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Today's Daf Yomi

July 31, 2020 | י׳ באב תש״פ

Masechet Shabbat is sponsored in memory of Elliot Freilich, Eliyahu Daniel ben Bar Tzion David Halevi z"l by a group of women from Kehilath Jeshurun, Manhattan.

Shabbat 147

Today’s daf is dedicated by David and Margie Zweibel in memory of David’s father, Yehuda Aryeh ben Moshe z”l and by Ayelet Hermel in memory of her grandmother Rivka Regina bat Faiga and Efraim z”l. 

The mishna and gemara go over all sorts of actions that are either permitted or forbidden due to concern/no concern that one may do something forbidden or because it may be considered uvda d’chol – a weekday activity. Can one do something where it may look like to others that one has laundered? If it is forbidden can one do it where no one will see? Do we generally say that anything forbidden because of marit ayin, what others may think, is forbidden even where others may not see? Can one wipe off one’s clothing – it that consdiered laundering? On what does it depend? How subjective it this? If one dried off with a towel after washing in the river, are we worried if we allow them to take it home, they may wring it out? Can one rub oil on one’s body? On  what does it depend? In te context of discussiong pleasurable things one does for one’s body, the gemara references the story of Rabbi Elazar ben Arach who did not follow the rabbis to Yavneh and stayed in his city to engage in pleasurable activities and forgot all of his Torah.

המנער טליתו בשבת חייב חטאת ולא אמרן אלא בחדתי אבל בעתיקי לית לן בה ולא אמרן אלא באוכמי אבל בחיורי וסומקי לית לן בה והוא דקפיד עלייהו

One who shakes his cloak on Shabbat to remove dust that collected on it is liable to bring a sin-offering for violating the prohibition of laundering. The Gemara qualifies this ruling: We only stated this halakha with regard to new garments, but with regard to old garments, we have no problem with this behavior. And we only stated this with regard to black garments, but with regard to white or red garments, we have no problem, as shaking off the dust would not be prohibited. And this prohibition applies only when one is particular about keeping them clean, but if one does not insist on wearing clean garments, we have no problem with it, i.e., it is not prohibited to shake off the dust.

עולא איקלע לפומבדיתא חזא רבנן דקא מנפצי גלימייהו אמר קמחללין רבנן שבתא אמר להו רב יהודה נפוצי ליה באפיה אנן לא קפדינן מידי

The Gemara relates that Ulla happened to come to Pumbedita, and while there he saw rabbis shaking their cloaks to remove dust. He said: The Rabbis are desecrating Shabbat. Rav Yehuda said to the Rabbis whom Ulla criticized: You may continue to shake your cloaks in his presence. We are not at all particular about this, and it is therefore permitted for us to shake the dust from our cloaks.

אביי הוה קאי קמיה דרב יוסף אמר ליה הב לי כומתאי [חזא דאיכא] טלא עליה הוה קמחסם למיתבה ליה אמר ליה נפוץ שדי אנן לא קפדינן מידי

The Gemara also relates that Abaye was standing before Rav Yosef. Rav Yosef said to him: Give me my hat. Abaye saw that there was dew on it, and he hesitated to give it to him, because he feared violating a prohibition by shaking off the dew. Rav Yosef said to him: Shake off the dew and throw me the hat; we are not at all particular about the cleanliness of the hat, and it is therefore permitted to shake off the dew.

אמר רב יצחק בר יוסף אמר רבי יוחנן היוצא בטלית מקופלת מונחת לו על כתיפו בשבת חייב חטאת תניא נמי הכי סוחרי כסות היוצאים בטליתות מקופלות ומונחות על כתיפן בשבת חייבין חטאת ולא סוחרי כסות בלבד אמרו אלא כל אדם אלא שדרכן של מוכרין לצאת כך

Rav Yitzḥak bar Yosef said that Rabbi Yoḥanan said: One who goes out with a cloak folded and resting on his shoulder on Shabbat is liable to bring a sin-offering for carrying in the public domain. This ruling was also taught in a baraita: Clothing merchants who go outs with cloaks folded and resting on their shoulders on Shabbat are liable to bring a sin-offering. And they did not say this only with regard to clothing merchants; rather, any person is liable for this transgression, and they only stated the halakha in these terms because it is the usual manner for merchants to go out this way.

וחנוני היוצא במעות הצרורין לו בסדינו חייב חטאת ולא חנוני בלבד אמרו אלא כל אדם אלא שדרכו של חנוני לצאת כך והרטנין יוצאין בסודרין שעל כתיפן ולא רטנין בלבד אמרו אלא כל אדם אלא שדרכן של רטנין לצאת בכך

And likewise, a shopkeeper who goes out with coins bound in his cloak is liable to bring a sin-offering. And they did not say this only with regard to a shopkeeper; rather, any person is liable for this, and they only stated the halakha in these terms because it is the usual manner of a shopkeeper to go out this way. And runners, i.e., foot messengers, may go out on Shabbat with scarves on their shoulders, because this is how they typically wear them. And they did not say this only with regard to runners; rather, any person is permitted to do this, but it is simply the usual manner of runners to go out this way.

אמר רבי יהודה מעשה בהורקנוס בנו של רבי אליעזר בן הורקנוס שיצא בסודר שעל כתיפו בשבת אלא שנימא כרוכה לו באצבעו וכשבא הדבר לפני חכמים אמרו אפילו אין נימא כרוכה לו באצבעו דרש רב נחמן בר רב חסדא משמיה דרב חסדא הלכה אף על פי שאין נימא כרוכה לו באצבעותיו

Rabbi Yehuda said: There was an incident involving Hyrcanus, son of Rabbi Eliezer ben Hyrcanus, who went outside with a scarf on his shoulder on Shabbat. However, a thread from the garment was tied around his finger so that the garment would not fall. When this matter came before the Sages, they said: It is permitted to go out in that manner even if a thread is not tied around one’s finger. And likewise, Rav Naḥman bar Rav Ḥisda taught in the name of Rav Ḥisda: The halakha is that one may go outside with a garment around one’s shoulders even if a thread from the garment is not tied around one’s finger.

