuda said: When is it permitted? When her son picks one foot up and puts one foot down by himself. However, if her son were dragging both his feet, it would be prohibited because it would be like carrying him in the public domain.

ื’ืžืณ ืืžืจ ืจื‘ ื™ื”ื•ื“ื” ืืžืจ ืจื‘ ื‘ื”ืžื” ืฉื ืคืœื” ืœืืžืช ื”ืžื™ื ืžื‘ื™ื ื›ืจื™ื ื•ื›ืกืชื•ืช ื•ืžื ื™ื— ืชื—ืชื™ื” ื•ืื ืขืœืชื” ืขืœืชื”

GEMARA: Rav Yehuda said that Rav said: With regard to an animal that fell into an aqueduct, one brings cushions and blankets, and throws them into the water ditch, and places them beneath the animal in the aqueduct. And if the animal thereby emerges, it emerges.

ืžื™ืชื™ื‘ื™ ื‘ื”ืžื” ืฉื ืคืœื” ืœืืžืช ื”ืžื™ื ืขื•ืฉื” ืœื” ืคืจื ืกื” ื‘ืžืงื•ืžื” ื‘ืฉื‘ื™ืœ ืฉืœื ืชืžื•ืช ืคืจื ืกื” ืื™ืŸ ื›ืจื™ื ื•ื›ืกืชื•ืช ืœื

The Gemara raises an objection from a Tosefta: With regard to an animal that fell into an aqueduct on Shabbat, one provides it with sustenance in its place so that it will not die. This implies that providing it with sustenance, yes, that is permitted, providing it with cushions and blankets, no, that it is prohibited.

ืœื ืงืฉื™ื ื”ื ื“ืืคืฉืจ ื‘ืคืจื ืกื” ื”ื ื“ืื™ ืืคืฉืจ ื‘ืคืจื ืกื” ืืคืฉืจ ื‘ืคืจื ืกื” ืื™ืŸ ื•ืื™ ืœื ืžื‘ื™ื ื›ืจื™ื ื•ื›ืกืชื•ืช ื•ืžื ื™ื— ืชื—ืชื™ื”

The Gemara answers: This is not difficult, as there is room to distinguish between the cases. This, the Tosefta in which it was taught that one provides the animal with sustenance, is referring to a case where it is possible to provide it with sustenance. That, the mishna in which Rav said that one brings cushions and blankets, is referring to a case where it is impossible to provide it with sustenance. Where it is possible to provide it with sustenance, yes, he does so. And if it is not possible to provide it with sustenance, he brings cushions and blankets and places them beneath the animal.

ื•ื”ื ืงื ืžื‘ื˜ืœ ื›ืœื™ ืžื”ื™ื›ื ื• ืกื‘ืจ ืžื‘ื˜ืœ ื›ืœื™ ืžื”ื™ื›ื ื• ื“ืจื‘ื ืŸ ืฆืขืจ ื‘ืขืœื™ ื—ื™ื™ื ื“ืื•ืจื™ื™ืชื ื•ืืชื™ ื“ืื•ืจื™ื™ืชื ื•ื“ื—ื™ ื“ืจื‘ื ืŸ:

The Gemara asks: Does he not, by placing the cushions and blankets, negate a vesselโ€™s preparedness? The cushions and blankets are no longer fit for their designated use on Shabbat, and this negation of their designated use is similar to the prohibited labor of dismantling. The Gemara answers: Rav holds that negating a vesselโ€™s preparedness is prohibited by rabbinic law. Causing a living creature to suffer is a Torah prohibition. And a matter prohibited by Torah law comes and overrides a matter prohibited by rabbinic law.

