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Today's Daf Yomi

July 13, 2020 | כ״א בתמוז תש״פ

Masechet Shabbat is sponsored in memory of Elliot Freilich, Eliyahu Daniel ben Bar Tzion David Halevi z"l by a group of women from Kehilath Jeshurun, Manhattan.

Shabbat 129

Can one desecrate Shabbat for a woman after childbirth and if so, how much after – 3 days? 7 days? 30 days? When is it considered the beginning of childbirth? The gemara discusses the danger of bloodletting and what one should do to prevent those potential dangers? Eating or drinking wine after was so important that Rav Nachman son of Yitzchak advised his student to engage in artifice in order to make sure one ate or drank. On what days of the week should one not bloodlet and what days of the month or on the calendar? what can be done with the umbilical cord and the placenta of Shabbat? What can be done to ensure the health of the newborn baby? This is derived from a verse describing the calamities that will befall the Jewish people in the days of destruction – what they will not be able to do then when a child is born is an indicator of what we are allowed to do even on Shabbat for a newborn.

צריכה אני בין לא אמרה צריכה אני אין מחללין עליה את השבת

I need Shabbat to be desecrated, or whether she did not say: I need Shabbat to be desecrated, one does not desecrate Shabbat for her.

רב אשי מתני הכי מר זוטרא מתני הכי אמר רב יהודה אמר שמואל חיה כל זמן שהקבר פתוח בין אמרה צריכה אני ובין אמרה אין צריכה אני מחללין עליה את השבת נסתם הקבר אמרה צריכה אני מחללין עליה את השבת לא אמרה צריכה אני אין מחללין עליה את השבת

That is how Rav Ashi taught it. This is how Mar Zutra taught it: Rav Yehuda said that Shmuel said: With regard to a woman in childbirth, as long as the womb is open, whether she said: I need Shabbat to be desecrated, or whether she did not say: I need Shabbat to be desecrated, one desecrates Shabbat for her. Once the womb closed after birth, if she said: I need Shabbat to be desecrated, one desecrates Shabbat for her. If she did not say: I need Shabbat to be desecrated, and all the more so if she said: I do not need Shabbat to be desecrated, one does not desecrate Shabbat for her.

אמר ליה רבינא למרימר מר זוטרא מתני לקולא ורב אשי מתני לחומרא הלכתא כמאן אמר ליה הלכה כמר זוטרא ספק נפשות להקל

Ravina said to Mareimar: Since Mar Zutra teaches leniently, and Rav Ashi teaches stringently, in accordance with whose opinion is the halakha? Mareimar said to him: The halakha is in accordance with the opinion of Mar Zutra, based on the following principle: In cases of uncertainty concerning a life-threatening situation, the halakha is lenient.

מאימתי פתיחת הקבר אמר אביי משעה שתשב על המשבר רב הונא בריה דרב יהושע אמר משעה שהדם שותת ויורד ואמרי לה משעה שחברותיה נושאות אותה באגפיה

With regard to the matter of the open womb, the Gemara asks: From when is it considered that the opening of the womb has begun? Abaye says: It begins from when the woman sits on the travailing chair. Rav Huna, son of Rav Yehoshua, said: It begins from when the blood flows and descends; and others say when her friends need to carry her by her arms, as she can no longer walk on her own.

עד מתי פתיחת הקבר אמר אביי שלשה ימים רבא אמר משמיה דרב יהודה שבעה ואמרי לה שלשים

The Gemara asks: Until when does the opening of the womb continue? Abaye said: It lasts three days. Rava said in the name of Rav Yehuda: It lasts seven days. And others say: It lasts thirty days.

אמרי נהרדעי חיה שלשה שבעה ושלשים שלשה בין אמרה צריכה אני ובין אמרה לא צריכה אני מחללין עליה את השבת שבעה אמרה צריכה אני מחללין עליה את השבת אמרה לא צריכה אני אין מחללין עליה את השבת שלשים אפילו אמרה צריכה אני אין מחללין עליה את השבת אבל עושין על ידי ארמאי

The Sages of Neharde’a say: For a woman in childbirth, there are halakhic distinctions between three, seven, and thirty days after she gives birth. The Gemara elaborates: During the first three days after birth, whether she said: I need Shabbat to be desecrated, or whether she did not say: I need Shabbat to be desecrated, one desecrates Shabbat for her. Between three and seven days after birth, if she said: I need Shabbat to be desecrated, one desecrates Shabbat for her. If she did not say: I need Shabbat to be desecrated, one does not desecrate Shabbat for her. Between seven and thirty days after birth, even if she said: I need Shabbat to be desecrated, one does not desecrate Shabbat for her; however, we perform all necessary prohibited labors by means of a gentile.

כדרב עולא בריה דרב עילאי דאמר כל צרכי חולה נעשין על ידי ארמאי בשבת וכדרב המנונא דאמר רב המנונא דבר שאין בו סכנה אומר לגוי ועושה

This ruling is in accordance with the statement of Rav Ulla, son of Rav Ilai, who said: All needs of a sick person whose life is not in danger are performed by means of a gentile on Shabbat. And this ruling is in accordance with the opinion of Rav Hamnuna, as Rav Hamnuna says: With regard to a matter in which there is no danger, but only potential illness, one says to the gentile to perform the act, and the gentile performs the act.

אמר רב יהודה אמר שמואל לחיה שלשים יום למאי הלכתא אמרי נהרדעי לטבילה

Rav Yehuda said that Shmuel said: For a woman in childbirth, there is a halakha of thirty days. The Gemara asks: With regard to what halakha was this stated? The Sages of Neharde’a say: It was stated with regard to the halakha of immersion. A woman does not purify herself through ritual immersion within thirty days of giving birth because she is in a weakened state and susceptible to catching cold.