עולא איקלע לבי אסי בר היני בעו מיניה מהו לעשות מרזב בשבת אמר להו הכי אמר רבי אלעי אסור לעשות מרזב בשבת מאי מרזב אמר רבי זירא כיסי בבלייתא

Ulla happened to come to the house of Asi bar Hini. The members of the household asked him: What is the halakha: Is it permitted to make a spout of one’s garment on Shabbat? Ulla said to them that this is what Rabbi Elai said: It is prohibited to make a spout on Shabbat. The Gemara asks: What is the spout referred to here? Rabbi Zeira said: It is referring to Babylonian pockets, which were formed by lifting up the bottom of the cloaks and tying them to their shoulders to make pocket-like folds in their garments.

רבי ירמיה הוה יתיב קמיה דרבי זירא אמר ליה הכי מאי אמר ליה אסור והכי מאי אמר ליה אסור אמר רב פפא נקוט האי כללא בידך כל אדעתא דלכנופי אסור כל דלהתנאות שרי כי הא דרב שישא בריה דרב אידי מתנאה בסדינו הוה

The Gemara relates that Rabbi Yirmeya was sitting before Rabbi Zeira and showed him a certain fold and said to him: What is the halakha with regard to this kind of fold on Shabbat? He said to him: It is prohibited to make it on Shabbat. He then showed him another fold and asked: And what is the halakha with regard to this? He said to him: It is prohibited. Rav Pappa said: Grasp this principle: Any fold made to gather one’s clothing from the ground is prohibited, and any fold that is merely to beautify oneself is permitted, as the precedent of Rav Sheisha, son of Rav Idi, who was beautifying himself with his garment by folding it on his shoulders.

כי אתא רב דימי אמר פעם אחת יצא רבי לשדה והיו שני צידי טליתו מונחין על כתיפו אמר לפניו יהושע בן זירוז בן חמיו של רבי מאיר בזו לא חייב רבי מאיר חטאת אמר ליה דקדק רבי מאיר עד כאן שלשל רבי טליתו

When Rav Dimi came from Eretz Yisrael to Babylonia, he said: On one occasion, Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi went out into a field, and the two sides of his cloak were resting on his shoulders. Yehoshua ben Zeiruz, son of the father-in-law of Rabbi Meir, said before Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi: In a case like this, didn’t Rabbi Meir hold one liable to bring a sin-offering? Rabbi said to him: Was Rabbi Meir exacting to that extent, i.e., he considered wearing a garment in this fashion to be carrying on Shabbat? If so, it is preferable to avoid questionable practices; immediately Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi lowered his cloak from his shoulders.

כי אתא רבין אמר לא יהושע בן זירוז הוה אלא יהושע בן כפוסאי היה חתנו של רבי עקיבא אמר בזו לא חייב רבי עקיבא חטאת אמר לו דקדק רבי עקיבא עד כאן שלשל רבי טליתו כי אתא רב שמואל בר רב יהודה אמר נשאל איתמר:

When Ravin came from Eretz Yisrael to Babylonia he said: It was not Yehoshua ben Zeiruz; rather, it was Yehoshua ben Kefusai, Rabbi Akiva’s son-in-law, and he said: In a case like this, didn’t Rabbi Akiva hold one liable to bring a sin-offering? Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi said to him: Was Rabbi Akiva exacting to that extent? If so, it is preferable to avoid questionable practices. Immediately, Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi lowered his cloak from his shoulders. When Rav Shmuel bar Rav Yehuda came, he said: This is not what happened, as Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi himself did not wear his cloak folded up on his shoulders on Shabbat. Rather it was stated that Rabbi was asked, meaning that this question came before him, and he wanted to rule leniently, until he was informed that some of the greatest Sages of the generation ruled stringently.

מתני׳ הרוחץ במי מערה ובמי טבריא ונסתפג אפילו בעשר אלונטיאות לא יביאם בידו אבל עשרה בני אדם מסתפגין באלונטית אחת פניהם ידיהם ורגליהם ומביאין אותן בידן

MISHNA: One who bathes on Shabbat in a ritual bath formed by cave water or in the water of Tiberias and dried himself even with ten towels may not carry them in his hand, lest he forget that it is Shabbat and wring the water from them. However, ten people may use one towel to dry their faces, hands, and feet, and may carry them in their hands. Even though in this case the towel would be quite wet, it is permitted to handle the towel because there are several people present, and they will remind each other that it is prohibited to wring a towel on Shabbat.

סכין וממשמשין אבל לא מתעמלין ולא מתגררין אין יורדין לקורדימא ואין עושין אפיקטויזין ואין מעצבין את הקטן ואין מחזירין את השבר מי שנפרקה ידו ורגלו לא יטרפם בצונן אבל רוחץ הוא כדרכו ואם נתרפא נתרפא:

Apropos the waters of Tiberias, the mishna discusses the halakhot of bathing and medicine on Shabbat. One may smear oil on his body and gently rub his body with his hand; however, one may not exert himself with vigorous massage or by means of exercise in order to benefit from the therapeutic effects of sweating; and one may not scrape the oil off with a scraper. Additionally, one may not go into a swampy river [kurdima], on Shabbat. And one may not make a drug to induce vomiting, nor may one align a young infant’s bones to straighten them, nor may one reset a break in a bone. One whose hand or foot was dislocated may not move them about vigorously in cold water, which is the standard method of treatment; however, one may wash the limb in the typical manner, and if one is cured through this washing, he is cured.

גמ׳ קתני מי מערה דומיא דמי טבריא מה מי טבריא חמין אף מי מערה חמין הרוחץ דיעבד אין לכתחילה לא מכלל

GEMARA: The tanna of the mishna teaches the case of cave water that is similar to the case of water of Tiberias; just as the water of Tiberias is hot, so too the cave water is hot. The Gemara also infers from the formulation of the mishna: With regard to one who bathes, after the fact, yes, one may dry himself; however, one may not bathe ab initio, as had the mishna intended to permit bathing ab initio it would have said: One may bathe in cave water. This proves by inference

דלהשתטף כל גופו אפילו לכתחילה שפיר דמי מני רבי שמעון היא דתניא לא ישתטף אדם בין בחמין בין בצונן דברי רבי מאיר רבי שמעון מתיר רבי יהודה אומר בחמין אסור בצונן מותר:

that rinsing one’s entire body by pouring water on it rather than bathing in the standard fashion may well be done even ab initio. The Gemara asks: According to whose opinion is our mishna? The Gemara answers: It is in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Shimon, as it was taught in a baraita: One may not rinse himself on Shabbat, neither with hot water nor with cold water; this is the statement of Rabbi Meir. Rabbi Shimon permits rinsing one’s body even with hot water. Rabbi Yehuda says that there is a distinction: With hot water it is prohibited and with cold water it is permitted.