ืชืจื ื’ื•ืœืช ืฉื‘ืจื—ื” ื•ื›ื•ืณ: ื“ื•ื—ื™ืŸ ืื™ืŸ ืžื“ื“ื™ืŸ ืœื ืชื ื™ื ื ืœื”ื ื“ืชื ื• ืจื‘ื ืŸ ืžื“ื“ื™ืŸ ื‘ื”ืžื” ื—ื™ื” ื•ืขื•ืฃ ื‘ื—ืฆืจ ืื‘ืœ ืœื ืืช ื”ืชืจื ื’ื•ืœืช

We learned in the mishna: With regard to a hen that fled that one seeks to retrieve, he may push it back to its place. By inference: Push the hen, yes, it is permitted, help it to walk, no, it is prohibited. The Gemara comments: We already learned this, as the Sages taught: One may help domesticated animals, non-domesticated animals, and fowl walk in the courtyard on Shabbat, but not hens.

ืชืจื ื’ื•ืœืช ืžืื™ ื˜ืขืžื ืœื ืืžืจ ืื‘ื™ื™ ืžืฉื•ื ื“ืžืงืคื™ื ื ืคืฉื”

The Gemara asks: With regard to a hen, what is the reason that one may not help it walk? Abaye says: It is prohibited because the hen lifts itself off the ground. As a result, one actually carries it.

ืชื ื™ ื—ื“ื ืžื“ื“ื™ืŸ ื‘ื”ืžื” ื•ื—ื™ื” ื•ืขื•ืฃ ื‘ื—ืฆืจ ืื‘ืœ ืœื ื‘ืจืฉื•ืช ื”ืจื‘ื™ื ื•ื”ืืฉื” ืžื“ื“ื” ืืช ื‘ื ื” ื‘ืจืฉื•ืช ื”ืจื‘ื™ื ื•ืื™ืŸ ืฆืจื™ืš ืœื•ืžืจ ื‘ื—ืฆืจ ื•ืชื ื™ื ืื™ื“ืš ืื™ืŸ ืขื•ืงืจื™ืŸ ื‘ื”ืžื” ื•ื—ื™ื” ื•ืขื•ืฃ ื‘ื—ืฆืจ ืื‘ืœ ื“ื•ื—ื™ืŸ ื‘ื”ืŸ ืฉื™ื›ื ืกื•

It was taught in one baraita: One may help domesticated animals, non-domesticated animals, and fowl walk in the courtyard, but not in the public domain. And a woman may help her son walk in the public domain, and, needless to say, it is permitted in the courtyard. And it was taught in another baraita: One may not lift domesticated animals, non-domesticated animals, and fowl off the ground in the courtyard, but one may push them so that they will enter.

ื”ื ื’ื•ืคื ืงืฉื™ื ืืžืจืช ืื™ืŸ ืขื•ืงืจื™ืŸ ืื‘ืœ ื“ื“ื•ื™ื™ ืžื“ื“ื™ื ืŸ ื”ื“ืจ ืืžืจืช ื“ื•ื—ื™ืŸ ืื™ืŸ ืžื“ื“ื™ืŸ ืœื ืืžืจ ืื‘ื™ื™ ืกื™ืคื ืืชืืŸ ืœืชืจื ื’ื•ืœืช

The Gemara first seeks to clarify the second baraita. This baraita itself is difficult. On the one hand, you said that one may not lift, from which it may be inferred, however, that one may help it walk. Then you said: Push, yes, it is permitted, help walk, no, it is prohibited. Abaye said: The latter clause, which states that one may not help it walk, we came to the halakha of a hen, which, as mentioned above, one may not help it walk.

ืืžืจ ืื‘ื™ื™ ื”ืื™ ืžืืŸ ื“ืฉื—ื™ื˜ ืชืจื ื’ื•ืœืช ืœื›ื‘ืฉื™ื ื”ื• ืœื›ืจืขื™ื” ื‘ืืจืขื ืื™ ื ืžื™ ื ื™ื“ืœ ืœื”ื• ืžื™ื“ืœ ื“ื“ื™ืœืžื ืžื ื— ืœื”ื• ืœื˜ื•ืคืจื™ื” ื‘ืืจืขื ื•ืขืงืจ ืœื”ื• ืœืกื™ืžื ื™ื:

Having mentioned moving the hen, the Gemara cites that which Abaye said: One who slaughters a hen should force its legs into the ground, or alternatively lift it entirely into the air. Failure to do so leads to the concern lest the hen place its claws into the ground and convulse during the slaughter and dislocate the signs, the trachea and gullet. This would invalidate the slaughter and render the hen an unslaughtered animal carcass.