אמר רבא לא אמרן אלא שאין בעלה עמה אבל בעלה עמה בעלה מחממה כי הא דברתיה דרב חסדא טבלה בגו תלתין יומין שלא בפני בעלה ואצטניאת ואמטוי לערסה בתריה דרבא לפומבדיתא

Rava said: We say that the ruling that she does not immerse during that period applies only when her husband is not with her. However, if her husband is with her, her husband warms her by engaging in relations with her, and she is not susceptible to catching cold, as is illustrated in this incident involving the daughter of Rav Ḥisda, Rava’s wife. She immersed within thirty days of giving birth, not in the presence of her husband, and caught cold, and afterward they brought her funeral bier after Rava to Pumbedita.

אמר רב יהודה אמר שמואל עושין מדורה לחיה בשבת (בימות הגשמים) סבור מינה לחיה אין לחולה לא בימות הגשמים אין בימות החמה לא (ולא היא לא שנא חיה ולא שנא חולה לא שנא בימות הגשמים ולא שנא בימות החמה מדאתמר) אמר רב חייא בר אבין אמר שמואל הקיז דם ונצטנן עושין לו מדורה אפילו בתקופת תמוז

Rav Yehuda said that Shmuel said: One builds a fire for a woman in childbirth on Shabbat during the rainy season. The Sages thought to infer from here the following: For a woman in childbirth, yes, one builds a fire; for sick people, no, he does not build a fire. In the rainy season, yes, one builds a fire; in the summer, no, he does not build a fire. And the Gemara concludes: That is not the case. There is no difference between a woman in childbirth and a sick person, and there is no difference between the rainy season and the summer. In all of these cases one may build a fire on Shabbat. This conclusion emerges from that which was stated: Rav Ḥiyya bar Avin said that Shmuel said: With regard to one who let blood and caught cold, one makes a fire for him even during the season of Tammuz, i.e., the summer. Failure to do so could result in serious illness.

שמואל צלחו ליה תכתקא דשאגא רב יהודה צלחו ליה פתורא דיונה לרבה צלחו ליה שרשיפא

The Gemara relates that after Shmuel underwent bloodletting, they broke for him a wooden armchair made of teak [shaga] to build a fire. Similarly, for the sake of Rav Yehuda they broke a wooden table made of ebony [yavna], and for Rabba they broke a bench. They needed to build a fire due to the potential danger to Rabba. Since they could not find firewood, they kindled the fire with the furniture.

ואמר ליה אביי לרבה והא קעבר מר משום בל תשחית אמר ליה בל תשחית דגופאי עדיף לי

And Abaye said to Rabba: In breaking the bench, didn’t the Master violate the prohibition, “Do not destroy” (Deuteronomy 20:19)? It is prohibited to destroy objects of value. Rabba said to him: Do not destroy also with regard to destruction of my body. Preventing illness and danger is preferable to me.

אמר רב יהודה אמר רב לעולם ימכור אדם קורות ביתו ויקח מנעלים לרגליו הקיז דם ואין לו מה יאכל ימכור מנעלים שברגליו ויספיק מהן צרכי סעודה

With regard to the danger of bloodletting, the Gemara cites that which Rav Yehuda said that Rav said: One should always sell the beams of his house and purchase shoes for his feet with the proceeds, as shoes protect him from stepping on obstacles and from catching cold. If he let blood and has nothing to eat after the bloodletting, he should even sell the shoes on his feet, and from the proceeds provide the needs of a meal. After bloodletting, a meal is more crucial to one’s well-being than shoes are.

מאי צרכי סעודה רב אמר בשר ושמואל אמר יין רב אמר בשר נפשא חלף נפשא ושמואל אמר יין סומקא חלף סומקא:

The Gemara asks: What are these special needs of a meal? Rav said: It is referring to meat. And Shmuel said: It is referring to wine. The Gemara explains: Rav says: It is referring to meat because the soul replaces the soul, i.e., the meat replenishes the person’s strength. And Shmuel said: It is referring to wine because the red replaces the red, i.e., red wine substitutes for red blood.

(סימן שנמסר)

A mnemonic for the names of the Sages cited in the following discussion is the word shenimsar; shin for Shmuel, nun for Rabbi Yoḥanan, mem for Rav Naḥman, samekh for Rav Yosef, reish for Rava.

שמואל ביומא דעבד מילתא עבדי ליה תבשילא דטחלי רבי יוחנן שתי עד דנפיק תיהיא מאוניה ורב נחמן שתי עד דקפי טחליה רב יוסף שתי עד דנפיק מריבדא דכוסילתא רבא מהדר אחמרא בר תלתא טרפי

The Gemara relates the following about bloodletting and drinking wine. Shmuel, on the day on which he would perform the practice of bloodletting, they would prepare for him a dish of cooked spleen. Rabbi Yoḥanan would drink wine after bloodletting until the odor emerged from his ears. And Rav Naḥman would drink until his spleen floated in wine. Rav Yosef would drink until the wine would emerge from the bloodletting incision. Rava would search for wine that was sufficiently aged such that three leaves had already grown over three years on the vine from which the grapes were picked (Rashash).

אמר להו רב נחמן בר יצחק לרבנן במטותא מינייכו ביומא דהקזה אמרו לביתייכו נחמן אקלע לגבן

Rav Naḥman bar Yitzhak said to the Sages: I beg of you, on the day that you undergo bloodletting, tell your households, your wives: Naḥman bar Yitzhak happened to come to visit us. Due to the visit of the important guest, the women will prepare a large meal. The husbands will eat well, recover from the lost blood, and avoid endangering themselves.

וכולהו אערומי אסירי בר מהאי ערמה דשרי מאן דעביד מילתא ולא אפשר ליה לישקול זוזא מכא וליזיל לשב חנותא עד דטעים שיעור רביעתא ואי לא ליכול שב תמרי אוכמתא ולישוף מישחא בצידעיה וניגני בשמשא

And Rav Naḥman bar Yitzhak said: All types of artifice that come at the expense of others are prohibited except for this artifice, which is permitted. One who performed the practice of bloodletting and it is not possible for him to purchase food due to lack of means, let him take a worn zuz coin and go to seven stores. In each store, he tastes the wine as one who seeks to buy wine would. After tasting, he hands the zuz to the storekeeper, who will not accept it because it is worn. He then proceeds to do the same in all the stores until he has tasted the measure of a quarter of a log of wine. And if doing so is not possible, let him eat seven black dates and smear oil on his temple and lie in the sun.