ונסתפג אפילו בעשר אלונטיות: רישא רבותא קא משמע לן וסיפא רבותא קא משמע לן רישא רבותא קא משמע לן דאפילו הני דלא נפישי בהו מיא כיון דחד הוא אתי לידי סחיטה וסיפא רבותא קא משמע לן אפילו הני דנפישי בהו מיא כיון דרבים נינהו מדכרי אהדדי:

The mishna addressed the permissibility of drying oneself with a towel after bathing on Shabbat, and added the phrase: And dried himself off even with ten towels. The Gemara comments on the formulation of the mishna: The first clause teaches us a novel concept, and the latter clause teaches us a novel concept. The Gemara explains: The first clause: One who…dried himself even with ten towels may not carry them, teaches us a novel concept, that the prohibition applies even to these towels, which do not have much water absorbed in them. The reason for this is that since he is one person, he may come to squeeze them. And the latter clause teaches us a novel concept, that even these ten people may carry the towel that they have all used, despite the fact that they have absorbed much water and the towel is very wet. The reason for this is that since they are many people, they remind each other not to wring the towel.

תנו רבנן מסתפג אדם באלונטית ומניחה בחלון ולא ימסרנה לאוליירין מפני שחשודים על אותו דבר רבי שמעון אומר מסתפג באלונטית אחת ומביאה בידו לתוך ביתו

The Sages taught in a baraita: One may dry himself with a towel on Shabbat and leave it in the window of the bathhouse; and one may not give it to the bath attendants, because they are suspect in this matter of wringing out towels. Rabbi Shimon says: One may dry himself with a single towel and carry it in his hand into his home, and there is no concern lest he wring out the water.

אמר ליה אביי לרב יוסף הלכתא מאי אמר ליה הא רבי שמעון הא רבי הא שמואל הא רבי יוחנן

Abaye said to Rav Yosef: What is the halakha with regard to carrying a towel home after using it to dry himself? Rav Yosef said to him: There is Rabbi Shimon, there is Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi, there is Shmuel, and there is Rabbi Yoḥanan, all of whom permit it.

רבי שמעון הא דאמרן רבי דתניא אמר רבי כשהיינו למדין תורה אצל רבי שמעון בתקוע היינו מעלין שמן ואלונטית מחצר לגג ומגג לקרפף עד שהיינו מגיעין אצל מעין שהיינו רוחצין בו שמואל דאמר רב יהודה אמר שמואל מסתפג אדם באלונטית ומביאה בידו לתוך ביתו רבי יוחנן דאמר רבי חייא בר אבא אמר רבי יוחנן הלכה מסתפג אדם באלונטית ומביאה בידו לתוך ביתו

The Gemara elaborates: Rabbi Shimon rules leniently, as we have already stated that he permits bathing and drying oneself with a towel and then bringing it home. Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi agrees, as it was taught in a baraita that Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi said: When we would study Torah with Rabbi Shimon in Tekoa, we would carry oil and towels from the courtyard to the roof and from the roof into an enclosure similar to a courtyard until we reached the spring in which we would bathe, without passing through a public domain. In Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi’s opinion, it is permitted to carry a towel both before and after using it to dry oneself. Shmuel is also lenient, as Rav Yehuda said that Shmuel said explicitly: One may dry himself with a towel and carry it in his hand into his home. Rabbi Yoḥanan is also lenient, as Rabbi Ḥiyya bar Abba said that Rabbi Yoḥanan said: The halakha is that one may dry himself with a towel and carry it in his hand into his house.

ומי אמר רבי יוחנן הכי והאמר רבי יוחנן הלכה כסתם משנה ותנן ונסתפג אפילו בעשר אלונטיות לא יביאם בידו ההוא כבן חכינאי מתני לה

The Gemara challenges this last point: And did Rabbi Yoḥanan really say that? Didn’t Rabbi Yoḥanan state a principle that the halakha is in accordance with an unattributed mishna, in which the name of the tanna who issued the rulings does not appear? And we learned explicitly in our mishna, which is unattributed, that if one bathed and dried himself even with ten towels, he may not carry them in his hand. The Gemara answers: Rabbi Yoḥanan’s version of the mishna does not teach this halakha unattributed; rather, it teaches it in accordance with the opinion of ben Ḥakhinai, which is the opinion of an individual Sage that is not the accepted halakha.

אמר רבי חייא בר אבא אמר רבי יוחנן האוליירין מביאין בלרי נשים לבי בני ובלבד שיתכסה בהן ראשן ורובן סכניתא צריך לקשר שני ראשיה למטה אמר רבי חייא בר אבא אמר רבי יוחנן למטה מכתפיים אמר להו רבא לבני מחוזא כי מעבריתו מאני לבני חילא שרביבו בהו למטה מכתפים:

Rabbi Ḥiyya bar Abba said that Rabbi Yoḥanan said: Bath attendants may bring women’s bathing garments [balarei] to the bathhouse on Shabbat as long as they cover their heads and the majority of their bodies with them, so that they are being worn rather than carried. With regard to the large scarf that is worn draped over one’s shoulders, one must tie its two ends together below so that it will not fall. Rabbi Ḥiyya bar Abba said that Rabbi Yoḥanan said: This means that one must tie it below the shoulders. In a similar vein, Rava said to the inhabitants of his city, Meḥoza: When you transport clothing for the soldiers who are staying in the city, extend them beneath your shoulders so that you will wear them like a garment and not simply carry them.

סכין וממשמשין: תנו רבנן סכין וממשמשין בבני מעיים בשבת ובלבד שלא יעשה כדרך שהוא עושה בחול היכי עביד רבי חמא בר חנינא אמר סך ואחר כך ממשמש רבי יוחנן אמר סך וממשמש בבת אחת:

We learned in the mishna: One may smear oil and rub a person’s body by hand on Shabbat. The Sages taught in a baraita: One may smear oil on and rub his intestinal area on Shabbat, and it is not a prohibited form of healing, provided he does not do so in the manner in which he does during the week. The Gemara asks: How then does one do this on Shabbat? Rabbi Ḥama bar Ḥanina said: One first smears oil and afterward rubs the body. And Rabbi Yoḥanan said: One smears oil and rubs simultaneously.