ืžืชื ื™ืณ ืื™ืŸ ืžื™ืœื“ื™ืŸ ืืช ื”ื‘ื”ืžื” ื‘ื™ื•ื ื˜ื•ื‘ ืื‘ืœ ืžืกืขื“ื™ืŸ ื•ืžื™ืœื“ื™ืŸ ืืช ื”ืืฉื” ื‘ืฉื‘ืช ื•ืงื•ืจื™ืŸ ืœื” ื—ื›ืžื” ืžืžืงื•ื ืœืžืงื•ื ื•ืžื—ืœืœื™ืŸ ืขืœื™ื” ืืช ื”ืฉื‘ืช ื•ืงื•ืฉืจื™ืŸ ืืช ื”ื˜ื™ื‘ื•ืจ ืจื‘ื™ ื™ื•ืกื™ ืื•ืžืจ ืืฃ ื—ื•ืชื›ื™ืŸ ื•ื›ืœ ืฆืจื›ื™ ืžื™ืœื” ืขื•ืฉื™ืŸ ื‘ืฉื‘ืช:

MISHNA: One may not birth an animal on a Festival, and all the more one may not birth it on Shabbat. However, one may assist it to give birth. And one may birth a woman even on Shabbat, and call a midwife for her to travel from place to place, even when the midwifeโ€™s travel involves the desecration of Shabbat. And one may desecrate Shabbat for a woman giving birth. And one may tie the umbilical cord of a child born on Shabbat. Rabbi Yosei says: One may even cut the umbilical cord. And all the requirements of circumcision may be performed for a baby whose eighth day of life occurs on Shabbat.

ื’ืžืณ ื›ื™ืฆื“ ืžืกืขื“ื™ืŸ ืจื‘ ื™ื”ื•ื“ื” ืืžืจ ืื•ื—ื– ืืช ื”ื•ืœื“ ืฉืœื ื™ืคื•ืœ ืœืืจืฅ ืจื‘ ื ื—ืžืŸ ืืžืจ ื“ื•ื—ืง ื‘ื‘ืฉืจ ื›ื“ื™ ืฉื™ืฆื ื”ื•ืœื“

GEMARA: The Gemara asks: How may one assist in the birth of an animal? Rav Yehuda said: One holds the newborn so that it will not fall to the ground. Rav Naแธฅman says: One presses the flesh around the womb so that the newborn will emerge.

ืชื ื™ื ื›ื•ื•ืชื™ื” ื“ืจื‘ ื™ื”ื•ื“ื” ื›ื™ืฆื“ ืžืกืขื“ื™ืŸ ืื•ื—ื–ื™ืŸ ืืช ื”ื•ืœื“ ืฉืœื ื™ืคื•ืœ ืœืืจืฅ ื•ื ื•ืคื— ืœื• ื‘ื—ื•ื˜ืžื• ื•ื ื•ืชืŸ ืœื• ื“ื“ ืœืชื•ืš ืคื™ื• ื›ื“ื™ ืฉื™ื ืง

It was taught in a baraita in accordance with the opinion of Rav Yehuda: How may one assist in the birth of an animal? One holds the newborn so that it will not fall to the ground, and he blows into its nostrils to remove mucus obstructing the air passages, enabling the offspring to breathe, and he places the motherโ€™s teat into its mouth so that it will suckle.