אבלט אשכחיה לשמואל דגני בשמשא אמר ליה חכימא דיהודאי בישא מי הוי טבא אמר ליה יומא דהקזה הוא

The Gemara relates: The gentile scholar, Ablat, found Shmuel lying in the sun. Ablat said to Shmuel: Wise man of the Jews, a matter that is evil, can it become good? Are there any circumstances in which the heat of the sun, which is harmful, can be beneficial? Shmuel said to him: It happens on a day of bloodletting, for which the heat of the sun is beneficial.

ולא היא אלא איכא יומא דמעלי בה שמשא בכוליה שתא יומא דנפלה ביה תקופת תמוז וסבר לא איגלי ליה:

The Gemara comments: And actually, that is not what occurred. Rather, there is a day on which the sun is beneficial more than the entire year, and that is the day on which the Tammuz solstice, the longest day of the year, occurs. And Shmuel thought: I will not reveal this remedy to him.

(היקיל ברוח טעמא שהה סימן) רב ושמואל דאמרי תרוייהו כל המקיל בסעודת הקזת דם מקילין לו מזונותיו מן השמים ואומרים הוא על חייו לא חס אני אחוס עליו

Indifferent, in wind, taste, waited are a mnemonic for the following matters. It was Rav and Shmuel who both said: Anyone who is indifferent and not vigilant with regard to the meal eaten after bloodletting, they are indifferent with regard to providing his food from the Heavens. And they say in the name of Heaven: He took no pity on his life, will I take pity on him?

רב ושמואל דאמרי תרוייהו האי מאן דעביד מילתא לא ליתיב היכא דכריך זיקא דילמא שפי ליה אומנא ומוקים ליה ארביעתא ואתי זיקא ושאיף מיניה ואתי לידי סכנה

Similarly, it was Rav and Shmuel who both said: One who performs the practice of bloodletting should not sit where the wind is blowing, due to the concern that perhaps the blood letter let too much blood from him and established the amount of remaining blood at a quarter of a log. And there is concern the wind will come and draw out a little more blood from him, and he will be endangered.

שמואל הוה רגיל ועבד מילתא בביתא דשב לביניא ואריחא יומא חדא עבד וארגיש בנפשיה בדק וחסר חד אריחא

The Gemara relates: Shmuel would customarily perform the practice of bloodletting in a house whose walls were seven and a half bricks thick. One day he performed bloodletting and felt himself weakened. He examined and discovered that one half-brick was lacking from the thickness of the walls. The resultant chill caused his weakness.

רב ושמואל דאמרי תרוייהו האי מאן דעביד מילתא ליטעום מידי והדר ליפוק דאי לא טעים מידי אי פגע בשכבא ירקא אפיה אי פגע במאן דקטל נפשא מית אי פגע

It was Rav and Shmuel who both said: One who performs the practice of bloodletting should taste something and then go outside, since if he does not taste anything, if he encounters a corpse, his face will turn green. If he encounters one who killed a person, he will die. If he encounters

בדבר אחר קשה לדבר אחר

something else, a euphemism for a pig, it is harmful with regard to something else, a euphemism for leprosy.

רב ושמואל דאמרי תרוייהו האי מאן דעביד מילתא לישהי פורתא והדר ליקום דאמר מר חמשה דברים קרובין למיתה יותר מן החיים ואלו הן אכל ועמד שתה ועמד ישן ועמד הקיז דם ועמד שימש מטתו ועמד

It was Rav and Shmuel who both said: With regard to one who performs the practice of bloodletting, let him wait a bit and then let him rise, as the Master said: There are five matters that render one closer to death than life, and they are these: If one ate and immediately rose, if one drank and rose, if one slept and immediately rose, if one let blood and rose, if one engaged in conjugal relations and rose.

אמר שמואל פורסא דדמא כל תלתין יומין ובין הפרקים ימעט ובין הפרקים יחזור וימעט

Shmuel said: The interval for bloodletting is every thirty days. And during the middle periods of one’s life, he should decrease the frequency of bloodletting; and during the later periods, he should decrease its frequency again.

ואמר שמואל פורסא דדמא חד בשבתא ארבעה ומעלי שבתא אבל שני וחמישי לא דאמר מר מי שיש לו זכות אבות יקיז דם בשני ובחמישי שבית דין של מעלה ושל מטה שוין כאחד

And Shmuel said: The times for bloodletting are the first day of the week, the fourth day of the week and Shabbat eve. However, on the second and the fifth days of the week, no, one should not let blood, as the Master said: Only one who has the merit of his ancestors and relies on it should let blood on the second and on the fifth days of the week, as the court on High, in the heavens, and the court below are equal. The courts in the cities convene on Mondays and Thursdays, as does the heavenly court. Letting blood on a day of judgment is dangerous. If one is judged unfavorably all his blood could flow out.

בתלתא בשבתא מאי טעמא לא משום דקיימא ליה מאדים בזווי מעלי שבתא נמי קיימא בזווי כיון דדשו ביה רבים שומר פתאים ה׳

The Gemara explains: On the third day of the week, what is the reason that one does not let blood? It is because the planet Mars is dominant during the even hours. Since it is a planet of blood, and the even hours are a bad omen, that combination gives cause for concern. The Gemara asks: On Shabbat eve, Mars also dominates during the even hours. The Gemara answers: Since the multitudes have already become accustomed to letting blood on Shabbat eve, the verse: “The Lord protects the simple-hearted” (Psalms 116:6) applies in this case.

אמר שמואל ארבעה דהוא ארבעה ארבעה דהוא ארביסר ארבעה דהוא עשרים וארבעה ארבעה דליכא ארבע בתריה סכנתא

Similarly, Shmuel says: On the fourth day of the week that is the fourth day of the month; on the fourth day of the week that is the fourteenth of the month; on the fourth day of the week that is the twenty-fourth of the month; and on the fourth day of the week after which there are not four days remaining in the month it is dangerous to let blood.