אבל לא מתעמלין: אמר רבי חייא בר אבא אמר רבי יוחנן אסור לעמוד בקרקעיתה של דיומסת מפני שמעמלת ומרפא אמר רבי יהודה אמר רב כל ימיה של דיומסת עשרים ואחד יום ועצרת מן המנין איבעיא להו עצרת (בתחלה) להאי גיסא או להאי גיסא תא שמע דאמר שמואל כולהו שקייני מדיבחא ועד עצרתא מעלו דילמא התם הוא דכמה דקריר עלמא מעלי אבל הכא משום הבלא הוא כיון דחמים עלמא טפי מעלי

The mishna taught: However, one may not exert himself on Shabbat. Rabbi Ḥiyya bar Abba said that Rabbi Yoḥanan said: It is prohibited to stand on the floor of the therapeutic bathhouse of Deyomset on Shabbat, because it warms and heals even if one is not bathing or exerting himself. Rav Yehuda said that Rav said: The entire period that bathing in Deyomset is therapeutic is twenty-one days; and Shavuot is included. The Gemara raises a dilemma: Is Shavuot on this side, at the beginning, of the twenty-one-day period, or on this side, at the end, of the twenty-one days? Come and hear a resolution to this dilemma from that which Shmuel said: All medicinal drinks are effective from Passover to Shavuot; apparently, the waters of the Deyomset are therapeutic in the time period leading up to Shavuot. The Gemara rejects this proof: Perhaps there, with regard to medicinal drinks, it is so, because the cooler the world, the better these drinks heal; however, here, with regard to bathing, the therapeutic effect is due to the heat, and therefore the warmer the world, the better. The time period during which bathing is effective would only begin with Shavuot.

אמר רבי חלבו חמרא דפרוגייתא ומיא דדיומסת קיפחו עשרת השבטים מישראל

Apropos Deyomset, the Gemara cites that Rabbi Ḥelbo said: The wine of Phrygia [Perugaita] and the water of the Deyomset deprived Israel of the ten lost tribes. Because the members of these tribes were attracted to the pleasures of wine and bathing and did not occupy themselves with Torah, they were lost to the Jewish people.

רבי אלעזר בן ערך איקלע להתם אימשיך בתרייהו איעקר תלמודיה כי הדר אתא קם למיקרי בספרא בעא למיקרא החדש הזה לכם אמר החרש היה לבם בעו רבנן רחמי עליה והדר תלמודיה

The Gemara relates that once Rabbi Elazar ben Arakh happened to come there, to Phrygia and Deyomset, and he was drawn after them, and his Torah learning was forgotten. When he returned, he stood to read from a Torah scroll and was supposed to read the verse: “This month shall be for you [haḥodesh hazeh lakhem]” (Exodus 12:2), but he had forgotten so much that he could barely remember how to read the Hebrew letters, and instead he read: Have their hearts become deaf [haḥeresh haya libbam], interchanging the similar letters reish for dalet, yod for zayin, and beit for khaf. The Sages prayed and asked for God to have mercy on him, and his learning was restored.

והיינו דתנן רבי נהוראי אומר הוי גולה למקום תורה ואל תאמר שהיא תבא אחריך שחבריך יקיימוה בידך ואל בינתך אל תשען תנא לא רבי נהוראי שמו אלא רבי נחמיה שמו ואמרי לה רבי אלעזר בן ערך שמו ולמה נקרא שמו רבי נהוראי שמנהיר עיני חכמים בהלכה:

And that is what we learned in a mishna that Rabbi Nehorai says: Exile yourself to a place of Torah and do not say that it will follow you, as if you are in a place of Torah, your colleagues will establish it in your hands, and do not rely on your understanding alone. It was taught: Rabbi Nehorai was not his name, but rather Rabbi Neḥemya was his name; and some say that Rabbi Elazar ben Arakh was his name and his statement was based on the personal experience of forgetting his Torah due to his failure to exile himself to a place of Torah. And why was he called Rabbi Nehorai? It was because he would illuminate [manhir] the eyes of the Sages in halakha.

אבל לא מתגררין: תנו רבנן אין גוררין במגררת בשבת רבן שמעון בן גמליאל אומר אם היו רגליו מלוכלכות בטיט ובצואה גורר כדרכו ואינו חושש רב שמואל בר יהודה עבדא ליה אימיה מגררתא דכספא:

The mishna taught: However, one may not scrape off the oil on Shabbat. The Sages taught in a baraita: One may not scrape his body with a scraper on Shabbat. Rabban Shimon ben Gamliel says: If one’s feet were dirty with mortar and excrement he may scrape them in the usual manner with a scraper and need not be concerned about violating a prohibition. Rav Shmuel bar Yehuda’s mother made him a silver scraper to use on Shabbat to distinguish it from a weekday.

אין יורדין לקורדימא וכו׳: מאי טעמא משום פיקא:

The mishna also taught that one may not enter a swampy river full of mud on Shabbat. The Gemara explains: What is the reason for this? Due to the mud, as it is likely that one will slip and fall and come to violate the prohibitions of bathing and wringing out his clothes.

ואין עושין אפיקטויזין בשבת: אמר רבה בר בר חנה אמר רבי יוחנן לא שנו אלא בסם אבל ביד מותר תניא רבי נחמיה אומר אף בחול אסור מפני הפסד אוכלין:

We also learned in the mishna that one may not make a drug to induce vomiting on Shabbat. Rabba bar bar Ḥana said that Rabbi Yoḥanan said: They only taught that this is prohibited with a drug, which is considered a medicine; however, inducing vomiting by hand is permitted. It was taught in a baraita that Rabbi Neḥemya says: Even during the week, if one need not vomit for medical reasons, it is prohibited to induce vomiting because it causes loss of food.