ืืžืจ ืจื‘ืŸ ืฉืžืขื•ืŸ ื‘ืŸ ื’ืžืœื™ืืœ ืžืจื—ืžื™ืŸ ื”ื™ื™ื ื• ืขืœ ื‘ื”ืžื” ื˜ื”ื•ืจื” ื‘ื™ื•ื ื˜ื•ื‘ ื”ื™ื›ื™ ืขื‘ื™ื“ ืืžืจ ืื‘ื™ื™ ืžื‘ื™ื ื‘ื•ืœ ืฉืœ ืžืœื— ื•ืžื ื™ื— ืœื” ื‘ืชื•ืš ื”ืจื—ื ื›ื“ื™ ืฉืชื–ื›ื•ืจ ืฆืขืจื” ื•ืชืจื—ื ืขืœื™ื• ื•ืžื–ืœืคื™ืŸ ืžื™ ืฉืœื™ื ืขืœ ื’ื‘ื™ ื•ืœื“ ื›ื“ื™ ืฉืชืจื™ื— ืจื™ื—ื• ื•ืชืจื—ื ืขืœื™ื• ื•ื“ื•ืงื ื˜ื”ื•ืจื” ืื‘ืœ ื˜ืžืื” ืœื

Rabban Shimon ben Gamliel says: We would have mercy on kosher animals on a Festival, to help the offspring. The Gemara asks: How does one have mercy? Abaye said: If the mother does not draw her offspring near and tend to it, one may bring a lump of salt and place it in the animalโ€™s womb, so that it will suffer, remember its suffering while giving birth, and have mercy on the offspring. And one may pour fluids of the afterbirth on the offspring so that the mother will smell it and have mercy on it, her offspring. And this may be done specifically for a kosher animal, but for a non-kosher animal, no, it may not be done.

ืžืื™ ื˜ืขืžื ื˜ืžืื” ืœื ืžืจื—ืงื ื•ืœื“ื ื•ืื™ ืžืจื—ืงื ื•ืœื“ื ืœื ืžืงืจื‘ื:

The Gemara asks: What is the reason one may not do so for a non-kosher animal? The Gemara answers: A non-kosher animal does not distance its offspring, and if it does distance its offspring, it will not draw it near again. No purpose is served by taking these steps with a non-kosher animal.

ืžื™ืœื“ื™ืŸ ืืช ื”ืืฉื” ื•ื›ื•ืณ: ืžื›ื“ื™ ืชื ื ืœื™ื” ืžื™ืœื“ื™ืŸ ืืช ื”ืืฉื” ื•ืงื•ืจื™ืŸ ืœื” ื—ื›ืžื” ืžืžืงื•ื ืœืžืงื•ื ื•ืžื—ืœืœื™ืŸ ืขืœื™ื” ืืช ื”ืฉื‘ืช ืœืืชื•ื™ื™ ืžืื™

We learned in the mishna: And one may birth a woman even when that involves the desecration of Shabbat The Gemara asks: After all, it was taught explicitly in the mishna: And one may birth a woman even on Shabbat, and call a midwife for her to travel from place to place. The phrase: And one may desecrate Shabbat for a woman giving birth, what does it come to include? All the possible acts of desecrating Shabbat for the birthing woman were already listed.

ืœืืชื•ื™ื™ ื”ื ื“ืชื ื• ืจื‘ื ืŸ ืื ื”ื™ืชื” ืฆืจื™ื›ื” ืœื ืจ ื—ื‘ื™ืจืชื” ืžื“ืœืงืช ืœื” ืืช ื”ื ืจ ื•ืื ื”ื™ืชื” ืฆืจื™ื›ื” ืœืฉืžืŸ ื—ื‘ื™ืจืชื” ืžื‘ื™ืื” ืœื” ืฉืžืŸ ื‘ื™ื“ ื•ืื ืื™ื ื• ืกืคืง ื‘ื™ื“ ืžื‘ื™ืื” ื‘ืฉืขืจื” ื•ืื ืื™ื ื• ืกืคืง ื‘ืฉืขืจื” ืžื‘ื™ืื” ืœื” ื‘ื›ืœื™

The Gemara answers: It comes to include that which the Sages taught with regard to this issue: If a woman giving birth were to need a lamp, her friend lights the lamp for her on Shabbat. And if she were to need oil, her friend brings her oil via the public domain in an atypical manner, carrying it in the palm of her hand but not in a vessel. And if the oil that her friend brings in her hand is not enough, she brings oil in her hair. And if oil that she brings in her hair is not enough, she brings oil for her in the typical manner, in a vessel.