ראש חודש ושני לו חולשא שלישי לו סכנה מעלי יומא טבא חולשא מעלי יומא דעצרתא סכנתא וגזרו רבנן אכולהו מעלי יומא טבא משום יומא טבא דעצרת דנפיק ביה זיקא ושמיה טבוח דאי לא קבלו ישראל תורה הוה טבח להו לבשרייהו ולדמייהו

Bloodletting on the New Moon and on the second day of the month causes weakness; bloodletting on the third day of the month leads to danger. Bloodletting on the eve of a Festival causes weakness; bloodletting on the eve of the festival of Shavuot leads to danger. And the Sages issued a decree prohibiting bloodletting on the eve of every Festival due to the festival of Shavuot. On Shavuot, an evil spirit named Tibbuaḥ, from the Hebrew word meaning slaughter, emerges, as had the Jewish people not accepted the Torah on the festival of Shavuot, Tibbuaḥ would have slaughtered their flesh and their blood. Consequently, it remains a dangerous day.

אמר שמואל אכל חטה והקיז דם לא הקיז אלא לאותה חטה והני מילי לרפואה אבל לאוקולי מיקיל

Shmuel said: If one ate wheat and afterward let blood, he only let that wheat. The bloodletting was ineffective as the wheat replaced any blood that was let. And this ineffectiveness applies only if he let blood to cure an illness; however, to relieve discomfort, bloodletting after eating wheat relieves one’s discomfort.

המקיז דם שתייה לאלתר אכילה עד חצי מיל

One who lets blood should engage in drinking immediately; he should not engage in eating until the time that it takes to walk half a mil has elapsed.

איבעיא להו שתייה לאלתר מעלי אבל בתר הכי קשי או דילמא לא קשי ולא מעלי תיקו

A dilemma was raised before the Sages: When they said that one should engage in drinking immediately, does that mean that drinking immediately is beneficial; however, thereafter, it is injurious? Or perhaps, thereafter it is neither injurious nor beneficial. No resolution is found for this dilemma, therefore it stands unresolved.

איבעיא להו אכילה עד חצי מיל הוא דקמעלי הא בתר הכי ומקמי הכי קשי או דילמא לא קשי ולא מעלי תיקו

Similarly, a dilemma was raised before the Sages: When they said one should not engage in eating until the time that it takes to walk half a mil has elapsed, does that mean that only at that time it is beneficial, however, after that time or before that time it is injurious? Or perhaps, before and after that time it is neither injurious nor beneficial. No resolution is found for this dilemma, therefore it too stands unresolved.

מכריז רב מאה קרי בזוזא מאה רישי בזוזא מאה שפמי ולא כלום אמר רב יוסף כי הוינן בי רב הונא יומא דמפגרי ביה רבנן אמרי האידנא יומא דשפמי הואולא ידענא מאי קאמרי:

Rav would announce: One hundred bloodlettings for a zuz; cutting the hair on one hundred heads for a zuz; grooming one hundred moustaches does not cost anything (ge’onim). Blood letters typically served as barbers as well and did not charge for grooming a moustache. If one hundred men happened to arrive one day to have their moustaches groomed, the barber would work all day without receiving any pay. Rav Yosef said: When we were students in Rav Huna’s school, on a day when the Sages were sluggish in their studies, they would say: Today is the day of the moustaches, and I did not know what they were saying. Now that I heard Rav’s statement, I understand that they meant that it was a day without purpose.

וקושרין הטבור: תנו רבנן קושרין הטבור רבי יוסי אומר אף חותכין וטומנין השליא כדי שיחם הולד אמר רבן שמעון בן גמליאל בנות מלכים טומנות בספלים של שמן בנות עשירים בספוגים של צמר בנות עניים במוכין

We learned in the mishna: And one may tie the umbilical cord of a child born on Shabbat. The Sages taught similarly in the Tosefta and even added to it: One may tie the umbilical cord of a child born on Shabbat. Rabbi Yosei said: One may even cut the umbilical cord. And one may insulate the placenta as a healing remedy so as to warm the newborn. Rabban Shimon ben Gamliel said: Princesses insulate the placenta in mugs of oil; the daughters of the wealthy do so in combed wool; the daughters of the poor in soft rags.

אמר רב נחמן אמר רבה בר אבוה אמר רב הלכה כרבי יוסי

Rav Naḥman said that Rabba bar Avuh said that Rav said: The halakha is in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Yosei that it is even permitted to cut the umbilical cord on Shabbat.

ואמר רב נחמן אמר רבה בר אבוה אמר רב מודים חכמים לרבי יוסי בטבור של שני תינוקות שחותכין מאי טעמא דמנתחי אהדדי

And Rav Naḥman said that Rabba bar Avuh said that Rav said: The Rabbis concede to Rabbi Yosei with regard to the umbilical cord attached to twin babies that one may cut it on Shabbat. What is the reason for this? In that case, leaving the cord attached is dangerous. Since the attached twins will try to disengage from each other, they could potentially rip each other’s cords.

ואמר רב נחמן אמר רבה בר אבוה אמר רב כל האמור בפרשת תוכחה עושין לחיה בשבת שנאמר ומולדותיך ביום הולדת אותך לא כרת שרך ובמים לא רחצת למשעי והמלח לא המלחת והחתל לא חתלת

And Rav Naḥman said that Rabba bar Avuh said that Rav said: Everything stated in the passage of rebuke (Ezekiel 16) one may perform for a woman in childbirth on Shabbat. Since that chapter speaks of the dangerous birth of an abandoned child, for all other children, these issues should be addressed. As it is stated there: “And as for your birth, on the day you were born, your navel was not cut, and you were not washed in water for cleansing, and you were not salted, nor were you swaddled” (Ezekiel 16:4).