ואין מעצבין את הקטן: אמר רבה בר בר חנה אמר רבי יוחנן לפופי ינוקא בשבת שפיר דמי והאנן תנן אין מעצבין התם בחומרי שדרה דמיחזי כבונה:

And we learned in the mishna that one may not align a young infant’s bones in order to straighten them on Shabbat. Rabba bar bar Ḥana said that Rabbi Yoḥanan said: With regard to swaddling an infant on Shabbat, one may well do so. The Gemara challenges this statement: Didn’t we learn in the mishna that one may not align an infant’s bones? The Gemara answers: There, the mishna is referring to the bones, vertebrae, of the spine, because straightening them appears like the prohibited labor of building.

ואין מחזירין את השבר: אמר רבי חנא בגדתאה אמר שמואל

We also learned in the mishna that one may not reset a break in a bone on Shabbat. Rav Ḥana of Baghdad said that Shmuel said:

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Daf Yomi One Week at a Time – Shabbat 145-151

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Shabbat 147

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Shabbat 147

המנער טליתו בשבת חייב חטאת ולא אמרן אלא בחדתי אבל בעתיקי לית לן בה ולא אמרן אלא באוכמי אבל בחיורי וסומקי לית לן בה והוא דקפיד עלייהו

One who shakes his cloak on Shabbat to remove dust that collected on it is liable to bring a sin-offering for violating the prohibition of laundering. The Gemara qualifies this ruling: We only stated this halakha with regard to new garments, but with regard to old garments, we have no problem with this behavior. And we only stated this with regard to black garments, but with regard to white or red garments, we have no problem, as shaking off the dust would not be prohibited. And this prohibition applies only when one is particular about keeping them clean, but if one does not insist on wearing clean garments, we have no problem with it, i.e., it is not prohibited to shake off the dust.

עולא איקלע לפומבדיתא חזא רבנן דקא מנפצי גלימייהו אמר קמחללין רבנן שבתא אמר להו רב יהודה נפוצי ליה באפיה אנן לא קפדינן מידי

The Gemara relates that Ulla happened to come to Pumbedita, and while there he saw rabbis shaking their cloaks to remove dust. He said: The Rabbis are desecrating Shabbat. Rav Yehuda said to the Rabbis whom Ulla criticized: You may continue to shake your cloaks in his presence. We are not at all particular about this, and it is therefore permitted for us to shake the dust from our cloaks.

אביי הוה קאי קמיה דרב יוסף אמר ליה הב לי כומתאי [חזא דאיכא] טלא עליה הוה קמחסם למיתבה ליה אמר ליה נפוץ שדי אנן לא קפדינן מידי

The Gemara also relates that Abaye was standing before Rav Yosef. Rav Yosef said to him: Give me my hat. Abaye saw that there was dew on it, and he hesitated to give it to him, because he feared violating a prohibition by shaking off the dew. Rav Yosef said to him: Shake off the dew and throw me the hat; we are not at all particular about the cleanliness of the hat, and it is therefore permitted to shake off the dew.

אמר רב יצחק בר יוסף אמר רבי יוחנן היוצא בטלית מקופלת מונחת לו על כתיפו בשבת חייב חטאת תניא נמי הכי סוחרי כסות היוצאים בטליתות מקופלות ומונחות על כתיפן בשבת חייבין חטאת ולא סוחרי כסות בלבד אמרו אלא כל אדם אלא שדרכן של מוכרין לצאת כך

Rav Yitzḥak bar Yosef said that Rabbi Yoḥanan said: One who goes out with a cloak folded and resting on his shoulder on Shabbat is liable to bring a sin-offering for carrying in the public domain. This ruling was also taught in a baraita: Clothing merchants who go outs with cloaks folded and resting on their shoulders on Shabbat are liable to bring a sin-offering. And they did not say this only with regard to clothing merchants; rather, any person is liable for this transgression, and they only stated the halakha in these terms because it is the usual manner for merchants to go out this way.

וחנוני היוצא במעות הצרורין לו בסדינו חייב חטאת ולא חנוני בלבד אמרו אלא כל אדם אלא שדרכו של חנוני לצאת כך והרטנין יוצאין בסודרין שעל כתיפן ולא רטנין בלבד אמרו אלא כל אדם אלא שדרכן של רטנין לצאת בכך

And likewise, a shopkeeper who goes out with coins bound in his cloak is liable to bring a sin-offering. And they did not say this only with regard to a shopkeeper; rather, any person is liable for this, and they only stated the halakha in these terms because it is the usual manner of a shopkeeper to go out this way. And runners, i.e., foot messengers, may go out on Shabbat with scarves on their shoulders, because this is how they typically wear them. And they did not say this only with regard to runners; rather, any person is permitted to do this, but it is simply the usual manner of runners to go out this way.

אמר רבי יהודה מעשה בהורקנוס בנו של רבי אליעזר בן הורקנוס שיצא בסודר שעל כתיפו בשבת אלא שנימא כרוכה לו באצבעו וכשבא הדבר לפני חכמים אמרו אפילו אין נימא כרוכה לו באצבעו דרש רב נחמן בר רב חסדא משמיה דרב חסדא הלכה אף על פי שאין נימא כרוכה לו באצבעותיו

Rabbi Yehuda said: There was an incident involving Hyrcanus, son of Rabbi Eliezer ben Hyrcanus, who went outside with a scarf on his shoulder on Shabbat. However, a thread from the garment was tied around his finger so that the garment would not fall. When this matter came before the Sages, they said: It is permitted to go out in that manner even if a thread is not tied around one’s finger. And likewise, Rav Naḥman bar Rav Ḥisda taught in the name of Rav Ḥisda: The halakha is that one may go outside with a garment around one’s shoulders even if a thread from the garment is not tied around one’s finger.

עולא איקלע לבי אסי בר היני בעו מיניה מהו לעשות מרזב בשבת אמר להו הכי אמר רבי אלעי אסור לעשות מרזב בשבת מאי מרזב אמר רבי זירא כיסי בבלייתא

Ulla happened to come to the house of Asi bar Hini. The members of the household asked him: What is the halakha: Is it permitted to make a spout of one’s garment on Shabbat? Ulla said to them that this is what Rabbi Elai said: It is prohibited to make a spout on Shabbat. The Gemara asks: What is the spout referred to here? Rabbi Zeira said: It is referring to Babylonian pockets, which were formed by lifting up the bottom of the cloaks and tying them to their shoulders to make pocket-like folds in their garments.