ืืžืจ ืžืจ ืื ื”ื™ืชื” ืฆืจื™ื›ื” ืœื ืจ ื—ื‘ื™ืจืชื” ืžื“ืœืงืช ืœื” ืืช ื”ื ืจ ืคืฉื™ื˜ื ืœื ืฆืจื™ื›ื ื‘ืกื•ืžื ืžื”ื• ื“ืชื™ืžื ื›ื™ื•ืŸ ื“ืœื ื—ื–ื™ื ืืกื•ืจ ืงื ืžืฉืžืข ืœืŸ ืื™ืชื•ื‘ื™ ืžื™ืชื‘ื ื“ืขืชื” ืกื‘ืจื ืื™ ืื™ื›ื ืžื™ื“ื™ ื—ื–ื™ื ื—ื‘ื™ืจืชื” ื•ืขื‘ื“ื” ืœื™:

The Master said in the baraita: If a woman giving birth were to need a lamp, her friend would light the lamp for her on Shabbat. The Gemara asks: This is obvious. The Gemara answers: It is necessary to teach this halakha only in the case of a blind woman giving birth. Lest you say: Since she cannot see even with the light it is prohibited to bring a lamp for her, it teaches us that lighting the lamp is permitted to settle her mind. The blind woman thinks: If there is something that needs to be done in the course of childbirth, the lamp will enable my friend to see and she will do it for me.

ืื ื”ื™ืชื” ืฆืจื™ื›ื” ืœืฉืžืŸ ื•ื›ื•ืณ: ืชื™ืคื•ืง ืœื™ื” ืžืฉื•ื ืกื—ื™ื˜ื”

We learned in the mishna: And if she needed oil, her friend brings her oil in her hair. The Gemara asks: What good is this advice? Derive that it is prohibited due to the prohibited labor of wringing. The friend will need to wring her hair in order to extract the oil for the birthing woman.

ืจื‘ื” ื•ืจื‘ ื™ื•ืกืฃ ื“ืืžืจื™ ืชืจื•ื•ื™ื™ื”ื• ืื™ืŸ ืกื—ื™ื˜ื” ื‘ืฉื™ืขืจ ืจื‘ ืืฉื™ ืืžืจ ืืคื™ืœื• ืชื™ืžื ื™ืฉ ืกื—ื™ื˜ื” ื‘ืฉื™ืขืจ ืžื‘ื™ืื” ืœื” ื‘ื›ืœื™ ื“ืจืš ืฉืขืจื” ื“ื›ืžื” ื“ืืคืฉืจ ืœืฉื ื•ื™ื™ ืžืฉื ื™ื ืŸ

It was Rabba and Rav Yosef who both said: There is no prohibition of wringing with regard to hair, since hair does not absorb liquids like other materials. Rav Ashi said: Even if you say that there is a prohibition of wringing with regard to hair, here the friend does not actually bring the oil in her hair. Rather, she brings it in a vessel tied through her hair. She does this because as much as it is possible to change the manner in which one performs a labor that is being done to save a life, we change it.

ืืžืจ ืจื‘ ื™ื”ื•ื“ื” ืืžืจ ืฉืžื•ืืœ ื—ื™ื” ื›ืœ ื–ืžืŸ ืฉื”ืงื‘ืจ ืคืชื•ื— ื‘ื™ืŸ ืืžืจื” ืฆืจื™ื›ื” ืื ื™ ื‘ื™ืŸ ืœื ืืžืจื” ืฆืจื™ื›ื” ืื ื™ ืžื—ืœืœื™ืŸ ืขืœื™ื” ืืช ื”ืฉื‘ืช

Rav Yehuda said that Shmuel said: With regard to a woman in childbirth, as long as the womb is open, whether she said: I need Shabbat to be desecrated, or whether she did not say: I need Shabbat to be desecrated, one desecrates Shabbat for her. Generally, a woman in childbirth is in danger, and prohibited labors may be performed in life-threatening circumstances.

ื ืกืชื ื”ืงื‘ืจ ื‘ื™ืŸ ืืžืจื”

Once the womb closed after birth, whether the woman who gave birth said:

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