ומולדותיך ביום הולדת מכאן שמיילדים את הולד בשבת לא כרת שרך מכאן שחותכין הטבור בשבת ובמים לא רחצת למשעי מכאן שרוחצין הולד בשבת והמלח לא המלחת מכאן שמולחין הולד בשבת והחתל לא חתלת מכאן שמלפפין הולד בשבת:

The Gemara explains: “And as for your birth, on the day you were born”; from here it is derived that one delivers the newborn on Shabbat. “Your navel was not cut”; from here it is derived that one cuts the umbilical cord on Shabbat. “And you were not washed in water for cleansing”; from here it is derived that one washes the newborn on Shabbat. “And you were not salted”; from here it is derived that one salts the newborn on Shabbat. “Nor were you swaddled”; from here it is derived that one swaddles the newborn on Shabbat.

הדרן עלך מפנין

 

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Shabbat 129

צריכה אני בין לא אמרה צריכה אני אין מחללין עליה את השבת

I need Shabbat to be desecrated, or whether she did not say: I need Shabbat to be desecrated, one does not desecrate Shabbat for her.

רב אשי מתני הכי מר זוטרא מתני הכי אמר רב יהודה אמר שמואל חיה כל זמן שהקבר פתוח בין אמרה צריכה אני ובין אמרה אין צריכה אני מחללין עליה את השבת נסתם הקבר אמרה צריכה אני מחללין עליה את השבת לא אמרה צריכה אני אין מחללין עליה את השבת

That is how Rav Ashi taught it. This is how Mar Zutra taught it: Rav Yehuda said that Shmuel said: With regard to a woman in childbirth, as long as the womb is open, whether she said: I need Shabbat to be desecrated, or whether she did not say: I need Shabbat to be desecrated, one desecrates Shabbat for her. Once the womb closed after birth, if she said: I need Shabbat to be desecrated, one desecrates Shabbat for her. If she did not say: I need Shabbat to be desecrated, and all the more so if she said: I do not need Shabbat to be desecrated, one does not desecrate Shabbat for her.

אמר ליה רבינא למרימר מר זוטרא מתני לקולא ורב אשי מתני לחומרא הלכתא כמאן אמר ליה הלכה כמר זוטרא ספק נפשות להקל

Ravina said to Mareimar: Since Mar Zutra teaches leniently, and Rav Ashi teaches stringently, in accordance with whose opinion is the halakha? Mareimar said to him: The halakha is in accordance with the opinion of Mar Zutra, based on the following principle: In cases of uncertainty concerning a life-threatening situation, the halakha is lenient.

מאימתי פתיחת הקבר אמר אביי משעה שתשב על המשבר רב הונא בריה דרב יהושע אמר משעה שהדם שותת ויורד ואמרי לה משעה שחברותיה נושאות אותה באגפיה

With regard to the matter of the open womb, the Gemara asks: From when is it considered that the opening of the womb has begun? Abaye says: It begins from when the woman sits on the travailing chair. Rav Huna, son of Rav Yehoshua, said: It begins from when the blood flows and descends; and others say when her friends need to carry her by her arms, as she can no longer walk on her own.

עד מתי פתיחת הקבר אמר אביי שלשה ימים רבא אמר משמיה דרב יהודה שבעה ואמרי לה שלשים

The Gemara asks: Until when does the opening of the womb continue? Abaye said: It lasts three days. Rava said in the name of Rav Yehuda: It lasts seven days. And others say: It lasts thirty days.

אמרי נהרדעי חיה שלשה שבעה ושלשים שלשה בין אמרה צריכה אני ובין אמרה לא צריכה אני מחללין עליה את השבת שבעה אמרה צריכה אני מחללין עליה את השבת אמרה לא צריכה אני אין מחללין עליה את השבת שלשים אפילו אמרה צריכה אני אין מחללין עליה את השבת אבל עושין על ידי ארמאי

The Sages of Neharde’a say: For a woman in childbirth, there are halakhic distinctions between three, seven, and thirty days after she gives birth. The Gemara elaborates: During the first three days after birth, whether she said: I need Shabbat to be desecrated, or whether she did not say: I need Shabbat to be desecrated, one desecrates Shabbat for her. Between three and seven days after birth, if she said: I need Shabbat to be desecrated, one desecrates Shabbat for her. If she did not say: I need Shabbat to be desecrated, one does not desecrate Shabbat for her. Between seven and thirty days after birth, even if she said: I need Shabbat to be desecrated, one does not desecrate Shabbat for her; however, we perform all necessary prohibited labors by means of a gentile.

כדרב עולא בריה דרב עילאי דאמר כל צרכי חולה נעשין על ידי ארמאי בשבת וכדרב המנונא דאמר רב המנונא דבר שאין בו סכנה אומר לגוי ועושה

This ruling is in accordance with the statement of Rav Ulla, son of Rav Ilai, who said: All needs of a sick person whose life is not in danger are performed by means of a gentile on Shabbat. And this ruling is in accordance with the opinion of Rav Hamnuna, as Rav Hamnuna says: With regard to a matter in which there is no danger, but only potential illness, one says to the gentile to perform the act, and the gentile performs the act.

אמר רב יהודה אמר שמואל לחיה שלשים יום למאי הלכתא אמרי נהרדעי לטבילה

Rav Yehuda said that Shmuel said: For a woman in childbirth, there is a halakha of thirty days. The Gemara asks: With regard to what halakha was this stated? The Sages of Neharde’a say: It was stated with regard to the halakha of immersion. A woman does not purify herself through ritual immersion within thirty days of giving birth because she is in a weakened state and susceptible to catching cold.

אמר רבא לא אמרן אלא שאין בעלה עמה אבל בעלה עמה בעלה מחממה כי הא דברתיה דרב חסדא טבלה בגו תלתין יומין שלא בפני בעלה ואצטניאת ואמטוי לערסה בתריה דרבא לפומבדיתא

Rava said: We say that the ruling that she does not immerse during that period applies only when her husband is not with her. However, if her husband is with her, her husband warms her by engaging in relations with her, and she is not susceptible to catching cold, as is illustrated in this incident involving the daughter of Rav Ḥisda, Rava’s wife. She immersed within thirty days of giving birth, not in the presence of her husband, and caught cold, and afterward they brought her funeral bier after Rava to Pumbedita.