רבי ירמיה הוה יתיב קמיה דרבי זירא אמר ליה הכי מאי אמר ליה אסור והכי מאי אמר ליה אסור אמר רב פפא נקוט האי כללא בידך כל אדעתא דלכנופי אסור כל דלהתנאות שרי כי הא דרב שישא בריה דרב אידי מתנאה בסדינו הוה

The Gemara relates that Rabbi Yirmeya was sitting before Rabbi Zeira and showed him a certain fold and said to him: What is the halakha with regard to this kind of fold on Shabbat? He said to him: It is prohibited to make it on Shabbat. He then showed him another fold and asked: And what is the halakha with regard to this? He said to him: It is prohibited. Rav Pappa said: Grasp this principle: Any fold made to gather one’s clothing from the ground is prohibited, and any fold that is merely to beautify oneself is permitted, as the precedent of Rav Sheisha, son of Rav Idi, who was beautifying himself with his garment by folding it on his shoulders.

כי אתא רב דימי אמר פעם אחת יצא רבי לשדה והיו שני צידי טליתו מונחין על כתיפו אמר לפניו יהושע בן זירוז בן חמיו של רבי מאיר בזו לא חייב רבי מאיר חטאת אמר ליה דקדק רבי מאיר עד כאן שלשל רבי טליתו

When Rav Dimi came from Eretz Yisrael to Babylonia, he said: On one occasion, Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi went out into a field, and the two sides of his cloak were resting on his shoulders. Yehoshua ben Zeiruz, son of the father-in-law of Rabbi Meir, said before Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi: In a case like this, didn’t Rabbi Meir hold one liable to bring a sin-offering? Rabbi said to him: Was Rabbi Meir exacting to that extent, i.e., he considered wearing a garment in this fashion to be carrying on Shabbat? If so, it is preferable to avoid questionable practices; immediately Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi lowered his cloak from his shoulders.

כי אתא רבין אמר לא יהושע בן זירוז הוה אלא יהושע בן כפוסאי היה חתנו של רבי עקיבא אמר בזו לא חייב רבי עקיבא חטאת אמר לו דקדק רבי עקיבא עד כאן שלשל רבי טליתו כי אתא רב שמואל בר רב יהודה אמר נשאל איתמר:

When Ravin came from Eretz Yisrael to Babylonia he said: It was not Yehoshua ben Zeiruz; rather, it was Yehoshua ben Kefusai, Rabbi Akiva’s son-in-law, and he said: In a case like this, didn’t Rabbi Akiva hold one liable to bring a sin-offering? Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi said to him: Was Rabbi Akiva exacting to that extent? If so, it is preferable to avoid questionable practices. Immediately, Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi lowered his cloak from his shoulders. When Rav Shmuel bar Rav Yehuda came, he said: This is not what happened, as Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi himself did not wear his cloak folded up on his shoulders on Shabbat. Rather it was stated that Rabbi was asked, meaning that this question came before him, and he wanted to rule leniently, until he was informed that some of the greatest Sages of the generation ruled stringently.

מתני׳ הרוחץ במי מערה ובמי טבריא ונסתפג אפילו בעשר אלונטיאות לא יביאם בידו אבל עשרה בני אדם מסתפגין באלונטית אחת פניהם ידיהם ורגליהם ומביאין אותן בידן

MISHNA: One who bathes on Shabbat in a ritual bath formed by cave water or in the water of Tiberias and dried himself even with ten towels may not carry them in his hand, lest he forget that it is Shabbat and wring the water from them. However, ten people may use one towel to dry their faces, hands, and feet, and may carry them in their hands. Even though in this case the towel would be quite wet, it is permitted to handle the towel because there are several people present, and they will remind each other that it is prohibited to wring a towel on Shabbat.

סכין וממשמשין אבל לא מתעמלין ולא מתגררין אין יורדין לקורדימא ואין עושין אפיקטויזין ואין מעצבין את הקטן ואין מחזירין את השבר מי שנפרקה ידו ורגלו לא יטרפם בצונן אבל רוחץ הוא כדרכו ואם נתרפא נתרפא:

Apropos the waters of Tiberias, the mishna discusses the halakhot of bathing and medicine on Shabbat. One may smear oil on his body and gently rub his body with his hand; however, one may not exert himself with vigorous massage or by means of exercise in order to benefit from the therapeutic effects of sweating; and one may not scrape the oil off with a scraper. Additionally, one may not go into a swampy river [kurdima], on Shabbat. And one may not make a drug to induce vomiting, nor may one align a young infant’s bones to straighten them, nor may one reset a break in a bone. One whose hand or foot was dislocated may not move them about vigorously in cold water, which is the standard method of treatment; however, one may wash the limb in the typical manner, and if one is cured through this washing, he is cured.

גמ׳ קתני מי מערה דומיא דמי טבריא מה מי טבריא חמין אף מי מערה חמין הרוחץ דיעבד אין לכתחילה לא מכלל

GEMARA: The tanna of the mishna teaches the case of cave water that is similar to the case of water of Tiberias; just as the water of Tiberias is hot, so too the cave water is hot. The Gemara also infers from the formulation of the mishna: With regard to one who bathes, after the fact, yes, one may dry himself; however, one may not bathe ab initio, as had the mishna intended to permit bathing ab initio it would have said: One may bathe in cave water. This proves by inference

דלהשתטף כל גופו אפילו לכתחילה שפיר דמי מני רבי שמעון היא דתניא לא ישתטף אדם בין בחמין בין בצונן דברי רבי מאיר רבי שמעון מתיר רבי יהודה אומר בחמין אסור בצונן מותר:

that rinsing one’s entire body by pouring water on it rather than bathing in the standard fashion may well be done even ab initio. The Gemara asks: According to whose opinion is our mishna? The Gemara answers: It is in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Shimon, as it was taught in a baraita: One may not rinse himself on Shabbat, neither with hot water nor with cold water; this is the statement of Rabbi Meir. Rabbi Shimon permits rinsing one’s body even with hot water. Rabbi Yehuda says that there is a distinction: With hot water it is prohibited and with cold water it is permitted.

ונסתפג אפילו בעשר אלונטיות: רישא רבותא קא משמע לן וסיפא רבותא קא משמע לן רישא רבותא קא משמע לן דאפילו הני דלא נפישי בהו מיא כיון דחד הוא אתי לידי סחיטה וסיפא רבותא קא משמע לן אפילו הני דנפישי בהו מיא כיון דרבים נינהו מדכרי אהדדי:

The mishna addressed the permissibility of drying oneself with a towel after bathing on Shabbat, and added the phrase: And dried himself off even with ten towels. The Gemara comments on the formulation of the mishna: The first clause teaches us a novel concept, and the latter clause teaches us a novel concept. The Gemara explains: The first clause: One who…dried himself even with ten towels may not carry them, teaches us a novel concept, that the prohibition applies even to these towels, which do not have much water absorbed in them. The reason for this is that since he is one person, he may come to squeeze them. And the latter clause teaches us a novel concept, that even these ten people may carry the towel that they have all used, despite the fact that they have absorbed much water and the towel is very wet. The reason for this is that since they are many people, they remind each other not to wring the towel.

תנו רבנן מסתפג אדם באלונטית ומניחה בחלון ולא ימסרנה לאוליירין מפני שחשודים על אותו דבר רבי שמעון אומר מסתפג באלונטית אחת ומביאה בידו לתוך ביתו

The Sages taught in a baraita: One may dry himself with a towel on Shabbat and leave it in the window of the bathhouse; and one may not give it to the bath attendants, because they are suspect in this matter of wringing out towels. Rabbi Shimon says: One may dry himself with a single towel and carry it in his hand into his home, and there is no concern lest he wring out the water.

אמר ליה אביי לרב יוסף הלכתא מאי אמר ליה הא רבי שמעון הא רבי הא שמואל הא רבי יוחנן

Abaye said to Rav Yosef: What is the halakha with regard to carrying a towel home after using it to dry himself? Rav Yosef said to him: There is Rabbi Shimon, there is Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi, there is Shmuel, and there is Rabbi Yoḥanan, all of whom permit it.

רבי שמעון הא דאמרן רבי דתניא אמר רבי כשהיינו למדין תורה אצל רבי שמעון בתקוע היינו מעלין שמן ואלונטית מחצר לגג ומגג לקרפף עד שהיינו מגיעין אצל מעין שהיינו רוחצין בו שמואל דאמר רב יהודה אמר שמואל מסתפג אדם באלונטית ומביאה בידו לתוך ביתו רבי יוחנן דאמר רבי חייא בר אבא אמר רבי יוחנן הלכה מסתפג אדם באלונטית ומביאה בידו לתוך ביתו

The Gemara elaborates: Rabbi Shimon rules leniently, as we have already stated that he permits bathing and drying oneself with a towel and then bringing it home. Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi agrees, as it was taught in a baraita that Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi said: When we would study Torah with Rabbi Shimon in Tekoa, we would carry oil and towels from the courtyard to the roof and from the roof into an enclosure similar to a courtyard until we reached the spring in which we would bathe, without passing through a public domain. In Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi’s opinion, it is permitted to carry a towel both before and after using it to dry oneself. Shmuel is also lenient, as Rav Yehuda said that Shmuel said explicitly: One may dry himself with a towel and carry it in his hand into his home. Rabbi Yoḥanan is also lenient, as Rabbi Ḥiyya bar Abba said that Rabbi Yoḥanan said: The halakha is that one may dry himself with a towel and carry it in his hand into his house.

ומי אמר רבי יוחנן הכי והאמר רבי יוחנן הלכה כסתם משנה ותנן ונסתפג אפילו בעשר אלונטיות לא יביאם בידו ההוא כבן חכינאי מתני לה

The Gemara challenges this last point: And did Rabbi Yoḥanan really say that? Didn’t Rabbi Yoḥanan state a principle that the halakha is in accordance with an unattributed mishna, in which the name of the tanna who issued the rulings does not appear? And we learned explicitly in our mishna, which is unattributed, that if one bathed and dried himself even with ten towels, he may not carry them in his hand. The Gemara answers: Rabbi Yoḥanan’s version of the mishna does not teach this halakha unattributed; rather, it teaches it in accordance with the opinion of ben Ḥakhinai, which is the opinion of an individual Sage that is not the accepted halakha.

אמר רבי חייא בר אבא אמר רבי יוחנן האוליירין מביאין בלרי נשים לבי בני ובלבד שיתכסה בהן ראשן ורובן סכניתא צריך לקשר שני ראשיה למטה אמר רבי חייא בר אבא אמר רבי יוחנן למטה מכתפיים אמר להו רבא לבני מחוזא כי מעבריתו מאני לבני חילא שרביבו בהו למטה מכתפים:

Rabbi Ḥiyya bar Abba said that Rabbi Yoḥanan said: Bath attendants may bring women’s bathing garments [balarei] to the bathhouse on Shabbat as long as they cover their heads and the majority of their bodies with them, so that they are being worn rather than carried. With regard to the large scarf that is worn draped over one’s shoulders, one must tie its two ends together below so that it will not fall. Rabbi Ḥiyya bar Abba said that Rabbi Yoḥanan said: This means that one must tie it below the shoulders. In a similar vein, Rava said to the inhabitants of his city, Meḥoza: When you transport clothing for the soldiers who are staying in the city, extend them beneath your shoulders so that you will wear them like a garment and not simply carry them.

סכין וממשמשין: תנו רבנן סכין וממשמשין בבני מעיים בשבת ובלבד שלא יעשה כדרך שהוא עושה בחול היכי עביד רבי חמא בר חנינא אמר סך ואחר כך ממשמש רבי יוחנן אמר סך וממשמש בבת אחת:

We learned in the mishna: One may smear oil and rub a person’s body by hand on Shabbat. The Sages taught in a baraita: One may smear oil on and rub his intestinal area on Shabbat, and it is not a prohibited form of healing, provided he does not do so in the manner in which he does during the week. The Gemara asks: How then does one do this on Shabbat? Rabbi Ḥama bar Ḥanina said: One first smears oil and afterward rubs the body. And Rabbi Yoḥanan said: One smears oil and rubs simultaneously.