אמר רב יהודה אמר שמואל עושין מדורה לחיה בשבת (בימות הגשמים) סבור מינה לחיה אין לחולה לא בימות הגשמים אין בימות החמה לא (ולא היא לא שנא חיה ולא שנא חולה לא שנא בימות הגשמים ולא שנא בימות החמה מדאתמר) אמר רב חייא בר אבין אמר שמואל הקיז דם ונצטנן עושין לו מדורה אפילו בתקופת תמוז

Rav Yehuda said that Shmuel said: One builds a fire for a woman in childbirth on Shabbat during the rainy season. The Sages thought to infer from here the following: For a woman in childbirth, yes, one builds a fire; for sick people, no, he does not build a fire. In the rainy season, yes, one builds a fire; in the summer, no, he does not build a fire. And the Gemara concludes: That is not the case. There is no difference between a woman in childbirth and a sick person, and there is no difference between the rainy season and the summer. In all of these cases one may build a fire on Shabbat. This conclusion emerges from that which was stated: Rav Ḥiyya bar Avin said that Shmuel said: With regard to one who let blood and caught cold, one makes a fire for him even during the season of Tammuz, i.e., the summer. Failure to do so could result in serious illness.

שמואל צלחו ליה תכתקא דשאגא רב יהודה צלחו ליה פתורא דיונה לרבה צלחו ליה שרשיפא

The Gemara relates that after Shmuel underwent bloodletting, they broke for him a wooden armchair made of teak [shaga] to build a fire. Similarly, for the sake of Rav Yehuda they broke a wooden table made of ebony [yavna], and for Rabba they broke a bench. They needed to build a fire due to the potential danger to Rabba. Since they could not find firewood, they kindled the fire with the furniture.

ואמר ליה אביי לרבה והא קעבר מר משום בל תשחית אמר ליה בל תשחית דגופאי עדיף לי

And Abaye said to Rabba: In breaking the bench, didn’t the Master violate the prohibition, “Do not destroy” (Deuteronomy 20:19)? It is prohibited to destroy objects of value. Rabba said to him: Do not destroy also with regard to destruction of my body. Preventing illness and danger is preferable to me.

אמר רב יהודה אמר רב לעולם ימכור אדם קורות ביתו ויקח מנעלים לרגליו הקיז דם ואין לו מה יאכל ימכור מנעלים שברגליו ויספיק מהן צרכי סעודה

With regard to the danger of bloodletting, the Gemara cites that which Rav Yehuda said that Rav said: One should always sell the beams of his house and purchase shoes for his feet with the proceeds, as shoes protect him from stepping on obstacles and from catching cold. If he let blood and has nothing to eat after the bloodletting, he should even sell the shoes on his feet, and from the proceeds provide the needs of a meal. After bloodletting, a meal is more crucial to one’s well-being than shoes are.

מאי צרכי סעודה רב אמר בשר ושמואל אמר יין רב אמר בשר נפשא חלף נפשא ושמואל אמר יין סומקא חלף סומקא:

The Gemara asks: What are these special needs of a meal? Rav said: It is referring to meat. And Shmuel said: It is referring to wine. The Gemara explains: Rav says: It is referring to meat because the soul replaces the soul, i.e., the meat replenishes the person’s strength. And Shmuel said: It is referring to wine because the red replaces the red, i.e., red wine substitutes for red blood.

(סימן שנמסר)

A mnemonic for the names of the Sages cited in the following discussion is the word shenimsar; shin for Shmuel, nun for Rabbi Yoḥanan, mem for Rav Naḥman, samekh for Rav Yosef, reish for Rava.

שמואל ביומא דעבד מילתא עבדי ליה תבשילא דטחלי רבי יוחנן שתי עד דנפיק תיהיא מאוניה ורב נחמן שתי עד דקפי טחליה רב יוסף שתי עד דנפיק מריבדא דכוסילתא רבא מהדר אחמרא בר תלתא טרפי

The Gemara relates the following about bloodletting and drinking wine. Shmuel, on the day on which he would perform the practice of bloodletting, they would prepare for him a dish of cooked spleen. Rabbi Yoḥanan would drink wine after bloodletting until the odor emerged from his ears. And Rav Naḥman would drink until his spleen floated in wine. Rav Yosef would drink until the wine would emerge from the bloodletting incision. Rava would search for wine that was sufficiently aged such that three leaves had already grown over three years on the vine from which the grapes were picked (Rashash).

אמר להו רב נחמן בר יצחק לרבנן במטותא מינייכו ביומא דהקזה אמרו לביתייכו נחמן אקלע לגבן

Rav Naḥman bar Yitzhak said to the Sages: I beg of you, on the day that you undergo bloodletting, tell your households, your wives: Naḥman bar Yitzhak happened to come to visit us. Due to the visit of the important guest, the women will prepare a large meal. The husbands will eat well, recover from the lost blood, and avoid endangering themselves.

וכולהו אערומי אסירי בר מהאי ערמה דשרי מאן דעביד מילתא ולא אפשר ליה לישקול זוזא מכא וליזיל לשב חנותא עד דטעים שיעור רביעתא ואי לא ליכול שב תמרי אוכמתא ולישוף מישחא בצידעיה וניגני בשמשא

And Rav Naḥman bar Yitzhak said: All types of artifice that come at the expense of others are prohibited except for this artifice, which is permitted. One who performed the practice of bloodletting and it is not possible for him to purchase food due to lack of means, let him take a worn zuz coin and go to seven stores. In each store, he tastes the wine as one who seeks to buy wine would. After tasting, he hands the zuz to the storekeeper, who will not accept it because it is worn. He then proceeds to do the same in all the stores until he has tasted the measure of a quarter of a log of wine. And if doing so is not possible, let him eat seven black dates and smear oil on his temple and lie in the sun.

אבלט אשכחיה לשמואל דגני בשמשא אמר ליה חכימא דיהודאי בישא מי הוי טבא אמר ליה יומא דהקזה הוא

The Gemara relates: The gentile scholar, Ablat, found Shmuel lying in the sun. Ablat said to Shmuel: Wise man of the Jews, a matter that is evil, can it become good? Are there any circumstances in which the heat of the sun, which is harmful, can be beneficial? Shmuel said to him: It happens on a day of bloodletting, for which the heat of the sun is beneficial.