אבל לא מתעמלין: אמר רבי חייא בר אבא אמר רבי יוחנן אסור לעמוד בקרקעיתה של דיומסת מפני שמעמלת ומרפא אמר רבי יהודה אמר רב כל ימיה של דיומסת עשרים ואחד יום ועצרת מן המנין איבעיא להו עצרת (בתחלה) להאי גיסא או להאי גיסא תא שמע דאמר שמואל כולהו שקייני מדיבחא ועד עצרתא מעלו דילמא התם הוא דכמה דקריר עלמא מעלי אבל הכא משום הבלא הוא כיון דחמים עלמא טפי מעלי

The mishna taught: However, one may not exert himself on Shabbat. Rabbi Ḥiyya bar Abba said that Rabbi Yoḥanan said: It is prohibited to stand on the floor of the therapeutic bathhouse of Deyomset on Shabbat, because it warms and heals even if one is not bathing or exerting himself. Rav Yehuda said that Rav said: The entire period that bathing in Deyomset is therapeutic is twenty-one days; and Shavuot is included. The Gemara raises a dilemma: Is Shavuot on this side, at the beginning, of the twenty-one-day period, or on this side, at the end, of the twenty-one days? Come and hear a resolution to this dilemma from that which Shmuel said: All medicinal drinks are effective from Passover to Shavuot; apparently, the waters of the Deyomset are therapeutic in the time period leading up to Shavuot. The Gemara rejects this proof: Perhaps there, with regard to medicinal drinks, it is so, because the cooler the world, the better these drinks heal; however, here, with regard to bathing, the therapeutic effect is due to the heat, and therefore the warmer the world, the better. The time period during which bathing is effective would only begin with Shavuot.

אמר רבי חלבו חמרא דפרוגייתא ומיא דדיומסת קיפחו עשרת השבטים מישראל

Apropos Deyomset, the Gemara cites that Rabbi Ḥelbo said: The wine of Phrygia [Perugaita] and the water of the Deyomset deprived Israel of the ten lost tribes. Because the members of these tribes were attracted to the pleasures of wine and bathing and did not occupy themselves with Torah, they were lost to the Jewish people.

רבי אלעזר בן ערך איקלע להתם אימשיך בתרייהו איעקר תלמודיה כי הדר אתא קם למיקרי בספרא בעא למיקרא החדש הזה לכם אמר החרש היה לבם בעו רבנן רחמי עליה והדר תלמודיה

The Gemara relates that once Rabbi Elazar ben Arakh happened to come there, to Phrygia and Deyomset, and he was drawn after them, and his Torah learning was forgotten. When he returned, he stood to read from a Torah scroll and was supposed to read the verse: “This month shall be for you [haḥodesh hazeh lakhem]” (Exodus 12:2), but he had forgotten so much that he could barely remember how to read the Hebrew letters, and instead he read: Have their hearts become deaf [haḥeresh haya libbam], interchanging the similar letters reish for dalet, yod for zayin, and beit for khaf. The Sages prayed and asked for God to have mercy on him, and his learning was restored.

והיינו דתנן רבי נהוראי אומר הוי גולה למקום תורה ואל תאמר שהיא תבא אחריך שחבריך יקיימוה בידך ואל בינתך אל תשען תנא לא רבי נהוראי שמו אלא רבי נחמיה שמו ואמרי לה רבי אלעזר בן ערך שמו ולמה נקרא שמו רבי נהוראי שמנהיר עיני חכמים בהלכה:

And that is what we learned in a mishna that Rabbi Nehorai says: Exile yourself to a place of Torah and do not say that it will follow you, as if you are in a place of Torah, your colleagues will establish it in your hands, and do not rely on your understanding alone. It was taught: Rabbi Nehorai was not his name, but rather Rabbi Neḥemya was his name; and some say that Rabbi Elazar ben Arakh was his name and his statement was based on the personal experience of forgetting his Torah due to his failure to exile himself to a place of Torah. And why was he called Rabbi Nehorai? It was because he would illuminate [manhir] the eyes of the Sages in halakha.

אבל לא מתגררין: תנו רבנן אין גוררין במגררת בשבת רבן שמעון בן גמליאל אומר אם היו רגליו מלוכלכות בטיט ובצואה גורר כדרכו ואינו חושש רב שמואל בר יהודה עבדא ליה אימיה מגררתא דכספא:

The mishna taught: However, one may not scrape off the oil on Shabbat. The Sages taught in a baraita: One may not scrape his body with a scraper on Shabbat. Rabban Shimon ben Gamliel says: If one’s feet were dirty with mortar and excrement he may scrape them in the usual manner with a scraper and need not be concerned about violating a prohibition. Rav Shmuel bar Yehuda’s mother made him a silver scraper to use on Shabbat to distinguish it from a weekday.

אין יורדין לקורדימא וכו׳: מאי טעמא משום פיקא:

The mishna also taught that one may not enter a swampy river full of mud on Shabbat. The Gemara explains: What is the reason for this? Due to the mud, as it is likely that one will slip and fall and come to violate the prohibitions of bathing and wringing out his clothes.

ואין עושין אפיקטויזין בשבת: אמר רבה בר בר חנה אמר רבי יוחנן לא שנו אלא בסם אבל ביד מותר תניא רבי נחמיה אומר אף בחול אסור מפני הפסד אוכלין:

We also learned in the mishna that one may not make a drug to induce vomiting on Shabbat. Rabba bar bar Ḥana said that Rabbi Yoḥanan said: They only taught that this is prohibited with a drug, which is considered a medicine; however, inducing vomiting by hand is permitted. It was taught in a baraita that Rabbi Neḥemya says: Even during the week, if one need not vomit for medical reasons, it is prohibited to induce vomiting because it causes loss of food.

ואין מעצבין את הקטן: אמר רבה בר בר חנה אמר רבי יוחנן לפופי ינוקא בשבת שפיר דמי והאנן תנן אין מעצבין התם בחומרי שדרה דמיחזי כבונה:

And we learned in the mishna that one may not align a young infant’s bones in order to straighten them on Shabbat. Rabba bar bar Ḥana said that Rabbi Yoḥanan said: With regard to swaddling an infant on Shabbat, one may well do so. The Gemara challenges this statement: Didn’t we learn in the mishna that one may not align an infant’s bones? The Gemara answers: There, the mishna is referring to the bones, vertebrae, of the spine, because straightening them appears like the prohibited labor of building.

ואין מחזירין את השבר: אמר רבי חנא בגדתאה אמר שמואל

We also learned in the mishna that one may not reset a break in a bone on Shabbat. Rav Ḥana of Baghdad said that Shmuel said:

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