ולא היא אלא איכא יומא דמעלי בה שמשא בכוליה שתא יומא דנפלה ביה תקופת תמוז וסבר לא איגלי ליה:

The Gemara comments: And actually, that is not what occurred. Rather, there is a day on which the sun is beneficial more than the entire year, and that is the day on which the Tammuz solstice, the longest day of the year, occurs. And Shmuel thought: I will not reveal this remedy to him.

(היקיל ברוח טעמא שהה סימן) רב ושמואל דאמרי תרוייהו כל המקיל בסעודת הקזת דם מקילין לו מזונותיו מן השמים ואומרים הוא על חייו לא חס אני אחוס עליו

Indifferent, in wind, taste, waited are a mnemonic for the following matters. It was Rav and Shmuel who both said: Anyone who is indifferent and not vigilant with regard to the meal eaten after bloodletting, they are indifferent with regard to providing his food from the Heavens. And they say in the name of Heaven: He took no pity on his life, will I take pity on him?

רב ושמואל דאמרי תרוייהו האי מאן דעביד מילתא לא ליתיב היכא דכריך זיקא דילמא שפי ליה אומנא ומוקים ליה ארביעתא ואתי זיקא ושאיף מיניה ואתי לידי סכנה

Similarly, it was Rav and Shmuel who both said: One who performs the practice of bloodletting should not sit where the wind is blowing, due to the concern that perhaps the blood letter let too much blood from him and established the amount of remaining blood at a quarter of a log. And there is concern the wind will come and draw out a little more blood from him, and he will be endangered.

שמואל הוה רגיל ועבד מילתא בביתא דשב לביניא ואריחא יומא חדא עבד וארגיש בנפשיה בדק וחסר חד אריחא

The Gemara relates: Shmuel would customarily perform the practice of bloodletting in a house whose walls were seven and a half bricks thick. One day he performed bloodletting and felt himself weakened. He examined and discovered that one half-brick was lacking from the thickness of the walls. The resultant chill caused his weakness.

רב ושמואל דאמרי תרוייהו האי מאן דעביד מילתא ליטעום מידי והדר ליפוק דאי לא טעים מידי אי פגע בשכבא ירקא אפיה אי פגע במאן דקטל נפשא מית אי פגע

It was Rav and Shmuel who both said: One who performs the practice of bloodletting should taste something and then go outside, since if he does not taste anything, if he encounters a corpse, his face will turn green. If he encounters one who killed a person, he will die. If he encounters

בדבר אחר קשה לדבר אחר

something else, a euphemism for a pig, it is harmful with regard to something else, a euphemism for leprosy.

רב ושמואל דאמרי תרוייהו האי מאן דעביד מילתא לישהי פורתא והדר ליקום דאמר מר חמשה דברים קרובין למיתה יותר מן החיים ואלו הן אכל ועמד שתה ועמד ישן ועמד הקיז דם ועמד שימש מטתו ועמד

It was Rav and Shmuel who both said: With regard to one who performs the practice of bloodletting, let him wait a bit and then let him rise, as the Master said: There are five matters that render one closer to death than life, and they are these: If one ate and immediately rose, if one drank and rose, if one slept and immediately rose, if one let blood and rose, if one engaged in conjugal relations and rose.

אמר שמואל פורסא דדמא כל תלתין יומין ובין הפרקים ימעט ובין הפרקים יחזור וימעט

Shmuel said: The interval for bloodletting is every thirty days. And during the middle periods of one’s life, he should decrease the frequency of bloodletting; and during the later periods, he should decrease its frequency again.

ואמר שמואל פורסא דדמא חד בשבתא ארבעה ומעלי שבתא אבל שני וחמישי לא דאמר מר מי שיש לו זכות אבות יקיז דם בשני ובחמישי שבית דין של מעלה ושל מטה שוין כאחד

And Shmuel said: The times for bloodletting are the first day of the week, the fourth day of the week and Shabbat eve. However, on the second and the fifth days of the week, no, one should not let blood, as the Master said: Only one who has the merit of his ancestors and relies on it should let blood on the second and on the fifth days of the week, as the court on High, in the heavens, and the court below are equal. The courts in the cities convene on Mondays and Thursdays, as does the heavenly court. Letting blood on a day of judgment is dangerous. If one is judged unfavorably all his blood could flow out.

בתלתא בשבתא מאי טעמא לא משום דקיימא ליה מאדים בזווי מעלי שבתא נמי קיימא בזווי כיון דדשו ביה רבים שומר פתאים ה׳

The Gemara explains: On the third day of the week, what is the reason that one does not let blood? It is because the planet Mars is dominant during the even hours. Since it is a planet of blood, and the even hours are a bad omen, that combination gives cause for concern. The Gemara asks: On Shabbat eve, Mars also dominates during the even hours. The Gemara answers: Since the multitudes have already become accustomed to letting blood on Shabbat eve, the verse: “The Lord protects the simple-hearted” (Psalms 116:6) applies in this case.

אמר שמואל ארבעה דהוא ארבעה ארבעה דהוא ארביסר ארבעה דהוא עשרים וארבעה ארבעה דליכא ארבע בתריה סכנתא

Similarly, Shmuel says: On the fourth day of the week that is the fourth day of the month; on the fourth day of the week that is the fourteenth of the month; on the fourth day of the week that is the twenty-fourth of the month; and on the fourth day of the week after which there are not four days remaining in the month it is dangerous to let blood.

ראש חודש ושני לו חולשא שלישי לו סכנה מעלי יומא טבא חולשא מעלי יומא דעצרתא סכנתא וגזרו רבנן אכולהו מעלי יומא טבא משום יומא טבא דעצרת דנפיק ביה זיקא ושמיה טבוח דאי לא קבלו ישראל תורה הוה טבח להו לבשרייהו ולדמייהו

Bloodletting on the New Moon and on the second day of the month causes weakness; bloodletting on the third day of the month leads to danger. Bloodletting on the eve of a Festival causes weakness; bloodletting on the eve of the festival of Shavuot leads to danger. And the Sages issued a decree prohibiting bloodletting on the eve of every Festival due to the festival of Shavuot. On Shavuot, an evil spirit named Tibbuaḥ, from the Hebrew word meaning slaughter, emerges, as had the Jewish people not accepted the Torah on the festival of Shavuot, Tibbuaḥ would have slaughtered their flesh and their blood. Consequently, it remains a dangerous day.

אמר שמואל אכל חטה והקיז דם לא הקיז אלא לאותה חטה והני מילי לרפואה אבל לאוקולי מיקיל

Shmuel said: If one ate wheat and afterward let blood, he only let that wheat. The bloodletting was ineffective as the wheat replaced any blood that was let. And this ineffectiveness applies only if he let blood to cure an illness; however, to relieve discomfort, bloodletting after eating wheat relieves one’s discomfort.

המקיז דם שתייה לאלתר אכילה עד חצי מיל

One who lets blood should engage in drinking immediately; he should not engage in eating until the time that it takes to walk half a mil has elapsed.

איבעיא להו שתייה לאלתר מעלי אבל בתר הכי קשי או דילמא לא קשי ולא מעלי תיקו

A dilemma was raised before the Sages: When they said that one should engage in drinking immediately, does that mean that drinking immediately is beneficial; however, thereafter, it is injurious? Or perhaps, thereafter it is neither injurious nor beneficial. No resolution is found for this dilemma, therefore it stands unresolved.

איבעיא להו אכילה עד חצי מיל הוא דקמעלי הא בתר הכי ומקמי הכי קשי או דילמא לא קשי ולא מעלי תיקו

Similarly, a dilemma was raised before the Sages: When they said one should not engage in eating until the time that it takes to walk half a mil has elapsed, does that mean that only at that time it is beneficial, however, after that time or before that time it is injurious? Or perhaps, before and after that time it is neither injurious nor beneficial. No resolution is found for this dilemma, therefore it too stands unresolved.

מכריז רב מאה קרי בזוזא מאה רישי בזוזא מאה שפמי ולא כלום אמר רב יוסף כי הוינן בי רב הונא יומא דמפגרי ביה רבנן אמרי האידנא יומא דשפמי הואולא ידענא מאי קאמרי:

Rav would announce: One hundred bloodlettings for a zuz; cutting the hair on one hundred heads for a zuz; grooming one hundred moustaches does not cost anything (ge’onim). Blood letters typically served as barbers as well and did not charge for grooming a moustache. If one hundred men happened to arrive one day to have their moustaches groomed, the barber would work all day without receiving any pay. Rav Yosef said: When we were students in Rav Huna’s school, on a day when the Sages were sluggish in their studies, they would say: Today is the day of the moustaches, and I did not know what they were saying. Now that I heard Rav’s statement, I understand that they meant that it was a day without purpose.

וקושרין הטבור: תנו רבנן קושרין הטבור רבי יוסי אומר אף חותכין וטומנין השליא כדי שיחם הולד אמר רבן שמעון בן גמליאל בנות מלכים טומנות בספלים של שמן בנות עשירים בספוגים של צמר בנות עניים במוכין

We learned in the mishna: And one may tie the umbilical cord of a child born on Shabbat. The Sages taught similarly in the Tosefta and even added to it: One may tie the umbilical cord of a child born on Shabbat. Rabbi Yosei said: One may even cut the umbilical cord. And one may insulate the placenta as a healing remedy so as to warm the newborn. Rabban Shimon ben Gamliel said: Princesses insulate the placenta in mugs of oil; the daughters of the wealthy do so in combed wool; the daughters of the poor in soft rags.

אמר רב נחמן אמר רבה בר אבוה אמר רב הלכה כרבי יוסי

Rav Naḥman said that Rabba bar Avuh said that Rav said: The halakha is in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Yosei that it is even permitted to cut the umbilical cord on Shabbat.

ואמר רב נחמן אמר רבה בר אבוה אמר רב מודים חכמים לרבי יוסי בטבור של שני תינוקות שחותכין מאי טעמא דמנתחי אהדדי

And Rav Naḥman said that Rabba bar Avuh said that Rav said: The Rabbis concede to Rabbi Yosei with regard to the umbilical cord attached to twin babies that one may cut it on Shabbat. What is the reason for this? In that case, leaving the cord attached is dangerous. Since the attached twins will try to disengage from each other, they could potentially rip each other’s cords.

ואמר רב נחמן אמר רבה בר אבוה אמר רב כל האמור בפרשת תוכחה עושין לחיה בשבת שנאמר ומולדותיך ביום הולדת אותך לא כרת שרך ובמים לא רחצת למשעי והמלח לא המלחת והחתל לא חתלת

And Rav Naḥman said that Rabba bar Avuh said that Rav said: Everything stated in the passage of rebuke (Ezekiel 16) one may perform for a woman in childbirth on Shabbat. Since that chapter speaks of the dangerous birth of an abandoned child, for all other children, these issues should be addressed. As it is stated there: “And as for your birth, on the day you were born, your navel was not cut, and you were not washed in water for cleansing, and you were not salted, nor were you swaddled” (Ezekiel 16:4).

ומולדותיך ביום הולדת מכאן שמיילדים את הולד בשבת לא כרת שרך מכאן שחותכין הטבור בשבת ובמים לא רחצת למשעי מכאן שרוחצין הולד בשבת והמלח לא המלחת מכאן שמולחין הולד בשבת והחתל לא חתלת מכאן שמלפפין הולד בשבת:

The Gemara explains: “And as for your birth, on the day you were born”; from here it is derived that one delivers the newborn on Shabbat. “Your navel was not cut”; from here it is derived that one cuts the umbilical cord on Shabbat. “And you were not washed in water for cleansing”; from here it is derived that one washes the newborn on Shabbat. “And you were not salted”; from here it is derived that one salts the newborn on Shabbat. “Nor were you swaddled”; from here it is derived that one swaddles the newborn on Shabbat.

הדרן עלך מפנין

 

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